Sample records for physiological skin freckles

  1. What Are Freckles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... so they may look larger. Freckles and the Sun Being outside in the sun may help cause freckles or make them darker. ... called melanocytes); it helps protect the skin from sun damage by reflecting and absorbing ultraviolet (UV) rays. ...

  2. Iris Freckles a Potential Biomarker for Chronic Sun Damage.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Christoph; Mayer, Christoph; Zalaudek, Iris; Riedl, Regina; Richtig, Markus; Wackernagel, Werner; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Richtig, Georg; Langmann, Gerald; Tarmann, Lisa; Wedrich, Andreas; Richtig, Erika

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation. We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Six hundred thirty-two participants (n = 360; 57% female) were examined. Mean age of all participants was 38.4 ± 18.4 years (range, 4-84 years). Of all individuals, 76.1% (n = 481) exhibited at least one iris freckle. Most freckles were observed in the inferior temporal quadrant. The presence of iris freckles was associated with higher age (participants with iris freckles: 41.8 ± 16.8 years versus participants without iris freckles: 27.6 ± 19.2 years), a high number of sunburns during lifetime (>10: 31% vs. 19%), sunlight-damaged skin (26% vs. 11%), presence of actinic lentigines (72% vs. 45%), and a high total nevus body count (>10; 78% vs. 67%). The association of iris freckles, behavioral factors, and dermatologic findings, as well as the topographical distribution, indicate that sunlight exposure may trigger the formation of iris freckles. The evaluation of iris freckles offers an easily accessible potential biomarker, which might be helpful in indicating sun damage on the skin associated with cutaneous malignancies. Furthermore, the evaluation of iris freckles could also be helpful in understanding the role of sunlight in several ophthalmologic diseases.

  3. The iris signal: blue periphery, tan collaret and freckles pattern - strong indicators for epidermal skin cancer in South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Grigore, M; Furtunescu, F; Minca, D; Costache, M; Garbe, C; Simionescu, O

    2018-03-10

    Eye and skin share the embryological origin. Both are established risk factors in epidermal skin cancer. There are few reports using iris colour classification scales, most of them analyse colour in general or are too complex to use in daily practice. To investigate which iris colour pattern is associated with epidermal skin cancer in a S-E European Caucasian population. A case-control study was conducted on 480 patients: 229 skin cancers patients and 251 controls (dermatological patients free of skin cancers) admitted in two medical clinics of Dermatology in Bucharest, between October 2011 and May 2014. High-resolution iris photographs were taken for each patient. Three parameters of the iris were analysed individually and in association patterns for each patient: periphery, collaret and freckles. The most frequent iris colour pattern associated with epidermal skin cancer was blue periphery with light brown collaret and freckles present. In terms of individual parameters, the strongest indicators for skin cancer patients were blue periphery and blue collaret. The results of this study sustain the hypothesis that blue periphery with light brown collaret and freckles iris pattern is a reliable phenotypic marker for epidermal skin cancer. The results of this study differ from previous reports in which skin cancer risk was associated with a homogeneous blue iris. We account these differences in the characteristics of the recruited patients (S-E European, skin type II and III). The assessment of iris colour patterns is an easy and inexpensive detection tool in skin cancer risk assessment. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Chemical Peeling with a Modified Phenol Formula for the Treatment of Facial Freckles on Asian Skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Feng; Lu, Hai-Shan; Sun, Le-Qi; Ping, Wei-Dong; Mao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Chemical peeling is an efficient method for the treatment of pigment disorders. For freckles, medium-depth to deep peeling using a phenol solution is one of the most effective chemical peels, and modifications of facial skin can be observed up to 20 years after peeling. However, applying phenol to the skin may cause serious side effects. Phenol peeling has been rarely used in Asia due to its tendency to cause permanent pigmentary changes and hypertrophic scars. In total, 896 Chinese inpatients with facial freckles were enrolled in this study. The phenol formula was modified with crystalline phenol, dyclonine, camphor, anhydrous alcohol and glycerin and adjusted to a concentration of 73.6-90.0%. The entire peeling treatment was divided into two procedures performed separately on 2 days. All patients exhibited 26% or greater improvement, and 99.66% of patients exhibited 51% or greater improvement (good and excellent). Scarring and systemic complications were not observed in any patient. The modified phenol formula is very effective and safe for the treatment of facial freckles in Asian patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Freckles Think Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Edward D.

    Several essays which relate the author's "Freckles Theory" to social issues are presented. The Freckles Theory states that nature is composed of opposing, but complementary, forces; that each individual's cultural view places these forces in either harmony or antagonism; and that racism and genderism are a negative reaction to nature and…

  6. Bilateral striatal necrosis caused by ADAR mutations in two siblings with dystonia and freckles-like skin changes that should be differentiated from Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Mierzewska, Hanna; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Ciara, Elżbieta; Trubicka, Joanna; Pronicki, Maciej; Rokicki, Dariusz; Rydzanicz, Małgorzata; Płoski, Rafał; Pronicka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic molecular variants in the ADAR gene are a known cause of rare diseases, autosomal recessive Aicardi- Goutières syndrome type 6, severe infantile encephalopathy with intracranial calcifications and dominant dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria, demonstrated mainly in Asian adults. Recently, they have been also found in patients with nonsyndromic bilateral striatal necrosis accompanied by skin changes of the freckles-like type. Here, we present Polish siblings with acute onset and slowly progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with preserved intellectual abilities and basal ganglia changes found in MRI. A Leigh syndrome was considered for a long time as the most frequent cause of such lesions in children. Finally, two molecular variants in non-mitochondria-related ADAR gene c.3202+1G>A (p.?) and c.577C>G (p.Pro193Ala) were revealed by whole exome sequencing. We suggest that bilateral striatal necrosis should be always differentiated from LS to prevent the diagnosis delay. The striatal involvement accompanied by the presence of freckles-like skin changes should direct differential diagnosis to the ADAR gene mutations screening.

  7. Estimating the attributable fraction for melanoma: a meta-analysis of pigmentary characteristics and freckