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Sample records for physiological sexual arousal

  1. Sexual dysfunction in partial epilepsy: a deficit in physiologic sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Morrell, M J; Sperling, M R; Stecker, M; Dichter, M A

    1994-02-01

    Men and women with epilepsy frequently complain of sexual dysfunction. We studied the sexual response in men and women with partial epilepsy of temporal lobe origin (TLE) by measuring genital blood flow (GBF) during sexual arousal. Nine women and eight men with TLE and 12 women and seven men as controls completed inventories for symptoms of depression, sexual experience, and sexual attitude and underwent measurement of digital pulse and GBF during alternating segments of sexually neutral and erotic videotape. Subjective ratings of arousal to the videotape were obtained. We calculated digital pulse and GBF response as the percentage increase in pulse amplitude during the erotic compared with the preceding sexually neutral film. No subject group reported symptoms of significant depression on the inventory. However, men and women with epilepsy had fewer sexual experiences than subjects without epilepsy, and women with epilepsy imagined specific sexual activities to be more anxiety-producing and less arousing than did women without epilepsy. Men and women with TLE had a diminished GBF response. The mean increase in GBF in men with TLE was 184% versus 660% for controls (p = 0.01). Women with TLE had a mean increase of 117% versus 161% for controls (p < 0.01). Digital pulse did not vary across stimulus conditions. Subjective ratings for all groups indicated moderate sexual arousal. We conclude that there is a diminution in one aspect of physiologic sexual arousal in some men and women with TLE.

  2. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2016-07-11

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  3. Relations between trait impulsivity, behavioral impulsivity, physiological arousal, and risky sexual behavior among young men.

    PubMed

    Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming.

  4. Relations Between Trait Impulsivity, Behavioral Impulsivity, Physiological Arousal, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen J.; Peters, Jessica R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Walsh, Erin C.; Adams, Zachary W.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  5. The Effects of False Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Dysfunctional and Functional Males

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    of interest in sex , or even of an aversion to sexual activity . Table 1 summarizes the physical changes that occur in the male during the five stages... sex guilt, and greater endorsement of sex myths, specifically reported discomfort in communicating with their partner about sexual activities that...the private couple exercises occur during daily meetings between the couple and a dual- sex therapy team over a 2-week treatment period. These

  6. The Effects of False Physiological Feeback, on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-31

    majority of neurologically based erection problems are due to spinal cord injury (Murray, Geisser and Murphy, 1995). The nature, location, and extent...explanations tended to focus on physiological or neurological problems such as treated hypertension, spinal injury , diabetes mellitus, and vascular...cholinergic preganglionic neurons residing within the sacral spinal cord (S2-S4) (Boyle, 1999) (Figure 5). Sympathetic nervous stimulation of the cavernous

  7. The Effect of False Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Anxiety or Stress Spinal cord , neck or head injury Back problems Drug Addiction Gall Bladder Problems Digestive Disease Kidney Disease Peptic Ulcers...of neurologically based erection problems are due to spinal cord injury (Murray, Geisser and Murphy, 1995). The nature, location, and extent of the...tended to focus on physiological or neurological problems such as treated hypertension, spinal injury , diabetes mellitus, and vascular disease. Common

  8. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  9. The roots of sexual arousal and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-03-01

    Unlike members of other species that are genetically wired to be attracted to their sexual partners, humans learn the cues that guide them in choosing their sexual partners and that trigger sexual arousal. Genetically wired mechanisms must be directing the acquisition of those cues and organizing them in information structures that underlie human sexual behavior. Individual sexuality is a combination of the genetic mechanisms and information learned through personal experiences. This article focuses on the roots of human sexuality - on genetically embedded mechanisms, common to all humans, around which the wide variety of sexual behaviors is built. It proposes a model that defines the basic mechanisms and their role in developing individual sexuality. It is suggested that three brain areas host the roots of human sexuality: the auditory area, which provides stimuli that serve as cues for the identification of a mate; an emotional area, which provides cues for emotional arousal; and a corporal area, which controls the physiological expressions of arousal. The amygdala is a main candidate for the emotional area, and the hypothalamus for the corporal area, but other areas may also provide those inputs. Experimental observations that support this model are discussed, and an outline of additional experiments for validating the model is proposed. If validated, the model would provide knowledge that fills a gap in the understanding of human sexuality - knowledge that would benefit individuals, the medical profession, and society as a whole.

  10. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  11. Dopamine and norepinephrine responses to film-induced sexual arousal in sexually functional and sexually dysfunctional women.

    PubMed

    Meston, C M; McCall, K M

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to assess potential differences between sexually functional and dysfunctional women in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) responses to erotic stimuli. Blood levels of homovanillic acid (HVA; the major metabolite of DA) and NE were taken during the showing of a nonsexual and a sexual film from 9 women with female sexual arousal disorder and hypoactive sexual desire disorder and from 13 sexually functional women. We assessed sexual arousal subjectively using a self-report scale and physiologically using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. HVA levels significantly decreased in sexually functional and dysfunctional women during the erotic versus during the neutral film. NE levels were not significantly different for either group of women during the neutral and erotic films. Sexually dysfunctional women had significantly higher levels of NE during both the neutral and erotic films compared with functional women. Subjective or physiological arousal differences between neutral and erotic films were not significantly different between functional and dysfunctional women.

  12. Field conditioning of sexual arousal in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Heather; Peterson, Kathryn; Garner, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Background Human sexual classical conditioning effects are less robust compared with those obtained in other animals. The artificiality of the laboratory environment and/or the unconditioned stimulus (US) used (e.g. watching erotic film clips as opposed to participating in sexual activity) may contribute to this discrepancy. The present experiment used a field study design to explore the conditioning of human sexual arousal. Method Seven heterosexual couples were instructed to include a novel, neutrally preferred scent as the conditioned stimulus (CS + ) during sexual interaction and another novel scent during non-sexual coupled-interaction (e.g. watching a movie, studying together). Seven control couples used both scents during non-sexual interaction. Conducted over a 2-week period, both experimental and control couples had three sexual interactions (oral sex and/or intercourse). In addition, experimental couples had three, while the controls had six, non-sexual interactions. Genital responding to and affective preference for the odors were assessed in the laboratory before and after the experience in the men. Results We observed significantly increased genital responding to the CS+ in the experimental relative to the control group; however, conditioned responses were not much stronger than those obtained during laboratory conditioning. Experimental males also showed a trend for decreased preference for the CS– odor. They may have learned that this odor predicted that sexual interaction with their partner would not occur. Conclusion The present study provides another demonstration of conditioned sexual arousal in men, specifically an instance of such learning that happened in a real-world setting. It also suggests that inhibitory learning may occur, at least with the affective measure. PMID:24693347

  13. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  14. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study.

  15. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  16. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed.

  17. Mindfulness-Based Sex Therapy Improves Genital-Subjective Arousal Concordance in Women With Sexual Desire/Arousal Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Chivers, Meredith L; Millman, Roanne D; Albert, Arianne

    2016-11-01

    There is emerging evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for improving women's sexual functioning. To date, this literature has been limited to self-reports of sexual response and distress. Sexual arousal concordance-the degree of agreement between self-reported sexual arousal and psychophysiological sexual response-has been of interest due to the speculation that it may be a key component to healthy sexual functioning in women. We examined the effects of mindfulness-based sex therapy on sexual arousal concordance in a sample of women with sexual desire/arousal difficulties (n = 79, M age 40.8 years) who participated in an in-laboratory assessment of sexual arousal using a vaginal photoplethysmograph before and after four sessions of group mindfulness-based sex therapy. Genital-subjective sexual arousal concordance significantly increased from pre-treatment levels, with changes in subjective sexual arousal predicting contemporaneous genital sexual arousal (but not the reverse). These findings have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which mindfulness-based sex therapy improves sexual functioning in women, and suggest that such treatment may lead to an integration of physical and subjective arousal processes. Moreover, our findings suggest that future research might consider the adoption of sexual arousal concordance as a relevant endpoint in treatment outcome research of women with sexual desire/arousal concerns.

  18. Sexual behavior and responsiveness to sexual stimuli following laboratory-induced sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen

    2004-08-01

    Sexual excitement can be seen as an action disposition. In this study sexual arousal was expected to generate sexual action and to increase interest and responsiveness to sexual stimuli. In two experiments, male and female participants were exposed to a neutral or a sexual film. We measured genital and subjective responses to the film, and sexual behavior following the laboratory visit. In Experiment 2, film exposure was followed by a task in which participants rated the sexual arousability of neutral and sexual pictures. Rating time of the sexual pictures served as an index for sexual interest. Responsiveness to the sexual pictures was measured by modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes. Sexual activity, but not sexual desire, was higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for participants in the neutral condition. Sexual interest and responsiveness to still pictures were not higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for those in the neutral film condition. In addition, men who saw the neutral film showed a greater responsiveness to still pictures than men who saw the sexual film. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state generating action tendencies and actual sexual behavior.

  19. The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n=16) and dysfunctional (n=16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson's [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of "spectatoring" and "sensate focus."

  20. Incomplete use of condoms: the importance of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between incomplete condom use (not using condoms from start to finish of sex) and sexual arousal variables. A convenience sample of heterosexual men (n = 761) completed a web-based questionnaire. Men who scored higher on sexual arousability were more likely to put a condom on after sex had begun (AOR = 1.58). Men who reported difficulty reaching orgasm were more likely to report removing condoms before sex was over (AOR = 2.08). These findings suggest that sexual arousal may be an important, and under-studied, factor associated with incomplete use of condoms.

  1. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, predicts self-regulation of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Moholy, Maxwell; Prause, Nicole; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; S Rahman, Ardeshir; Fong, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A person's ability to control their own sexual arousal is important both to reduce the risks associated with some sexual behaviours and to respond sexually with intimate partners. A lack of control over sexual urges is a proposed feature of "hypersexual disorder", though some evidence suggests that sexual desire predicts the self-regulation of sexual arousal better than hypersexuality. In the current study, a sample (N = 116) of men and women recruited from community ads viewed a series of 20-second neutral and sexual films. Before each sexual film, participants were instructed to increase their sexual arousal, decrease their sexual arousal or respond as usual. Higher levels of desire for sex with a partner consistently predicted failures to downregulate sexual arousal. Hypersexuality was unrelated. These findings replicate Winters et al.'s study and extend their findings by including upregulation, women, a new measure of hypersexuality and a higher-trial design.

  2. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia.

  3. Physiological arousal: a role for hypothalamic systems.

    PubMed

    Adamantidis, A; de Lecea, L

    2008-05-01

    The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has long been known as a homeostasis center of the brain that modulates feeding behavior, arousal and reward. The hypocretins (Hcrts, also called orexins) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are neuropeptides produced in two intermingled populations of a few thousand neurons in the LH. The Hcrts have a prominent role in regulating the stability of arousal, since Hcrt system deficiency leads to narcolepsy. MCH is an important modulator of energy balance, as MCH system deficiency in mice leads to leanness and increased metabolism. Recently, MCH has been proposed to modulate rapid eye movement sleep in rodents. In this review, we propose a working model of the cross-talk between Hcrt and MCH circuits that may provide an arousal balance system to regulate complex goal-oriented behaviors.

  4. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Safron, Adam; Barch, Bennett; Bailey, J Michael; Gitelman, Darren R; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J

    2007-04-01

    Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of activation to preferred sexual stimuli, nonpreferred sexual stimuli, and sports stimuli revealed large networks correlated with sexual arousal, spanning multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Both homosexual and heterosexual men exhibited category-specific arousal in brain activity. Within the amygdala, greater preference-related activity was observed in homosexual men, but it is unclear whether this is a cause or a consequence of their sexuality. In a subsequent analysis of regions hypothesized to support arousal, both participant groups demonstrated widespread increases in evoked activity for preferred stimuli. Aggregate data from these regions produced significant differences between stimulus types in 16 out of 22 participants. Significant activational differences matched reported sexual orientation in 15 of these 16 participants, representing an advance in psychophysiological measures of arousal.

  5. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  6. The role of male sexual arousal in rape: six models.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, H E; Marshall, W L

    1991-10-01

    This article examines men's sexual arousal to rape cues and its possible role in sexual assault. The article presents six different models that have been described in the literature to account for men's sexual arousal to descriptions of rape. The models are divided into two broad categories, response control models and stimulus control models, and are further divided into models postulating a "trait" that might distinguish rapists from other men and those postulating a "state" that might be present in men while they commit a sexual assault. A number of the models are supported by empirical data, and some of these data are reviewed. The article suggests that different models may be operating in different men when they commit sexual assault. These models are discussed in relation to the current literature on the classification and diagnosis of sexual offenders.

  7. [Interactions between human sexual arousal and sexual desire: a challenge for social neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-03-28

    The frequent interaction and synergy between sexual arousal and sexual desire occuring during a sexual experience explains the difficulty in disentagling these two phenomena in the human sexual response. Sexual desire is defined as a goal-directed motivational state integrating the other in one's personal sphere on the basis of intentionality, rather than by instinct only. Sexual arousal includes physical manifestations and subjective perception of excitement. Interest in sexual arousal has engendered a growing body of research concerning its nature and function as well as the biological basis of the mechanisms sustaining it. Recent functional imaging has played a key role in seeking to isolate brain regions specific to sexual arousal. This field may represent a new challenge for social neuroscience.

  8. Patterns of sexual arousal in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal.

  9. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. Methods We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Results Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Conclusions Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control. PMID:26079873

  10. Acute effects of intoxication and arousal on approach / avoidance biases toward sexual risk stimuli in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Wray, Tyler B.; Emery, Noah N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08), placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding towards sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  11. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  12. Physiologic Measures of Sexual Function in Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Terri L.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review and describe physiologic measures of assessing sexual function in women Design Literature review Setting Studies that utilize instruments designed to measure female sexual function Patients Women participating in studies of female sexual function Interventions Various instruments that measure physiologic features of female sexual function Main Outcome Measures Appraisal of the various instruments, including their advantages and disadvantages. Results Many unique physiologic methods of evaluating female sexual function have been developed over the last four decades. Each method has its benefits and limitations. Conclusions Many physiologic methods exist, but most are not well-validated. Additionally, there has been an inability to correlate most physiologic measures with subjective measures of sexual arousal. Furthermore, given the complex nature of the sexual response in women, physiologic measures should be considered in context of other data, including the history, physical exam, and validated questionnaires. Nonetheless, the existence of appropriate physiologic measures is vital to our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction. PMID:19046582

  13. The Role of Sexual Arousal and Overperception of Sexual Intent Within the Decision to Engage in Sexual Coercion.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Miller, Holly A

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion is a significant problem on college campuses despite numerous attempts to better understand and prevent it. Some criminological research has examined the role of sexual arousal in decisions to use coercion and force, while psychologists have studied how overperception of sexual interest relates to coercive behaviors. The current study combines these two lines of research to examine whether sexual arousal increases the perception of sexual interest in a hypothetical coercion scenario. A sample of 387 college males were randomly placed into arousal and control conditions and asked to watch either erotic material or a lecture and complete questions regarding a common social dating scenario. Bivariate and multivariate results indicated significant relationships between sexual arousal and overperception of sexual intent with the decision to engage in sexually coercive behaviors, as well as a mediation effect. The implications for theory and sexual assault prevention are discussed.

  14. Physiological arousal and perception of bodily state during parachute jumping.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    Heart rate and respiration rate were recorded with a portable data recording system before and during a parachute jump in 36 male sport parachutists with differing degrees of experience. The recordings were analyzed at 12 psychologically relevant points in time along with the subjective ratings of physical arousal. Novice parachutists showed a higher degree of self-rated arousal during jumps. However, the two groups displayed nearly parallel curves for heart and respiration rates, differing significantly from each other only in the level of their respective heart rates. Furthermore, experienced jumpers seem to be better informed about their state of physiological arousal during the jump than are novice jumpers. These results do not confirm the proposed anxiety inhibition process, postulated by Epstein (1967).

  15. Specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activities in men and women with conventional and masochistic sexual interests.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Meredith L; Roy, Carolyn; Grimbos, Teresa; Cantor, James M; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies consistently report that men's genital responses correspond to their sexual activity interests (consenting vs. coercive sex) whereas women's responses do not. For women, however, these results may be confounded by the sexual activities studied and lack of suitable controls. We examined the subjective and genital arousal responses of men and women with conventional (22 men and 15 women) or masochistic sexual interests (16 men and 17 women) to narratives describing conventional sex or masochistic sex. The aims of the studies were twofold: (1) to examine whether gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal previously observed for gender also exist for sexual activity interests; and (2) to examine whether men and women with masochistic sexual interests demonstrate specificity of sexual response for their preferred sexual activities. Surprisingly, the pattern of results was very similar for men and women. Both men and women with conventional sexual interests (WCI) reported more sexual arousal, and responded more genitally, to conventional than to masochistic sex, demonstrating specificity of sexual arousal for their preferred sexual activities. Despite showing specificity for conventional sexual activities, the genital responses of WCI were still gender nonspecific. In contrast, women and men with masochistic sexual interests demonstrated nonspecific subjective and genital responses to conventional and masochistic sex. Indices of genital and subjective sexual arousal to masochistic versus conventional stimuli were positively and significantly correlated with self-reported thoughts, fantasies, interests, and behaviors involving masochism. The results suggest that gender similarities in the specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activity exist despite consistent gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal for gender.

  16. How do men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye A; Graham, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal and how they distinguish between the two. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with individuals in South East England, using a purposive sampling strategy to maximize the variation in experience of sexual function across the group. The authors identified three criteria that participants used to define and distinguish between desire and arousal: the sequence in which they occurred; whether the mind or the body (or both) were engaged; and the extent to which feelings of desire or arousal were responsive (in response to person or stimulus) and motivational (oriented toward a goal). Most participants attempted to distinguish between desire and arousal when prompted, but often with difficulty. Participants commonly felt that desire preceded arousal; some felt that desire was "mind" and arousal "body"; and many felt that both desire and arousal were responsive and motivational. However, the authors identified numerous times when these distinctions were reversed or the differences between terms were blurred. The results support recent proposals to merge the two diagnostic categories of female sexual arousal disorder and hyposexual desire disorder into a single diagnostic category.

  17. The DSM diagnostic criteria for female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews and critiques the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). An overview of how the diagnostic criteria for FSAD have evolved over previous editions of the DSM is presented and research on prevalence and etiology of FSAD is briefly reviewed. Problems with the essential feature of the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis-"an inability to attain, or to maintain...an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement"-are identified. The significant overlap between "arousal" and "desire" disorders is highlighted. Finally, specific recommendations for revision of the criteria for DSM-V are made, including use of a polythetic approach to the diagnosis and the addition of duration and severity criteria.

  18. Caffeine-induced physiological arousal accentuates global processing biases.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Giles, Grace; Lieberman, Harris R; Taylor, Holly A

    2011-07-01

    The effects of caffeine-induced arousal on global versus local object focus were investigated in non-habitual consumers using a double-blind, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Following an overnight fast, low caffeine consumers (N=36; M=42.5mg/day caffeine) completed 5 counterbalanced test sessions (normal consumption, 0mg, 100mg, 200mg, and 400mg) separated by at least 3 days. During each session, volunteers either consumed their normal amount of caffeine or were administered 1 of 4 treatment pills. One hour later they completed two tasks assessing visual attention, in counterbalanced order. Measures of mood, salivary caffeine and cortisol were taken at multiple time points. Dose-dependent elevation of caffeine in the saliva demonstrated the experimental manipulation was effective. Furthermore, analyses of the mood and arousal measures detected consistent changes on arousal subscales and caffeine administration elevated saliva cortisol. Analyses of the visual attention tasks revealed that caffeine-induced physiological arousal produced global processing biases, after as little as 100mg caffeine. These data suggest caffeine consumption may influence how individuals attend to and process information in their environment and could influence daily tasks such as face recognition, learning new environments and navigation, especially for those who normally consume little caffeine.

  19. Topical alprostadil in the treatment of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Mitchel, J; Rosen, R; Phillips, N; Ayers, C; Ferguson, D; Yeager, J

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of topical alprostadil USP (prostaglandin E1) cream in 8 patients with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). Each patient was administered a single intravaginal dose of placebo followed by escalating intravaginal doses of the active drug at 2-week intervals. Alprostadil's effectiveness in enhancing subjective and physiological arousal during visual sexual stimulation was supported by patient ratings and physician assessments of vaginal erythema and transudate volume. Photoplethysmography measurement of vaginal pulse amplitude was not able to demonstrate treatment sensitivity in the present study. Adverse events included mild cases of vaginal itching and burning. The data support further investigation of the use of alprostadil for FSAD.

  20. Self-focused thinking predicts nighttime physiological de-arousal.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Ueno, Mayumi; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Excessive focus on the internal self has maladaptive consequences for mental and physical health. Although the emotional functions of self-focus have been well established, no study has examined physiological arousal during the daily experience of self-focused thinking. The present study investigates the association between self-focus and autonomic activity using the experience sampling method with ambulatory monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-five students reported the content of their thoughts during their daily activities while their heart rate (HR) was being recorded. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that HRV was lower (and HR was higher) over the sampling day if participants engaged in more self-focus, while HRV increased (and HR decreased) from midday to nighttime if participants did not engage in self-focused thinking. These results suggest that self-focus at night is associated with increased physiological arousal, and leads to inhibition of de-arousal associated with normal sleep processes. Implications for insomnia are discussed.

  1. Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria

    2009-04-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings.

  2. Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073

  3. Female sexual arousal: genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2011-05-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse.

  4. Enhancement of experienced sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli through misattribution of unrelated residual excitation.

    PubMed

    Cantor, J R; Zillmann, D; Bryant, J

    1975-07-01

    In a pretest, three phases of recovery from a standard physical exercise were determined. In Phase 1, subjects experienced high levels of physiological excitation and recognized that their arousal was due to exercise. In Phase 2, subjects maintained substantial excitatory residues from the exercise but felt that their arousal had returned to base level. In Phase 3, subjects' excitatory responses had decayed, and they knew they had recovered from the exercise. Subjects in the main experiment were exposed to an erotic film in the first, second, or third recovery phase after performing the exercise. Subjects viewing the film during the second recovery phase reported being more sexually aroused by the film and evaluated the film more positively than subjects in the other two conditions. Counter to the notion of arousal as a simple energizer of all behavior, these findings were interpreted as supporting excitation-transfer theory, which posits that residual excitation enhances emotional responses to unrelated, immediately present stimuli only when the prevailing arousal cannot be attributed to its actual source.

  5. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection.

  6. Self-appraisals of arousal-oriented online sexual activities in university and community samples.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Clowater, Sarah L; Kalinowski, Alana

    2014-08-01

    Arousal-oriented online sexual activities (OSAs) are any activities on the Internet that involve sexually explicit and/or sexually arousing stimuli. These can be solitary-arousal activities, requiring only one person be involved. They can also be partnered-arousal activities that involve at least two people interacting (Shaughnessy, Byers, & Walsh, 2011). Most researchers have focused on the negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs on users' sexual life and life in general. Yet, these activities can also have positive outcomes. In two separate studies, we examined men's and women's perceptions of the positive and negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience. Study 1 included heterosexual university students (N = 191); Study 2 consisted of heterosexual and sexual minority individuals from the community (N = 316). Participants completed a background questionnaire and measures of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience and outcomes of these experiences. Overall, solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA was common among study participants. In both studies, participants reported significantly greater positive than negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs, albeit the overall impact was small. We did not find significant gender differences or differences by sexual orientation in positive or negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs. Our results suggest that, for most people, participating in solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs has little impact on them.

  7. Cognitions, emotions, and sexual response: analysis of the relationship among automatic thoughts, emotional responses, and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity and their correlation with sexual arousal was investigated. A total of 491 individuals (163 women and 232 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; Nobre and Pinto-Gouveia, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 368-382, 2003). Results indicated several significant correlations among automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual arousal. Erection concern thoughts in the men and failure/disengagement thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts in the women presented the most significant negative correlations with sexual arousal. Additionally, sadness and disillusion were positively related to these negative cognitions and negatively associated with sexual arousal in both sexes. On the other hand, pleasure and satisfaction were negatively associated with the above-mentioned negative cognitions and positively associated with subjective sexual arousal in both men and women. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions are closely linked and suggest a mode typical of sexual dysfunction composed of negative automatic thoughts, depressive affect, and low subjective sexual arousal.

  8. Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

    2004-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  9. Neuroendocrine response to film-induced sexual arousal in men and women.

    PubMed

    Exton, N G; Truong, T C; Exton, M S; Wingenfeld, S A; Leygraf, N; Saller, B; Hartmann, U; Schedlowski, M

    2000-02-01

    The psychoneuroendocrine responses to sexual arousal have not been clearly established in humans. However, we have demonstrated previously that masturbation-induced orgasm stimulates cardiovascular activity and induces increases in catecholamines and prolactin in blood of both males and females. We presently investigated the role of orgasm in producing these effects. Therefore, in this study parallel analysis of prolactin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol concentrations, together with cardiovascular variables of systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were undertaken during film-induced sexual arousal in nine healthy adult men and nine healthy adult women. Blood was drawn continuously via an indwelling cannula and connected tubing system passed through a mini-pump. In parallel, the cardiovascular parameters were recorded continuously via a computerised finger-cuff sensor. Subjective sexual arousal increased significantly in both men and women during the erotic film, with sexual arousal eliciting an increase in blood pressure in both males and females, and plasma noradrenaline in females only. In contrast, adrenaline, cortisol and prolactin levels were unaffected by sexual arousal. These data further consolidate the role of sympathetic activation in sexual arousal processes. Furthermore, they demonstrate that increases in plasma prolactin during sexual stimulation are orgasm-dependent, suggesting that prolactin may regulate a negative-feedback sexual-satiation mechanism.

  10. Feelings of Disgust and Disgust-Induced Avoidance Weaken following Induced Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. Methodology Participants were healthy women (n = 90) randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator) and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup) stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. Principal Findings The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups). Significance This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the maintenance of

  11. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  12. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission.

  13. Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.

    PubMed

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication).

  14. [Effects of arousal level on the physiological responding on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Tsuruga, Mariko; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Suzuki, Naoto

    2007-10-01

    This study examined effects of arousal level on the physiological responses in a polygraph examination using the Concealed Information Test (CIT). Thirty-nine healthy college students were tested with or without evaluative observation. Electrodermal activity, blood pressure, heart rate, normalized pulse volume, and respiration were recorded. Observation elevated participants' arousal level, which was manifested in self-reports, high skin conductance level, and low normalized pulse volume (i.e., vasoconstriction). However, differential reactivity to critical and non-critical items on the physiological measures was less affected by observation. These results suggested that participants' arousal level has little effect on differential physiological reactivity on the CIT.

  15. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  16. Direct Manipulation of Physiological Arousal in Induced Anxiety Therapy-Biofeedback Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Induced Anxiety is a brief psychotherapy procedure that teaches individuals to cope with negative effect by using relaxation techniques. This research investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students suffering from…

  17. An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Toates, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a "route map" in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different academic perspectives on understanding sexuality. It is suggested that both excitation and inhibition of sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior act at various levels in a hierarchical structure, and much confusion can be avoided by distinguishing these levels. The model integrates information from different branches of psychology: biological, evolutionary, clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social. It describes interactions between sexual behavior and anxiety, attachment, aggression, and drug taking; and it is applied to gender differences, evolutionary psychology, sexual deviancy, sexual addiction, and the biological bases of sexuality.

  18. Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiner, Arthur R.

    This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

  19. Affective and physiological sexual response patterns: the effects of instructions on sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    Heiman, J R; Rowland, D L

    1983-01-01

    To more clearly characterize the patterns of cognitive-affective and physiological responses concomitant with male sexual dysfunction, the present study compared 14 sexually dysfunctional and 16 sexually functional men. All individuals listened to two sexually explicit tapes and engaged in a self-generated fantasy, while genital, heart rate and scaled cognitive affective responses were recorded. Two types of instructions, a performance demand set and a non-demand sensate focus set, preceded the erotic tapes in counterbalanced order. As predicted, dysfunctional men showed less genital tumescence to tapes preceded by the demand than the non-demand instructions. Contrary to expectation, functional men showed greater penile tumescence to the tapes preceded by demand instructions. Self-reported sexual arousal did not follow the penile tumescence pattern but instead indicated that the dysfunctional sample was significantly less subjectively aroused to the tapes and fantasy. There were other significant differences between the groups. Dysfunctional men showed greater general psychological distress, as measured by the SCL-90, including elevated somaticism, anxiety and depression scores. During the experimental session, dysfunctional men also evidenced greater awareness of a variety of physiological responses, as well as more negative and fewer positive cognitive-affective states. These data are discussed in terms of the interaction of affective and physiological responses, differences in contextual meanings of instructional sets given the presence of a dysfunction, and theoretical and clinical conceptualizations of male sexual functioning.

  20. All alone with sweaty palms--physiological arousal and ostracism.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline

    2012-03-01

    Social exclusion, or ostracism, is universally perceived as a negative emotional experience and often leads to poor social outcomes for individuals and society. Although the experience of distress associated with being ostracized is innate, there has been very little investigation of the effects on the autonomic nervous system. This study provides objective evidence for the effects of ostracism on arousal (examined with skin conductance levels) while participants played an internet ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Forty-two healthy undergraduate students participated in both inclusion and ostracism conditions. When participants were included, there was a marked decrement in arousal over the course of the task, whereas there was no evidence of habituation when participants were ostracized. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the potential of differential autonomic activity to predict the coping strategies that people engage in following ostracism.

  1. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Effects of psychostimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; González, Betina; Celeste Rivero-Echeto, María; Muñiz, Javier A; Luster, Brennon; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    This review describes the interactions between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the thalamocortical system. Experiments using modulators of cholinergic receptors in the PPN clarified its role on psychostimulant-induced locomotion. PPN activation was found to be involved in the animal's voluntary search for psychostimulants. Every PPN neuron is known to generate gamma band oscillations. Voltage-gated calcium channels are key elements in the generation and maintenance of gamma band activity of PPN neurons. Calcium channels are also key elements mediating psychostimulant-induced alterations in the thalamic targets of PPN output. Thus, the PPN is a key substrate for maintaining arousal and REM sleep, but also in modulating psychostimulant self-administration.

  2. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  3. Physiological Arousal and Juvenile Psychopathy: Is Low Resting Heart Rate Associated with Affective Dimensions?

    PubMed

    Kavish, Nicholas; Vaughn, Michael G; Cho, Eunsoo; Barth, Amy; Boutwell, Brian; Vaughn, Sharon; Capin, Philip; Stillman, Stephanie; Martinez, Leticia

    2017-03-01

    A wealth of past research has examined the relationship between low physiological arousal and violence or antisocial behavior. Relatively little research; however, has examined the relationship between low physiological arousal and psychopathic traits, with even less having been conducted with juveniles. The current study attempts to fill this gap by evaluating juveniles' physiological arousal using resting heart rate and their levels of psychopathic traits. Results suggest that there is indeed an inverse relationship between resting heart rate and the affective traits of psychopathy (Uncaring, Callousness, and Unemotionality) as well as Thrill or Sensation Seeking in males. No significant relationship was found in females. Implications of the findings as well as study limitations and future directions are discussed.

  4. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology - Deep brain stimulation (DBS).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-11-01

    This review describes the wake/sleep symptoms present in Parkinson׳s disease, and the role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in these symptoms. The physiology of PPN cells is important not only because it is a major element of the reticular activating system, but also because it is a novel target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of gait and postural deficits in Parkinson׳s disease. A greater understanding of the physiology of the target nuclei within the brainstem and basal ganglia, amassed over the past decades, has enabled increasingly better patient outcomes from deep brain stimulation for movement disorders.

  5. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology – Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the wake/sleep symptoms present in Parkinson׳s disease, and the role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in these symptoms. The physiology of PPN cells is important not only because it is a major element of the reticular activating system, but also because it is a novel target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of gait and postural deficits in Parkinson׳s disease. A greater understanding of the physiology of the target nuclei within the brainstem and basal ganglia, amassed over the past decades, has enabled increasingly better patient outcomes from deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. PMID:26779322

  6. Heart Rate Variability in Male Sexual Arousal and Erectile Dysfunction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-22

    participants with organic ED. However, negative or distracting cognitions that could affect ANS activity were not accounted for in either study because...Physiology 1 a. The Autonomic Nervous System II. Erectile Dysfunction 5 a. ED from Organic Causes b. ED from Psychogenic...Medical Information i. Medical Information Form ii. Organicity /Psychogenic Rating Scale d. Physiological i. Penile Plethysmograph ii. Heart Rate II

  7. How does music arouse "chills"? Investigating strong emotions, combining psychological, physiological, and psychoacoustical methods.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2005-12-01

    Music can arouse ecstatic "chill" experiences defined as "goose pimples" and as "shivers down the spine." We recorded chills both via subjects' self-reports and physiological reactions, finding that they do not occur in a reflex-like manner, but as a result of attentive, experienced, and conscious musical enjoyment.

  8. Physiological-Cognitive-Emotional Responses to Defense-Arousing Communication: Overview and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    A 328-item checklist, suitable for the self-reporting of responses to any stimulus event, was administered to 107 upper division college students in an attempt to investigate the physiological-cognitive-emotional responses to defense arousing communication and to discover a greater range of the key features of the phenomena of…

  9. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  10. Poorer Subjective Sleep Quality Is Related to Higher Fantasy-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Tânia F

    2016-11-16

    Lack of sleep enhances erections and lubrication the next day. This raises the possibility that poorer subjective sleep quality is related to sexual arousal. To test this hypothesis, sexual arousal was elicited in 70 Portuguese women of reproductive age by means of fantasy. The level of salivary testosterone before and shortly after fantasy was determined by luminescence immunoassays. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), reported their sexual arousal before and during fantasy, and how anxious they were after the fantasy. The hypothesis was confirmed. Anxiety did not explain the association, but testosterone response (poststimulus minus baseline) had a slight explanatory effect.

  11. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment.

  12. Clitoral Sexual Arousal: Neuronal Tracing Study From the Clitoris Through the Spinal Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Alguacil, Nieves; Schober, Justine M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Shelley, Deborah N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although genital tactile stimulation is regarded as a precursor to sexual arousal and a recognized initiator of central nervous system arousal, specific afferent neural pathways transmit sensory stimuli of arousal, beginning at the epithelial level on the clitoris and following the course of arousal stimuli through the central nervous system. Limited knowledge exists of the pathway from the cutaneous receptors of nerves originating in the epithelial tissue of the clitoris and continuing to spinal cord afferents. Such information may contribute to an understanding of sexual arousal, particularly in female vertebrates. We further defined the neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for arousal originating in the epithelium of the clitoris as well as related neural pathways to the spinal cord in a murine model. Materials and Methods We performed a comprehensive review of the published relevant clinical and histological material from human and nonhuman vertebrate studies. In 29 adult female C57B1/6 mice the distribution of pelvic nerves and vessels was mapped. Gross dissection of 4 female mice was facilitated by resin injection of the vascular system in 2. Neuronal tracing was performed in 25 mice that received clitoral injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the clitoris and were sacrificed after 72 to 96 hours. The spinal cord and periclitoral tissue were removed and fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Results Gross anatomy of the mouse clitoris showed that pudendal and hypogastric nerves have a major role in the innervation of the external genitalia. Neuronal tracing revealed that the greatest nerve density was noted in the L5/6 spinal cord. The distribution extended from S1 to L2 with no labeling seen in the L3 spinal cord. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labeling was seen caudal in levels S1 through L4 and rostral in L2. Conclusions Understanding the neuroanatomy of the clitoris using a murine model may provide

  13. [Physiology and physiopathology of sexuality].

    PubMed

    Cuzin, Béatrice

    From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response.

  14. [Physiology and physiopathology of sexuality].

    PubMed

    Cuzin, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response.

  15. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men.

  16. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects.

  17. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed.

  18. Anatomy and physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction: classification, evaluation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Berman, J R; Adhikari, S P; Goldstein, I

    2000-07-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter-mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular and vasocongestive events. Physiological impairments that interfere with the normal female sexual response bring about complaints associated with diminished sexual arousal, libido, vaginal lubrication, genital sensation, and ability to achieve orgasm. Therapy aimed at restoring hormone levels as well as genital blood flow will be discussed.

  19. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical.

  20. Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?

    PubMed

    Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction.

  1. Outside of the laboratory: Associations of working-memory performance with psychological and physiological arousal vary with age.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Klipker, Kathrin; Müller, Viktor; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-03-01

    We investigated age differences in associations among self-reported experiences of tense and energetic arousal, physiological activation indicated by heart rate, and working-memory performance in everyday life. The sample comprised 92 participants aged 14-83 years. Data were collected for 24 hr while participants pursued their normal daily routines. Participants wore an ambulatory biomonitoring system that recorded their cardiac and physical activity. Using mobile phones as assessment devices, they also provided an average of 7 assessments of their momentary experiences of tense arousal (feeling nervous) and energetic arousal (feeling wide-awake) and completed 2 trials of a well-practiced working-memory task. Experiences of higher energetic arousal were associated with higher heart rate in participants younger than 50 years of age but not in participants older than that, and energetic arousal was unrelated to within-person fluctuations in working-memory performance. Experiences of tense arousal were associated with higher heart rate independent of participants' age. Tense arousal and physiological activation were accompanied by momentary impairments in working-memory performance in middle-aged and older adults but not in younger individuals. Results suggest that psychological arousal experiences are associated with lower working-memory performance in middle-aged and older adults when they are accompanied by increased physiological activation and that the same is true for physiological activation deriving from other influences. Hence, age differences in cognitive performance may be exaggerated when the assessment situation itself elicits tense arousal or occurs in situations with higher physiological arousal arising from affective experiences, physical activity, or circadian rhythms.

  2. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted.

  3. Distinguishing specific sexual and general emotional effects in fMRI-subcortical and cortical arousal during erotic picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Walter, Martin; Bermpohl, Felix; Mouras, Harold; Schiltz, Kolja; Tempelmann, Claus; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg

    2008-05-01

    Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while controlling for general emotional arousal (GEA) or pleasure. Activations in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus were found to be modulated by the stimulus' specific sexual intensity (SSI) while activations in the anterior cingulate cortex were associated with an interaction between sexual intensity and emotional valence. In contrast, activation in other regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus and the amygdala was associated only with a general emotional component during sexual arousal. No differences were found in these effects when comparing females and males. Our findings demonstrate for the first time neural differentiation between emotional and sexual components in the neural network underlying sexual arousal.

  4. Effect of self-reported sexual arousal on responses to sex-related and non-sex-related disgust cues.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

    2011-02-01

    Prior to and during sexual intercourse, people are exposed to stimuli that in other contexts might act as disgust-eliciting cues. This study examined whether sexual arousal, in contrast to general arousal, could selectively reduce reported disgust for cues that pilot participants identified as sex or non-sex related. Male undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four viewing groups. One group viewed erotic female images, a second clad female images, a third pleasantly arousing images (e.g., skydiving), and a fourth unpleasantly arousing images (e.g., an aimed gun). After the viewing phase, all participants were exposed to pairs of real disgust elicitors (sex versus non-sex related) drawn from various sensory modalities. Participants in the erotic images group, who rated being more sexually aroused than those in the other three groups, also reported being significantly less disgusted by sex-related elicitors. While the mechanism for this effect is not currently known, our findings suggest one plausible explanation for risky sexual behavior as well as having implications for the role of disgust in sexual dysfunction.

  5. Effect of Sexual Arousal on Cortical Coupling During Performance of the Tower of Hanoi Task in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ruiz-Díaz, Marina; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Ågmo, Anders; Sanz-Martin, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    Sexual arousal affects cognitive processing, which depends on the coordinated functioning among cortical areas. The aim of this research was to determine whether previous observation of videos with sexual content affects the degree of cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) coupling during performance of an executive task. Cortical EEG correlations were calculated in three groups of heterosexual men under three conditions: at rest; during observation of a video with neutral, aggressive, or erotic content; and while performing the Tower of Hanoi task (TOH). Based on self-reports, it was shown that the erotic video induced general and sexual arousal, while the aggressive video affected valence and general arousal. Task performance was similar in all three groups. During performance of TOH, only the erotic group showed a decreased correlation between prefrontal areas with an increased correlation between parietal and prefrontotemporal areas, specifically in the slow bands. It is likely that these changes in the degree of cortical coupling could be associated with the cognitive strategies or functional adaptations that participants require to adequately solve the task during a state of sexual arousal. These data could contribute to improving our understanding of the central nervous mechanisms that underlie the effect of sexual arousal on the cognitive processes involved in tasks like TOH.

  6. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition: could it have a role in the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder?

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is the inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement. The potentiation of vascular responses leading to increased blood flow in clitoris and vagina has represented the main focus in the pharmacological treatment of FSAD, including the evaluation of the type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors. However, due to a lack of clear efficacy, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for FSAD to date. In the present issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wayman et al. show that the administration by intravenous or intravaginal routes of a novel neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, UK-414,445, results in enhanced genital blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation in female rabbits, without significantly affecting blood pressure. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition, by preserving vasoactive peptides such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, raises the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of FSAD.

  7. Are our definitions of women's desire, arousal and sexual pain disorders too broad and our definition of orgasmic disorder too narrow?

    PubMed

    Basson, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Since each individual female sexual dysfunction is complex, it is necessary to subtype them in addition to dividing them into life-long or acquired disorder. The complexity of women's sexual arousal necessitates appreciation of a number of different types of arousal disorders that vary not only in etiology but also in management. The coexistence of sexual arousal and sexual desire, which develops during a sexual experience, explains the frequent comorbidity of arousal and desire disorders. Subtyping of hypoactive sexual desire disorder allows analysis of lack of receptivity and of any marked loss of the traditional markers of sexual desire over and beyond a normative lessening with relationship duration. Dyspareunia and vaginismus require further analysis prior to any definitive therapy. The definition of orgasmic disorder needs to include loss of orgasmic intensity and the possibility of coincident arousal disorder.

  8. Emergence of nonsexual crimes and their relationship to sexual crime characteristics and the deviant arousal of male adolescent sexual offenders: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, Tohoro F; Burton, David L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explore nonsexual crimes committed by a sample of 437 incarcerated adolescent sexual offenders as well as deviant arousal and its relationships to nonsexual and sexual crimes. Over 50% of the juvenile sexual offenders in this sample have committed nonsexual offenses. In addition, nonsexual crimes, particularly general delinquency, were significantly correlated to a number of characteristics of sexual crimes committed by the youth. Previous research has shown that sexually abusive youth are more likely to recidivate nonsexual crimes, and among the implications of this study is the need for treatment providers and service delivery systems to address nonsexual as well as sexual crimes.

  9. When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2009-02-01

    This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games.

  10. The effect of negative emotion on deductive reasoning: examining the contribution of physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Leese, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we explore the link between peripheral physiological arousal and logicality in a deductive reasoning task. Previous research has shown that participants are less likely to provide normatively correct responses when reasoning about emotional compared to neutral contents. Which component of emotion is primarily involved in this effect has not yet been explored. We manipulated the emotional value of the reasoning stimuli through classical conditioning (Experiment 1), with simultaneous presentation of negative/neutral pictures (Experiment 2), or by using intrinsically negative/neutral words (Experiment 3). We measured skin conductance (SC) and subjective affective ratings of the stimuli. In all experiments, we observed a negative relationship between SC and logicality. Participants who showed greater SC reactivity to negative stimuli compared to neutral stimuli were more likely to make logical errors on negative, compared to neutral reasoning contents. There was no such link between affective ratings of the stimuli and the effect of emotion on reasoning.

  11. Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

  12. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  13. The development of sexual aggression through the life span: the effect of age on sexual arousal and recidivism among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, Howard E; Blanchard, Ray; Langton, Calvin M

    2003-06-01

    There is a strong belief in the field that sexual aggression persists unabated into old age. If libido is one of the important determinants of sexual aggression, as has been theorized, and if libido decreases with aging, then it follows that sexual aggression should show similar aging effects. The present study examines the effects of age on sexual arousal and sexual recidivism in sex offenders. In the first study, 1431 sex offenders' erectile responses were measured using volumetric phallometry during presentations of visual and auditory depictions of prepubescent, pubescent, and adult males and females. The maximum degree of arousal was plotted over the age of the offender at the time of the test. Age was a powerful determinant of sexual arousal and a line-of-best-fit indicated that arousal decreased as a reciprocal of the age-at-test. In the second study, 468 sex offenders released into the community were followed for an average period of over five years. The effects of age-at-release were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves plotted for subjects in different age-at-release cohorts. Results indicated that offenders released at an older age were less likely to recommit sexual offenses and that sexual recidivism decreased as a linear function of age-at-release. Age-related decreases were confirmed while controlling for other risk factors using Cox regression analysis. The implications of reductions in sexual aggression with age are discussed in relation to our understanding of the etiology of sexual aggression and our use of actuarial risk assessments.

  14. Topical alprostadil (PGE1) for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder: in-clinic evaluation of safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Julia R; Gittelman, Marc; Costabile, Raymond; Guay, Andre; Friedman, Alice; Heard-Davison, Amy; Peterson, Craig; Dietrich, John; Stephens, Darby

    2006-03-01

    This multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design study evaluated the effects of a topical alprostadil solution for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). A total of 79 naturally or surgically post menopausal women with FSAD were treated with either 100 or 400 micrograms of alprostadil solution and placebo, delivered on separate clinic visits in random order. Study drug was applied to the external genitalia and was followed by 30 minutes of visual sexual stimulation. Study evaluations included investigator assessments of genital vasocongestion and patient assessments of physical and emotional sexual arousal, and sexual satisfaction. Genital vasocongestion in response to PGE1 was significantly greater than placebo (p < 0.0001) at each dose level and at all post dosing time points. Patient assessments of physical and emotional arousal and sexual satisfaction were significantly greater than placebo with the 400 mcg dose, but not with the 100 mcg dose of alprostadil. Topical alprostadil was well tolerated with no reports of significant systemic side effects. The most common adverse event was mild, transient genital burning typically < 1 minute duration. Other side effects were mild-moderate, resolving within two hours of application. These data suggest topical alprostadil should be further researched as a potentially appropriate on-demand therapeutic choice for women experiencing FSAD.

  15. Phentolamine mesylate in postmenopausal women with female sexual arousal disorder: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Lopez, Marcela; Lipezker, Mirtha; Lara, Claudia; Ramírez, Abraham; Rampazzo, Claudia; Hurtado de Mendoza, María T; Lowrey, Fred; Loehr, Lean A; Lammers, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential of phentolamine as a treatment of postmenopausal women with female arousal disorder (FSAD). Vaginal photoplethismography and a subjective questionnaire were used. Forty one women were enrolled and four treatments were tested: vaginal solutions 5 mg and 40 mg and an oral tablet each of 40 mg of phentolamine and placebo. Physiological readings were significantly different from placebo in the women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with 40 mg of phentolamine in vaginal solution (p = 0.0186). Subjective reports also were significantly different from placebo with the vaginal solution 40 mg and the oral tablet of 40 mg of phentolamine among hormone replacement users. No significant differences were found among women not receiving HRT. Results indicate that phentolamine may show promise as treatment for FSAD in estrogenized postmenopausal women.

  16. Physiological arousal and attention during a week of continuous sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Cote, Kimberly A; Milner, Catherine E; Osip, Stephanie L; Baker, Meghan L; Cuthbert, Brielle P

    2008-10-20

    Waking brain physiology underlying deficits from continuous sleep restriction (CSR) is not well understood. Fourteen good sleepers participated in a 21-day protocol where they slept their usual amount in a baseline week, had their time in bed restricted by 33% in a CSR week, and slept the desired amount in a recovery week. Participants slept at home, completing diaries and wearing activity monitors to verify compliance. Each day participants completed an RT task and mood and sleepiness ratings every 3 h. Laboratory assessment of electrophysiology and performance took place at the end of baseline, three times throughout the CSR week, and at the beginning of recovery. Participants reported less sleep during CSR which was confirmed by activity monitors. Correspondingly, well-being and neurobehavioural performance was impaired. Quantitative EEG analysis revealed significantly reduced arousal between the 1st and 7th days of restriction and linear effects at anterior sites (Fp2, Fz, F8, T8). At posterior sites (P4, P8), reductions occurred only later in the week between the 4th and 7th nights of restriction. Both the immediate linear decline in arousal and precipitous drop later in the week were apparent at central sites (C4, Cz). Thus, frontal regions were affected immediately, while parietal regions showed maintenance of function until restriction was more severe. The P300 ERP component showed evidence of reduced attention by the 7th day of restriction (at Pz, P4). EEG and ERPs deficits were more robust in the right-hemisphere, which may reflect greater vulnerability to sleep loss in the non-dominant hemisphere.

  17. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play.

  18. Being Sexually Attracted to Minors: Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Houtepen, Jenny A B M; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-02

    This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in nonclinical pedophiles. Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings. Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.

  19. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male.

  20. Cognitive activity and physiological arousal: processes that mediate mood-congruent memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, L J; Ellis, H C

    1998-09-01

    This research proposes that the cognitive activity associated with the experience of an emotional state mediates the occurrence of mood-congruent processing. Two experiments examined the role of cognitive activity in selective processing of words in a mood congruence paradigm. Four induction procedures were used: a depressed-mood induction, a schema induction organized around the theme of writing a paper, an arousal induction, and a control neutral-mood induction. The memory task consisted of recalling a word list composed of negatively associated and thematically organized words. Selective processing was demonstrated in conjunction with the depressed-mood and organizational-schema induction procedures. In contrast, the arousal and neutral induction procedures did not produce selective processing of words from the list. The findings support the thesis that cognitive activity mediates the selective processing typical of mood congruence as distinct from arousal processes per se. The findings are discussed with respect to the resource allocation model and semantic network theory.

  1. Subjective sexual arousal in response to erotica: effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus, and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Youn, Gahyun

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus (with or without audio), and exposure duration on the subjective sexual arousal of participants watching a 10-min erotic video excerpt depicting sexual activities between a heterosexual adult couple. The excerpt was shown to 105 male and 110 female undergraduates, and sexual arousal was measured four times, at intervals of 1, 4, 7, and 10,min from the onset of the excerpt. While no erotic stimulus effect was found, analysis of variance showed main effects of gender, guided fantasy, and exposure duration, and three two-way interactions of gender x guided fantasy, gender x exposure duration, and guided fantasy x exposure duration. According to the results of simple effects tests, the gender effects were found regardless of whether they had firstly experienced a guided fantasy, while the guided fantasy effect was detected only for the females. The simple main effects for gender were found at all four time intervals, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the males was different from that for the females. The simple main effects for guided fantasy were not found at 1,min and 4,min, but at 7,min and 10,min, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the guided fantasy present condition was different from that for the absent condition. The findings involving gender differences were discussed in the context of biological and social factors.

  2. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  3. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  4. Physiology of Arousal in OSA and Potential Impacts for Sedative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Cori, Jennifer M; Trinder, John

    2017-04-11

    Treatment options for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) intolerant of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are limited. Thus, new therapies are sought. Recently, there has been interest in using sedatives to delay arousal from sleep, allowing upper airway dilator muscle recruitment sufficient to re-open the airway while maintaining sleep. In this review the rationale for sedative use and prior sedative studies in OSA are presented, along with a description of six factors that may determine sedative treatment success. It is proposed that in order for a sedative to treat OSA the patient must have each of the following three traits: 1) a mild to moderately collapsible upper airway, 2) responsive and effective upper airway dilator muscles and 3) a low to moderate arousal threshold. In addition (4), proponents of sedative treatment generally believe that to be effective the sedative must increase the arousal threshold. Finally (5), sedatives may have additional utility in patients with large ventilatory responses to arousal and (6) the metric used to define sedative success needs to be considered. To date, few of these factors have been evaluated in sedative trials. Further, it is likely only a relatively small percentage of patients will have all of the required traits. If sedative treatment is successful in appropriate patients, easily measured surrogate markers for the factors that determine sedative success will be critical for implementation in the clinic. Finally, sedatives may have detrimental outcomes for some patients and prospective identification of such patients will be required.

  5. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  6. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  7. The arousing power of everyday materials: an analysis of the physiological and behavioral responses to visually and tactually presented textures.

    PubMed

    Etzi, Roberta; Gallace, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that during multisensory perception, vision frequently dominates over the other sensory modalities. However, it is still unclear whether sensory dominance also implies the generation of a greater state of arousal. Here, we assess the psycho-physiological reactions to different materials when presented tactually (Group 1) or visually (Group 2). In Group 1, the participants' forearm was stroked with different textures (satin, tinfoil, leather, sandpaper and abrasive sponge), by either a male or a female experimenter. The speed of stimulation was set to elicit a vigorous response of C-tactile afferents, involved in the perception of the more pleasant aspects of touch. The participants were asked to rate the pleasantness of the stimulation. In Group 2, the same textures were presented only visually, and the participants were asked to rate the imagined pleasantness of being touched by those stimuli. Skin conductance responses were recorded in both groups. The results revealed that the tactile presentation of the stimuli led to higher skin conductance responses than the visual presentation; this difference was higher for women than for men. Smooth materials were perceived as more pleasant than rough materials, but no differences in terms of skin conductance responses were found among them. Moreover, the textures were rated as less pleasant when presented visually than when presented tactually. These findings are relevant to understand how physiological arousal is modulated by different senses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in hedonic tactile perception.

  8. PTSD as a mediator of sexual revictimization: the role of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Risser, Heather J; Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Thomsen, Cynthia J; McCanne, Thomas R

    2006-10-01

    Theory and research suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault. However, little empirical research has examined the mediational role of PTSD. In the present study, the authors use structural equation modeling to examine the degree to which the three symptom clusters that define PTSD (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) contribute to sexual revictimization. To assess PTSD symptomatology, undergraduate women completed questionnaires (N = 1,449), which detailed the history and severity of childhood and adult sexual assault experiences. Results indicated that PTSD mediated sexual revictimization. When PTSD symptom clusters were examined individually, only the hyperarousal cluster was a significant mediator. Results are discussed in terms of information-processing mechanisms that may underlie sexual revictimization.

  9. Efficacy and safety of topical alprostadil cream for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD): a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Padma-Nathan, Harin; Brown, Candace; Fendl, Jane; Salem, Shawki; Yeager, James; Harningr, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of a novel alprostadil cream in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 94 women presenting with female sexual arousal disorder of at least 6 month s duration. We sent the subjects home with 10 premeasured doses of 500 g, 1000 g, or 1500 g alprostadil or a placebo cream to be applied to the vulvar area prior to vaginal intercourse over a period of 6 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter, the arousal success rate (as measured by diary responses to the Female Sexual Encounter Profile [FSEP]), was highest in the alprostadil 1000 g group and lowest in the 500 g group, but the responses were not different from that of the placebo cream, at the p = 0.05 level, for any of the three alprostadil doses. However, the change from baseline for Item 6 of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000; satisfaction with arousal during sexual activity) suggested an important dose-related trend (p = 0.173; 1500 g versus placebo). The mean percent responder rate (responder = > 50% arousal success rate with > 3 sexual attempts) suggested a dose-response effect (p = 0.157; 1500 g versus placebo). Adverse events were generally mild or moderate in intensity and mainly involved localized reactions in the genital area.

  10. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links With Pragmatic Language

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 28 with typical development (TD), aged 4–15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  11. Rape-myth congruent beliefs in women resulting from exposure to violent pornography: effects of alcohol and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-09-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims.

  12. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety.

  13. Non-image forming effects of illuminance level: Exploring parallel effects on physiological arousal and task performance.

    PubMed

    Huiberts, Laura M; Smolders, Karin C H J; de Kort, Yvonne A W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated diurnal non-image forming (NIF) effects of illuminance level on physiological arousal in parallel to NIF effects on vigilance and working memory performance. We employed a counterbalanced within-subjects design in which thirty-nine participants (mean age=21.2; SD=2.1; 11 male) completed three 90-min sessions (165 vs. 600lx vs. 1700lx at eye level) either in the morning (N=18) or afternoon (N=21). During each session, participants completed four measurement blocks (incl. one baseline block) each consisting of a 10-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and a Backwards Digit-Span Task (BDST) including easy trials (4-6 digits) and difficult trials (7-8 digits). Heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured continuously. The results revealed significant improvements in performance on the BDST difficult trials under 1700lx vs. 165lx (p=0.01), while illuminance level did not affect performance on the PVT and BDST easy trials. Illuminance level impacted HR and SCL, but not SBP. In the afternoon sessions, HR was significantly higher under 1700lx vs. 165lx during PVT performance (p=0.05), while during BDST performance, HR was only slightly higher under 600 vs. 165lx (p=0.06). SCL was significantly higher under 1700lx vs. 165lx during performance on BDST easy trials (p=0.02) and showed similar, but nonsignificant trends during the PVT and BDST difficult trials. Although both physiology and performance were affected by illuminance level, no consistent pattern emerged with respect to parallel changes in physiology and performance. Rather, physiology and performance seemed to be affected independently, via unique pathways.

  14. Physiological Desensitization and Judgments about Female Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines whether men exposed to filmed sexual violence are less physiologically aroused and less emotionally responsive to subsequent depictions of violence against women. Investigates, secondarily, the magnitude of the relationship between physiological reactions, emotional reactions, and subsequent judgments. (MS)

  15. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    PubMed

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual.

  16. Affect and Sexual Responsivity in Men With and Without a History of Sexual Aggression.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amber N; Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-04-07

    Despite increased attention to understanding risk factors for sexual aggression, knowledge regarding the emotional and sexual arousal patterns of sexually aggressive men remains limited. The current study examined whether sexually aggressive men exhibit unique profiles of affective responsivity, in particular to negatively valenced stimuli, as well as sexual arousal patterns that differentiate them from nonaggressive men. We presented 78 young men (38 sexually aggressive; 40 nonaggressive) with a series of videos designed to induce positive, sad, or anxious affect. Affect and subjective sexual arousal were assessed following each film and erectile responses were measured continuously. Sexually aggressive men reported significantly higher levels of sexual arousal following both the positive and negative conditions as compared to nonaggressive men. Erectile responses of sexually aggressive men were significantly greater than nonaggressive men's following the positive affect induction. Self-reported positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant predictor of subjective sexual arousal for both groups of men. Compared to nonaggressive men, sexually aggressive men showed significantly weaker correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Findings suggest that generalized heightened propensity for sexual arousal may be a risk factor for sexually aggressive behavior.

  17. Male chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) sexual arousal: mediation by visual cues from female conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Bielert, C; van der Walt, L A

    1982-01-01

    (1) The changes in masturbatory behavior for nine adult males exposed to, but not allowed to contact, naturally cycling stimulus females were quite similar to the changes in perineal swelling shown by these females. (2) Serum testosterone concentrations of seven adult males exposed to a cycling stimulus female were related to their masturbatory behavior, with high levels occurring during the females follicular phase, (3) Graded estradiol benzoate treatments of ovariectomized stimulus females revealed individual dosage levels below which there was no positive effect on the occurrence of visually stimulated male masturbation, (4) The present series of experiments documents the importance which visual cues have in the sexual interactions of this particular species.

  18. Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2013-03-01

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a

  19. Is There a Relationship Between Tic Frequency and Physiological Arousal? Examination in a Sample of Children With Co-Occurring Tic and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Conelea, Christine A; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Walther, Michael R; Freeman, Jennifer B; Garcia, Abbe M

    2014-03-01

    Stress is the contextual variable most commonly implicated in tic exacerbations. However, research examining associations between tics, stressors, and the biological stress response has yielded mixed results. This study examined whether tics occur at a greater frequency during discrete periods of heightened physiological arousal. Children with co-occurring tic and anxiety disorders (n = 8) completed two stress-induction tasks (discussion of family conflict, public speech). Observational (tic frequencies) and physiological (heart rate [HR]) data were synchronized using The Observer XT, and tic frequencies were compared across periods of high and low HR. Tic frequencies across the entire experiment did not increase during periods of higher HR. During the speech task, tic frequencies were significantly lower during periods of higher HR. Results suggest that tic exacerbations may not be associated with heightened physiological arousal and highlight the need for further tic research using integrated measurement of behavioral and biological processes.

  20. Sliding-window analysis tracks fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity associated with physiological arousal and vigilance during fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baczkowski, Blazej M; Johnstone, Tom; Walter, Henrik; Erk, Susanne; Veer, Ilya M

    2017-03-12

    We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time. Amygdala FC was calculated for each of these windows. Simultaneously acquired SCL time series were averaged over time frames that corresponded to the sliding-window FC analysis, which were subsequently associated with the whole-brain seed-based amygdala sliding-window FC using the GLM. Surrogate time series were generated to test whether connectivity dynamics could have occurred by chance. In addition, results were contrasted against static amygdala FC and sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, which was chosen as a control seed, while a physio-physiological interaction (PPI) was performed as cross-validation. During periods of increased SCL, the left amygdala became more strongly coupled with the bilateral insula and medial prefrontal cortex, core areas of the salience network. The sliding-window analysis yielded a connectivity pattern that was unlikely to have occurred by chance, was spatially distinct from static amygdala FC and from sliding-window FC of the primary visual cortex, but was highly comparable to that of the PPI analysis. We conclude that sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant fluctuations in connectivity in the context of an externally cued task.

  1. Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 μg/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 μg/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 μg/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior.

  2. Emotion and decision-making under uncertainty: Physiological arousal predicts increased gambling during ambiguity but not risk.

    PubMed

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Glimcher, Paul; Baker, Augustus L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty, which is ubiquitous in decision-making, can be fractionated into known probabilities (risk) and unknown probabilities (ambiguity). Although research has illustrated that individuals more often avoid decisions associated with ambiguity compared to risk, it remains unclear why ambiguity is perceived as more aversive. Here we examine the role of arousal in shaping the representation of value and subsequent choice under risky and ambiguous decisions. To investigate the relationship between arousal and decisions of uncertainty, we measure skin conductance response-a quantifiable measure reflecting sympathetic nervous system arousal-during choices to gamble under risk and ambiguity. To quantify the discrete influences of risk and ambiguity sensitivity and the subjective value of each option under consideration, we model fluctuating uncertainty, as well as the amount of money that can be gained by taking the gamble. Results reveal that although arousal tracks the subjective value of a lottery regardless of uncertainty type, arousal differentially contributes to the computation of value-that is, choice-depending on whether the uncertainty is risky or ambiguous: Enhanced arousal adaptively decreases risk-taking only when the lottery is highly risky but increases risk-taking when the probability of winning is ambiguous (even after controlling for subjective value). Together, this suggests that the role of arousal during decisions of uncertainty is modulatory and highly dependent on the context in which the decision is framed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth.

  4. Anxiety sensitivity and post-traumatic stress reactions: Evidence for intrusions and physiological arousal as mediating and moderating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Fan, Qianqian

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of research has implicated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and its dimensions in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanism(s) that may account for the association between AS and PTSD remains unclear. Using the "trauma film paradigm," which provides a prospective experimental tool for investigating analog intrusion development, the present study examines the extent to which intrusions mediate the association between AS and the development of posttraumatic stress reactions. After completing a measure of AS and state mood, unselected participants (n = 45) viewed a 10 min film of graphic scenes of fatal traffic accidents and then completed a second assessment of state mood. Participants then kept a daily diary to record intrusions about the film for a one-week period. Post-traumatic stress reactions about the film were then assessed after the one-week period. The results showed that general AS and physical and cognitive concerns AS predicted greater post-traumatic stress reactions about the film a week later. Furthermore, the number of intrusions the day after viewing the traumatic film, but not fear and disgust in response to the trauma film, mediated the association between general AS (and AS specifically for physical and cognitive concerns) and post-traumatic stress reactions a week later. Subsequent analysis also showed that physiological arousal during initial exposure to the traumatic film moderated the association between general AS and the number of intrusions reported the day after viewing the film. The implications of these analog findings for conceptualizing the mechanism(s) that may interact to explain the role of AS in the development of PTSD and its effective treatment are discussed.

  5. Sexual victimization history, depression, and task physiology as predictors of sexual revictimization: results from a 6-month prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Wilson, Laura C; Patriquin, Michelle A; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-02-01

    The current study examined depression and physiological reactivity to a sexual threat task as longitudinal predictors of sexual revictimization in women with sexual victimization histories. The sample included 14 young adult women (M(age) = 19.15) who reported child sexual abuse. Heart rate and root mean square of the successive differences were measured at baseline and during the presentation of sexual victimization-related words during an Emotional Stroop task. Results indicated that women who reported a greater history of childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual victimization were at increased risk for sexual revictimization 6 months after initial data collection. Furthermore, even after accounting for their childhood and adult sexual victimization histories and depression symptoms, women who exhibited reduced, or blunted, physiological activity during the sexual victimization stimuli of the Stroop task were more likely to report sexual revictimization during the 6-month follow-up. The findings suggest that sexual victimization survivors may benefit from interventions that address physiological blunting and the recognition of sexual threat cues in their environment.

  6. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  7. Sleep and arousal patterns of co-sleeping human mother/infant pairs: a preliminary physiological study with implications for the study of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    PubMed

    McKenna, J J; Mosko, S; Dungy, C; McAninch, J

    1990-11-01

    The prevailing research design for studying infant sleep erroneously assumes the species-wide normalcy of solitary nocturnal sleep rather than a social sleeping environment. In fact, current clinical perspectives on infant sleep, which are based exclusively on studies of solitary sleeping infants, may partly reflect culturally induced rather than species-typical infant sleep patterns which can only be gleaned, we contend here, from infants sleeping with their parents--the context within which, and for well over 4 million years, the hominid infant's sleep, breathing, and arousal patterns evolved. Our physiological study of five co-sleeping mother-infant pairs in a sleep lab is the first study of its kind to document the unfolding sleep patterns of mothers and infants sleeping in physical contact. Our data show that co-sleeping mothers and infants exhibit synchronous arousals, which, because of the suspected relationship between arousal and breathing stability in infants, have important implications for how we study environmental factors possibly related to some forms of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). While our data show that co-sleeping mothers and infants also experience many moments of physiological independence from each other, it is clear that the temporal unfolding of particular sleep stages and awake periods of the mother and infant become entwined and that on a minute-to-minute basis, throughout the night, much sensory communication is occurring between them. Our research acknowledges the human infant's evolutionary past and considers the implications that nocturnal separation (a historically novel and alien experience for them) has for maternal and infant well-being in general and SIDS research strategies in particular.

  8. Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse.

  9. Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica: a psychophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; McCabe, M P

    2001-08-01

    The relative contribution of attentional and emotional factors to the physiological and subjective sexual arousal elicited by erotic film was evaluated. Sexual arousal, attentional, and emotional responses were measured while 30 men were presented with a series of erotic film segments. Levels of physiological and subjective sexual arousal were higher when subjects became absorbed in the activities portrayed in the film and when they experienced the depicted erotic encounters as appetitive, than when they were distracted and perceived the encounters as aversive. The erotic film elicited a diminished startle response to a sudden burst of white noise presented during stimulation relative to the nature film, suggesting that at a physiological level the erotic segments of film were processed as more appetitive in valence. The level of sexual arousal elicited by the erotic segments was related to the extent to which subjects were entertained by the film, even though there was considerable anxiety generated by the portrayed sexual scenarios. Sexual response was not significantly correlated with trait measures of absorption (as indexed by the Tellegen Absorption Scale) nor with vividness of imagery (as assessed by the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery). Arousal was related to state-assessed attentional and emotional variables, and physiological measures of emotional response, demonstrating the multidimensional nature of the sexual response. Future directions for comparing male sexual response patterns with female response patterns are suggested.

  10. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C

    1995-12-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology.

  11. Arousal from sleep - The physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB/A/ reduction in aircraft flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.

    1977-01-01

    The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.

  12. Female sexual dysfunction: anatomy, physiology, evaluation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Berman, J R; Berman, L A; Werbin, T J; Goldstein, I

    1999-11-01

    It has been estimated that up to 76% of women, depending upon their age, have complaints of sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido, vaginal dryness, pain with intercourse, decreased genital sensation and difficulty or inability to achieve orgasm. Female sexual dysfunction is a significant problem that affects the quality of life of many women. This review addresses the etiologies and incidence of female sexual complaints, as well as new findings in the evaluation and treatment of female sexual dysfunction.

  13. 'For men arousal is orientation': Bodily truthing, technosexual scripts, and the materialization of sexualities through the phallometric test.

    PubMed

    Waidzunas, Tom; Epstein, Steven

    2015-04-01

    We trace the history of the phallometric test--which measures erections of men exposed to visual erotic stimuli to characterize sexualities--in order to account for its functioning as a 'truthing technology'. On the basis of a content analysis of 410 key scientific journal article abstracts, we argue that since its invention in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s, phallometry has been employed within three distinct assemblages: as a test of predominance of sexual desire, as a test for therapeutic efficacy, and as a threshold test of sexual risk. Drawing on works of theorists of materialization and proponents of script theory, we argue that within each assemblage phallometric testing materializes male desire and renders it measurable via a 'technosexual script'. We consider the performative effects of phallometry in establishing scientific conceptions of normal and abnormal sexualities. At the same time, through attention to debates among practitioners and broader controversies surrounding the employment of phallometry, we examine the limits of researchers' abilities to establish the broader credibility of the test and capture the phenomenon of sexual desire. This analysis contributes to the study of truthing technologies (or 'truth machines') as a class, while also helping to build bridges between science and technology studies and sexuality studies.

  14. Physiological Reactivity in a Community Sample of Sexually Aggressive Young Men: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Zoë D.; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Men’s sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men’s salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men’s sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818

  15. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  16. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes.

  17. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  18. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.

  19. Anxiety sensitivity moderates the relationship of changes in physiological arousal with flight anxiety during in vivo exposure therapy.

    PubMed

    Busscher, Bert; Spinhoven, Philip; van Gerwen, Lucas J; de Geus, Eco J C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological sensations and discomfort constitute the major symptoms reported by aviophobics. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) seems to moderate the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety, and AS has been identified as a vulnerability factor for flight phobia. In this study we examined whether AS moderates the effects of somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity on flight anxiety induced by real flight. In fifty aviophobics participating in Cognitive Behaviour Group Therapy (CBGT), flight anxiety, somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity were assessed during a guided return flight. Results indicate that physiological reactivity interacted with AS. Changes in heart rate and parasympathetic activity were more strongly associated with changes in reported flight anxiety for high AS participants, and less for participants low on AS. Results did not indicate a moderating effect of AS on the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety. Our results suggest that therapy for flight phobia might benefit from addressing the physical effect of anxiety, by means of cognitive restructuring and exposure to interoceptive stimuli, particularly in aviophobics high in AS.

  20. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  1. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  2. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  3. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  4. Differential brain processing of audiovisual sexual stimuli in men: comparative positron emission tomography study of the initiation and maintenance of penile erection during sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tohru; Takao, Tetsuya; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Takasawa, Masashi; Oku, Naohiko; Hatazawa, Jun; Kaneko, Shigeo; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2007-07-01

    The human male psychosexual cycle consists of four phases: excitation, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Identification of the specific neural substrates of each phase may provide information regarding the brain's pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction. We previously analyzed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H(2)15O-positron emission tomography (PET) during the excitation phase (initiation of penile erection) induced by audiovisual sexual stimuli (AVSS) and identified activation of the cerebellar vermis, the bilateral extrastriate cortex, and right orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting a role of cognition/emotion in the excitement phase. In the present study, we analyzed rCBF of the same six healthy volunteers during the plateau phase (maintenance of penile erection) induced by AVSS and compared the results with those of the excitation phase. Penile rigidity was monitored in real time with RigiScan Plus during PET scanning. Images were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, and rCBF in the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate, and insula was measured. During the plateau phase, primary subcortical activation was noted in the right ventral putamen, indicating motivational factors in the sexual response via the limbic reward circuit. A significant increase in rCBF in the left hypothalamus was also observed during the plateau phase. The right anterior cingulate and left insula were specifically activated during the excitation phase but not during the plateau phase. These results indicate a significant role of the ventral putamen and the hypothalamus in the plateau phase and confirm that paralimbic and limbic components of the human brain differentially coordinate the sexual response in a psychosexual phase-dependent manner.

  5. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

    2008-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:19506724

  6. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  7. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman's sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women's neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli.

  8. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    PubMed

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS.

  9. [Treatment of breast and uterus cancer: physiological and psychological impact on sexual function].

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Levi, J M

    2005-05-01

    The analysis of the impact of breast and uterus cancer and their treatments on sexual function remains a tricky approach, especially due to some difficulties of communication between patient and medical staff. Some cultural, social, physiological and psychological considerations can change the evolution of sexual function during and after cancer treatment. For breast cancer, mastectomy or conservative approach, as well as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can induce a modification of body image, femininity, power of seduction and sexuality. For uterus cancer, radio-surgical treatments can induce local (shrinking or vagina dryness,...) or general (early menopause) modifications leading to a decrease of sexual relations. The present analysis of the literature gives a better knowledge of the sexual function troubles according to the type, stage and treatment of the cancer as well as the context in which it appears, especially in regard to personal, family (couple relation before the disease occurrence), social and cultural considerations. A critical point is to introduce, as soon as possible, in the therapeutic program, a global approach including side effects on sexual function and to analyze very carefully the own ability of the patient to manage the difficulties occurring during the treatment.

  10. Concepts and mechanisms of generalized central nervous system arousal.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Donald; Ribeiro, Ana; Matthews, James; Kow, Lee-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A concept of generalized arousal of the CNS is presented and given an operational definition that leads to quantitative physical measures. Because this primitive arousal function underlies all motivated behavioral responses, cognitive functions, and emotional expression, disorders of generalized arousal can be associated with a large number of problems in medicine and public health, including vegetative states, attentional disorders, depression, occupational hazards, and problems with sleep and anesthesia. Some of its known mechanisms are briefly reviewed, at the levels of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and functional genomics. Generalized arousal contributes to the excitement and the activation of behaviors during specific arousal states. Data are summarized for four genomic/neurochemical systems through which changes in generalized arousal could affect sexual arousal, two of which heighten, and the other two of which reduce arousal.

  11. Influence of sympathetic autonomic arousal on cortical arousal: implications for a therapeutic behavioural intervention in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko; Goldstein, Laura H; Critchley, Hugo D; Fenwick, Peter B C

    2004-02-01

    Negative amplitude shifts of cortical potential are related to seizure activity in epilepsy. Regulation of the cortical potential with biofeedback has been successfully used to reduce the frequency of some patients' seizures. Although such behavioural treatments are increasingly popular as an alternative to pharmacotherapy, there has been no investigation of the mechanisms that might bridge the behavioural index of peripheral autonomic activity and the central regulation of arousal. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is a sensitive measurement of autonomic arousal and physiological state which reflects one's behaviour. Thus we investigated the effect of peripheral autonomic modulation on cortical arousal with the future intention of using GSR biofeedback as a therapeutic treatment for epilepsy. The cortical negative potential was induced using the paradigm called Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) and measured in different physiological states. A high skin resistance state (reflecting a state of relaxation) and a low skin resistance state (reflecting a state of arousal), were engendered by two opposing procedures of GSR biofeedback. The CNV negative potential, acting as an index of cortical excitation, was significantly greater in amplitude at high levels of skin resistance (relaxed state) than at low levels of skin resistance (aroused state). Our results suggest an inverse relationship between a peripheral measure of autonomic arousal and an index of cortical arousal, the CNV. Moreover, we demonstrate modulation of this arousal-related potential by a behavioural intervention, indicating a potential therapeutic use of arousal biofeedback using GSR in the management of treatment-resistant epilepsy.

  12. Heart Rate Variability: A Risk Factor for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Low resting HRV has been linked to several mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence (Kemp et al. in Biological Psychiatry 67(11):1067-1074, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012; Kemp et al. in PloS One, 7(2):e30777, 2012; Quintana et al. in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1-2):395-398, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.025). HRV has also been used as a method for indexing the relative balance of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This balance--in particular, moderately dominant SNS activity--has been shown to play a significant role in women's genital sexual arousal in the laboratory; however, the role of SNS activity in clinically relevant sexual arousal function is unknown. The present study assessed the feasibility of using HRV as an index of women's self-reported sexual arousal function outside the laboratory. Sexual arousal function, overall sexual function, and resting HRV were assessed in 72 women, aged 18-39. Women with below average HRV were significantly more likely to report sexual arousal dysfunction (p < .001) and overall sexual dysfunction (p < .001) than both women with average HRV and women with above average HRV. In conclusion, low HRV may be a risk factor for female sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction.

  13. Sexual Dimorphism in Circadian Physiology Is Altered in LXRα Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feillet, Céline; Guérin, Sophie; Lonchampt, Michel; Dacquet, Catherine; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Delaunay, Franck; Teboul, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system coordinates key molecular, cellular and physiological processes along the 24-h cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests that many clock-controlled processes display a sexual dimorphism. In mammals this is well exemplified by the difference between the male and female circadian patterns of glucocorticoid hormone secretion and clock gene expression. Here we show that the non-circadian nuclear receptor and metabolic sensor Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα) which is known to regulate glucocorticoid production in mice modulates the sex specific circadian pattern of plasma corticosterone. Lxrα-/- males display a blunted corticosterone profile while females show higher amplitude as compared to wild type animals. Wild type males are significantly slower than females to resynchronize their locomotor activity rhythm after an 8 h phase advance but this difference is abrogated in Lxrα-/- males which display a female-like phenotype. We also show that circadian expression patterns of liver 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) differ between sexes and are differentially altered in Lxrα-/- animals. These changes are associated with a damped profile of plasma glucose oscillation in males but not in females. Sex specific alteration of the insulin and leptin circadian profiles were observed in Lxα-/- females and could be explained by the change in corticosterone profile. Together this data indicates that LXRα is a determinant of sexually dimorphic circadian patterns of key physiological parameters. The discovery of this unanticipated role for LXRα in circadian physiology underscores the importance of addressing sex differences in chronobiology studies and future LXRα targeted therapies. PMID:26938655

  14. Anatomy of the Vulva and the Female Sexual Response.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jennifer; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-03-01

    The female vulva is an intricate structure comprising several components. Each structure has been described separately, but the interplay among them and physiologic significance remain controversial. The structures extend inferiorly from the pubic arch and include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris. The clitoris is widely accepted as the most critical anatomic structure to female sexual arousal and orgasm. The female sexual response cycle is also very complex, requiring emotional and mental stimulation in addition to end organ stimulation.

  15. A brief mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention improves sexual functioning versus wait-list control in women treated for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brotto, Lori A.; Erskine, Yvonne; Carey, Mark; Ehlen, Tom; Finlayson, Sarah; Heywood, Mark; Kwon, Janice; McAlpine, Jessica; Stuart, Gavin; Thomson, Sydney; Miller, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Goal The goal of this study was to evaluate a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention for sexual dysfunction in gynecologic cancer survivors compared to a wait-list control group. Methods Thirty-one survivors of endometrial or cervical cancer (mean age 54.0, range 31–64) who self-reported significant and distressing sexual desire and/or sexual arousal concerns were assigned either to three, 90-minute mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy sessions or two months of wait-list control prior to entering the treatment arm. Validated measures of sexual response, sexual distress, and mood, as well as laboratory-evoked physiological and subjective sexual arousal were assessed at pre-, one month post-, and 6-months following treatment. Results There were no significant effects of the wait-list condition on any measure. Treatment led to significant improvements in all domains of sexual response, and a trend towards significance for reducing sexual distress. Perception of genital arousal during an erotic film was also significantly increased following the intervention despite no change in physiologically-measured sexual arousal. Conclusions A brief mindfulness-based intervention was effective for improving sexual functioning. Geographic restrictions permitted only a select sample of survivors to participate, thus, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Future studies should aim to develop online modalities for treatment administration to overcome this limitation. PMID:22293042

  16. Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of β- and α1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders. PMID:18199483

  17. The male bisexuality debate revisited: some bisexual men have bisexual arousal patterns.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A M; Sylva, David; Safron, Adam; Bailey, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    Self-identified bisexual men report high sexual arousal to both male and female stimuli, but no study to date has compellingly demonstrated that such men have a bisexual pattern of genital arousal. We examined sexual arousal patterns among bisexual men recruited using stringent criteria designed to exclude those who were less likely to have sexual interest in both sexes. Furthermore, we included a bisexual stimulus depicting a man engaged in sex simultaneously with another man and a woman. On average, the bisexual men showed a bisexual arousal pattern, with respect to both self-reported and genital arousal. Additionally, the bisexual men were more aroused by the bisexual stimulus compared with the homosexual and heterosexual men. Some bisexual-identified men have bisexual genital arousal patterns, although it remains unclear how common they are.

  18. Sexually different physiological responses of Populus cathayana to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder under stressful conditions. However, little is known about sex-specific differences in responses to nutrient deficiencies. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that N and P deficiencies significantly decreased plant growth, foliar N and P contents, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) in both sexes. Males had higher photosynthesis, higher PNUE and PPUE rates, and a lower accumulation of plastoglobules in chloroplasts than did females when exposed to N- and P-deficiency conditions. Nitrogen-deficient males had higher glutamate dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities, and a more intact chloroplast ultrastructure, but less starch accumulation than did N-deficient females. Phosphorus-deficient males had higher nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities, but a lower foliar N : P ratio and less PSII damage than did P-deficient females. These results suggest that N and P deficiencies cause greater negative effects on females than on males, and that the different sexes of P. cathayana may employ different strategies to cope with N and P deficiencies.

  19. Arriving at the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Latif, Erin Z; Diamond, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions include a group of sexual complaints and disorders affecting women of all ages, and stemming from a heterogeneous array of etiologies and contributing factors. The classification system for sexual dysfunctions in the woman has evolved from a linear categorization of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders to one that is more complex and overlapping. Personal distress is a key factor in defining a sexual problem as a dysfunction. The recently released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, edition 5, collapses former definitions of female sexual disorders and moves away from the older linear model of diagnostic categories. Physicians should be open to discussing sexual problems with women, and may make use of validated questionnaires in the office setting. Evaluation tools available for assessing sexual function in the woman are in use in the research setting, as are physiological measures of assessment.

  20. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESESSION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEVIANT AROUSAL

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession masturbation lowered arousal levels and both participants suppressed arousal to varying degrees. These outcomes suggest the potential for consideration and manipulation of presession factors as treatment components for sex offenders with developmental disabilities. PMID:22219524

  2. Arousal, Personality, and Assortative Mating in Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; Davis, Sandy A.

    1977-01-01

    A compound major individual difference variable having a putative physiological basis--arousal and the stimulation-seeking motive, which has not heretofore been intestigated in studies of assortative mating--was the focus of the present study. In addition, three choticism--were included for study. (Author)

  3. Sequential Analysis of Autonomic Arousal and Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual…

  4. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia. PMID:26483949

  5. Prepared for anything?: an investigation of female genital arousal in response to rape cues.

    PubMed

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L

    2011-02-01

    Men's genital arousal occurs in response to a limited number of sexual stimuli, whereas women's genital arousal occurs in response to a wide range of sexual stimuli, including those depicting nonpreferred cues. Researchers have hypothesized that women's nonspecific pattern of genital arousal prepares the body for sexual activity, thus functioning to protect the genital organs against injury. If this hypothesis is correct, women should show genital responses to any cues suggesting sexual activity, even unappealing cues that involve nonconsensual sex and extreme violence. Fifteen men and 15 women listened to fourteen 2-min audiotaped narratives that depicted an interaction between a man and a woman and that varied factorially according to the presence of consent, violence, and sexual activity. The results support the preparation hypothesis: Men showed the greatest genital arousal in response to narratives depicting consensual, nonviolent sex, whereas women showed similar responses to all the narratives involving sexual activities, including those describing a sexual assault.

  6. Psychophysiological consequences of unexplained arousal: a posthypnotic suggestion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, P G; LaBerge, S; Butler, L D

    1993-08-01

    This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons.

  7. Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Teusch, L; Scherbaum, N; Böhme, H; Bender, S; Eschmann-Mehl, G; Gastpar, M

    1995-05-01

    Little is known about sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. In the present study schizophrenic patients (n = 45, mostly under neuroleptic treatment), neurotic patients (n = 50, mostly treated without medication), methadone-substituted opiate addicts (n = 37), and normal controls (n = 41) were included. They were interviewed with the aid of a sex-differentiated semistructured questionnaire on sexual function. All the methadone-substituted opiate addicts and nearly all the schizophrenic patients suffered from dysfunctions in at least one criterion. The three clinical groups differed significantly from the controls in sexual interest, emotional arousal, physiological arousal (erectile function/vaginal lubrication), performance (ejaculatory function/vaginism, dyspareunia), and orgasm satisfaction. Characteristic patterns of dysfunction were found in the male patients. The schizophrenic patients had significantly more dysfunctions of interest, physiological arousal, performance, and orgasm than the controls. Emotional arousal, erectile and ejaculatory functions, and orgasm satisfaction were impaired more frequently in the male schizophrenics than in the neurotic patients. Reduced sexual interest, emotional arousal, and orgasm satisfaction were reported more frequently by the methadone-substituted opiate addicts than by the neurotic men. Emotional arousal was even more frequently reduced than in the schizophrenic men. There was no correlation between sexual dysfunction and particular neuroleptics or neuroleptic or methadone dosage. The results are compared with the literature and suggestions made for further investigations.

  8. Sexual differences in physiological integration in the dioecious shrub Lindera triloba: a field experiment using girdling manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Isogimi, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Michinari; Watanabe, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims It is important to consider the modular level when verifying sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants. Nevertheless, between-sex differences in resource translocation among modules (i.e. physiological integration) have not been tested at the whole-plant level. In this study, sexual differences in physiological integration were examined among ramets, within a genet in the dioecious sprouting shrub Lindera triloba, by a field experiment with girdling manipulation. Methods Female and male genets were randomly assigned to girdled or intact groups. Girdling of the main ramets was conducted in May 2009 by removing a ring of bark and cambium approx. 1 cm wide at a height of 80–100 cm. The effects of treatment and sex on ramet dynamics (mortality, recruitment and diameter growth) and inflorescence production during 1 year after girdling were examined. Key Results The diameter growth rate of main ramets of both sexes was lower at ground level (D0) but higher at breast height (dbh) in girdled than in intact groups. In sprouted ramets with a dbh of 0–2 cm, males in girdled groups had lower growth rates at D0 than those of intact groups, whereas no girdling effect was found for females. The main ramets in girdled groups produced more inflorescences than intact groups, irrespective of sex, but male ramets showed a greater response to the treatment than females. Conclusions In L. triloba, physiological integration exists at the whole-plant level, and sprouted ramets are dependent on assimilates translocated from main ramets, but this dependence weakens as sprouted ramets get larger. Female sprouted ramets can grow in a physiologically independent manner from the main ramet earlier than those of males. This study highlights the importance of considering modular structures and physiological integration when evaluating sexual differences in demographic patterns of clonal plants. PMID:21385778

  9. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology - Implications for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    We consider insomnia a disorder of waking rather than a disorder of sleep. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of insomnia, mainly representing an overactive waking drive. We determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and channel types in PPN cells. We found three different PPN cell types that have one or both channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. These discoveries point to a specific mechanism and novel therapeutic avenues for insomnia.

  10. Childhood Trauma is Associated with Altered Cortical Arousal: Insights from an EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Howells, Fleur Margaret; Stein, Dan J.; Russell, Vivienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioral inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire which assesses physical neglect, emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and denial of childhood trauma. These individuals underwent cortical (electroencephalography) and peripheral (heart rate, skin conductance responses, and salivary cortisol) physiological recordings at rest (eyes open and eyes closed) and during performance of a visual go/no-go (GNG) task. Associations between reported childhood trauma and physiological measures were determined. Results: Physical and emotional neglect were correlated with decreased left parietal tonic α band power during resting conditions and during the GNG task. Emotional abuse was correlated with decreased right frontal α band power during rest, increased θ band power during the GNG task, and cortisol at the end of the testing session. Physical and sexual abuse were correlated with delayed P300 latency and enhanced P300 amplitude during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. The denial scale was correlated with a decrease in θ and increase in α band power during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal and that the pattern of this association is dependent on the form of childhood trauma experienced. PMID:23269916

  11. Physiological Correlates of Neurobehavioral Disinhibition that Relate to Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.; Lester, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline Cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and Cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline Cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and Cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and Cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and Cortisol (high RSA and low Cortisol or low RSA and high Cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  12. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  13. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  14. Success of sildenafil treatment in neurogenic female sexual dysfunction caused by L5-S1 intervertebral disk rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Dean; Zaslau, Stanley

    2007-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunction can be founded by disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain. Physiologic sexual dysfunction can, in many cases, be the result of impaired neurovascular tone to the clitoris and vagina. The vagina and clitoris both contain erectile tissue and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). Accordingly, the use of sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, has been studied in relation to neurogenic female sexual dysfunction. The present case report addresses neurogenic female sexual dysfunction from the result of a ruptured L5-S1 intervertebral disk. The patient was treated with sildenafil, and her symptoms were recorded using a Female Sexual Function Index score. Discussion of the use of sildenafil in women, with an emphasis on female neurovascular sexual physiology and function, is reviewed.

  15. To each its own? Gender differences in affective, autonomic, and behavioral responses to same-sex and opposite-sex visual sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Michela; Buodo, Giulia

    2017-03-15

    A large body of research on gender differences in response to erotic stimuli has focused on genital and/or subjective sexual arousal. On the other hand, studies assessing gender differences in emotional psychophysiological responding to sexual stimuli have only employed erotic pictures of male-female couples or female/male nudes. The present study aimed at investigating differences between gynephilic men and androphilic women in emotional responding to visual sexual stimuli depicting female-male, female-female and male-male couples. Affective responses were explored in multiple response systems, including autonomic indices of emotional activation, i.e., heart rate and skin conductance, along with standardized measures of valence and arousal. Blood pressure was measured as an index of autonomic activation associated with sexual arousal, and free viewing times as an index of interest/avoidance. Overall, men showed gender-specific activation characterized by clearly appetitive reactions to the target of their sexual attraction (i.e., women), with physiological arousal discriminating female-female stimuli as the most effective sexual cues. In contrast, women's emotional activation to sexual stimuli was clearly non-specific in most of the considered variables, with the notable exception of the self-report measures. Overall, affective responses replicate patterns of gender-specific and gender-nonspecific sexual responses in gynephilic men and androphilic women.

  16. Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway

  17. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  18. Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; McCabe, M

    1997-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of attention and emotional responses to the sexual response to erotica. Self reported levels of sexual arousal, attention, and emotional responses were measured after 20 men and 20 women viewed a series of erotic film segments. Men and women reported greater sexual arousal to erotica when they became absorbed in the activities portrayed in the film and when they experienced the erotic encounters as appetitive, than when they were distracted and perceived the encounters as aversive. Subjective sexual arousal also correlated positively with the degree to which subjects experienced entertainment and curiousity to the erotic film segments, but negatively with boredom. The level of sexual arousal reported by subjects did not correlate significantly with trait measures of absorption (as indexed by the Tellegen Absorption Scale) and vividness of imagery (as assessed by the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery). The multidimensional nature of the sexual response was demonstrated by the fact that the magnitude of subjective sexual arousal was predicted by the separate groupings of state assessed attentional and emotional variables, trait indexed absorption and appetitive feelings, and demographic information. These findings applied to both men and women, with the exception that men experienced greater sexual arousal than women, and women reported more disgust to the stimulus materials. Future directions for studying the basis for differences in sexual arousal between men and women are outlined, with an emphasis on a psychophysiological exploration of these phenomena.

  19. Effect of age on EEG arousals in normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Boselli, M; Parrino, L; Smerieri, A; Terzano, M G

    1998-06-15

    EEG arousals were quantified in 40 nocturnal polysomnographic recordings belonging to four age groups (teenagers: 10 to 19 years; young adults: 20 to 39 years; middle-aged: 40 to 59 years; elderly: > or = 60 years). Ten subjects (five males and five females) participated in each group. The subjects were healthy and sound sleepers. All sleep recordings were preceded by an adaptation night which aimed at excluding the presence of sleep-related disorders. The recordings were carried out in a partially soundproof recording chamber and in a standard laboratory setting. Arousal indices (AI), defined as the number of arousals per hour of sleep, were calculated for total sleep time (AI/TST) and for all the sleep stages. AI/TST increased linearly with age (r = 0.852; p < 0.00001): teenagers (13.8), young adults (14.7), middle-aged (17.8), elderly (27.1). An age-related positive linear correlation was found also for the arousal indices referred to NREM sleep (r = 0.811; p < 0.00001) and to stages 1 and 2 (r = 0.712; p < 0.00001), while in stages 3 and 4 and in REM sleep, arousal indices showed stable values across the ages. Overall, arousals lasted 14.9 +/- 2.3 seconds, with arousal duration stable across the ages (range of means: 13.3-16.6 seconds) and no relevant differences between NREM sleep (14.6 +/- 2.5 seconds) and REM sleep (16.2 +/- 5 seconds). The paper discusses the impact of age on arousals, the similarities between arousals and the phases d'activation transitoire, and the consideration that arousals are physiological components of sleep.

  20. The Year's Best: Interpersonal Elements of Bisexual Women's Most Satisfying Sexual Experiences in the Past Year.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Sangeeta; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Schick, Vanessa; Dodge, Brian; Baldwin, Aleta; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-08-05

    Sexual satisfaction is commonly defined and discussed in physiological terms of arousal and orgasm. Yet this narrow discourse does not accommodate the complex, multidimensional, and interpersonal aspects of sexual experience. To broaden and deepen our understanding of sexual satisfaction, we employed McClelland's (2014) holistic four-factor framework of sexual satisfaction in a theoretical thematic analysis of 39 behaviorally bisexual women's descriptions of their "best" partnered sexual experiences from the past year. We found women's accounts mapped on to four elements: emotional attunement, emotional gratification, partner gratification, and sensory gratification. Relational and emotional dynamics, including emotional security, quality of interpersonal interaction during and after a sexual encounter, mutuality, intimacy, partner skill, novelty, and communication, were key to participants' best sex experiences. Our findings support a multifaceted model of women's sexual satisfaction that accounts for emotional, relational, and embodied experiences and the diverse relationships and behaviors these might involve.

  1. The evolving sexual health paradigm: transforming definitions into sexual health practices.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences.

  2. Sexually different morphological, physiological and molecular responses of Fraxinus mandshurica flowers to floral development and chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Qi, Fenghui; Yan, Chaofu; Zhan, Yaguang

    2016-02-01

    Fraxinus mandshurica is considered a dioecious hardwood, and the temporal separation of the maturation of the male and female flowers is one reason that F. mandshurica has become an endangered species in China. Rainfall and low temperature influence pollen formation and dispersal and the blooming of female flowers. Therefore, low fertilization efficiency strongly influences the population of F. mandshurica. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the sex-specific morphological, physiological and molecular differentiation of F. mandshurica during flowering and its responses to low temperature. In this study, we investigated the sexual differences in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of F. mandshurica during flowering and determined the physiological and biochemical parameters and expression levels of related genes in response to low-temperature stress induced by exposure to 4 °C (chilling stress) during pollen dispersal and fertilization. Our study supports the hypothesis that male flowers suffer more severe injuries while female flowers are more adaptable to environmental stress during flower development in F. mandshurica. The results showed higher physiological and biochemical levels of malondialdehyde, proline, and soluble sugar, as well as the expression of genes involved in calcium signaling, cold shock and DNA methylation in male flowers compared with female flowers, which suggested that male flowers suffer from more serious peroxidation than female flowers. In contrast, higher antioxidant capacity and FmaCAT expression were detected in female flowers, providing preliminary evidence that male flowers rapidly fade after pollination and further demonstrating that female flowers need a much stronger antioxidant enzyme system to maintain embryonic growth. Most peaks related to physiological and molecular responses were observed at 2-4 h and 8-10 h of exposure to chilling stress in the female and male flowers, respectively

  3. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  4. Sexual function after strokes.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Agrawal, Kunal; Romano, Alissa

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Thanks in part to better and more available diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, the vast majority of stroke patients tend to survive strokes, particularly in the industrialized world. Motor disability and cognitive changes such as aphasia and visuospatial disorders are most often considered among the major contributors to stroke burden. This chapter discusses disorders of sexual functions as another frequent sequel of strokes. Strokes generally induce hyposexuality, but in some instances they may be followed by hypersexuality. There is some evidence suggesting that lesions of either hemisphere affect sexual activities, but for different reasons: aphasia and depression after left-hemisphere lesions, a deficit in arousal and perhaps visuospatial disorders after right-hemisphere lesions. Psychologic, psychosocial, and physical factors, as well as medications, play an important role. A better understanding of the psychosocial and physiologic mechanisms underlying sexual functioning can provide insight into improving sexual activity and therefore quality of life in patients affected by strokes and other brain lesions.

  5. Sequential analysis of autonomic arousal and self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoch, John; Sng, Sylvia; Symons, Frank

    2013-11-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual disabilities. Second-by-second correlations were examined using time series statistical models. The probabilities of HR changes preceding or following SIB were derived using sequential analyses and compared using resampling procedures. Significant correlations and sequential dependencies were found between SIB and arousal parameters. Combining within-subject statistical methods with single-subject experimental designs may provide a replicable methodology for use across larger samples to examine relationships between SIB and arousal in real-world settings.

  6. Are rapists differentially aroused by coercive sex in phallometric assessments?

    PubMed

    Lalumière, Martin L; Quinsey, Vernon L; Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Trautrimas, Caroline

    2003-06-01

    In this chapter we examine whether rapists are sexually aroused by coercive, nonconsensual sex. This question is theoretically important because it speaks to a potential sexual motivation underlying rape. It is also clinically important in that it may reveal an important assessment and treatment target. We first revisit and update quantitative reviews of studies that examined the phallometric responses of rapists and other men. We then present new data on the discriminative and diagnostic validity of a phallometric test for rapists. Finally, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues in phallometric assessment and the nature of rapists' sexual interests.

  7. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.

  8. Cortisol, growth hormone, free fatty acids, and experimentally evoked affective arousal.

    PubMed

    Brown, W A; Heninger, G

    1975-11-01

    Eight male volunteers who viewed selected control, suspense, and erotic films experienced significant changes in affect that were limited to fatigue, anxiety, and sexual arousal, respectively. All subjects showed free fatty acid elevations with the suspense and erotic films and those subjects with the most anxiety and sexual arousal showed cortisol elevation with the suspense and erotic films, respectively. Growth hormone elevations occurred independently of cortisol elevations and were not clearly related to film or affect. Thus, activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathetic nervous systems appears to occur not in relation to a specific dysphoric state but rather with nonspecific affective arousal.

  9. Conditioning and sexual behavior: a review.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, J G; Kippin, T E; Centeno, S

    2001-09-01

    Sexual behavior is directed by a sophisticated interplay between steroid hormone actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousability and experience with sexual reward that gives rise to expectations of competent sexual activity, sexual desire, arousal, and performance. Sexual experience allows animals to form instrumental associations between internal or external stimuli and behaviors that lead to different sexual rewards. Furthermore, Pavlovian associations between internal and external stimuli allow animals to predict sexual outcomes. These two types of learning build upon instinctual mechanisms to create distinctive, and seemingly "automated," patterns of sexual response. This article reviews the literature on conditioning and sexual behavior with a particular emphasis on incentive sequences of sexual behavior that move animals from distal to proximal with regard to sexual stimuli during appetitive phases of behavior and ultimately result in copulatory interaction and mating during consummatory phases of behavior. Accordingly, the role of learning in sexual excitement, in behaviors that bring about the opportunity to mate, in courtship and solicitation displays, in sexual arousal and copulatory behaviors, in sexual partner preferences, and the short- and long-term influence of copulatory experience on sexual and reproductive function is examined. Although hormone actions set the stage for sexual activity by generating the ability of animals to become sexually excited and aroused, it is each animal's unique experience with sexual behavior and sexual reward that molds the strength of responses made toward sexual incentives.

  10. Can fear arousal in public health campaigns contribute to the decline of HIV prevalence?

    PubMed

    Green, Edward C; Witte, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Most American health professionals who work in HIV/AIDS do not support the use of fear arousal in AIDS preventive education, believing it to be counterproductive. Meanwhile, many Africans, whether laypersons, health professionals, or politicians, seem to believe there is a legitimate role for fear arousal in changing sexual behavior. This African view is the one more supported by the empirical evidence, which suggests that the use of fear arousal in public health campaigns often works in promoting behavior change, when combined with self-efficacy. The authors provide overviews of the prevailing American expert view, African national views, and the most recent findings on the use of fear arousal in behavior change campaigns. Their analysis suggests that American, post-sexual-revolution values and beliefs may underlie rejection of fear arousal strategies, whereas a pragmatic realism based on personal experience underlies Africans' acceptance of and use of the same strategies in AIDS prevention campaigns.

  11. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  12. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations.

    PubMed

    Sleegers, Willem W A; Proulx, Travis; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-05-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this arousal. We hypothesize that this is due to the differential impact of measuring extremism on behavioral inhibition and approach systems following meaning violations, whereby extremism both reduces markers of conflict arousal (BIS) and increases values affirmation (BAS) unrelated to this initial arousal. Using pupil dilation as a proxy for immediate conflict arousal, we found that the same meaning violation (anomalous playing cards) evoked greater pupil dilation, and that this pupillary reaction was diminished in participants who earlier reported extreme beliefs. We also found that reporting extreme beliefs was associated with greater affirmation of an unrelated meaning framework, where this affirmation was unrelated to physiological markers of conflict arousal.

  13. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented.

  14. Sex Differences in Phenotypic Plasticity Affect Variation in Sexual Size Dimorphism in Insects: From Physiology to Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Teder, Tiit; Davidowitz, Goggy; Fox, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Males and females of nearly all animals differ in their body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The degree and direction of SSD vary considerably among taxa, including among populations within species. A considerable amount of this variation is due to sex differences in body size plasticity. We examine how variation in these sex differences is generated by exploring sex differences in plasticity in growth rate and development time and the physiological regulation of these differences (e.g., sex differences in regulation by the endocrine system). We explore adaptive hypotheses proposed to explain sex differences in plasticity, including those that predict that plasticity will be lowest for traits under strong selection (adaptive canalization) or greatest for traits under strong directional selection (condition dependence), but few studies have tested these hypotheses. Studies that combine proximate and ultimate mechanisms offer great promise for understanding variation in SSD and sex differences in body size plasticity in insects. PMID:19728836

  15. Sexual dimorphism in offspring glucose-sensitive hypothalamic gene expression and physiological responses to maternal high-fat diet feeding.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations.

  16. CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Liborio; Halasz, Peter; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Arousal systems play a topical neurophysiologic role in protecting and tailoring sleep duration and depth. When they appear in NREM sleep, arousal responses are not limited to a single EEG pattern but are part of a continuous spectrum of EEG modifications ranging from high-voltage slow rhythms to low amplitude fast activities. The hierarchic features of arousal responses are reflected in the phase A subtypes of CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) including both slow arousals (dominated by the <1Hz oscillation) and fast arousals (ASDA arousals). CAP is an infraslow oscillation with a periodicity of 20-40s that participates in the dynamic organization of sleep and in the activation of motor events. Physiologic, paraphysiologic and pathologic motor activities during NREM sleep are always associated with a stereotyped arousal pattern characterized by an initial increase in EEG delta power and heart rate, followed by a progressive activation of faster EEG frequencies. These findings suggest that motor patterns are already written in the brain codes (central pattern generators) embraced with an automatic sequence of EEG-vegetative events, but require a certain degree of activation (arousal) to become visibly apparent. Arousal can appear either spontaneously or be elicited by internal (epileptic burst) or external (noise, respiratory disturbance) stimuli. Whether the outcome is a physiologic movement, a muscle jerk or a major epileptic attack will depend on a number of ongoing factors (sleep stage, delta power, neuro-motor network) but all events share the common trait of arousal-activated phenomena.

  17. Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed. PMID:18561301

  18. Multidimensional Sexual Perfectionism and Female Sexual Function: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N

    2016-11-01

    Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual

  19. At a supra-physiological concentration, human sexual hormones act as quorum-sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications.

  20. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  1. Alcohol consumption, female sexual behavior and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S M; Beckman, L J

    1986-07-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on female sexuality and contraceptive use, 69 sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 34 completed daily logs of their drinking behavior, sexual activity and contraceptive use over three consecutive menstrual cycles. In addition, participants completed a post-study questionnaire that assessed personal beliefs regarding alcohol use and sexual behavior. Although the results from the daily logs failed to show any significant effects of alcohol on subsequent sexual arousal, sexual pleasure or orgasm, female-initiated sexual activity appeared to be inversely related to alcohol use with women initiating significantly fewer sexual activities following the consumption of alcohol. On the contrary, the retrospective questionnaire data indicated that women believed alcohol enhanced sexual desire, enjoyment and activity. The findings further indicated that alcohol consumption immediately prior to sexual intercourse did not significantly alter the use of coitus-dependent contraceptives. These data suggest that women view alcohol as an aphrodisiac despite their physiological and reported behavioral responses.

  2. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    PubMed

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  3. Sleep disorders: disorders of arousal? Enuresis, somnambulism, and nightmares occur in confusional states of arousal, not in "dreaming sleep".

    PubMed

    Broughton, R J

    1968-03-08

    In summary, the classical sleep disorders of nocturnal enuresis, somnambulism, the nightmare, and the sleep terror occur preferentially during arousal from slow-wave sleep and are virtually never associated with the rapid-eye-movement dreaming state. Original data are reported here which indicate that physiological differences from normal subjects, of a type predisposing the individual to a particular attack pattern, are present throughout the night. The episode, at least in the case of enuresis, appears to be simply a reinforcement of these differences to a clinically overt level. A number of features are common to all four sleep disorders. These had been shown previously to be attributable to the arousal itself. New data obtained by means of evoked potential techniques suggest that these common symptoms of the confusional period that follows non-REM sleep are related to alterations of cerebral reactivity, at least of the visual system. The symptoms which distinguish the individual attack types (that is, micturition, prolonged confusional fugues, overt terror) appear to be based upon physiological changes present throughout sleep which are markedly accentuated during arousal from slow-wave sleep. These changes may in some way be related to diurnal psychic conflicts. But, to date, it has proved impossible to demonstrate potentially causal psychological activity, dreaming or other forms of mental activity, or even a psychological void in sleep just preceding the attacks. The presence of all-night or even daytime predisposing physiological changes and the difficulty in obtaining any solid evidence of a preceding psychological cause explain, no doubt, why the results of efforts to cure the disorders at the moment of their occurrence (for example, by conditioning procedures in nocturnal enuresis) have been far from satisfactory. I stress the points that the attacks are best considered disorders of arousal and that the slow-wave sleep arousal episode which sets the

  4. Comparing Indicators of Sexual Sadism as Predictors of Recidivism among Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six…

  5. Does physiological response to disease incur cost to reproductive ecology in a sexually dichromatic amphibian species?

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has contributed to amphibian declines worldwide. The impact of Bd varies, with some species being more susceptible to infection than others. Recent evidence has shown that Bd can have sub-lethal effects, whereby increases in stress hormones have been associated with infection. Could this increased stress response, which is a physiological adaptation that provides an increased resilience against Bd infection, potentially be a trade-off with important life-history traits such as reproduction? We studied this question in adult male frogs of a non-declining species (Litoria wilcoxii). Frogs were sampled for (1) seasonal hormone (testosterone and corticosterone), color and disease profiles, (2) the relationship between disease infection status and hormone levels or dorsal color, (3) subclinical effects of Bd by investigating disease load and hormone level, and (4) reproductive and stress hormone relationships independent of disease. Testosterone levels and color score varied seasonally (throughout the spring/summer months) while corticosterone levels remained stable. Frogs with high Bd prevalence had significantly higher corticosterone levels and lower testosterone levels compared to uninfected frogs, and no differences in color were observed. There was a significant positive correlation between disease load and corticosterone levels, and a significant negative relationship between disease load and testosterone. Our field data provides novel evidence that increased physiological stress response associated with Bd infection in wild frogs, could suppress reproduction by down-regulating gonadal hormones in amphibians, however the impacts on reproductive output is yet to be established.

  6. Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses.

  7. Sexual selection and the physiological consequences of habitat choice by a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bengt J; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    In mid-Atlantic salt marshes, reproductively active male sand fiddler crabs, Uca pugilator, use a single greatly enlarged major claw as both a weapon to defend specialized breeding burrows from other males and an ornament to attract females for mating. During the summer breeding season, females strongly prefer to mate with males controlling burrows in open areas high on the shore. Food availability decreases while temperature and desiccation stress increase with increasing shore height, suggesting that the timing and location of fiddler crab mating activity may result in a potential trade-off between reproductive success and physiological condition for male crabs. We compared thermal preferences in laboratory choice experiments to body temperatures of models and living crabs in the field and found that from the perspective of a fiddler crab, the thermal environment of the mating area is quite harsh relative to other marsh microhabitats. High temperatures significantly constrained fiddler crab activity on the marsh surface, a disadvantage heightened by strongly reduced food availability in the breeding area. Nevertheless, when the chance of successfully acquiring a mate was high, males accepted a higher body temperature (and concomitantly higher metabolic and water loss rates) than when the chances of mating were low. Likewise, experimentally lowering costs by adding food and reducing thermal stress in situ increased fiddler crab waving display levels significantly. Our data suggest that fiddler crabs can mitigate potential life history trade-offs by tuning their behavior in response to the magnitude of both energetic and non-energetic costs and benefits.

  8. [Female sexual dysfunction: classification, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Luria, Mijal; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Mock, Moshe

    2004-11-01

    The successful pharmacological treatment of erectile dysfunction in males has led to increasing interest in the sexual problems of women. Yet in recent years there has been growing consensus regarding the differences between male and female sexuality. William Masters and Virginia Johnson's model of sexual response, revised by Helen Singer Kaplan, has been generally accepted for many decades. This model consists of 4 successive phases: desire, excitement (arousal), orgasm and resolution. Rosemary Basson has suggested a different model, valid especially in long-term relationships. According to Basson, a woman may decide to seek a stimuli necessary to ignite sexual desire, for reasons which are not sexual (such as the need for intimacy or emotional bonding). The desire develops at a latter stage, as a consequence and not as a cause. As the understanding of the sexual response grows, new methods of classification and treatment are being developed. Female sexual dysfunction is common, frequently neglected and has a significant impact on the lives of women. It has a diverse etiology including anatomical, physiological, medical as well as psychological and social factors. The assessment of these disorders incorporates both medical and psychological evaluation. The treatment includes education, improvement of inter-personal communication, behavioral treatment and the solution of medical problems. Different medications are being developed but most have yet to be proven effective. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the different methods of classification, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction.

  9. Optimum arousal level preservation system using biosignals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Issey; Ohashi, Hayato; Yokoyama, Kiyoko

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a driver's optimum arousal level preservation system while driving. The important point of developing this system is how we keep a driver's adequate conditions on driving. Most of the systems, which have been already put to practical use, are using audible sound or warning messages on a display to urge driver to take a rest. However, arousal levels are strongly related to the balance of autonomic modulations; therefore we need the stimulation that preserves a driver's adequate condition physiologically. Some preceding studies reported that the stimulation using the biological rhythms especially heart beating rhythms are influential to human body. We gave a consideration to this fact and made a course of using driver's heartbeat rhythm for the feedback stimulation to realize the demand. In this paper, we examined the stimulation from two points of views. The one is to investigate the possibilities of controlling a driver's heartbeat rhythms by making synchronization between the driver's heartbeat and a vibratory stimulation. The other one is to find out the stimulation that induces RSA (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia) in order to adjust the parasympathetic modulations. The result of the experiment indicated that the 1 [s] constant beat stimulation has an effect of inducing RSA, and the stimulation using a rhythm of heartbeat has a possibility of controlling driver's heart rate variability, and its' efficiency might be possible to be improved by adjusting the rhythm of the stimulation to the driver's heartbeat rhythms.

  10. Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Micah; Frank, Darya; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Fardo, Francesca; Winston, Joel S; Hauser, Tobias U; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. Across measures of perceptual bias, uncertainty, and physiological arousal we found that arousing disgust cues modulated the encoding of sensory noise. Furthermore, the degree to which trial-by-trial pupil fluctuations encoded this nonlinear interaction correlated with trial level confidence. Our results suggest that unexpected arousal regulates perceptual precision, such that subjective confidence reflects the integration of both external sensory and internal, embodied states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18103.001 PMID:27776633

  11. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  12. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Guy; Krieger, John N; Morris, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The question of whether removal of sensory receptors in the prepuce by circumcision affects sensitivity and/or sexual pleasure is often debated. Aims To examine histological correlates relevant to penile sensitivity and sexual pleasure. Methods Systematic review of the scientific literature on penile structures that might affect sensitivity and sexual sensation. Articles were included if they contained original data on human male penile histology or anatomy. Individual articles, including reference lists, were evaluated. They were then considered in relation to physiological data from articles retrieved by a previous systematic review. Results We retrieved 41 publications on penile structure. Considered in the light of 12 reporting physiological measurements, our evaluation finds that sexual response is unlikely to involve Meissner’s corpuscles, whose density in the prepuce diminishes at the time of life when male sexual activity is increasing. Free nerve endings also show no correlation with sexual response. Because tactile sensitivity of the glans decreases with sexual arousal, it is unrelated to sexual sensation. Thermal sensitivity seems part of the reward mechanism of intercourse. Vibrational sensitivity is not related to circumcision status. Observations that penile sexual sensation is higher post circumcision are consistent with greater access of genital corpuscles to sexual stimuli after removal of the prepuce. This is based on the distribution of these corpuscles (which are located in the glans) and, in uncircumcised men, the position of the retracted prepuce during intercourse, rather than any change in the number of genital corpuscles. The scientific literature suggests that any sexual effect of circumcised men may depend solely on exposure of the glans and not on the absence of the prepuce. Conclusion Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse

  13. Arousal and Anxiety Correlates of Gymnastic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)

  14. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  15. Persistent genital arousal disorder in women: case reports of association with anti-depressant usage and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Leiblum, Sandra R; Goldmeier, David

    2008-01-01

    Little is known with certitude about the triggers of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) in women, although there appears to be certain common features of the disorder. Women complain of unbidden feelings of genital arousal that are qualitatively different from sexual arousal that is preceded by sexual desire/and or subjective arousal. The majority of women find PGAD distressing and report only brief relief with orgasm. In this article, we describe five women who believe they developed PGAD either after withdrawing from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depressants or while using them. We discuss these sexual symptoms in relation to what is already known about prolonged SSRI withdrawal syndromes and the possible etiologies of these conditions. While not a common cause of PGAD, it is possible that use of, and withdrawal from, pharmacological agents contributes to the development of PGAD.

  16. Management of sexual dysfunctions in women.

    PubMed

    Ghizzani, A; Razzi, S; Fava, A; Sartini, A; Picucci, K; Petraglia, F

    2003-01-01

    The deeper understanding of female physiology changed the perspective used to evaluate sexual difficulties. Systems like: vascular, neurological, biochemical, and endocrine are investigated as their modifications for aging or medical conditions may alter the sexual responsivity of women. New data imply that pharmacological interventions may become suitable for women. Gonadal steroids influence mood, wellbeing, and genital physiology but evidence of actions is controversial. Hormone imbalance provokes symptoms that may also derive from other conditions. Clinicians must exclude dismetabolism, depression and family crisis before diagnosing gonadal problems. The female androgen insufficiency syndrome was defined in July 2001 as altered mood, memory and wellbeing, and loss of desire. Estrogen maintains wellbeing and healthy genitals, influencing mood and sexuality. Progesterone provokes tension and nervousness, causing premenstrual syndrome. Hormone replacement is indicated in the treatment of endocrine deficiency. In research projects women receiving one preparation containing androgen reported improvement of mood, and arousal. Sildenafil cures approximately 25% of sexually dysfunctional, menopausal patients; being more effective with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and consistently active against the block of antidepressants on orgasm. Added to psychiatric regimens, sildenafil ameliorates excitement. Sex therapy helps patients change behavior, overcome anger, communicate needs and redefine sex. We strongly believe that such crucial aspects must be addressed in therapy, even when the etiology is organic.

  17. Power modulates over-reliance on false cardiac arousal when judging target attractiveness: the powerful are more centered on their own false arousal than the powerless.

    PubMed

    Jouffre, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Individuals attempting to label their emotions look for a plausible source of their physiological arousal. Co-occurrence of plausible sources can lead to the misattribution of real (or bogus) physiological arousal, resulting in physically attractive individuals being perceived as more attractive than they actually are. In two experiments, female participants heard bogus heart rate feedback while viewing photos of attractive male models. Compared with low-power and control participants, high-power participants rated reinforced photos (increased heart rate) more attractive than non-reinforced photos (stable heart rate) to a greater extent when they heard their own bogus heart rate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2) and to a lesser extent when they heard a recording of another participant's heart rate (Experiment 2). These findings, which suggest that power increases the tendency to misattribute one's physiological arousal to physically attractive individuals, are discussed with reference to theories linking power and social perception.

  18. Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Abbott, Stephen B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

  19. The brain hypocretins and their receptors: mediators of allostatic arousal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Matthew E; Schaich Borg, Jana; de Lecea, Luis

    2009-02-01

    The hypocretins (abbreviated 'Hcrts' - also called 'orexins') are two neuropeptides secreted exclusively by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. These peptides bind to two receptors located throughout the brain in nuclei associated with diverse cognitive and physiological functions. Initially, the brain Hcrt system was found to have a major role in the regulation of sleep/wake transitions. More recent studies indicate Hcrts may play a role in other physiological functions, including food intake, addiction, and stress. Taken together, these studies suggest a general role for Hcrts in mediating arousal, especially when an organism must respond to unexpected stressors and challenges in the environment.

  20. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus.

  1. Color as a variable in making an erotic film more arousing.

    PubMed

    High, R W; Rubin, H B; Henson, D

    1979-05-01

    Eight adult male subjects participated in a counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to determine the relative efficacy of color and black-and-white visual sexual stimuli in eliciting sexual arousing, as objectively measured by a mercury-in-rubber strain gauge transducer. There were no consistent or significant differences in either the intensity of the pattern of penile responding during color and black-and-white presentations of the same film.

  2. Caffeine effects on resting-state arousal in children.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J; Brown, Christopher R; Bruggemann, Jason M; van Rijbroek, Irene

    2009-09-01

    From previous work in our laboratory, increases in skin conductance level (SCL), together with global (across-scalp) decreases in electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and increases in alpha frequency, are useful indices of arousal increase, and here we sought to identify changes in these indices with caffeine ingestion in children. We explored the effects of a single oral dose of caffeine (80 mg) in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Thirty healthy children aged between 8 and 13 years (mean age 10.5 years; 11 females) participated in two sessions, 1 week apart. EEG and SCL from a 3 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing approximately 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, were examined. Caffeine was associated with increased SCL, and a global reduction in EEG power in the theta and alpha bands, as well as topographically-focused reductions in delta and beta power, and a focal increase in alpha frequency. Only global alpha level demonstrated the expected inverse relationship with SCL in both placebo and caffeine conditions. These results are generally consistent with recent electrodermal and EEG studies of arousal. Together with our previous adult data, they indicate that caffeine can be used to increase arousal in both adults and children, without the potential confounds associated with varying task demands. Caffeine appears useful as a simple tool for manipulating arousal in studies exploring its role in physiological and behavioural functioning. This may be helpful in determining the role of hypothetical arousal anomalies in syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  3. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Philbeck, John W; Wirtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  4. A Psychophysiological Study of Processing HIV/AIDS Public Service Announcements: The Effects of Novelty Appeals, Sexual Appeals, Narrative Versus Statistical Evidence, and Viewer's Sex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chen, Gina Masullo; Chock, T Makana; Wang, Yi; Ni, Liqiang; Schweisberger, Valarie

    2016-07-01

    This study used self-reports and physiological measures-heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL)-to examine the effects of novelty appeals, sexual appeals, narrative versus statistical evidence, and viewer's sex on cognitive and emotional processing of HIV/AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) among heterosexually active single college students. Novelty or sexual appeals differently affected self-reported attention and cognitive effort as measured by HR. High- rather than low-novelty HIV/AIDS PSAs, perceived as more attention-eliciting, did not lead to more cognitive effort. High- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs, not perceived as more attention-eliciting, led to more cognitive effort as reflected by greater HR deceleration. Novelty or sexual appeals also affected self-reported emotional arousal and SCL differently. HIV/AIDS PSAs with high rather than low levels of novelty or sexual appeals led to greater self-reported arousal, but not greater SCL. Message evidence interacted with message appeals to affect cognitive effort. Participants exerted greater cognitive effort during high- rather than low-novelty narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs, and during low- rather than high-novelty statistical ones. The advantage of high over low sexual appeals was more obvious in statistical than in narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs. Males reported greater emotional arousal than females during high- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs.

  5. Music, perceived arousal, and intensity: psychophysiological reactions to Chopin's "Tristesse".

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian Alexander; Schwab, Simon; Niederhauser, Sandra; Wuermle, Othmar; Strik, Werner; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the relation of perceived arousal (continuous self-rating), autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate, heart rate variability) and musical characteristics (sound intensity, musical rhythm) upon listening to a complex musical piece. Twenty amateur musicians listened to two performances of Chopin's "Tristesse" with different rhythmic shapes. Besides conventional statistical methods for analyzing psychophysiological reactions (heart rate, respiration rate) and musical variables, semblance analysis was used. Perceived arousal correlated strongly with sound intensity; heart rate showed only a partial response to changes in sound intensity. Larger changes in heart rate were caused by the version with more rhythmic tension. The low-/high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased--whereas the high frequency component decreased--during music listening. We conclude that autonomic nervous system activity can be modulated not only by sound intensity but also by the interpreter's use of rhythmic tension. Semblance analysis enables us to track the subtle correlations between musical and physiological variables.

  6. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence.

  7. Attribution of Arousal as a Mediator of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    Characteristics of the situation in which a fear-arousing communication is received affect the effectiveness of the communication. The influence of situational factors affecting a recipient's interpretation of the arousal induced by communication were investigated with smokers (N=37) who were exposed to a fear-arousing anti-smoking movie. Prior to…

  8. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep.

  9. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing.

  10. Arousal, Anxiety, Aggression, and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Philip H.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of an aggressive habit and emtional arousal, measured by heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report, on two types of attitude change. Psychological arousal was positively related to degree of influence by the reflaxation communication. (DB)

  11. CARESS: Couples’ Arousal Relationship Satisfaction Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    TITLE: CARESS: Couples’ Arousal Relationship Satisfaction Survey PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Tracey Krupski (UVA) Dr. Thomas Polascik (Duke...CONTRACT NUMBER CARESS: Couples’ Arousal Relationship Satisfaction Survey 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0429 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, relationship, quality of life 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17

  12. Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2009-11-05

    Across mammalian species, comparable morphological and physiological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations are suggested to lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity. To explore this hypothesis we examined intra- and interindividual acoustic variation in chatter calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). The calls were induced experimentally by a disturbance paradigm and related to two defined arousal states of a subject. The arousal state of an animal was primarily operationalised by the habituation of the subject to a new environment and additionally determined by behavioural indicators of stress in tree shrews (tail-position and piloerection). We investigated whether the arousal state and indexical features of the caller, namely individual identity and sex, are conveyed acoustically. Frame-by-frame videographic and multiparametric sound analyses revealed that arousal and identity, but not sex of a caller reliably predicted spectral-temporal variation in sound structure. Furthermore, there was no effect of age or body weight on individual-specific acoustic features. Similar results in another call type of tree shrews and comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence that comparable physiological and morphological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations across mammals lead to commonalities in acoustic features conveying arousal and identity, respectively.

  13. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

  14. The influence of atypical antipsychotic drugs on sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Just, Marek J

    2015-01-01

    Human sexuality is contingent upon many biological and psychological factors. Such factors include sexual drive (libido), physiological arousal (lubrication/erection), orgasm, and ejaculation, as well as maintaining normal menstrual cycle. The assessment of sexual dysfunction can be difficult due to the intimate nature of the problem and patients’ unwillingness to discuss it. Also, the problem of dysfunction is often overlooked by doctors. Atypical antipsychotic treatment is a key component of mental disorders’ treatment algorithms recommended by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, the American Psychiatric Association, and the British Society for Psychopharmacology. The relationship between atypical antipsychotic drugs and sexual dysfunction is mediated in part by antipsychotic blockade of pituitary dopamine D2 receptors increasing prolactin secretion, although direct correlations have not been established between raised prolactin levels and clinical symptoms. Variety of mechanisms are likely to contribute to antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction, including hyperprolactinemia, sedation, and antagonism of a number of neurotransmitter receptors (α-adrenergic, dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic). Maintaining normal sexual function in people treated for mental disorders can affect their quality of life, mood, self-esteem, attitude toward taking medication, and compliance during therapy. PMID:26185449

  15. Neural correlates of exposure to subliminal and supraliminal sexual cues

    PubMed Central

    Canterberry, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of two levels of processing: conscious and unconscious. Whereas some research exists on the neural correlates related with conscious exposure to sexual stimuli, there are no parallel data regarding unconscious or subliminal exposure to such stimuli. In the present study, we therefore compared brain activation of 39 participants (20 women) as they were exposed to supraliminal vs subliminal sexual stimuli. Supraliminal exposure was associated with greater activation in areas that were previously associated with sexual arousal (e.g. caudate nucleus and thalamus) as well as areas that were previously associated with control (e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate cortex). In contrast, subliminal exposure was mainly related to activation in areas previously associated with sexual arousal. Men and women exhibited theoretically meaningful differences in patterns of activation associated with supra- and subliminal exposure. Findings are discussed with regard to sexual arousal and regulatory processes. PMID:22006991

  16. Women's sexual and emotional responses to male- and female-produced erotica.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; Everaerd, W; van Bellen, G; Hanewald, G

    1994-04-01

    Whether erotic films made by women are more arousing for women than erotic films made by men was studied. Forty-seven subjects were exposed to both a woman-made, female-initiated, and female centered, erotic film excerpt. Photoplethysmographic vaginal pulse amplitude was recorded continuously. Self-report ratings of sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected after each stimulus presentation. Contrary to expectation, genital arousal did not differ between films, although genital response to both films was substantial. Subjective experience of sexual arousal was significantly higher during the woman-made film. The man-made film evoked more feelings of shame, guilt, and aversion. Correlations between subjective experience of sexual arousal and photoplethysmographic measures of sexual arousal were nonsignificant. The largest contribution to female sexual excitement might result from the processing of stimulus-content and stimulus-meaning and not from peripheral vasocongestive feedback.

  17. First Reported Case of Isolated Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder in a Male

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Bradford J.; Köhler, Tobias S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a newly recognized disorder in women. It is described as unwanted, persistent feelings of genital arousal unrelated to sexual desire and not relieved by orgasm. Its prevalence is estimated to approach 1% of young women. Until now, this has not been described in men. Aim. Here we present a case of a 27-year-old male with symptoms consistent with PGAD and describe successful treatment. Methods. A 27-year-old male presented to urology clinic with the chief complain of persistent feelings of impending orgasm. He reported a sensation similar, but not identical, to sexual arousal that did not occur in the setting of sexual thoughts or desire. Orgasm alleviated the arousal for only a short time after which the symptoms would return. This had become quite bothersome to him. Results. After assessing for a neurological cause and finding none, the patient was started on paroxetine daily with complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions. PGAD is a disorder previously described only in females. Although symptoms of PGAD have been described in a male as part of another disorder complex, this report describes the first reported isolated case in a male and the successful treatment. PMID:25767735

  18. Rape myth acceptance and rape proclivity: expected dominance versus expected arousal as mediators in acquaintance-rape situations.

    PubMed

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I

    2004-04-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of all three studies suggest that the anticipated enjoyment of sexual dominance mediates the relationship between RMA and rape proclivity, whereas anticipated sexual arousal does not. These findings are consistent with the feminist argument that rape and sexual violence may be motivated by men's desire to exert power over women. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.

  19. Trazodone Effects on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-REM Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Bradley A.; Deyoung, Pam N.; McSharry, David G.; Wellman, Andrew; Velasquez, Adrian; Owens, Robert; Orr, Jeremy E.; Malhotra, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A low respiratory arousal threshold is a physiological trait involved in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Trazodone may increase arousal threshold without compromising upper airway muscles, which should improve OSA. Objectives: We aimed to examine how trazodone alters OSA severity and arousal threshold. We hypothesized that trazodone would increase the arousal threshold and improve the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in selected patients with OSA. Methods: Subjects were studied on two separate nights in a randomized crossover design. Fifteen unselected subjects with OSA (AHI ≥ 10/h) underwent a standard polysomnogram plus an epiglottic catheter to measure the arousal threshold. Subjects were studied after receiving trazodone (100 mg) and placebo, with 1 week between conditions. The arousal threshold was calculated as the nadir pressure before electrocortical arousal from approximately 20 spontaneous respiratory events selected randomly. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with placebo, trazodone resulted in a significant reduction in AHI (38.7 vs. 28.5 events/h, P = 0.041), without worsening oxygen saturation or respiratory event duration. Trazodone was not associated with a significant change in the non-REM arousal threshold (−20.3 vs. −19.3 cm H2O, P = 0.51) compared with placebo. In subgroup analysis, responders to trazodone spent less time in N1 sleep (20.1% placebo vs. 9.0% trazodone, P = 0.052) and had an accompanying reduction in arousal index, whereas nonresponders were not observed to have a change in sleep parameters. Conclusions: These findings suggest that trazodone could be effective therapy for patients with OSA without worsening hypoxemia. Future studies should focus on underlying mechanisms and combination therapies to eliminate OSA. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01817907). PMID:25719754

  20. Postpartum female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2009-08-01

    Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.

  1. The sexual responses of sexual sadists.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L

    2012-08-01

    On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent.

  2. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph; Schjødt, Uffe; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Wallot, Sebastian; Van Orden, Guy; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show physiological effects of synchronized arousal in a Spanish fire-walking ritual, between active participants and related spectators, but not participants and other members of the audience. We assessed arousal by heart rate dynamics and applied nonlinear mathematical analysis to heart rate data obtained from 38 participants. We compared synchronized arousal between fire-walkers and spectators. For this comparison, we used recurrence quantification analysis on individual data and cross-recurrence quantification analysis on pairs of participants' data. These methods identified fine-grained commonalities of arousal during the 30-min ritual between fire-walkers and related spectators but not unrelated spectators. This indicates that the mediating mechanism may be informational, because participants and related observers had very different bodily behavior. This study demonstrates that a collective ritual may evoke synchronized arousal over time between active participants and bystanders. It links field observations to a physiological basis and offers a unique approach for the quantification of social effects on human physiology during real-world interactions. PMID:21536887

  3. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual.

    PubMed

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph; Schjødt, Uffe; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Wallot, Sebastian; Van Orden, Guy; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-17

    Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show physiological effects of synchronized arousal in a Spanish fire-walking ritual, between active participants and related spectators, but not participants and other members of the audience. We assessed arousal by heart rate dynamics and applied nonlinear mathematical analysis to heart rate data obtained from 38 participants. We compared synchronized arousal between fire-walkers and spectators. For this comparison, we used recurrence quantification analysis on individual data and cross-recurrence quantification analysis on pairs of participants' data. These methods identified fine-grained commonalities of arousal during the 30-min ritual between fire-walkers and related spectators but not unrelated spectators. This indicates that the mediating mechanism may be informational, because participants and related observers had very different bodily behavior. This study demonstrates that a collective ritual may evoke synchronized arousal over time between active participants and bystanders. It links field observations to a physiological basis and offers a unique approach for the quantification of social effects on human physiology during real-world interactions.

  4. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols.

  5. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology – Implications for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider insomnia a disorder of waking rather than a disorder of sleep. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of insomnia, mainly representing an overactive waking drive. We determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and channel types in PPN cells. We found three different PPN cell types that have one or both channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. These discoveries point to a specific mechanism and novel therapeutic avenues for insomnia. PMID:26483950

  6. A Prospective Examination of the Role of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Physiological Asymmetry in the Development of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recent literature has emphasized the simultaneous assessment of multiple physiological stress response systems in an effort to identify biobehavioral risk factors of psychopathology in maltreated populations. The current study assessed whether an asymmetrical stress response, marked by activation in one system and a blunted response in…

  7. Early Vaginal Opening in Juvenile Female Rats Given BRAF-Inhibitor Dabrafenib Is Not Associated with Early Physiologic Sexual Maturation.

    PubMed

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Vidal, Justin D; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Laffan, Susan B; Hart, Timothy

    2015-12-01

    Dabrafenib (DAB), an inhibitor of BRAF kinase activity, is approved for metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation. In support of pediatric cancer development, a nonclinical juvenile rat toxicity study was conducted in which females had early vaginal opening (VO). It was hypothesized that the early VO was not indicative of sexual maturation, but a result of a local effect on the vagina. An investigative study was conducted that mimicked the definitive study design, with rats given DAB or vehicle orally from Postnatal Day (PND) 7 to 35 and with necropsy subsets just before VO, at the first and second estrus, along with age-matched controls. Histopathology was performed on reproductive tissues, including immunohistochemistry for BRAF expression. VO occurred earlier in DAB females than in controls (PND 27.2 vs. 31.5); however, the timing of the first estrus was unaffected (PND 34.0 vs. 33.0). DAB-treated females evaluated just before VO (PND 22.0) had mostly immature reproductive tracts with no evidence of ovulation, similar to age-matched controls; however, DAB-treated females had keratinized and histologically open vaginas. Also, there was raised skin around the urogenital area, which correlated with hyperplasia/keratosis of the vulvar skin and keratinization of the distal vagina. BRAF expression (evaluated in controls) was localized to these tissues. Thus, early VO in rats given DAB likely represents a local effect accelerating vaginal keratinization to become open and not accelerated sexual maturation.

  8. Prevalence rates of sexual difficulties and associated distress in heterosexual men and women: results from an Internet survey in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Lies; Gijs, Luk; Enzlin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As most epidemiological surveys on sexual problems have not included assessment of associated distress, the principal aim of this study was to provide prevalence estimates of both DSM-IV-TR-defined (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000 ) and less commonly assessed sexual difficulties and dysfunction (e.g., lack of responsive sexual desire, lack of subjective arousal). A secondary aim was to obtain information about comorbidity between sexual desire and sexual arousal difficulties/dysfunction. This study comprised an online survey completed by 35,132 heterosexual Flemish men and women (aged 16 to 74 years). Results indicated that sexual dysfunctions were far less common than sexual difficulties, and some uncommonly assessed sexual problems (e.g., "lack of responsive desire" in women; "hyperactive sexual desire" in men) were quite prevalent. In women, there was a high comorbidity between "lack of spontaneous sexual desire" and "lack of responsive sexual desire"; between "lack of genital arousal" and "lack of subjective sexual arousal"; and between sexual desire and sexual arousal difficulties/dysfunctions. The implications of these findings for epidemiological research on sexual dysfunction and for the newly defined DSM-5 Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (APA, 2013 ) are discussed.

  9. Eszopiclone increases the respiratory arousal threshold and lowers the apnoea/hypopnoea index in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with a low arousal threshold.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Danny J; Owens, Robert L; Kehlmann, Geoffrey B; Wellman, Andrew; Rahangdale, Shilpa; Yim-Yeh, Susie; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul

    2011-06-01

    Recent insights into sleep apnoea pathogenesis reveal that a low respiratory arousal threshold (awaken easily) is important for many patients. As most patients experience stable breathing periods mediated by upper-airway dilator muscle activation via accumulation of respiratory stimuli, premature awakening may prevent respiratory stimuli build up as well as the resulting stabilization of sleep and breathing. The aim of the present physiological study was to determine the effects of a non-benzodiazepine sedative, eszopiclone, on the arousal threshold and the AHI (apnoea/hypopnoea index) in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. We hypothesized that eszopiclone would increase the arousal threshold and lower the AHI in patients with a low arousal threshold (0 to -15 cm H(2)O). Following a baseline overnight polysomnogram with an epiglottic pressure catheter to quantify the arousal threshold, 17 obstructive sleep apnoea patients, without major hypoxaemia [nadir SaO(2) (arterial blood oxygen saturation) >70%], returned on two additional nights and received 3 mg of eszopiclone or placebo immediately prior to each study. Compared with placebo, eszopiclone significantly increased the arousal threshold [-14.0 (-19.9 to -10.9) compared with -18.0 (-22.2 to -15.1) cm H(2)O; P<0.01], and sleep duration, improved sleep quality and lowered the AHI without respiratory event prolongation or worsening hypoxaemia. Among the eight patients identified as having a low arousal threshold, reductions in the AHI occurred invariably and were most pronounced (25±6 compared with 14±4 events/h of sleep; P<0.01). In conclusion, eszopiclone increases the arousal threshold and lowers the AHI in obstructive sleep apnoea patients that do not have marked overnight hypoxaemia. The greatest reductions in the AHI occurred in those with a low arousal threshold. The results of this single night physiological study suggest that certain sedatives may be of therapeutic benefit for a definable subgroup of

  10. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  11. Effects of voice on emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  12. Autonomic arousal in cognitive conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Yoshino, Aihide; Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Nomura, Soichiro

    2007-03-30

    Although cognitive efforts were reported to elicit global autonomic arousal, which cognitive processes associate with autonomic arousal has not been clear. We investigated autonomic arousal using event-related skin conductance responses (SCRs) during the Stroop color-word task. After baseline SCR deflections were determined in each trial block, SCRs were compared between cognitive conflict conditions (incongruent vs. congruent stimuli), between tasks assigned (word reading vs. color naming), and between erroneous and correct responses. Baseline SCRs were significantly greater at the beginning of each trial block. SCRs were significantly greater with incongruent than congruent stimuli while SCRs differed little between word reading and color naming. SCRs were greater when responses were incorrect. The results suggested that autonomic arousal occurs during cognitive conflict resolution in addition to mental set adoption for a task and in error awareness.

  13. Factitious Disorder in a Patient Claiming to be a Sexually Sadistic Serial Killer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christopher A; Beckson, Mace; Dietz, Park

    2016-12-19

    Factitious disorder involves the conscious simulation of psychological or physiological symptoms of illness, for the purpose of fulfilling the unconscious desire to be taken care of or to assume the "sick role." Typically patients with factitious disorder simulate conditions that are designed to arouse feelings of empathy in care providers with the intention to engage them in caretaking. However, patients might also simulate conditions that arouse revulsion or rejection and still meet full diagnostic criteria for factitious disorder. In this case report, we present a patient who fabricated an elaborate history of being a sexually sadistic serial killer with homicidal ideation with the intention of obtaining personal attention, nurturance, and empathy from his psychotherapist. However, given the nature of his feigned condition, the patient frightened the very person whom he sought to engage in caretaking.

  14. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Borgquist, Amanda; Rivas, Virginia Mela; Kachani, Malika; Sinchak, Kevin; Wagner, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 μM) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle- treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 μg) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, nearly one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903

  15. Latent structures of female sexual functioning.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Vieira, Armando Luís; Nobre, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    For the last three decades, male and female sexual responses have been conceptualized as similar, based on separated and sequential phases as proposed by the models of Masters and Johnson (1966) and Kaplan (1979) model. However, there is a growing debate around the need to conceptualize female sexual response and the classification of sexual dysfunction in women, in view of the upcoming editions of the DSM and ICD. The aim of this study was to test, using structural equation modeling, five conceptual, alternative models of female sexual function, using a sample of women with sexual difficulties and a sample of women without sexual problems. A total of 1993 Portuguese women participated in the study and completed a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings suggested a four-factor solution as the model that best fit the data regarding women presenting sexual difficulties: (1) desire/arousal; (2) lubrication; (3) orgasm; (4) pain/vaginismus. In relation to sexually healthy women, the best model was a five-factor solution comprising of (1) desire; (2) arousal; (3) lubrication; (4) orgasm; and (5) pain/vaginismus. Discriminant validity between factors was supported, suggesting that these dimensions measure distinct phenomena. Model fit to the data significantly decreased in both samples, as models began to successively consider greater levels of overlap among phases of sexual function, towards a single-factor solution. By suggesting the overlap between pain and vaginismus, results partially support the new classification that is currently being discussed regarding DSM-5. Additionally, results on the relationship between sexual desire and arousal were inconclusive as sexually healthy women were better characterized by a five-factor model that considered the structural independence among these factors, whereas women with sexual difficulties better fit with a four-factor model merging sexual desire and subjective sexual arousal.

  16. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  17. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  18. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22–92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal. PMID:26097459

  19. Melatonin receptor signaling contributes to neuroprotection upon arousal from torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christine; Ballinger, Mallory A.

    2015-01-01

    The brain of mammalian hibernators is naturally protected. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme changes in body temperature and brain perfusion as they cycle between lengthy torpor bouts and brief periods of euthermia called interbout arousals (IBAs). Arousal from torpor to IBA occurs rapidly, but there is no evidence of brain injury accompanying this extreme physiological transition. Production of the hormone melatonin accompanies arousal, suggesting that it plays a protective role at this time. Here, we investigated mechanisms of melatonin receptor-mediated protection in the brain of the hibernating ground squirrel. We administered the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (30 mg/kg ip) to ground squirrels at the predicted end of a torpor bout, triggering an arousal. We found that luzindole-treated animals exhibited caspase-3 activity two times higher than vehicle-treated animals in the hypothalamus at midarousal (P = 0.01), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for protection in this brain region. We also found a 30% decline in succinate-fueled mitochondrial respiration in luzindole-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals (P = 0.019), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for optimal mitochondrial function during arousal from torpor. The mitochondrial effects of luzindole treatment were seen only during the hibernation season, indicating that this effect is specifically important for arousal from torpor. These data provide evidence for the protective role of melatonin receptor signaling during the extreme physiological transition that occurs when a hibernating mammal arouses from torpor and provide further evidence for regional and seasonal changes in the hibernator brain. PMID:26354846

  20. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient’s arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain

  1. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana B R Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  2. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  3. Activation of the arousal response can impair performance on a simple motor task.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J T; Fleshner, M; Enoka, R M

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of arousal in men and women on the moment-to-moment performance of a simple motor task. We examined the control of a precision task in the presence and absence of imposed stressors. Twenty-nine subjects (14 men, 15 women; 18--44 yr) were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of two stressor groups, Mental Math or Electric Shock. Subjects presented with Math and Shock stressors, which lasted 10 min, experienced significant increases in cognitive and physiological arousal compared with baseline and control subjects. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and electrodermal activity were elevated 5--80% with presentation of the stressors, whereas diastolic blood pressure and salivary cortisol were unchanged. The greater levels of cognitive and physiological arousal were associated with reductions in steadiness of a pinch grip for the Shock subjects (approximately 130% reduction from baseline) but not for the subjects in the Math group, who experienced heightened arousal but no change in steadiness (10% reduction from baseline). Although women exhibited more of a reduction in steadiness than men, the effect was largely unrelated to the magnitude of the change in arousal.

  4. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward.

  5. The Role of Arousal in the Induction of Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Nora P.; Morris, William N.

    The role of autonomic arousal in feeling states has long been of interest to psychologists. To examine the necessity of arousal for an effective mood induction, 60 college students were instructed either to exercise vigorously (high arousal group), exercise lightly with a rest period (low arousal group), or complete a questionnaire (no arousal…

  6. Assessment of the Effects of Perineoplasty on Female Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Cihan; Ağır, Meriç Çağrı; Sağır, Fulya Gökdağlı; Özer, Atınç; Özbek, Özlem; Dayanır, Hakan; Uysal, Gökçe Saygı; Uysal, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Background: The scar tissue formed by episiotomy during vaginal delivery, and the related pain, is very frequent. The change in the normal anatomy can cause cosmetic and physiologic problems. It can affect and cause deterioration in sexual functions. Therefore, making the right diagnosis and applying the right surgical procedures are very important. Aims: Our aim was to examine the effect of the perineoplasty operation on the sexual dysfunctions that present due to vaginal delivery. Study Design: Self-controlled study. Methods: Forty patients, who attended our clinic between April 2012 and May 2013, and who were between the ages of 20 and 50 years, were included in the study. The patients had complaints of scar tissue in the perineum and various sexual dysfunctions after vaginal delivery, and they were suitable for perineoplasty. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was applied to the patients before and 6 months after the operation, and the results were compared. Results: After the perineoplasty operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients in the domains of sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction (p<0.005). However, there was no significant improvement in the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse (p=0.184). The mean±SD total FSFI score increased significantly after the operation (p<0.005). Conclusion: The sexual dysfunctions that develop due to perineal damage during vaginal delivery can benefit significantly from the perineoplasty operation if the indications are correct. However, vaginal perineoplasty did not provide an improvement in dyspareunia. PMID:26185713

  7. How emotional arousal and valence influence access to awareness.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Bhavin R; Pham, Thuan

    2008-10-01

    The effect of emotion on visual awareness is largely unknown. Pairs of natural images were presented side by side on a screen in a binocular rivalry setup. The amount of time that each image of a pair dominated perception was computed. Our results showed: (A) A main effect of arousal: Dominance durations of the more arousing picture of iso-valence pairs were longer. (B) No effect of valence: Dominance durations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures of iso-arousal pairs were similar. (C) An interaction between arousal and valence: The more pleasant picture of iso-arousal pairs of low arousal level dominated conscious perception. The less pleasant picture of iso-arousal pairs of high arousal level dominated conscious perception. Our findings suggest that the emotional content of a stimulus affects the extent to which it dominates awareness. While arousal and valence interactively affect access to awareness, only arousal exerts an independent control of such access.

  8. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  9. The neurologic control of arousal and orgasm with specific attention to spinal cord lesions: Integrating preclinical and clinical sciences.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Marcalee Sipski; Marson, Lesley

    2017-01-25

    Preclinical research in animal models is important for understanding the neural pathways and pathophysiology underlying changes in sexual function after SCI. In vivo animal models, primarily rodents, have provided valuable information on the central pathways regulating sexual arousal and orgasm; however, further research is required in females and preclinical modeling of SCI that can be better translated to men and women. Translation of the autonomic and somatic regulation of sexual responses from preclinical models through clinical research correlates well with respect to the peripheral-spinal systems involved. However, due to the nature of sexual responses, parallel studies are necessary in animals and humans. Human studies of individuals with SCIs have provided information about the neurologic control of arousal and orgasm. Psychogenic arousal is related to the preservation of sensation at T11-L2 whereas orgasm requires the presence of an intact sacral reflex arc. Studies point to evidence of a spinal pattern generator at L3-5. Because of the exact nature of SCIs, further research using neuroimaging will be beneficial, not only to elucidate the neurological control of sexual responses after SCI, but also in able-bodied individuals. Understanding and ameliorating the effects of SCI on sexual function is important to the well-being and quality of life of individuals with SCIs and their partners, thus future research should focus more on this important topic.

  10. Toward Identification of the Sexual Killer: A Comparison of Sexual Killers Engaging in Post-Mortem Sexual Interference and Non-Homicide Sexual Aggressors.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Tamsin; Carter, Adam J; Stefanska, Ewa B; Glorney, Emily

    2015-10-14

    Establishing a model of sexual assault reflecting psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of perpetrators of sexual killing and rape is necessary for development in risk assessment and intervention. Methodological variations in defining sexual killing have amalgamated serial and non-serial offenders and perpetrators with direct and indirect associations between killing and sexual arousal. This study defined sexual killing specifying that killing should be directly linked to sexual arousal, and sampled 48 sexual killers, operationalized to include only those engaging in post-mortem sexual interference, with one or two known female victims (non-serial), from prison service national (England and Wales) databases. These sexual killers were compared with 48 non-homicide, life or indeterminately sentenced sexual aggressors on psychological and crime scene characteristics. Contrary to previous research, fatal outcomes were associated with neither stranger victims nor weapon presence; sexual killing was characterized by severity of violence less so than non-fatal assault. Sexual killers more often reported problems with emotional loneliness, empathic concern, and sexual entitlement than the sexual aggressors. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  11. [Sexuality in overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    The association between obesity and sexual dysfunction has been described in many studies. Neurobiological, hormonal, vascular and mental disturbances are the main reasons in male and in female gender. Sexual interest and desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, painful intercourse and premature ejaculation can be involved. Data for prevalence of sexual function disturbances in obese people are scarce and most studies were small. For screening of sexual function we recommend the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Score, which contains 15 Items for males and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which contains 19 items for females. Treatment of sexual function disturbances include lifestyle changes with an increase of physical activity, weight control, healthy eating and smoking cessation. Testosterone substitution in cases of real hypogonadism and treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors are well documented treatment options in male individuals. New treatment options for female patients with variable effectiveness are fibanserin, testosterone, bupropione and oxytocin.

  12. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-01-16

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  13. Emotion and Implicit Timing: The Arousal Effect

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Berthon, Mickaël

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the effects of emotion on implicit time judgment. The participants did not receive any overt temporal instructions. They were simply trained to respond as quickly as possible after a response signal, which was separated from a warning signal by a reference temporal interval. In the testing phase, the inter-signal interval was shorter, equal or longer than the reference interval and was filled by emotional pictures (EP) of different arousal levels: high, moderate, and low. The results showed a U-shaped curve of reaction time plotted against the interval duration, indicating an implicit processing of time. However, this RT-curve was shifted toward the left, with a significantly lower peak time for the high-arousal than for the low-arousal EP. This emotional time distortion in an implicit timing task suggests an automatic effect of emotion on the internal clock rate. PMID:28261125

  14. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals. PMID:23259698

  15. Sexual Well-Being in Older Women: The Relevance of Sexual Excitation and Sexual Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D

    2016-12-02

    The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.

  16. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  17. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    PubMed

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

  18. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics.

  19. Frontal alpha asymmetry and sexually motivated states.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Staley, Cameron; Roberts, Verena

    2014-03-01

    Anterior alpha asymmetry of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals has been suggested to index state approach (or avoidance) motivation. This model has not yet been extended to high approach-motivation sexual stimuli, which may represent an important model of reward system function. Sixty-five participants viewed a neutral and a sexually motivating film while their EEG was recorded, and reported their sexual feelings after each film. Greater alpha power in the left hemisphere during sexually motivated states was evident. A positive relationship between self-reported mental sexual arousal and alpha asymmetry was identified, where coherence between these indicators was higher in women. Notably, coherence was stronger when mental versus physical sexual arousal was rated. Alpha asymmetry appears to offer a new method for further examining this novel coherence pattern across men and women.

  20. Does yawning increase arousal through mechanical stimulation of the carotid body?

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Jorma; Elo, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Yawning is a stereotyped event that occurs in humans and animals from fish to mammals, but neither its mechanisms nor its functions are entirely known. Its widespread nature suggests that it has important physiological functions. It is associated with stretching of muscles in a large area, but the function of this stretching is understood far from completely. It has been proposed that yawning increases arousal and that it is an arousal defense reflex, whose aim is to reverse brain hypoxia. Whilst yawning has been speculated to have an important role in reversing hypoxia, there is a structure in the neck that is known to be intimately involved in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis, namely the carotid body. It senses acute changes in oxygen levels. In spite of this, a connection has never been proposed either between the carotid body and arousal, or between yawning and the carotid body. We propose that yawning stimulates mechanically the carotid body (and possibly other structures in the neck). We further propose that this stimulation gives rise to increased arousal, alertness and wakefulness and that one important physiological function of yawning is increase of arousal through this stimulation. We also propose that mechanical effects on the shunt system of the carotid body may be involved in this stimulation. Our hypothesis is supported by several facts. For example, yawning causes movements and compressions that may affect the carotid body that is situated strategically at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Thus, yawning may stimulate the carotid body. The carotid body is highly vascular and compressions may affect its shunt system and blood flow and for example give rise to release of hormones or other substances. Also several facts related to situations where people yawn or do not yawn support our hypothesis and are discussed. Further support comes from facts related to somnogenic substances, hormones and transmitters, and from facts related to the

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women in a German Sample.

    PubMed

    Velten, Julia; Scholten, Saskia; Graham, Cynthia A; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Sexual Excitation Sexual/Inhibition Inventory for Women (SESII-W) is a self-report questionnaire for assessing propensities of sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) in women. According to the dual control model of sexual response, these two factors differ between individuals and influence the occurrence of sexual arousal in given situations. Extreme levels of SE and SI are postulated to be associated with sexual problems or risky sexual behaviors. Psychometric evaluation of the original scale yielded two higher order and eight lower order factors as well as satisfactory to good construct validity and reliability. The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the SESII-W utilizing a large convenience sample of 2206 women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory overall model fit, with support for the five lower order factors of SE (Arousability, Sexual Power Dynamics, Smell, Partner Characteristics, Setting) and the three lower order factors of SI (Relationship Importance, Arousal Contingency, and Concerns about Sexual Function). Additionally, the scale demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and test-retest-reliability. The German SESII-W is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure for assessing SE and SI in women. Hence, its use can be recommended for future research in Germany that investigates women's sexual behaviors and experiences.

  2. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  3. Memory modulation in the classroom: selective enhancement of college examination performance by arousal induced after lecture.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Arentsen, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory studies examining moderate physiological or emotional arousal induced after learning indicate that it enhances memory consolidation. Yet, no studies have yet examined this effect in an applied context. As such, arousal was induced after a college lecture and its selective effects were examined on later exam performance. Participants were divided into two groups who either watched a neutral video clip (n=66) or an arousing video clip (n=70) after lecture in a psychology course. The final examination occurred two weeks after the experimental manipulation. Only performance on the group of final exam items that covered material from the manipulated lecture were significantly different between groups. Other metrics, such as the midterm examination and the total final examination score, did not differ between groups. The results indicate that post-lecture arousal selectively increased the later retrieval of lecture material, despite the availability of the material for study before and after the manipulation. The results reinforce the role of post-learning arousal on memory consolidation processes, expanding the literature to include a real-world learning context.

  4. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies

    PubMed Central

    Briefer, Elodie F.; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies (“F0” and “G0”), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. PMID:25897781

  5. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  6. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p < 0.05), theanine accentuated local processing (p < 0.05), and the combination did not differ from placebo. Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p < 0.05), theanine increased difference scores (p < 0.05), and the combination did not differ from placebo. Thus, under emotional arousal, caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  7. Sexual dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Leyla J; Patil, Seema A; Cross, Raymond K

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health is a broad term that encompasses a variety of functions including sexual thoughts, desire, arousal, intercourse, orgasm, and the impact of body image. Sexual dysfunction in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease is multifactorial including the impact of psychosocial factors, disease activity, medical therapies, surgical interventions, body image perceptions and changes, hypogonadism, and pelvic floor disorders. Providers caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease should be cognizant of these concerns and develop management plans and techniques for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  8. The human amygdala is sensitive to the valence of pictures and sounds irrespective of arousal: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Eippert, Falk; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Veit, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of studies showing that amygdala responses are not limited to fear-related or highly unpleasant stimuli, studies began to focus on stimulus valence and stimulus-related arousal as predictors of amygdala activity. Recent studies in the chemosensory domain found amygdala activity to increase with the intensity of negative and positive chemosensory stimuli. This has led to the proposal that amygdala activity might be an indicator of emotional arousal, at least in the chemosensory domain. The present study investigated amygdala activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli. By selecting stimuli based on individual valence and arousal ratings, we were able to dissociate stimulus valence and stimulus-related arousal, both on the verbal and the peripheral physiological level. We found that the amygdala was sensitive to stimulus valence even when arousal was controlled for, and that increased amygdala activity was better explained by valence than by arousal. The proposed difference in the relation between amygdala activity and stimulus-related arousal between the chemosensory and the audiovisual domain is discussed in terms of the amygdala's embedding within these sensory systems and the processes by which emotional meaning is derived. PMID:19015115

  9. Drug Induced Arousal and Fear Appeals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.

    It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…

  10. The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

  11. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2010-08-01

    We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.

  12. Autonomic arousal and emotion in victims of interpersonal violence: Shame proneness but not anxiety predicts vagal tone

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Steven; D’Andrea, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The redefinition of PTSD in the DSM-5 has highlighted a range of post-traumatic affects beyond fear and anxiety. For survivors of interpersonal violence, shame has been shown to be an important contributor of self-reported symptomatology. While biological models of PTSD emphasize physiological arousal secondary to fear and anxiety, evidence suggests shame might be related to increased arousal as well. This study tested the contributions of anxiety, fear, and shame to autonomic arousal in a sample of female victims (N = 27) of interpersonal violence with PTSD. Shame proneness was the only significant correlate of autonomic arousal during a trauma-reminder paradigm. These findings indicate that shame corresponds to important indicators of changes to the autonomic nervous system, which have previously been assumed to be fear-related. PMID:25894989

  13. Sleep, anesthesiology, and the neurobiology of arousal state control.

    PubMed

    Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2005-12-01

    Sleep, like breathing, is a biologic rhythm that is actively generated by the brain. Neuronal networks that have evolved to regulate naturally occurring sleep preferentially modulate traits that define states of sedation and anesthesia. Sleep is temporally organized into distinct stages that are characterized by a unique constellation of physiologic and behavioral traits. Sleep and anesthetic susceptibility are genetically modulated, heritable phenotypes. This review considers 40 yr of research regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to arousal state control. Clinical and preclinical data have debunked and supplanted the primitive view that sleep need is a weakness. Sleep deprivation and restriction diminish vigilance, alter neuroendocrine control, and negatively impact immune function. There is overwhelming support for the view that decrements in vigilance can negatively impact performance. Advances in neuroscience provide a foundation for the sea change in public and legal perspectives that now regard a sleep-deprived individual as impaired.

  14. Activation of the arousal response and impairment of performance increase with anxiety and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J T; Barnholt, K R; Enoka, R M

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of trait anxiety and stressor intensity on arousal and motor performance during a pinch task. We examined the steadiness of a precision task in the presence and absence of an imposed stressor on subjects with moderate and low trait anxiety. Subjects with the 26 highest and 14 lowest anxiety scores were assigned to one of three groups: a control group (5 women, 5 men), a moderate-anxiety group (8 women, 8 men), or a low-anxiety group (7 women, 7 men). Subjects in the anxiety groups received electric shocks and experienced significant increases in cognitive and physiological arousal compared with baseline and control subjects, especially subjects in the moderate-anxiety group. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and electrodermal activity were elevated during the stressor, whereas diastolic blood pressure was unchanged. Cognitive and physiological arousal tended to increase with stressor intensity and was accompanied by changes in steadiness. Although steadiness was markedly reduced with the highest intensity of shock, the average electromyogram activity was unaffected by the stressor. These findings indicate that the increase in arousal and the impairment of steadiness increased with trait anxiety and with the intensity of the noxious stimulus.

  15. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.

  16. Lack of functional GABA(B) receptors alters GnRH physiology and sexual dimorphic expression of GnRH and GAD-67 in the brain.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Paolo N; Di Giorgio, Noelia; Bonaventura, María M; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A

    2010-03-01

    GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts through GABA(A/C) and GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)Rs); it is critical for gonadotropin regulation. We studied whether the lack of functional GABA(B)Rs in GABA(B1) knockout (GABA(B1)KO) mice affected the gonadotropin axis physiology. Adult male and female GABA(B1)KO and wild-type (WT) mice were killed to collect blood and tissue samples. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) content in whole hypothalami (HT), olfactory bulbs (OB), and frontoparietal cortexes (CT) were determined (RIA). GnRH expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was evaluated in preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH), medial basal-posterior hypothalamus (MBH-PH), OB, and CT. Pulsatile GnRH secretion from hypothalamic explants was measured by RIA. GABA, glutamate, and taurine contents in HT and CT were determined by HPLC. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR in POA-AH, MBH-PH, and CT. Gonadotropin content, serum levels, and secretion from adenohypophyseal cell cultures (ACC) were measured by RIA. GnRH mRNA expression was increased in POA-AH of WT males compared with females; this pattern of expression was inversed in GABA(B1)KO mice. MBH-PH, OB, and CT did not follow this pattern. In GABA(B1)KO females, GnRH pulse frequency was increased and GABA and glutamate contents were augmented. POA-AH GAD-67 mRNA showed the same expression pattern as GnRH mRNA in this area. Gonadotropin pituitary contents and serum levels showed no differences between genotypes. Increased basal LH secretion and decreased GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin response were observed in GABA(B1)KO female ACCs. These results support the hypothesis that the absence of functional GABA(B)Rs alters GnRH physiology and critically affects sexual dimorphic expression of GnRH and GAD-67 in POA-AH.

  17. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  18. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  19. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  20. Sexual dysfunction in women who were molested as children: one response pattern and suggestions for treatment.

    PubMed

    McGuire, L S; Wagner, N N

    1978-01-01

    A common pattern of women who were sexually molested as children and seek treatment for sexual dysfunction is described. The arousal, rather than the orgasmic, component is involved. The reasons for the evolution of this particular dysfunction are discussed. Treatment should extend the period of sensate focus and address the issues of the woman's anger, her need for control, and her guilt. Excellent results can be achieved in helping the patient to experience physical intimacy and the pleasure of sexual arousal.

  1. The Effect of Arousal on Warm Up Decrement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect warm-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated warm-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to warm-up decrement are explored.…

  2. Effects of Arousal on Interpreting Other People's Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    Previous research has found that sympathetic arousal will cue information stored in memory with a similar level of arousal. To investigate the effect of arousal on the interpretation of other people's emotions, three studies were conducted. In the first study, 37 adult tennis players, who were either about to play tennis or who had just played,…

  3. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  4. Measurement of Anxiety and Arousal in Outdoor Adventure Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Stuart

    1992-01-01

    Forty-four males and 40 females completed an adaptation of the Linear Arousal and Stress Scale after a 1-day rafting trip. Men showed higher base levels of anxiety than women. Anxiety and arousal increased significantly prior to the first rapid. Levels of anxiety and arousal during this adventure activity changed constantly as different situations…

  5. Menopause and sexuality: key issues in premature menopause and beyond.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra

    2010-09-01

    Woman's sexuality encompasses sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationships. It is modulated throughout life by life and reproduction-related events, health, relationships, and sociocultural variables. The aging process and menopause are two potent contributors to female sexual dysfunction. The earlier the menopause, the more severe and complex the impact on sexuality is. The younger the woman, the less she realizes the different key goals of her life cycle (falling in love, having a satisfying sexual life, forming a stable couple, getting married, having a family) and the more pervasive the consequences on her sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationship can be. Premature menopause is an amplified paradigm of the complex impact menopause can have on women's and couple's sexuality. This paper will focus on biologically based sexual issues, namely desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders, as well as key questions encountered in infertility. The concepts of "symptom inducer" and "symptom carrier" will also be addressed.

  6. Persistent genital arousal disorder: a clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gadit, Amin

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to a community-based psychiatric clinic with unique problem of persistent genital arousal disorder. All relevant investigations were normal. Treatment with psychotropic medication and psychotherapy did not help. The patient though reported improvement in mood. The patient has been followed up since 2011 and visits the clinic every 3 months without much improvement in the disorder. Hence, this case has become a clinical challenge in terms of treatment. PMID:23697448

  7. Physiological, Emotional, and Behavioral Correlates of Gender Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabes, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews existing evidence and presents new evidence supporting the view that gender segregation in play may be in part the result of gender differences in physiological and behavioral reactions to emotional arousal and its regulation. Suggests that differences in contexts that elicit arousal in boys and girls may also contribute to gender…

  8. The Relationship of Arousal During Learning to Short- and Long-Term Retention Employing Two Indices of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovejoy, Marcia A.; Farley, Frank H.

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that paired-associate learning accompanied by high arousal should lead to stronger permanent memory and weaker immediate memory than paired-associate learning accompanied by low arousal. During continuous recording of skin resistance and heart rate as measures of arousal, 32 Ss were given a one-trial,…

  9. Towards a smart glove: arousal recognition based on textile Electrodermal Response.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; De Rossi, Danilo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Electrodermal Response, acquired by a sensing fabric glove with embedded textile electrodes, as reliable means for emotion recognition. Here, all the essential steps for an automatic recognition system are described, from the recording of physiological data set to a feature-based multiclass classification. Data were collected from 35 healthy volunteers during arousal elicitation by means of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures. Experimental results show high discrimination after twenty steps of cross validation.

  10. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation.

  11. Arousal and mood factors in the "Mozart effect".

    PubMed

    Steele, K M

    2000-08-01

    Some investigators of the "Mozart effect" have not controlled for the influence of differences in arousal or mood induced by treatment conditions. Studies by Rideout and colleagues reported differences in spatial reasoning after listening to a Mozart sonata compared against a relaxation instruction tape. The conditions may have affected subjects' arousal differentially, with the sonata increasing arousal and the relaxation instructions decreasing arousal, which could have affected spatial reasoning performance. Evidence is cited in support of this suggestion and indicates the importance of analyzing the influence of arousal differences in Mozart effect research.

  12. Arousal and affective differences between student gamblers and non-gamblers during a card game.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Campeau, Jennifer L; Harrington, Shawn J

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the differences in arousal (physiologically and subjectively) between gamblers and non-gamblers. Thirty students from a mid-sized university took part in the study for a chance to win money in a gambling task. Nearly half of the participants identified themselves as non-gamblers and slightly more than half of the participants considered themselves gamblers. Findings indicated that gamblers experienced a significantly higher increase in physiological arousal (heart rate) compared to non-gamblers during the gambling experience. The results suggests the possibility that physiological arousal may play a role in the appeal of gambling to certain types of people. Furthermore, when gamblers suffered a loss at the end of the game, they reported feeling worse as compared to the non-gamblers and relative to their state before playing. Moreover, this affective change explained 28.6% of the variance in gambling behavior according to self-reports. Findings suggest that gamblers in our study may have been more personally invested in the gambling tasks, such that losing was more disappointing to the habitual gamblers than the non-gamblers.

  13. Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive mood-high arousal; (ii) positive mood-low arousal; (iii) negative mood-high arousal; (iv) negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. Conclusions/Significance Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory. PMID:20668532

  14. Sexual behavior of castrated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Heim, N

    1981-02-01

    Data are reported on the sexual behavior of 39 released sex offenders who agreed voluntarily to surgical castration while imprisoned in West Germany. Findings indicated that frequency of coitus, masturbation, and sexual thoughts are seen as strongly reduced after castration. Sexual desire and sexual arousability are perceived by the subjects as having been considerably impaired by castration. In comparison with other studies, however, it was shown that male sexual capacity was not extinguished soon after castration. Particularly noteworthy is that 11 of 35 castrates (31%) stated they were still able to engage in sexual intercourse. Rapists proved to be sexually more active after castration than homosexuals or pedophiliacs. There seems to be a strong effect on sexual behavior only if castration is performed on males between the age of 46 and 59 years. In general, the findings do not justify recommending surgical castration as a reliable treatment for incarcerated sex offenders.

  15. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal.

  16. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a ‘pornographic’ effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  17. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters emotional arousal regulation and its effects on working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    While prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has been associated with arousal dysregulation and attentional impairments in both human and animal studies, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. In the current study, we report functional neuroimaging observations of these effects in exposed youth. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we embedded task-irrelevant emotional distracters in a working memory task to examine the interaction of emotional arousal and memory in 33 PCE and 23 non-exposed adolescents. Though with similar behavioral performance, the two groups exhibited different activation patterns associated with emotion-memory interactions. On the one hand, higher memory load attenuated emotion-related amygdala activation in controls but not in the exposed adolescents; on the other hand, prefrontal activation associated with memory load decreased in the presence of emotional distraction in the controls but increased in the exposed group. These group interaction differences suggest neurobiological substrates for arousal-associated neuronal alterations related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Consistent with previous findings in behavioral and physiological studies, the present neuroimaging data provided more in-depth evidence supporting the view that PCE has significant long-term teratogenic effect on arousal regulation system.

  18. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters emotional arousal regulation and its effects on working memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    While prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has been associated with arousal dysregulation and attentional impairments in both human and animal studies, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. In the current study, we report functional neuroimaging observations of these effects in exposed youth. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we embedded task-irrelevant emotional distracters in a working memory task to examine the interaction of emotional arousal and memory in 33 PCE and 23 non-exposed adolescents. Though with similar behavioral performance, the two groups exhibited different activation patterns associated with emotion-memory interactions. On the one hand, higher memory load attenuated emotion-related amygdala activation in controls but not in the exposed adolescents; on the other hand, prefrontal activation associated with memory load decreased in the presence of emotional distraction in the controls but increased in the exposed group. These group interaction differences suggest neurobiological substrates for arousal-associated neuronal alterations related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Consistent with previous findings in behavioral and physiological studies, the present neuroimaging data provided more in-depth evidence supporting the view that PCE has significant long-term teratogenic effect on arousal regulation system. PMID:19699795

  19. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  20. Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  1. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Resources on infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date Sexually ... Health Answers to women's and men's reproductive concerns Sexual Violence Prevention Sexual violence affects all people, particularly women ...

  2. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  3. Neuroimaging and sexual behavior: identification of regional and functional differences.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joseph C; Secondary, Joseph; Burke, William H; Fedoroff, J Paul; Dwyer, R Gregg

    2015-07-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of human sexual desire, arousal, and behavior have been characterized in recent years with functional brain imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we briefly review the results of functional neuroimaging studies in humans, whether healthy or suffering from sexual disorders, and the current models of regional and network activation in sexual arousal. Attention is paid, in particular, to findings from both regional and network studies in the past 3 years. We also identify yet unanswered and pressing questions of interest to areas of ongoing investigations for psychiatric, scientific, and forensic disciplines.

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416

  5. Viewing Sexual Stimuli Associated with Greater Sexual Responsiveness, Not Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Prause, Nicole; Pfaus, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent viewing visual sexual stimuli (VSS) has the potential to habituate the sexual response and generalize to the partner context. Aim The aim of this study was to examine whether the time spent viewing VSS is related to sexual responsiveness felt in the laboratory or with a sexual partner. Methods Nontreatment-seeking men (N = 280) reported their weekly average VSS viewing in hours. VSS hours were examined in relation to the sexual arousal experienced while viewing a standardized sexual film in the laboratory and erectile problems experienced with a sexual partner. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported sexual arousal in response to sexual films and erectile problems on the International Index of Erectile Function were the main outcome measures. Results More hours viewing VSS was related to stronger experienced sexual responses to VSS in the laboratory, was unrelated to erectile functioning with a partner, and was related to stronger desire for sex with a partner. Conclusions VSS use within the range of hours tested is unlikely to negatively impact sexual functioning, given that responses actually were stronger in those who viewed more VSS. PMID:26185674

  6. Adolescent pertussis-induced partial arousal parasomnia.

    PubMed

    Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Zeharia, Avraham

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neurologic complications of pertussis infection. A file review of all children (age 7-18 years) in our hospital with serology-positive pertussis infection admitted from 1995 to 2005 yielded six patients with neurologic symptoms in whom electroencephalographic studies were performed. Data were collected on their clinical symptoms, electroencephalographic findings, final diagnosis, and outcome. The six patients accounted for 10% of all children diagnosed with pertussis during the study period. Their ages ranged from 10 to 15.5 years. All the children were referred by their primary physician because of a suspicion of epilepsy on the basis of parental reports of inefficient attempts to breathe during sleep accompanied by high-pitched sounds and sounds of suffocation, and sleepwalking. The children were amnesic for the episodes. However, findings on electroencephalogram taken during sleep were negative in all cases. The final diagnosis was partial arousal parasomnia. The symptoms of parasomnia disappeared with resolution of the symptoms of the pertussis infection. In conclusion, partial arousal parasomnia may be induced by pertussis infection. Further studies in larger groups are required to confirm this association.

  7. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  8. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal.

  9. Nocturnal Hypermotor Activity during Apnea-Related Arousals

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Romy; DelRosso, Lourdes M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 50-year-old patient who exhibits nocturnal hypermotor activity occurring exclusively during apnea-related arousals consisting of repetitive lower extremity hip-flapping. This movement is unusual and reflects a new form of lower extremity movement associated with apnea-related arousals. Citation: Hoque R, DelRosso LM. Nocturnal hypermotor activity during apnea-related arousals. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1305–1307. PMID:27092691

  10. Arousal facilitates collision avoidance mediated by a looming sensitive visual neuron in a flying locust.

    PubMed

    Rind, F Claire; Santer, Roger D; Wright, Geraldine A

    2008-08-01

    Locusts have two large collision-detecting neurons, the descending contralateral movement detectors (DCMDs) that signal object approach and trigger evasive glides during flight. We sought to investigate whether vision for action, when the locust is in an aroused state rather than a passive viewer, significantly alters visual processing in this collision-detecting pathway. To do this we used two different approaches to determine how the arousal state of a locust affects the prolonged periods of high-frequency spikes typical of the DCMD response to approaching objects that trigger evasive glides. First, we manipulated arousal state in the locust by applying a brief mechanical stimulation to the hind leg; this type of change of state occurs when gregarious locusts accumulate in high-density swarms. Second, we examined DCMD responses during flight because flight produces a heightened physiological state of arousal in locusts. When arousal was induced by either method we found that the DCMD response recovered from a previously habituated state; that it followed object motion throughout approach; and--most important--that it was significantly more likely to generate the maintained spike frequencies capable of evoking gliding dives even with extremely short intervals (1.8 s) between approaches. Overall, tethered flying locusts responded to 41% of simulated approaching objects (sets of 6 with 1.8 s ISI). When we injected epinastine, the neuronal octopamine receptor antagonist, into the hemolymph responsiveness declined to 12%, suggesting that octopamine plays a significant role in maintaining responsiveness of the DCMD and the locust to visual stimuli during flight.

  11. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    PubMed

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  12. Sexual Complaints, Pelvic Floor Symptoms, and Sexual Distress in Women over Forty

    PubMed Central

    Knoepp, Leise R.; Shippey, Stuart H.; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Derogatis, Leonard R.; Handa, Victoria L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The American Psychiatric Association recommends considering sexually related personal distress when assessing female sexual dysfunction. Currently, there is little data regarding the impact of sexual complaints on sexual distress. Aim To investigate the association between sexual complaints and perceived sexual distress in a population of ambulatory adult women. Methods Using the short forms of the Personal Experiences Questionnaire and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire, we assessed sexual complaints among 305 women seeking outpatient gynecologic care. Depressive symptoms were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) score. Sexual distress was measured using the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). Using multivariable logistic regression, we compared sexual complaints between distressed and nondistressed women. Main Outcome Measures Sexual distress, defined by FSDS score ≥15. Results FSDS scores were available for 292/305 participants. Seventy-six (26%) scores reflected distress. Distressed women were more likely to be younger (55.2 ± 1.0 years vs. 56.7 ± 0.8 years, P = 0.017); have higher CESD scores (16.6 vs. 9.5, P = 0.001); and report decreased arousal (56.8% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.001), infrequent orgasm (54% vs. 28.8%, P = 0.001), and dyspareunia (39.7% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.001). Women with sexual distress were also more likely to report sexual difficulty related to pelvic floor symptoms, including urinary incontinence with sexual activity (9% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.005), sexual avoidance due to vaginal prolapse (13.9% vs. 1%, P = 0.001), or sexual activity restriction due to fear of urinary incontinence (14.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.001). After multivariate analysis, sexual distress was significantly associated with dyspareunia (odds ratio [OR] 3.11, P = 0.008) and depression score (OR 1.05, P = 0.006), and inversely associated with feelings of arousal during sex (OR 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusion

  13. Zopiclone Increases the Arousal Threshold without Impairing Genioglossus Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sophie G.; Berger, Michael S.; Carberry, Jayne C.; Bilston, Lynne E.; Butler, Jane E.; Tong, Benjamin K.Y.; Martins, Rodrigo T.; Fisher, Lauren P.; McKenzie, David K.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Eckert, Danny J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the effects of the nonbenzodiazepine sedative zopiclone on the threshold to arousal with increasing respiratory effort and genioglossus muscle activity and to examine potential physiological factors mediating disparate effects of zopiclone on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity between patients. Methods: Twelve patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index = 41 ± 8 events/h) were studied during 2 single night sleep studies conducted approximately 1 w apart after receiving 7.5 mg of zopiclone or placebo according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover design. The respiratory arousal threshold (epiglottic pressure immediately prior to arousal during naturally occurring respiratory events), genioglossus activity and its responsiveness to pharyngeal pressure during respiratory events, and markers of OSA severity were compared between conditions. Genioglossus movement patterns and upper airway anatomy were also assessed via magnetic resonance imaging in a subset of participants (n = 7) during wakefulness. Results: Zopiclone increased the respiratory arousal threshold versus placebo (−31.8 ± 5.6 versus −26.4 ± 4.6 cmH2O, P = 0.02) without impairing genioglossus muscle activity or its responsiveness to negative pharyngeal pressure during respiratory events (−0.56 ± 0.2 versus −0.44 ± 0.1 %max/-cmH2O, P = 0.48). There was substantial interindividual variability in the changes in OSA severity with zopiclone explained, at least in part, by differences in pathophysiological characteristics including body mass index, arousal threshold, and genioglossus movement patterns. Conclusions: In a group of patients with predominantly severe OSA, zopiclone increased the arousal threshold without reducing genioglossus muscle activity or its responsiveness to negative pharyngeal pressure. These properties may be beneficial in some patients with OSA with certain pathophysiological characteristics but may worsen hypoxemia in

  14. Neural and hormonal mechanisms of reproductive-related arousal in fishes.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Bass, Andrew H

    2011-05-01

    The major classes of chemicals and brain pathways involved in sexual arousal in mammals are well studied and are thought to be of an ancient, evolutionarily conserved origin. Here we discuss what is known of these neurochemicals and brain circuits in fishes, the oldest and most species-rich group of vertebrates from which tetrapods arose over 350 million years ago. Highlighted are case studies in vocal species where well-delineated sensory and motor pathways underlying reproductive-related behaviors illustrate the diversity and evolution of brain mechanisms driving sexual motivation between (and within) sexes. Also discussed are evolutionary insights from the neurobiology and reproductive behavior of elasmobranch fishes, the most ancient lineage of jawed vertebrates, which are remarkably similar in their reproductive biology to terrestrial mammals.

  15. Social and nonsocial content differentially modulates visual attention and autonomic arousal in Rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christopher J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Platt, Michael L; Amaral, David G

    2011-01-01

    The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that benefits from comparative studies of humans and animal models. However, many questions remain regarding the relationship between visual attention and arousal while processing social stimuli. Using noninvasive infrared eye-tracking methods, we measured the visual social attention and physiological arousal (pupil diameter) of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they watched social and nonsocial videos. We found that social videos, as compared to nonsocial videos, captured more visual attention, especially if the social signals depicted in the videos were directed towards the subject. Subject-directed social cues and nonsocial nature documentary footage, compared to videos showing conspecifics engaging in naturalistic social interactions, generated larger pupil diameters (indicating heightened sympathetic arousal). These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys will actively engage in watching videos of various kinds. Moreover, infrared eye tracking technology provides a mechanism for sensitively gauging the social interest of presented stimuli. Adult male rhesus monkeys' visual attention and physiological arousal do not always trend in the same direction, and are likely influenced by the content and novelty of a particular visual stimulus. This experiment creates a strong foundation for future experiments that will examine the neural network responsible for social information processing in nonhuman primates. Such studies may provide valuable information relevant to

  16. Bibliotherapy for low sexual desire: evidence for effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Laurie B; Balzer, Alexandra M; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention group completed the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire (HISD; Apt & Hurlbert, 1992) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. Rosen et al., 2000), read the self-help book under study in 6 weeks, and completed the measures a second time. The control group completed the same measures 6 weeks apart. Results demonstrated that the intervention group made statistically greater gains over time as compared with the control group on measures of sexual desire (HISD and FSFI Desire subscale), sexual arousal (FSFI Arousal subscale), sexual satisfaction (FSFI Satisfaction subscale), and overall sexual functioning (FSFI Total Score). A subset of participants in the intervention group participated in a 7-week follow-up study, and these participants maintained their gains in sexual desire and overall sexual functioning. Findings have important implications for future research on the efficacy of bibliotherapy generally and for low sexual desire specifically. Results also have vital implications for the treatment of low sexual desire.

  17. Infralimbic cortex activation and motivated arousal induce histamine release.

    PubMed

    Riveros, María Eugenia; Forray, María Inés; Torrealba, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Appetitive behaviours occur in a state of behavioural and physiological activation that allows the optimal performance of these goal-directed behaviours. Here, we tested the hypothesis that histamine neurons under the command of the infralimbic cortex are important to provide behavioural activation. Extracellular histamine and serotonin were measured by microdialysis of the medial prefrontal cortex in behaving rats in parallel with a picrotoxin microinjection into the infralimbic cortex. The injection aroused the rats behaviourally, increased histamine release and decreased serotonin levels. Inhibition of the infralimbic cortex with muscimol produced the opposite effects on neurotransmitter release. The behavioural activation induced by motivating hungry rats with caged food was paralleled by an immediate histamine release, whereas awakening induced by tapping their microdialysis bowl increased serotonin, but not histamine levels. In conclusion, picrotoxin injection into the infralimbic cortex produces behavioural activation together with histamine release; in a similar manner, induction of an appetitive state produced histamine release, likely related to increased behavioural activation characteristic of an appetitive behaviour.

  18. Inhibition of NMDA-type glutamate receptors induces arousal from torpor in hibernating arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii).

    PubMed

    Jinka, Tulasi R; Rasley, Brian T; Drew, Kelly L

    2012-09-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to overcome periods of resource limitation often associated with extreme climatic conditions. The hibernation season consists of prolonged bouts of torpor that are interrupted by brief interbout arousals. Physiological mechanisms regulating spontaneous arousals are poorly understood, but may be related to a need for gluconeogenesis or elimination of metabolic wastes. Glutamate is derived from glutamine through the glutamate-glutamine cycle and from glucose via the pyruvate carboxylase pathway when nitrogen balance favors formation of glutamine. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) maintains torpor in arctic ground squirrel (arctic ground squirrel (AGS); Urocitellus parryii). Administration of NMDAR antagonists MK-801 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) that crosses the blood-brain barrier and AP5 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) that does not cross the blood-brain barrier induced arousal in AGS. Central administration of MK-801 (0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg; icv) to hibernating AGS failed to induce arousal. Results suggest that activation of NMDAR at a peripheral or circumventricular site is necessary to maintain prolonged torpor and that a decrease in glutamate at these sites may contribute to spontaneous arousal in AGS.

  19. Entrainment of circadian clocks in mammals by arousal and food.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Ralph E; Antle, Michael C

    2011-06-30

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a system of endogenous circadian oscillators (clock cells) in the brain and in most peripheral organs and tissues. One group of clock cells in the hypothalamic SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei) functions as a pacemaker for co-ordinating the timing of oscillators elsewhere in the brain and body. This master clock can be reset and entrained by daily LD (light-dark) cycles and thereby also serves to interface internal with external time, ensuring an appropriate alignment of behavioural and physiological rhythms with the solar day. Two features of the mammalian circadian system provide flexibility in circadian programming to exploit temporal regularities of social stimuli or food availability. One feature is the sensitivity of the SCN pacemaker to behavioural arousal stimulated during the usual sleep period, which can reset its phase and modulate its response to LD stimuli. Neural pathways from the brainstem and thalamus mediate these effects by releasing neurochemicals that inhibit retinal inputs to the SCN clock or that alter clock-gene expression in SCN clock cells. A second feature is the sensitivity of circadian oscillators outside of the SCN to stimuli associated with food intake, which enables animals to uncouple rhythms of behaviour and physiology from LD cycles and align these with predictable daily mealtimes. The location of oscillators necessary for food-entrained behavioural rhythms is not yet certain. Persistence of these rhythms in mice with clock-gene mutations that disable the SCN pacemaker suggests diversity in the molecular basis of light- and food-entrainable clocks.

  20. Prediction of Gymnastic Performance from Arousal and Anxiety Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    This study predicts gymnastic performance, arousal, and anxiety measures from past performances. Pulse rate and the Palmar Sweat Index were utilized as indicants of arousal. Anxiety was assessed by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Eighteen members of the Ithaca College women's varsity gymnastic team were tested throughout the 1973-74…

  1. Let's be skeptical about reconsolidation and emotional arousal in therapy.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Lane et al. imply hypotheses that are questionable: that emotional arousal is a cause of positive change and reconsolidation research can be applied to therapy to alter memory. Given the history of problematic attempts to incorporate memory distortion or high emotional arousal into therapeutic techniques, both of which heralded premature optimism and hubris, I urge open-minded skepticism.

  2. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  3. Memory Performance After Arousal from Different Sleep Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Learning material was presented to independent groups of subjects either after arousal from non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, after arousal from REM sleep, or under conditions of no prior sleep. Measures of immediate and subsequent free recall were taken. (Editor)

  4. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  5. Differential Effects of Arousal in Positive and Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  6. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  7. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  8. The Impact of Emotional Arousal on Learning in Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    positive impact on human learning. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the impact of emotional arousal on learning in virtual environments. An...reason that emotional arousal (in moderation) may also have a positive impact on human learning. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the...1 A. TRAINING IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS.................. 2 B. HUMAN MEMORY AND EMOTION ......................... 6 C

  9. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...

  10. Pupil Dilation to Explicit and Non-Explicit Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tuesday M; Holmes, Luke; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Rieger, Gerulf

    2017-01-01

    Pupil dilation to explicit sexual stimuli (footage of naked and aroused men or women) can elicit sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. If similar patterns were replicated with non-explicit sexual stimuli (footage of dressed men and women), then pupil dilation could be indicative of automatic sexual response in fully noninvasive designs. We examined this in 325 men and women with varied sexual orientations to determine whether dilation patterns to non-explicit sexual stimuli resembled those to explicit sexual stimuli depicting the same sex or other sex. Sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation to non-explicit sexual stimuli mirrored those to explicit sexual stimuli. However, the relationship of dilation to non-explicit sexual stimuli with dilation to corresponding explicit sexual stimuli was modest, and effect magnitudes were smaller with non-explicit sexual stimuli than explicit sexual stimuli. The prediction that sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation are larger in men than in women was confirmed with explicit sexual stimuli but not with non-explicit sexual stimuli.

  11. Emotional valence and arousal interact in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Smilek, Daniel; Eich, Eric; Enns, James T

    2008-03-01

    A recent study demonstrated that observers' ability to identify targets in a rapid visual sequence was enhanced when they simultaneously listened to happy music. In the study reported here, we examined how the emotion-attention relationship is influenced by changes in both mood valence (negative vs. positive) and arousal (low vs. high). We used a standard induction procedure to generate calm, happy, sad, and anxious moods in participants. Results for an attentional blink task showed no differences in first-target accuracy, but second-target accuracy was highest for participants with low arousal and negative affect (sad), lowest for those with strong arousal and negative affect (anxious), and intermediate for those with positive affect regardless of their arousal (calm, happy). We discuss implications of this valence-arousal interaction for the control of visual attention.

  12. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  13. AB022. The psyche of male sexual difficulties related to related to the partner

    PubMed Central

    Adaikan, P. Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Impression management for men aiming at courtship and love is cognitively taxing and is costly. Recent research suggests that when a man tries to impress an attractive woman his cognitive performance could be impaired and depleted. However, cognitive performance of a woman is not affected during her interaction with someone of the opposite sex (Karremans et al. 2009). By dictation of nature and anatomically too, men take an active and positive role in sexual performance; their failures in sexual performances will be revealed to the partner then and there. Men react negatively to such a failure when their confidence or self-esteems are at stake. Their psyche will strike it as a failure of life time, failure of their genetic spread and survival of the species. In subsequent sexual encounter their body and subconscious mind will switch to the physiology of anti-erectile transmission and limit the expansion of desire and arousal on other attempts. In general, we call this performance anxiety. Masters and Johnson’s pioneering work in the 70’s highlighted the negative impact of performance anxiety on sexual function. As a form of therapy, exercise such as Sensate Focus were designed for the couple to overcome the performance anxiety and phobic quality in man so that sexual arousal and penetrative erection can be practiced/achieved in a relaxed state. At the Fertility, menopausal and andrology settings of OBGYN, it is not uncommon to see male sexual dysfunctions that include lack of desire, psychogenic ED and ejaculatory dysfunctions. One of the main causes of complaints of unconsummated marriages is vaginismus (and dyspareunia) in the partner which causes psychogenic erectile dysfunction in husbands who fail to penetrate at the first or second attempts. Such couple tend to drift from sexual intimacy for months and years until there is an extended family pressure for conception. Another situation that compromises erectile capacity of otherwise a normal man with

  14. Evaluating Sexual Nursing Care Intervention for Reducing Sexual Dysfunction in Indonesian Cervical Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Afiyanti, Yati; Rachmawati, Imami Nur; Milanti, Ariesta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to describe the factors affecting successful nursing care intervention on sexuality. Methods: A one-group pre- and post-test design was used. Fifty-three cervical cancer survivors and their spouses were administered with nursing care intervention on sexuality in three sessions and evaluated after 6 weeks. Results: Sexual intervention reduced dyspareunia symptoms, improved vaginal lubrication, improved sexual satisfaction, and enhanced sexual arousal, sexual desire, and orgasm among cancer survivors and their spouses. The other influencing factors also simultaneously contributed to the success of nursing care intervention. Conclusions: Nursing care intervention on sexuality could be a part of supportive nursing care and an important aspect in standard nursing care for cancer patients in Indonesia. PMID:27981170

  15. Empathy in sexually sadistic offenders: an experimental comparison with non-sadistic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Joachim; Istrefi, Shota; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that severe sexual sadism and psychopathy are phenotypically different, although both are characterized by deficits in emotional processing. We assessed empathic capacity in a sample of 12 sexual sadists in comparison with 23 non-sadistic offenders using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). All participants were forensic patients under mandatory treatment orders who had committed sexual offenses. The MET is a computerized rating task that differentiates and measures cognitive and emotional components of empathy, or perspective-taking versus compassionate components. To identify the effects of possible empathy deficits caused by psychopathic traits, we controlled both samples for psychopathy as a covariate, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). According to our results, sexual sadists did not differ from non-sadistic sexual offenders with regard to emotional empathy for either positive or negative stimuli. The results suggest that severe sexual sadism is a distinct, pathological sexual arousal response, not a deficit in emotional processing.

  16. Anticipated violence, arousal, and enjoyment of movies: viewers' reactions to violent previews based on arousal-seeking tendency.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Xin; Lee, Moon J

    2008-06-01

    The authors investigated the effects of violent portrayals in movie previews on viewers' arousal and anticipated enjoyment of movies based on their arousal-seeking tendencies. A total of 159 college students watched 6 movie previews, each in a violent or nonviolent version, and reported their expectations of enjoying watching the movies. The results show that high arousal seekers reported a higher level of anticipated enjoyment after watching the violent previews than the nonviolent previews. In contrast, low arousal seekers did not expect much difference in their enjoyment between the two versions. In line with the theory of optimal stimulation level, the results indicate that viewers' anticipated enjoyment of movies after watching violent images in previews is moderated by individuals' arousal-seeking tendencies.

  17. Soundtrack contents and depicted sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J

    1986-06-01

    Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.

  18. Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

    2007-01-01

    We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care.

  19. CAP characteristics differ in patients with arousal parasomnias and frontal and temporal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Benbir, Gulcin; Kutlu, Ayse; Gozubatik-Celik, Gokcen; Karadeniz, Derya

    2013-08-01

    Arousal parasomnias (AP) and frontal and temporal epilepsies consist of pathologic arousals originating in abnormal thalamocortical circuits, reflecting increased sleep instability and arousal oscillations--the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). In this study, the authors aim to investigate the CAP characteristics in 27 patients with AP, 22 patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies, and age- and gender-matched 20 healthy subjects. The mean CAP sequence and cycle was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (P < 0.003). The total CAP duration was always higher in the patients with AP than in those with frontal and temporal epilepsies, reaching statistically significant level at the first (P = 0.044), second (P = 0.024), third (P = 0.010), and sixth (P < 0.001) sleep cycles. The duration of A1 in descending branch (P = 0.062) and trough phase of sleep cycles (P = 0.038) was longer in the patients with AP. The duration of A2 subtype of CAP in ascending branch (P = 0.039) and the number (P = 0.036) and duration (P = 0.050) of A3 subtype of CAP in descending branch of sleep cycles were higher in the patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies. This difference in CAP parameters might suggest that AP are associated with milder activation in specific brain areas, showing a similar evolution with physiologic homeostatic decrease in sleep synchronization. Frontal and temporal epilepsies, however, is associated with a moderate-to-powerful activation in wider brain networks.

  20. Feature selection for multimodal emotion recognition in the arousal-valence space.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian A; Orozco, Álvaro A; Álvarez, Mauricio A

    2013-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a challenging research problem with a significant scientific interest. Most of the emotion assessment studies have focused on the analysis of facial expressions. Recently, it has been shown that the simultaneous use of several biosignals taken from the patient may improve the classification accuracy. An open problem in this area is to identify which biosignals are more relevant for emotion recognition. In this paper, we perform Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) to select a subset of features that allows emotion classification. Experiments are carried out over a multimodal database with arousal and valence annotations, and a diverse range of features extracted from physiological, neurophysiological, and video signals. Results show that several features can be eliminated while still preserving classification accuracy in setups of 2 and 3 classes. Using a small subset of the features, it is possible to reach 70% accuracy for arousal and 60% accuracy for valence in some experiments. Experimentally, it is shown that the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is relevant for arousal classification, while the electroencephalogram (EEG) is relevant for valence.

  1. Psychophysiological response patterns and risky sexual behavior in heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John

    2009-08-01

    The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.

  2. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

  3. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  4. Brain circuitry mediating arousal from obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlin, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder of repetitive sleep disruption caused by reduced or blocked respiratory airflow. Although an anatomically compromised airway accounts for the major predisposition to OSA, a patient's arousal threshold and factors related to the central control of breathing (ventilatory control stability) are also important. Arousal from sleep (defined by EEG desynchronization) may be the only mechanism that allows airway re-opening following an obstructive event. However, in many cases arousal is unnecessary and even worsens the severity of OSA. Mechanisms for arousal are poorly understood. However, accumulating data are elucidating the relevant neural pathways and neurotransmitters. For example, serotonin is critically required, but its site of action is unknown. Important neural substrates for arousal have been recently identified in the parabrachial complex (PB), a visceral sensory nucleus in the rostral pons. Moreover, glutamatergic signaling from the PB contributes to arousal caused by hypercapnia, one of the arousal-promoting stimuli in OSA. A major current focus of OSA research is to find means to maintain airway patency during sleep, without sleep interruption. PMID:23810448

  5. Kidney proteome changes provide evidence for a dynamic metabolism and regional redistribution of plasma proteins during torpor-arousal cycles of hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Alkesh; Orlicky, David J.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Russell, Rae L.; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernating ground squirrels maintain homeostasis despite extreme physiological challenges. In winter, these circannual hibernators fast for months while cycling between prolonged periods of low blood flow and body temperature, known as torpor, and short interbout arousals (IBA), where more typical mammalian parameters are rapidly restored. Here we examined the kidney proteome for changes that support the dramatically different physiological demands of the hibernator's year. We identified proteins in 150 two-dimensional gel spots that altered by at least 1.5-fold using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. These data successfully classified individuals by physiological state and revealed three dynamic patterns of relative protein abundance that dominated the hibernating kidney: 1) a large group of proteins generally involved with capturing and storing energy were most abundant in summer; 2) a select subset of these also increased during each arousal from torpor; and 3) 14 spots increased in torpor and early arousal were enriched for plasma proteins that enter cells via the endocytic pathway. Immunohistochemistry identified α2-macroglobulin and albumin in kidney blood vessels during late torpor and early arousal; both exhibited regional heterogeneity consistent with highly localized control of blood flow in the glomeruli. Furthermore, albumin, but not α2-macroglobulin, was detected in the proximal tubules during torpor and early arousal but not in IBA or summer animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal glomerular filtration barriers remain intact throughout torpor-arousal cycles but endocytosis, and hence renal function, is compromised at low body temperature during torpor and then recovers with rewarming during arousal. PMID:22643061

  6. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  7. Fos expression at the cerebellum following non-contact arousal and mating behavior in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Jorge; Miquel, Marta; Toledo, Rebeca; Mayor-Mar, Justo Abraham; Garcia, Luis I.; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E.; Caba, Mario; Hernandez, Maria Elena

    2010-01-01

    The cerebellum is considered a center underlying fine movements, cognition, memory and sexual responses. The latter feature led us to correlate sexual arousal and copulation in male rats with neural activity at the cerebellar cortex. Two behavioral paradigms were used in this investigation: the stimulation of males by distant receptive females (non-contact sexual stimulation), and the execution of up to three consecutive ejaculations. The vermis area of the cerebellum was removed following behavioral experiments, cut into sagittal sections, and analyzed with Fos immunohistochemistry to determine neuronal activation. At the mid-vermis region (sections from the midline to 0.1 mm laterally), non-contact stimulation significantly increased the activity of granule neurons. The number of activated cells increased in every lobule, but lobules 1 and 6 to 9 showed the greatest increment. In sexual behavior tests, males reaching one ejaculation had a high number of activated neurons similar to those counted after non-contact stimulation. However, two or three consecutive ejaculations showed a smaller number of Fos-ir cells. In contrast to the mid-vermis region, sections farthest from the midline (0.1 to 0.9 mm laterally) revealed that only lobule 7 expressed activated neurons. These data suggest that a well-delineated group of granule neurons have a sexual biphasic response at the cerebellar vermis, and that Fos in them is under an active degradation mechanism. Thus, they participate as a neural substrate for male rat sexual responses with an activation-deactivation process corresponding with the sensory stimulation and motor performance occurring during copulation. PMID:17936859

  8. We Need to Talk: Disclosure of Sexual Problems Is Associated With Depression, Sexual Functioning, and Relationship Satisfaction in Women.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Kathleen E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-01-20

    Women with sexual problems (e.g., difficulties with desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and pain during sexual activity) experience more depressive symptoms, and poorer sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction compared with unaffected women. A robust literature highlights the importance of sexual communication, and sexual self-disclosures in particular, for the well-being of individuals in romantic relationships. However, little is known about the disclosure of sexual problems to romantic partners and its association with women's psychological, sexual, and relationship well-being. This study examined the proportion of women (N = 277) who disclose (vs. do not disclose) sexual problems to their partner, and the consequences of disclosure. Women (Mage = 29.79, SD = 6.54) completed online validated measures assessing sexual problems, relationship satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. The majority (69.3%) reported disclosing sexual problems to their current romantic partner. Disclosers reported fewer depressive symptoms, and greater sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction compared to nondisclosers. Disclosing sexual problems may benefit women's well-being by enhancing intimacy or allowing couples to adapt sexual activities to accommodate sexual problems. Clinicians might use cognitive-behavioral strategies to assist women in disclosing sexual problems to partners to maximize the potential psychological, sexual, and relationship benefits.

  9. Trazodone increases arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Heinzer, R.C.; White, D.P.; Jordan, A.S.; Lo, Y.L.; Dover, L.; Stevenson, K.; Malhotra, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low arousal threshold is believed to predispose to breathing instability during sleep. The present authors hypothesised that trazodone, a nonmyorelaxant sleep-promoting agent, would increase the effort-related arousal threshold in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. In total, nine OSA patients, mean±SD age 49±9 yrs, apnoea/hypopnoea index 52±32 events·h-1, were studied on 2 nights, one with trazodone at 100 mg and one with a placebo, in a double blind randomised fashion. While receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), repeated arousals were induced: 1) by increasing inspired CO2 and 2) by stepwise decreases in CPAP level. Respiratory effort was measured with an oesophageal balloon. End-tidal CO2 tension (PET,CO2) was monitored with a nasal catheter. During trazodone nights, compared with placebo nights, the arousals occurred at a higher PET,CO2 level (mean±SD 7.30±0.57 versus 6.62±0.64 kPa (54.9±4.3 versus 49.8±4.8 mmHg), respectively). When arousals were triggered by increasing inspired CO2 level, the maximal oesophageal pressure swing was greater (19.4±4.0 versus 13.1±4.9 cmH2O) and the oesophageal pressure nadir before the arousals was lower (-5.1±4.7 versus -0.38±4.2 cmH2O) with trazodone. When arousals were induced by stepwise CPAP drops, the maximal oesophageal pressure swings before the arousals did not differ. Trazodone at 100 mg increased the effort-related arousal threshold in response to hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnoea patients and allowed them to tolerate higher CO2 levels. PMID:18256066

  10. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  11. Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Parslow, P; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Adamson, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. Aims: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. Methods: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2–4 weeks post-term, 2–3 months post-term, and 5–6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H2O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. Results: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2–3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. Conclusions: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2–3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS. PMID:14709496

  12. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  13. Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature. PMID:21660127

  14. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  15. Increased thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue under low temperature and its contribution to arousal from hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kitao, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to play a significant physiological role during arousal when body temperature rises from the extremely low body temperature that occurs during hibernation. The dominant pathway of BAT thermogenesis occurs through the β(3)-adrenergic receptor. In this study, we investigated the role of the β(3)-adrenergic system in BAT thermogenesis during arousal from hibernation both in vitro and in vivo. Syrian hamsters in the hibernation group contained BAT that was significantly greater in overall mass, total protein, and thermogenic uncoupling protein-1 than BAT from the warm-acclimated group. Although the ability of the β(3)-agonist CL316,243 to induce BAT thermogenesis at 36°C was no different between the hibernation and warm-acclimated groups, its maximum ratio over the basal value at 12°C in the hibernation group was significantly larger than that in the warm-acclimated group. Forskolin stimulation at 12°C produced equivalent BAT responses in these two groups. In vivo thermogenesis was assessed with the arousal time determined by the time course of BAT temperature or heart rate. Stimulation of BAT by CL316,243 significantly shortened the time of arousal from hibernation compared with that induced by vehicle alone, and it also induced arousal in deep hibernating animals. The β(3)-antagonist SR59230A inhibited arousal from hibernation either in part or completely. These results suggest that BAT in hibernating animals has potent thermogenic activity with a highly effective β(3)-receptor mechanism at lower temperatures.

  16. Pilot study of a brief cognitive behavioral versus mindfulness-based intervention for women with sexual distress and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Seal, Brooke N; Rellini, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Although sexual difficulties related to a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are common, there are no efficacious treatments to address sexual distress. Recent evidence for the benefits of mindfulness, which emphasizes present-moment non-judgmental awareness, in the treatment of women's sexual concerns provided the impetus for this pilot study. Twenty partnered women with sexual difficulties and significant sexual distress, and a history of CSA were randomized to two sessions of either a cognitive behavioral (CBT, n = 8) or mindfulness-based (MBT, n = 12) group treatment (age: M = 35.8 years, range: 22-54 years). Hierarchical Linear Modeling to assess changes in concordance between laboratory-based subjective and genital sexual arousal revealed a significant effect of MBT on concordance such that women in the MBT group experienced a significantly greater subjective sexual arousal response to the same level of genital arousal compared to the CBT group and to pre-treatment. Both groups also experienced a significant decrease in sexual distress. These data support the further study of mindfulness-based approaches in the treatment of sexual difficulties characterized by a disconnection between genital and subjective sexual response.

  17. Combined site-specific sacral neuromodulation and pudendal nerve release surgery in a patient with interstitial cystitis and persistent arousal.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Georgina Louise; Vancaillie, Thierry Georges

    2016-06-09

    A variety of neuromodulation approaches have been described for the management of pelvic neuropathies, including interstitial cystitis, pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The benefits of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuromodulator has yet to be explored for these patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a complex pelvic neuropathy resulting in urinary, sexual and gastro-intestinal dysfunction. She presented with an established diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; however, she also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The patient underwent implantation of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuoromodulation device at the time of surgical decompression of the pudendal nerves. An impressive clinical response followed. This case demonstrates a unique clinical presentation and highlights the value of a combined surgical and neuromodulatory approach in the management of patients with complex pelvic neuropathies.

  18. Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation.

    PubMed

    Steels, Elizabeth; Rao, Amanda; Vitetta, Luis

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the clinical study was to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) in a double blind randomized placebo controlled study. The study recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction and randomized to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of the active treatment (600 mg Testofen per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DISF-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels.

  19. The Effects on Arousal of Frustration and Aggressive Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doob, Anthony N.; Kirshenbaum, Hershi M.

    1973-01-01

    Research supported by grant from the Canada Council. Studies effects of film violence on aggressive behavior. Suggests that for high levels of arousal, an aggressive movie could stop frustration-produced stimuli and hostility. (DS)

  20. Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A. C.; Radford, A. N.; Pettersson, I. C.; Yang, F. P.; Nicol, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period, suggesting that arousal is not a good measure of avoidance in non-human animals. PMID:25643655

  1. Sexuality after breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Emilee; Emilee, Gilbert; Ussher, J M; Perz, J

    2010-08-01

    It is widely recognised that women's sexuality can be particularly complex after breast cancer, with sexual changes often becoming the most problematic aspect of a woman's life. The impact of such changes can last for many years after successful treatment, and can be associated with serious physical and emotional side-effects. The objective of this paper is to review research on breast cancer and sexuality from the years 1998 to 2010. Research has documented a range of physical changes to a woman's sexuality following breast cancer, including disturbances to sexual functioning, as well as disruptions to sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual desire, and sexual pleasure, resulting from chemotherapy, chemically induced menopause, tamoxifen, and breast cancer surgery. Women's intrapsychic experience of changes to sexuality includes a fear of loss of fertility, negative body image, feelings of sexual unattractiveness, loss of femininity, depression and anxiety, as well as alterations to a sense of sexual self. The discursive construction of femininity and sexuality shapes the way women construct and experience their illness and their body - leading many women to try to appear 'normal' to others post-breast surgery. Finally, the quality of a woman's partnered relationship consistently predicts sexual health post-breast cancer - reinforcing the importance of recognising the intersubjective nature of issues surrounding breast cancer and sexuality. It is concluded that analyses of sexuality in the context of breast cancer cannot conceptualise the physical body separately from women's intrapsychic negotiation, her social and relational context, and the discursive constructions of sexuality and femininity: a material-discursive-intrapsychic interaction.

  2. Sexual problems in gay men: an overview of empirical research.

    PubMed

    Sandfort, T G; de Keizer, M

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings and theoretical perspectives of 19 empirical studies of sexual problems in gay men. In order to understand these problems better, various differences between male homosexual and heterosexual functioning are discussed first. The studies included differ widely in terms of the issues explored, the populations studied, and the way data have been collected. In a few studies, researchers generally have looked at the prevalence and experience of sexual problems. In other studies, researchers have focused on the etiology and treatment of specific problems, such as sexual desire disorders, sexual aversion, excitement and arousal problems, orgasm disorders, sexual pain disorders and sexual compulsivity. Overall it is surprising how little is known about these problems in gay men. This is also true, however, for same-sex sexuality in general. Suggestions are made for studies that will enable us to obtain a better understanding of sexual problems in gay men.

  3. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  4. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  5. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  6. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A.; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q.; Turchi, Janita N.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  7. The Reliability and Validity of Salivation as a Measure of Individual Differences in Intrinsic Arousal. Report from the Project on Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank H.; And Others

    Two studies were reported which attempted to estimate the stability and construct validity of human salivary response as a measure of individual differences (IDs) in physiological arousal. Twenty-second base line estimates and 20-second response levels to four drops of lemon juice were measured, with the former value being removed from the latter…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men’s Sexual Aggression Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

  9. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  10. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reproductive System Gynecomastia Help! Is This My Body? Male Reproductive System When Will I Start Developing? Why Are My ... Erection When Waking Up? Is My Penis Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ...

  11. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Irregular. What's Going On? Pap Smears Pelvic Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... My Monthly Cycle Go Back to Normal With PCOS Treatment? For Guys Can I Stop Myself From ...

  12. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a healthy life Mental health for men Sexual health for men Male infertility Prostate health Sexual problems ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Men's Health > Sexual health for men Men's Health This information in Spanish ( ...

  13. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age. Sex and aging Can older adults remain sexually active? ... from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into ...

  14. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Yong-Yow, Sabrina; Wagner, Lauren; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-08-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to test the hypothesis that orexin is critical for sexual motivation and performance in male rats. First, cFos expression in orexin neurons was demonstrated following presentation of a receptive or non-receptive female without further activation by different elements of mating. Next, the functional role of orexin was tested utilizing orexin-B conjugated saporin, resulting in orexin cell body lesions in the hypothalamus. Lesions were conducted in sexually naive males and subsequent sexual behavior was recorded during four mating trials. Lesion males showed shortened latencies to mount and intromit during the first, but not subsequent mating trials, suggesting lesions facilitated initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive, but not experienced males. Likewise, lesions did not affect sexual motivation in experienced males, determined by runway tests. Finally, elevated plus maze tests demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behaviors in lesioned males, supporting a role for orexin in anxiety associated with initial exposure to the female in naive animals. Overall, these findings show that orexin is not critical for male sexual performance or motivation, but may play a role in arousal and anxiety related to sexual behavior in naive animals.

  15. Pleasure to play, arousal to stay: the effect of player emotions on digital game preferences and playing time.

    PubMed

    Poels, Karolien; van den Hoogen, Wouter; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand; de Kort, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how player emotions during game-play, measured through self-report and physiological recordings, predict playing time and game preferences. We distinguished between short-term (immediately after game-play) and long-term (after 3 weeks) playing time and game preferences. While pleasure was most predictive for short-term playing time and game preferences, arousal, particularly for game preferences, was most predictive on the longer term. This result was found through both self-report and physiological emotion measures. This study initiates theorizing about digital gaming as a hedonic consumer product and sketches future research endeavors of this topic.

  16. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance

  17. Problems in Sexual Functioning among Male OEF/OIF Veterans Seeking Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Gros, Daniel F.; Szafranski, Derek D.; Acierno, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined sexual dysfunction among Operations Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated predictors of erectile dysfunction [ED] and self-reported sexual problems among 150 male combat veterans seeking outpatient treatment for PTSD within the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Method Participants completed clinical interviews and several questionnaires including measures of sexual arousal and sexual desire. A medical records review was also conducted to document evidence of an ED diagnosis or associated medication use. Results An ED diagnosis was present for 12% of the sample, and 10% were taking associated medications. Sexual arousal problems were reported by sixty-two percent of partnered veterans. Sexual desire problems were endorsed by 63% of the total sample, and by 72% of partnered veterans. Age was the only significant predictor of ED diagnosis or medication use. Age, race, PTSD diagnosis (versus subclinical symptoms), depression, and social support predicted self-reported sexual arousal problems; while race, combat exposure, social support, and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD predicted self-reported sexual desire problems. Conclusions Sexual problems are common among male OEF/OIF combat veterans seeking treatment for PTSD. Moreover, avoidance/numbing symptoms robustly predicted sexual desire problems. These findings highlight the importance of expanding assessment of sexual dysfunction and support the need for additional research in this area. PMID:25596624

  18. Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

  19. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  20. Arousal and Retention in Paired-Associate, Serial, and Free Learning. Technical Report No. 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Jacqueline E.; Farley, Frank H.

    In three experiments employing 60 Ss, arousal was manipulated by white noise during paired-associate, serial, and free learning in an effort to investigate the relationships of arousal and long-term recall. Previous research suggested that high arousal in the paired-associate paradigm leads to better retention relative to low arousal. The present…

  1. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    compulsion. They all spent a majority of time monitoring their physiological reactions to members of both sexes to check for arousal. They attempted homosexual activity and were disgusted by it, yet this did not end their questioning. They avoided relationships with the opposite sex, being either too anxious to initiate, or too conflicted to maintain them. The obsession with being gay seemed like a horrific thought symptomatic of homophobia, however the level of horror was out of proportion to the patient's overall level of homonegativity suggesting that the horror came mostly from feeling like their core identity was threatened.Conclusion HOCD can present in ways similar to normal homosexual identity formation. A thorough exploration of eroticism towards both sexes as well as prior history of subclinical anxiety should help distinguish the two. Treatment of HOCD should combine education about sexuality and OCD as well as usual OCD treatments such as relaxation techniques, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness training and pharmacology.

  2. EXERCISE IMPROVES SEXUAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN TAKING ANTIDEPRESSANTS: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2014-01-01

    Background In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants [1]. We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. Methods Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health. Results Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants. PMID:24754044

  3. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  4. Pupil-linked arousal determines variability in perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Peter R; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-09-01

    Decision making between several alternatives is thought to involve the gradual accumulation of evidence in favor of each available choice. This process is profoundly variable even for nominally identical stimuli, yet the neuro-cognitive substrates that determine the magnitude of this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that arousal state is a powerful determinant of variability in perceptual decision making. We measured pupil size, a highly sensitive index of arousal, while human subjects performed a motion-discrimination task, and decomposed task behavior into latent decision making parameters using an established computational model of the decision process. In direct contrast to previous theoretical accounts specifying a role for arousal in several discrete aspects of decision making, we found that pupil diameter was uniquely related to a model parameter representing variability in the rate of decision evidence accumulation: Periods of increased pupil size, reflecting heightened arousal, were characterized by greater variability in accumulation rate. Pupil diameter also correlated trial-by-trial with specific patterns of behavior that collectively are diagnostic of changing accumulation rate variability, and explained substantial individual differences in this computational quantity. These findings provide a uniquely clear account of how arousal state impacts decision making, and may point to a relationship between pupil-linked neuromodulation and behavioral variability. They also pave the way for future studies aimed at augmenting the precision with which people make decisions.

  5. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bryant, Gregory A.; Kaye, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

  6. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

  7. Arousal dynamics drive vocal production in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Borjon, Jeremy I; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Cervantes, Diego C; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-08-01

    Vocal production is the result of interacting cognitive and autonomic processes. Despite claims that changes in one interoceptive state (arousal) govern primate vocalizations, we know very little about how it influences their likelihood and timing. In this study we investigated the role of arousal during naturally occurring vocal production in marmoset monkeys. Throughout each session, naturally occurring contact calls are produced more quickly, and with greater probability, during higher levels of arousal, as measured by heart rate. On average, we observed a steady increase in heart rate 23 s before the production of a call. Following call production, there is a sharp and steep cardiac deceleration lasting ∼8 s. The dynamics of cardiac fluctuations around a vocalization cannot be completely predicted by the animal's respiration or movement. Moreover, the timing of vocal production was tightly correlated to the phase of a 0.1-Hz autonomic nervous system rhythm known as the Mayer wave. Finally, a compilation of the state space of arousal dynamics during vocalization illustrated that perturbations to the resting state space increase the likelihood of a call occurring. Together, these data suggest that arousal dynamics are critical for spontaneous primate vocal production, not only as a robust predictor of the likelihood of vocal onset but also as scaffolding on which behavior can unfold.

  8. The impact of rheumatic diseases on sexual function.

    PubMed

    Tristano, Antonio G

    2009-06-01

    Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being's life and is more than of only the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. In rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients, pain and depression could be the principal factors contributing to sexual dysfunction. On the other hand, in women with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis sexual dysfunction is apparently most associated to vaginal discomfort or pain during intercourse. Finally, sexual dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia could be principally associated with depression, but the characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia (generalized pain, stiffness, fatigue and poor sleep) may contribute to the occurrence of sexual dysfunction. The treatment of sexual dysfunction will depend on the specific patient's symptoms, however, there are some general recommendations including: exploring different positions, using analgesics drug, heat and muscle relaxants before sexual activity and exploring alternative methods of sexual expression. This is a systemic review about the impact of several rheumatic diseases on sexual functioning. There are no previous overviews about this topic so far.

  9. What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women.

  10. Evidence-based treatments for low sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A

    2017-02-22

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined. To date, only flibanserin, a centrally acting medication targeting the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite statistically significant effects on sexual desire, sexual distress, and sexually satisfying events, side-effects are significant, and flibanserin is completely contraindicated with alcohol. As such, there has been renewed interest in advancing the science of psychological approaches to low desire, including cognitive behavioral and mindfulness therapies.

  11. Antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction: impact, effects, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Agnes; Nash, Michael; Lynch, Aileen M

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and can have significant impact on the person's quality of life, relationships, mental health, and recovery. The reported incidence of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant medication varies considerably between studies, making it difficult to estimate the exact incidence or prevalence. The sexual problems reported range from decreased sexual desire, decreased sexual excitement, diminished or delayed orgasm, to erection or delayed ejaculation problems. There are a number of case reports of sexual side effects, such as priapism, painful ejaculation, penile anesthesia, loss of sensation in the vagina and nipples, persistent genital arousal and nonpuerperal lactation in women. The focus of this article is to explore the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of antidepressant iatrogenic sexual dysfunction.

  12. Sexual socialization and motives for intercourse among Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Traeen, B; Kvalem, I L

    1996-06-01

    The impact of gender differences in sexual socialization on early sexual experiences among Norwegian adolescents is discussed. The material comprises a stratified sample of 920 adolescents ages 16-20 years in a Norwegian county. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Of the respondents, 55.5% were girls and 44.5% were boys. 52.3% of girls and 41.4% of the boys had coital experience. The most common reasons for having had the first sexual intercourse were being in love, curiosity or excitement, and sexual arousal. Findings from a discriminant analysis showed that emotional reasons were more important to girls, whereas boys seemed more practical in sexual matters. More boys than girls reported that the reason for having had their most recent intercourse was that the partner wanted it. This indicates that if girls do not want sex, boys seldom use pressure. Girls set the premises for sexual interaction but are not as sexually skilled as boys.

  13. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  14. Cutting film violence: effects on perceptions, enjoyment, and arousal.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Gray, T; Donnerstein, E

    1999-10-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cutting specific graphic scenes of film violence on self-reports of arousal, enjoyability, and perceptions of violence among a sample of U.S. students. In 3 studies, they varied film exposure from 1 1/2 min in the 1st study to a complete motion picture (American vs. British version of same film) in the 3rd. In all 3 studies, the participants rated the cut versions as less violent than the uncut versions. The participants distinguished quite subtle differences in levels of violence, even when the cuts were minor and contextualized within an entire movie. Cutting the movie significantly increased its enjoyability for the women; for the men, there was no significant difference. Cutting violent films made no difference in arousal for the men but substantially lowered self-report levels of arousal for the women.

  15. Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.

    PubMed

    Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism.

  16. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders.

  17. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33 years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100 μl (p<0.001), saccharose 100 μl, citrate 50 μl & 100 μl, and quinine 100 μl (p<0.05). Capsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems.

  18. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    and appeared to induce rapid oxygen consumption in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and to rapidly produce deoxyhemoglobin to regulate physiological arousal. Thus, eyelid opening with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation may activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex via the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus and locus coeruleus. PMID:26244675

  19. Physiological and behavioral signatures of reflective exploratory choice.

    PubMed

    Otto, A Ross; Knox, W Bradley; Markman, Arthur B; Love, Bradley C

    2014-12-01

    Physiological arousal, a marker of emotional response, has been demonstrated to accompany human decision making under uncertainty. Anticipatory emotions have been portrayed as basic and rapid evaluations of chosen actions. Instead, could these arousal signals stem from a "cognitive" assessment of value that utilizes the full environment structure, as opposed to merely signaling a coarse, reflexive assessment of the possible consequences of choices? Combining an exploration-exploitation task, computational modeling, and skin conductance measurements, we find that physiological arousal manifests a reflective assessment of the benefit of the chosen action, mirroring observed behavior. Consistent with the level of computational sophistication evident in these signals, a follow-up experiment demonstrates that anticipatory arousal is modulated by current environment volatility, in accordance with the predictions of our computational account. Finally, we examine the cognitive costs of the exploratory choice behavior these arousal signals accompany by manipulating concurrent cognitive demand. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the arousal that accompanies choice under uncertainty arises from a more reflective and "cognitive" assessment of the chosen action's consequences than has been revealed previously.

  20. The hypocretins as sensors for metabolism and arousal.

    PubMed

    Adamantidis, Antoine; de Lecea, Luis

    2009-01-15

    Sleep disturbances are associated with hormonal imbalances and may result in metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. Therefore, circuits controlling both sleep and metabolism are likely to play a role in these physiopathological conditions. The hypocretin (Hcrt) system is a strong candidate for mediating both sleep and metabolic imbalances because Hcrt neurons are sensitive to metabolic hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, and modulate arousal and goal-orientated behaviours. This review discusses the role of Hcrt neurons as a sensors of energy balance and arousal and proposes new ways of probing local hypothalamic circuits regulating sleep and metabolism with unprecedented cellular specificity and temporal resolution.

  1. Atypical presentation of NREM arousal parasomnia with repetitive episodes.

    PubMed

    Trajanovic, N N; Shapiro, C M; Ong, A

    2007-08-01

    The case report describes a distinct variant of non-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) arousal parasomnia, sleepwalking type, featuring repetitive abrupt arousals, mostly from slow-wave sleep, and various automatisms and semi-purposeful behaviours. The frequency of events and distribution throughout the night presented as a continuous status of parasomnia ('status parasomnicus'). The patient responded well to treatment typically administered for adult NREM parasomnias, and after careful review of the clinical presentation, objective findings and treatment outcome, sleep-related epilepsy was ruled out in favour of parasomnia.

  2. Fifty Shades Flipped: Effects of Reading Erotica Depicting a Sexually Dominant Woman Compared to a Sexually Dominant Man.

    PubMed

    Harris, Emily Ann; Thai, Michael; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reading submission- and dominance-themed erotica on attitudes toward women and rape, ideal partner preferences, and subjective sexual arousal. Heterosexual male (n = 241) and female (n = 240) participants read one of three erotic stories depicting male dominance, female dominance, or no dominance, or a fourth nonerotic control story. First, we found that after reading about a sexually dominant man, women reported increased benevolent sexism compared to men, and men reported increased rape myth acceptance compared to women. Second, men and women showed a similar level of preference for partner dominance after reading about a sexually dominant woman. This was in contrast to the typical pattern revealed in all other conditions, whereby women were more likely to favor dominant partners relative to men. Finally, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the story describing male dominance would be the most arousing. Rather, all three erotic stories were equally sexually arousing compared to the control condition, and men and women did not differ in the extent to which the erotic stories aroused them. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Hypocretin/Orexin excites hypocretin neurons via a local glutamate neuron-A potential mechanism for orchestrating the hypothalamic arousal system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Gao, Xiao Bing; Sakurai, Takeshi; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2002-12-19

    Neurons that release hypocretin/orexin modulate sleep, arousal, and energy homeostasis; the absence of hypocretin results in narcolepsy. Here we present data on the physiological characteristics of these cells, identified with GFP in transgenic mouse brain slices. Hypocretin-1 and -2 depolarized hypocretin neurons by 15mV and evoked an increase in spike frequency (+366% from a 1-3 Hz baseline). The mechanism for this appears to be hypocretin-mediated excitation of local glutamatergic neurons that regulate hypocretin neuron activity, in part by presynaptic facilitation of glutamate release. This represents a possible mechanism for orchestrating the output of the diffuse hypothalamic arousal system. No direct effect of hypocretin on membrane properties of hypocretin cells was detected. Norepinephrine and serotonin, transmitters of other arousal systems, decreased spike frequency and evoked outward currents, whereas acetylcholine and histamine had little effect.

  4. Effects of implantation of hypertrophied androgenic glands on sexual characters and physiology of the reproductive system in the female red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, I; Katz, T; Abdu, U; Yehezkel, G; Sagi, A

    2001-03-01

    The role of the androgenic gland (AG), an organ unique to male Crustacea, in the development of sex characters and physiology of the reproductive system has not been fully documented in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. To investigate the role of the AG in this species, the effect of implanting hypertrophied AGs into immature female animals was followed. Of the female animals with AG implants, 91.6% developed male-like propodi, including the red patch characteristic of males of this species. The development of female secondary sex characteristics such as a wider abdomen, a wider endopod, and simple setation was inhibited. At the end of the experiment, the ovaries of the AG-implanted females contained mostly lipid-stage oocytes, with a small number of oocytes at the early yolk stage. The gonadosomatic index of the AG-implanted females was significantly lower than that of the control (sperm duct-implanted or sham-operated) females, which had mature oocytes with a well-defined perinuclear zone and yolk globules. An immunohistochemical test using an antibody developed against a 106-kDa secondary vitellogenic polypeptide showed only slight immunoreactivity in the oocytes of AG-implanted females compared with abundant immunoreactivity in control ovaries. In the polypeptide profile of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from the hemolymph of AG-implanted females, the 206- and 79-kDa secondary vitellogenesis-specific polypeptides were not found, whereas they were present in the profile of control females. In contrast, the female-specific 177-kDa polypeptide was present in the polypeptide profile of hemolymph HDL of both AG-implanted females and control females. It seems therefore that while secondary sex characters were masculinized under the influence of the implanted AG, the process of vitellogenesis was suppressed but not fully eliminated in the AG-implanted females.

  5. On pleasure and thrill: the interplay between arousal and valence during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence.

  6. On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.

    PubMed

    McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2012-01-01

    The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy.

  7. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cybersex addiction (CA) has been mostly investigated in heterosexual males. Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CA severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males. Seventy-one homosexual males were surveyed online. Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use.

  8. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    PubMed

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  9. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

  10. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  11. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  12. Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest…

  13. A Dose of Kindness: Empathic Arousal and Helping Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Jay S.; Batson, C. Daniel

    This paper explores the role of empathic arousal in mediating helping behavior. Undergraduates listened to a recording of a radio newscast that described the situation of a young woman whose parents had been killed in an automobile accident. Subjects were instructed either to imagine how the woman felt about her situation (imagine condition), or…

  14. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  15. Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

  16. Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

  17. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  18. Imagery Arousal as a Function of Exposure to Artistic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilotta, Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…

  19. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  20. Sex Differences in Children's Reports of Emotion-Arousing Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Hoffman, Michael Arthur

    Elementary school boys and girls are highly similar with regards to the events they describe as emotionally arousing fear, sadness, anger, happiness, and pride. One hundred and sixty (160) White, Black, Chicano, and Asian-American boys and girls from kindergarten, second, third, fourth, and sixth grades freely described the situation that most…

  1. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  2. Physiological and psychological stress reactivity in chronic tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Heinecke, Kristin; Weise, Cornelia; Schwarz, Kristin; Rief, Winfried

    2008-06-01

    Several models of tinnitus maintenance emphasize the importance of cognitive, emotional and psychophysiological processes. These factors contribute to distress in patients with decompensated tinnitus symptoms. We investigated whether tinnitus patients show increased physiological levels of arousal, more intense stress reactivity patterns and exaggerated psychological strain compared to healthy controls. Seventy tinnitus patients and 55 healthy controls underwent various stress tests. Muscular reactivity and peripheral arousal as well as strain ratings were assessed. Tinnitus patients reported significantly more strain during stress tests compared to healthy controls. Few physiological reactivity patterns differed significantly between the two groups. The physiological data thus only partly supported a hyperreactivity hypothesis. Strain reports and physiological data were only marginally correlated. Tinnitus patients show maladaptive appraisal processes during stress exposure, yet physiological reactivity is only slightly affected. Treatment programs for patients with decompensated tinnitus symptoms should account for appraisal processes and coping mechanisms in stressful situations.

  3. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

  4. Stirring images: fear, not happiness or arousal, makes art more sublime.

    PubMed

    Eskine, Kendall J; Kacinik, Natalie A; Prinz, Jesse J

    2012-10-01

    Which emotions underlie our positive experiences of art? Although recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that emotions play a critical role in art perception, no research to date has explored the extent to which specific emotional states affect aesthetic experiences or whether general physiological arousal is sufficient. Participants were assigned to one of five conditions-sitting normally, engaging in 15 or 30 jumping jacks, or viewing a happy or scary video-prior to rating abstract works of art. Only the fear condition resulted in significantly more positive judgments about the art. These striking findings provide the first evidence that fear uniquely inspires positively valenced aesthetic judgments. The results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition.

  5. Death-related versus fond memories of a deceased attachment figure: examining emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality related parameters). Death-related memories, moreover, lead to bodily tension reflected by increased diastolic blood pressure levels and mean fundamental frequency of the voice signal. Consistent with the continuing bond and attachment perspectives, "death," a reminder of the irrevocability of the loss, induced distress/anxiety. In contrast, fond memories lead to more moderate, melancholic sadness, presumably because of their association with the soothing qualities of the attachment figure.

  6. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  7. Two novel combined drug treatments for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Poels, Saskia; Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2014-06-01

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women. As a result, many women suffer from sexual dissatisfaction which often negatively interferes with their quality of life. These complaints have been classified as the condition Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), and have recently been merged with the condition Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) into the diagnosis Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD) in the DSM-5. To date, no drug treatment approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)/European Medicines Agency (EMA) is available to treat women with HSDD/FSIAD. As a result, there is an unmet need for a drug treatment for HSDD/FSIAD. In our search for an adequate treatment we followed a different approach compared to other pharmaceutical companies. Based on a personalized sexual medicine approach we proposed that different mechanisms cause low sexual desire in women, namely an insensitive system for sexual cues or dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. Subsequently we developed two new on-demand drug treatments for women with HSDD/FSIAD based on these different causal mechanisms. One treatment (testosterone combined with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to a relatively insensitive system for sexual cues, while the second treatment (testosterone combined with a 5-HT₁A receptor agonist) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms.

  8. Cognitive-affective stress response: effects of individual stress propensity on physiological and psychological indicators of strain.

    PubMed

    Wofford, J C

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to define further the role of individual stress propensity in physiological arousal and subsequent subjective stress and strain by measuring stress-induced reactivity in a laboratory setting. Individual predisposition to stress is conceptualized as a latent construct, cognitive-affective stress propensity, that is manifested as multiple trait indicators, e.g., negative affectivity, anger-irritability, and negative self-esteem. For 80 undergraduates experimental treatments were two stressors, time pressure and performance feedback. Physiological arousal indices included skin temperature, blood volume, and electromyographic activity. Results provide some support for the hypotheses that this propensity moderates the relationships between stressor and physiological arousal and between physiological arousal and subjective stress and strain.

  9. Placebo and Nocebo Effects in Sexual Medicine: An Experimental Approach.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Grob, Carolin; de Boer, Claas; Peschel, Thomas; Hartmann, Uwe; Tenbergen, Gilian; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2016-11-16

    Few studies have investigated placebo and nocebo effects in a human sexuality context. Studying placebo and nocebo responses in this context may provide insight into their potential to modulate sexual drive and function. To examine such effects in sexual medicine, 48 healthy, male heterosexual participants were divided into four groups. Each group received instruction to expect stimulating effects, no effect, or an inhibitory effect on sexual functions. Only one group received the dopamine agonist cabergoline; all other groups received placebo or nocebo. Modulations in sexual experience were examined through an established experimental paradigm of sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm during erotic film sequences with instruction to induce placebo or nocebo effects. Endocrine data, appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behavior parameters were assessed using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Acute Sexual Experience Scale (ASES). Results showed increased levels of sexual function after administration of cabergoline with significant effects for several parameters. Placebo effects were induced only to a small degree. No negative effects on sexual parameters in the nocebo condition were noted. This paradigm could induce only small placebo and nocebo effects. This supports the view that healthy male sexual function seems relatively resistant to negative external influences.

  10. Examining gender specificity of sexual response with concurrent thermography and plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Jackie S; Chivers, Meredith L

    2015-10-01

    Men's genital responses are significantly greater to sexual stimuli of their preferred gender compared to their nonpreferred gender (gender-specific), whereas androphilic (i.e., sexually attracted to men) women's genital responses are similar to sexual stimuli depicting either women or men (gender-nonspecific). This gendered pattern of genital response has only been demonstrated using vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) in women and primarily penile plethysmography (PPG) in men. These measures assess different aspects of genital vasocongestion, thereby limiting comparisons between genders. Thermography is a newer sexual psychophysiology methodology that measures genital vasocongestion via temperature change and is better suited to assess sexual response between genders because the dependent measure, change in genital temperature, is similar for women and men. Further, previous studies have assessed gender specificity of sexual response across relatively short sexual stimuli, allowing only the examination of initial phases of sexual response. We examined gender specificity of sexual arousal by measuring women's and men's genital responses to lengthier stimuli with concurrent thermography and VPP/PPG. Gynephilic men (i.e., sexually attracted to women; n = 27) and androphilic women (n = 28) viewed 10-min films depicting men masturbating, women masturbating, and a nonsexual film, and reported feelings of sexual arousal while genital responses were assessed. Across measures, men's sexual responses were gender-specific and women's responses were gender-nonspecific, indicating that the gender difference in gender specificity of arousal is robust to methodology and stimulus duration. These findings replicate previous research, extend knowledge of gendered sexual response, and highlight the utility of multimethod approaches in sexual psychophysiology.

  11. Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ezzell, Matthew B

    2016-05-01

    Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters.

  12. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction--a review.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Gupta, Vipin Bihari; Vyas, Savita

    2011-01-01

    An aphrodisiac is a type of food or drink that has the effect of making those who eat or drink it more aroused in a sexual way. Aphrodisiacs can be categorized according to their mode of action into three groups: substances that increase libido (i.e., sexual desire, arousal), substances that increase sexual potency (i.e., effectiveness of erection) and substances that increase sexual pleasure. Some well-known aphrodisiacs are Tribulus terrestrins, Withania somnifera, Eurycoma longifolia, Avena sativa, Ginko biloba, and Psoralea coryifolia. Ethnobotanical surveys have indicated a large number of plants as aphrodisiacs. The paper reviews the recent scientific validation on traditionally used herbal plants as aphrodisiac herbs for the management of sexual disorder erectile dysfunction.

  13. Sexual function in women from infertile couples and in women seeking surgical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Heitor; Alberton, Daniele Lima; Sawdy, Robert John; Capp, Edison; Goldim, José Roberto; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual function between women of infertile couples (AR) and women seeking tubal ligation (TL). Women who attended Setor de Infertilidade do Serviço de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) or the Serviço de Orientação e Planejamento Familiar (SERPLAN) completed the Female Sexual Function Index, a questionnaire about sexual activity in the last 4 weeks. Scored data were collected on six different domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and discomfort/pain. The greatest positive correlation in the TL group was between orgasm and sexual satisfaction (0.798), and in group AR between desire and arousal (0.627). Infertile women and fertile women who want to undergo surgical sterilization have similar sexual satisfaction scores.

  14. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  15. Adolescents define sexual orientation and suggest ways to measure it.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mark S; Silvestre, Anthony J; Gold, Melanie A; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L

    2004-06-01

    Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual orientations participated in focus groups and interviews. Two types of sexual attraction-one a physiologic reaction and the other a cognitive response-were central to adolescent sexual orientation. Participants did not perceive sexual behavior and self-identification as necessarily relevant. Preliminary items to measure sexual attraction were developed based on these adolescents' perceptions.

  16. Factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Jordanian women and their sexual attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Abu Ali, Ruba M.; Al Hajeri, Rabaa M.; Khader, Yousef S.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, and orgasm, as well as sexual pain, that leads to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. Social aspects of FSD have been understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the social aspects of FSD and sexual attitudes of Jordanian women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundred thirteen married females were studied between October 2006 and August 2007 at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan. Females were interviewed using a special questionnaire that was suitable to our culture and added to the Arabic translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire. RESULTS: Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm. About 58.5% of women reported that they prepared themselves if they had sexual desire and 68.2% reported wearing special attire for this purpose. Only 37.2% of women could ask their husband for a special excitement. CONCLUSIONS: FSD is prevalent in Jordan. Its social aspects are understudied and need more research in the future. PMID:19584582

  17. Sexual dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and its affected domains

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Zabandan, Neda; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia. Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments. PMID:25408703

  18. Extreme rituals in a BDSM context: the physiological and psychological effects of the 'Dance of Souls'.

    PubMed

    Klement, Kathryn R; Lee, Ellen M; Ambler, James K; Hanson, Sarah A; Comber, Evelyn; Wietting, David; Wagner, Michael F; Burns, Valerie R; Cutler, Bert; Cutler, Nadine; Reid, Elwood; Sagarin, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Participation in extreme rituals (e.g., fire-walking, body-piercing) has been documented throughout history. Motivations for such physically intense activities include religious devotion, sensation-seeking and social bonding. The present study aims to explore an extreme ritual within the context of bondage/discipline, dominance/submission and sadism/masochism (BDSM): the 'Dance of Souls', a 160-person ritual involving temporary piercings with weights or hooks attached and dancing to music provided by drummers. Through hormonal assays, behavioural observations and questionnaires administered before, during and after the Dance, we examine the physiological and psychological effects of the Dance, and the themes of spirituality, connectedness, transformation, release and community reported by dancers. From before to during the Dance, participants showed increases in physiological stress (measured by the hormone cortisol), self-reported sexual arousal, self-other overlap and decreases in psychological stress and negative affect. Results suggest that this group of BDSM practitioners engage in the Dance for a variety of reasons, including experiencing spirituality, deepening interpersonal connections, reducing stress and achieving altered states of consciousness.

  19. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Flight Performance, Instrument Scanning, and Physiological Arousal in Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    evaluation of eye movement and mental workload in aircraft pilots . Ergonomics, 33, 719–733. Jones, R. E., Milton, J. L., & Fitts, P. M. (1949). Eye...performance, instrument scanning, subjective fatigue , and EEG activity were measured . Ten fixed-wing military pilots flew a series of 10 simulator profiles...continuous wakefulness on flight performance, instrument scanning, subjective fatigue , and EEG activity were measured . Ten fixed-wing mili- tary pilots

  20. Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

  1. Molecular Connections Between Arousal and Metabolic Disease: Orexin and Modafinil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    and Metabolic Disease: Orexin and Modafinil PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen C. Benoit, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...NUMBER Molecular Connections Between Arousal and Metabolic Disease: Orexin and Modafinil 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-2-0019 5c. PROGRAM...the central orexin system may modulate energy balance. Ongoing studies are assessing the effects of treatment on insulin sensitivity and also the

  2. Sexual disorders not otherwise specified: compulsive, addictive, or impulsive?

    PubMed

    Stein, D J; Black, D W; Pienaar, W

    2000-01-01

    Paraphilias are recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects. These paraphilias cause the suffering or humiliation of the patient or patient's partner, or children, or other nonconsenting persons. However, in many patients symptoms involve more culturally acceptable patterns (eg, repetitive masturbation, Internet pornography); such hypersexual symptoms have been labeled as compulsive, addictive, or impulsive. Growing evidence supports the existence of a discrete syndrome characterized by recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving patterns that fall outside the definition of paraphilia. There is, however, high comorbidity with paraphilia. While such symptoms have been labeled as sexual compulsion or addiction, these terms are problematic in this context. Modern nosology has neglected this entity, although the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), category of sexual disorders not otherwise specified includes hypersexual behaviors as an example. We suggest that the DSM-IV category of sexual disorders be modified to include explicitly diagnostic criteria for a disorder characterized by hypersexual symptoms involving patterns that fall outside of the current definition of paraphilia. The disorder might be classified as one of the paraphilias, or as paraphilia-related. In the absence of a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder, we suggest that it simply be termed hypersexual disorder.

  3. Selective optogenetic stimulation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in sleeping rats activates breathing without changing blood pressure or causing arousal or sighs

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Peter G. R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Combined optogenetic activation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN; a CO2/proton-activated brainstem nucleus) with nearby catecholaminergic neurons (C1 and A5), or selective C1 neuron stimulation, increases blood pressure (BP) and breathing, causes arousal from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and triggers sighs. Here we wished to determine which of these physiological responses are elicited when RTN neurons are selectively activated. The left rostral RTN and nearby A5 neurons were transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2+) using a lentiviral vector. Very few C1 cells were transduced. BP, breathing, EEG, and neck EMG were monitored. During non-REM sleep, photostimulation of ChR2+ neurons (20s, 2-20 Hz) instantly increased V̇e without changing BP (13 rats). V̇e and BP were unaffected by light in nine control (ChR2−) rats. Photostimulation produced no sighs and caused arousal (EEG desynchronization) more frequently in ChR2+ than ChR2− rats (62 ± 5% of trials vs. 25 ± 2%; P < 0.0001). Six ChR2+ rats then received spinal injections of a saporin-based toxin that spared RTN neurons but destroyed surrounding catecholaminergic neurons. Photostimulation of the ChR2+ neurons produced the same ventilatory stimulation before and after lesion, but arousal was no longer elicited. Overall (all ChR2+ rats combined), ΔV̇e correlated with the number of ChR2+ RTN neurons whereas arousal probability correlated with the number of ChR2+ catecholaminergic neurons. In conclusion, RTN neurons activate breathing powerfully and, unlike the C1 cells, have minimal effects on BP and have a weak arousal capability at best. A5 neuron stimulation produces little effect on breathing and BP but does appear to facilitate arousal. PMID:25858492

  4. Rethinking PTSD in Warriors: An Occupational and Physiological Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    Symptoms” are all based on adaptive responses: – B. Re-experiencing – C. Avoidance and numbing – D. Increased physiological arousal • E. Duration ...guilt) Re-experiencing Intense mission rehearsal and training Sleep problems Ability to function on limited sleep Anger Adrenaline , focus, attention

  5. The compulsive sexual behavior inventory: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Coleman, Eli; Center, Bruce A; Ross, Michael; Rosser, B R Simon

    2007-08-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a putative clinical syndrome characterized by the experience of sexual urges, sexually arousing fantasies, and sexual behaviors that are recurrent, intense, and a distressful interference in one's daily life. Although the putative phenomenology of CSB has been described in the literature, the lack of a reliable, valid assessment tool has made investigation of prevalence, co-factors, and etiologic factors difficult. This study examined the further development of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) using a sample of 1,026 Latino men who have sex with men recruited and assessed using web-based technology. The scale showed a two factor structure (control and violence). Further, the CSBI and its subscales showed indications of validity in that those engaging in CSB-type sexual behavior (being drunk or high, feeling lonely or depressed, and feeling driven) had scores indicative of greater CSB. Those with scores above the median had more sexual partners and engaged in more unprotected anal intercourse than those with CSBI scores below the median. Additionally, the instrument showed equivalence when administered in English and Spanish.

  6. Collective arousal when reuniting after temporary separation in Tonkean macaques.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Arianna; Cozzolino, Roberto; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Celebrations and bursts of communal joy can occur spontaneously in human communities based on mechanisms of emotional contagion. Some examples of similar collective excitement have been reported in animals when they reunite or anticipate rewards, but little is known about the processes and meaning of these multiple interactions. We experimentally studied such collective arousals in two captive groups of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) within the context of reunions following the temporary separation of two subgroups. We compared the behaviors of individuals after separation periods of 2 and 48 h with a control period with no separation. This study showed that it is possible to reproducibly induce bursts of friendly interactions in which groupmates run around over a period of several minutes, embracing and grasping one another while displaying numerous affiliative vocalizations and facial expressions. The longer the period of separation, the higher and longer-lasting the rates of affiliative interactions were. Individuals affiliated more frequently with groupmates from a previously separated subgroup than with those having stayed in their own subgroup. Collective arousal was followed by a quieter period characterized by high rates of contact-sitting and social grooming. These results point at the role of collective arousals in social cohesion; they could resolve social tension and renew social relationships. We propose that the emotional state experienced by Tonkean macaques during such events represents a disposition similar to that giving rise to what we humans call "shared joy."

  7. Early Brain-Body Impact of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Collignon, Olivier; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Manon; Rigoulot, Simon; Honoré, Jacques; Lepore, Franco; Sequeira, Henrique

    2009-01-01

    Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG) data and skin conductance response (SCR), a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant) and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the SCR, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links. PMID:20428514

  8. Women's Sex-Related Dissociation: The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication, Attentional Control Instructions, and History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Gilmore, Amanda K; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2017-02-17

    This study examined influences of alcohol intoxication, attentional control, and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity on sex-related dissociation. Sex-related dissociation is defined here as dissociation (e.g., feeling as if the world is unreal and feeling disconnected from one's body) during sexual activity or in the presence of sexual stimuli. Women (N = 70) were randomized to a 2 (alcohol condition: none,.10% peak breath alcohol concentration) X 2 (attentional control instructions: none, "relax and maximize" sexual arousal) experiment and exposed to sexual stimuli. Alcohol intoxication was positively associated with sex-related dissociation. CSA severity and sex-related dissociation were positively associated in the no-instruction condition but not in the "relax and maximize" condition. For some women, efforts to relax and maximize sexual arousal may buffer the association between CSA and sex-related dissociation.

  9. Sexual disorders among elderly: An epidemiological study in south Indian rural population

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ismail, Shajahan; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Realizing a dearth of data on this topic, especially in the Indian context, an epidemiological study was conducted in a south Indian rural population to identify the sexual activity patterns and sexual problems among the population above 60 years of age. Objectives: (1) Assessment of sexual activity patterns among individuals above 60 years. (2) Assessment of the prevalence of sexual disorders among individuals above 60 years. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 259 participants, which included both males and females above 60 years of age. Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as a screening tool, for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to have sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: Only 27.4% of the individuals above 60 years were sexually active, and it progressively dropped as age advanced and none were sexually active after 75 years of age. Among the sexually active males, erectile dysfunction (ED) was prevalent in 43.5%, premature ejaculation in 10.9%, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSSD) in 0.77% and anorgasmia in 0.38% of the subjects. Among females, arousal disorder was prevalent in 28%, HSSD in 16%, anorgasmia in 20% and dyspareunia in 8% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study gives us an insight into the sexual problems of the elderly and brings home the point that sexual problems are very much common among both men and women in the older population. Among elderly males, ED is the most common sexual disorder whereas in elderly females, arousal disorder is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction, implicating biology plays an important role in men, whereas psychology plays an important role in women sexual functioning. PMID:26600575

  10. Sodium nitroprusside impairs sexual competence of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C; Dharmasiri, M G

    2004-04-01

    Recently, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent nitric oxide (NO) donor and a clinically used antihypertensive, has been introduced as a penile self-injection medical therapy for erectile dysfunction. However, it is known that many antihypertensives impairs sexual competence; NO regulates sexual competence and NO is cytostatic and cytotoxic for human sperm. Thus, a possibility exists that SNP may impair male reproductive competence. Testing this aspect is the aim of this study. This was assessed in male rats (using three i.p. doses: 60, 30 or 20 microg/kg) using noncompetitive copulation tests. The results show that the highest dose of SNP was toxic and caused rapid mortality of treated rats (within 30 min). The mid and low doses of SNP reversibly impaired several parameters of sexual competence in a dose-related fashion: sexual arousability, libido and sexual vigour. Some parameters of sexual behaviour remained unaltered: sexual motivation and intromission ratio, whilst one parameter was improved: sexual performance. In complete contrast, the ejaculatory competence and fertility remained unchanged. The SNP-induced impairments in sexual competence may be attributable to lowered testosterone levels and sedation mediated via its specific action and/or side effect. Further, this impairment of sexual function was not due to general toxicity, inhibition of penile sensitivity, penile erection or analgesic activity. It is concluded that SNP impairs male sexual competence, at least, in rats although it promotes penile erection.

  11. When Are Sexual Difficulties Distressing for Women? The Selective Protective Value of Intimate Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676

  12. Education for sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sapire, K E

    1988-03-01

    Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health

  13. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs.

    PubMed

    Bray, Emily E; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian A

    2015-11-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: Optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs' baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them, while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance.

  14. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Emily E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs’ baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance. PMID:26169659

  15. New attitudes to sexuality in the menopause: clinical evaluation and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nappi, R E

    2007-10-01

    Sexuality is a critical issue at menopause for many women. Several biological, psychological and socio-relational factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle, inducing significant changes in desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction. Age- and menopause-related events may impair the integrity of multiple biological systems involved in the normal sexual response of women, including hormonal environment, neuromuscular substrates and vascular supplies. Sex hormones, namely low levels of estradiol, physical and mental well-being and, very importantly, feelings for partner are extremely relevant for women's sexuality in natural menopause. Even a significant lack of androgens, as more frequently occurs in surgical menopause, has a negative impact on women's desire and sexual responsiveness. Sexual history and clinical evaluation may help doctors to accurately diagnose sexual symptoms causing personal and relational distress and to identify the best therapeutic approach.

  16. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  17. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  18. The tell-tale heart: physiological reactivity during resolution of ambiguity in youth anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rozenman, Michelle; Vreeland, Allison; Iglesias, Marisela; Mendez, Melissa; Piacentini, John

    2017-02-16

    In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths' resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring during treatments for paediatric anxiety. In this brief report, we present findings suggesting that anxious, but not typically developing, youth select avoidant goals via non-threatening resolution of ambiguity during a stressor, and that this resolution of ambiguity is accompanied by physiological reactivity (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia). We propose future empirical research on the interplay between interpretation bias, psychophysiology, and child anxiety, as well as clinical implications.

  19. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed.

  20. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  1. Sexuality after gynaecological cancer: a review of the material, intrapsychic, and discursive aspects of treatment on women's sexual-wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Emilee; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2011-09-01

    Research in the area of gynaecological cancer has increasingly examined changes to women's sexuality, with the impact of treatment on sexual wellbeing considered particularly important. The objective of this paper is to review research on gynaecological cancer and sexuality from the years 1990 to 2011. Research has documented a range of post-treatment anatomical and physical changes to women's sexual wellbeing, including changes to sexual desire, pleasure, orgasm, vaginal lubrication, genital sensitivity, arousal, and frequency of sex. Women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality include anxiety, depression, distress, and negative perceptions of sexual identity and body image. Socially constructed discourses surrounding gender and sexuality also shape women's experiences of their sexual wellbeing post-gynaecological cancer and treatment, with many women feeling a loss of womanhood and femininity with the removal of, or changes to, their reproductive organs. Finally, women's relationship context, pattern of couple communication, and partner support are associated with women's ability to cope with changes to sexuality post-gynaecological cancer. Given that sexuality is an important part of quality of life, it is important that health professionals actively communicate information to women and their partner about the effects of treatment on sexual wellbeing, in order to legitimate and normalise sexuality in this context. It is concluded that research in the area of gynaecological cancer and sexuality needs to acknowledge not only the physical/anatomical/material effects of cancer treatments, but also women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality, her relationship context, and the role of gendered discourses in shaping women's experiences of sexuality post-gynaecological cancer and treatment.

  2. Sexual pain.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  3. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  4. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S F; Gilchrist, V J

    1993-06-01

    Estimates are that one in four women will be sexually assaulted at some time during her life. For the victim, it is a life-changing, traumatic event. This paper reviews both the immediate and long-term care of the sexual assault victim. For the victim seen immediately after the assault, physicians must provide empathic, nonjudgmental care that puts the victim back in control of her life. It is essential that the physician provide continued support for the victim and her family through the recovery process. The medical presentations that should prompt the physician to inquire about undisclosed sexual assault and the social and cultural myths that promote sexual assault are reviewed.

  5. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  6. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  7. Young people, pornography, and sexuality: sources and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of pornography, their attitudes toward pornography, and sources of information about sexuality. Although most had seen pornographic movies, the youngest boys reported viewing the most pornography. The male participants reported that the most common reason they viewed pornography was to get aroused and to masturbate, whereas the female participants stated that they viewed pornography out of curiosity. The most frequent source of information about sexuality was peers. These results illustrate the importance of sex education to give factual information about sexuality and to counteract the messages about sexuality presented in pornography.

  8. Chronic amantadine treatment enhances the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Marcia Martins Dias; Fontanella, Julia Cordeiro; Damasceno, Fabio; Silva de Almeida, Olga Maria Martins; Ferraz, Marcos Rochedo

    2007-04-01

    The acute administration of amantadine (AMA), a dopaminomimetic and NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonist also used as an anti-Parkinsonian agent, stimulates male rat sexual behaviour. However it remains unclear whether long term AMA supplementation might also provoke a similar increase in male rat sexual conduct. In the present study, male rats were administered AMA (5-50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle daily for 21 days and their sexual response was monitored weekly. Chronic treatment with AMA effectively increased the sexual response of male rats, similarly to what had been observed before with acute amantadine treatment. The main effect of chronic AMA treatment occurs in arousal and in ejaculatory response, whilst the excitatory component was not affected. The 21-day treatment with AMA did not lead to tolerance, suggesting that perhaps AMA could be used in male human patients to prevent sexual inhibition caused by anti-depressant and anti-psychotic agents.

  9. Biobehavioral profiles of arousal and social motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Swain, Deanna M.; Newsom, Cassandra; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Edgerton, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in social communication and interaction with peers, which may reflect diminished social motivation. Many children with ASD show enhanced stress when playing with other children. This study investigated social and stress profiles of children with ASD during play. Methods We utilized a peer interaction paradigm in a natural playground setting with 66 un-medicated, pre-pubertal, children 8 to 12 years (38 with ASD, 28 with typical development (TD)). Salivary cortisol was collected before and after a 20-minute playground interaction that was divided into periods of free and solicited play facilitated by a confederate child. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, mixed effects models and Spearman correlations to assess the between-group differences in social and stress functioning, identify stress responders, and explore associations between variables, respectively. Results There were no differences between the groups during unsolicited free play; however, during solicited play by the confederate, significant differences emerged such that children with ASD engaged in fewer verbal interactions and more self-play than the TD group. Regarding physiological arousal, children with ASD as a group showed relatively higher cortisol in response to social play; however, there was a broad range of responses. Moreover, those with the highest cortisol levels engaged in less social communication. Conclusions The social interaction of children with ASD can be facilitated by peer solicitation; however, it may be accompanied by increased stress. The children with ASD that have the highest level of cortisol show less social motivation; yet, it is unclear if it reflects an underlying state of heightened arousal or enhanced reactivity to social engagement, or both. PMID:24329926

  10. Melanopsin Regulates Both Sleep-Promoting and Arousal-Promoting Responses to Light

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Shu K. E.; Hughes, Steven; Jagannath, Aarti; Hankins, Mark W.; Bannerman, David M.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Nolan, Patrick M.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2016-01-01

    Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin-deficient mice (Opn4-/-), resulting in enhanced sleep in response to blue light but delayed sleep induction in response to green or white light. We go on to show that blue light evokes higher Fos induction in the SCN compared to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), whereas green light produced greater responses in the VLPO. Collectively, our data demonstrates that nocturnal light exposure can have either an arousal- or sleep-promoting effect, and that these responses are melanopsin-mediated via different neural pathways with different spectral sensitivities. These findings raise important questions relating to how artificial light may alter behaviour in both the work and domestic setting. PMID:27276063

  11. The role of conditioning, learning and dopamine in sexual behavior: a narrative review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Brom, Mirte; Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of human sexual behavior assume that sexual stimuli obtain arousing properties through associative learning processes. It is widely accepted that classical conditioning contributes to the etiology of both normal and maladaptive human behaviors. Despite the hypothesized importance of basic learning processes in sexual behavior, research on classical conditioning of the sexual response in humans is scarce. In the present paper, animal studies and studies in humans on the role of pavlovian conditioning on sexual responses are reviewed. Animal research shows robust, direct effects of conditioning processes on partner- and place preference. On the contrast, the empirical research with humans in this area is limited and earlier studies within this field are plagued by methodological confounds. Although recent experimental demonstrations of human sexual conditioning are neither numerous nor robust, sexual arousal showed to be conditionable in both men and women. The present paper serves to highlight the major empirical findings and to renew the insight in how stimuli can acquire sexually arousing value. Hereby also related neurobiological processes in reward learning are discussed. Finally, the connections between animal and human research on the conditionability of sexual responses are discussed, and suggestions for future directions in human research are given.

  12. Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dahir, Melissa; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Women with breast cancer have better cancer-related outcomes with the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but the physiological suppression of estradiol can negatively affect sexual functioning because of unpleasant urogenital and vaginal symptoms. Local health care practitioners have observed that the benefits of vaginal testosterone in allaying these unpleasant symptoms in women with breast cancer are similar to the benefits of vaginal estrogen in women without breast cancer. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using a daily vaginal testosterone cream on the reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AI therapy. Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women with breast cancer on AI therapy and experiencing symptoms of sexual dysfunction were recruited from an oncology practice. The women were prescribed a 300 μg testosterone vaginal cream daily for 4 weeks. During the first study visit, a vaginal swab was obtained to rule out the presence of Candida species or Gardnerella vaginalis in participants. Women with positive vaginal swabs were treated prior to starting the vaginal testosterone therapy. Main Outcome Measure  The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) survey, measuring female sexual health quality of life, was administered during the first study visit and at the final study visit, after completing testosterone therapy. Results Twelve patients completed 4 weeks of daily vaginal testosterone therapy. When compared with baseline FSFI scores, there was a statistically significant improvement for individual domain scores of desire (P = 0.000), arousal (P = 0.002), lubrication (P = 0.018), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.001), and pain (P = 0.000). Total domain scores reflecting sexual health quality of life also improved when compared with baseline (P = 0.000). Conclusions The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life

  13. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  14. The impact of Parkinson disease on patients' sexuality and relationship.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, C; Dogac, S; Vettorazzi, E; Hidding, U; Gerloff, C; Jürgens, T P

    2016-11-16

    This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated. The importance of non-sexual relational aspects, such as talking about feelings or tenderness increased for both genders after PD diagnosis, especially in women. Sexual function, such as frequency of intercourse, sexual arousal, subjective abnormal sexual fantasies or sexual satisfaction deteriorated in both genders, especially in men. Some sexual aspects improved in women but worsened in men after PD diagnosis. This includes frequency of orgasm dysfunction, fear not to fulfill sexual expectations of the partner, avoidance of sexual acts, withdrawal from relationship, increase of thoughts about divorce, or increase of dissatisfaction with sexuality and relationship. With age, thoughts about divorce declined. With disease duration, frequency of tenderness with the partner increased. Depression unexpectedly correlated with higher frequency of intercourse. Dopaminergic dosage influenced stability of the relationship negatively. PD influences patients' sexuality negatively, independently of age, disease duration or disease severity and men show greater sexual dysfunction and impairment of their sexual relationship than women.

  15. Sexual Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year, Washington, DC.

    This document considers sexual preference as it specifically relates to women. Divided into two parts, the document presents a fact sheet about lesbianism and contains a workshop resource guide on sexual preference. The fact sheet, arranged in a question-answer format, focuses on the following concerns: (1) lesbianism as a woman's issue; (2) legal…

  16. Anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages common and distinct neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Tsafrir; Carlson, Joshua M; Rubin, Denis; Cha, Jiook; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne

    2015-04-01

    The neural correlates of anxious anticipation have been primarily studied with aversive and neutral stimuli. In this study, we examined the effect of valence on anticipation by using high arousal aversive and positive stimuli and a condition of uncertainty (i.e. either positive or aversive). The task consisted of predetermined cues warning participants of upcoming aversive, positive, 'uncertain' (either aversive or positive) and neutral movie clips. Anticipation of all affective clips engaged common regions including the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, caudate, inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex that are associated with emotional experience, sustained attention and appraisal. In contrast, the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, regions implicated in reward processing, were selectively engaged during anticipation of positive clips (depicting sexually explicit content) and the mid-insula, which has been linked to processing aversive stimuli, was selectively engaged during anticipation of aversive clips (depicting graphic medical procedures); these three areas were also activated during anticipation of 'uncertain' clips reflecting a broad preparatory response for both aversive and positive stimuli. These results suggest that a common circuitry is recruited in anticipation of affective clips regardless of valence, with additional areas preferentially engaged depending on whether expected stimuli are negative or positive.

  17. Anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages common and distinct neural substrates

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Joshua M.; Rubin, Denis; Cha, Jiook; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne

    2015-01-01

    The neural correlates of anxious anticipation have been primarily studied with aversive and neutral stimuli. In this study, we examined the effect of valence on anticipation by using high arousal aversive and positive stimuli and a condition of uncertainty (i.e. either positive or aversive). The task consisted of predetermined cues warning participants of upcoming aversive, positive, ‘uncertain’ (either aversive or positive) and neutral movie clips. Anticipation of all affective clips engaged common regions including the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, caudate, inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex that are associated with emotional experience, sustained attention and appraisal. In contrast, the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, regions implicated in reward processing, were selectively engaged during anticipation of positive clips (depicting sexually explicit content) and the mid-insula, which has been linked to processing aversive stimuli, was selectively engaged during anticipation of aversive clips (depicting graphic medical procedures); these three areas were also activated during anticipation of ‘uncertain’ clips reflecting a broad preparatory response for both aversive and positive stimuli. These results suggest that a common circuitry is recruited in anticipation of affective clips regardless of valence, with additional areas preferentially engaged depending on whether expected stimuli are negative or positive. PMID:24984958

  18. A relational frame theory account of the emergence of sexual fantasy.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Fawna M J; Moran, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Sexual fantasy is common among humans and often serves to facilitate sexual arousal. Although some fantasies may be directly related to a person's past experiences, others may be unrelated to direct history, and these are thus more difficult to explain. Relational frame theory is a comprehensive account of human language and cognition that may assist in understanding the processes involved in the emergence of sexual fantasy. This article presents a primer on relational frame theory, along with examples of how relations between stimuli may influence a person's private experience of sexual fantasy.

  19. Matricide and two sexual femicides by a male strangler with a transgender sadomasochistic identity.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, Hannu; Voutilainen, Jukka; Tuominen, Tiina

    2010-03-01

    While violence against sexual minorities is a well-known phenomenon, sexual homicides committed by men with cross-dressing or transsexual identity are not, because they are relatively few. We report a 23-year follow-up of the case of a transvestite, possibly transsexual, man who killed his mother by strangulation at the age of 20, and later in two separate cases strangled a female victim towards whom he felt sexual desire. He reported being sexually aroused by being strangled himself. The case raises questions concerning legislation which does not allow life-long control of criminals.

  20. Sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.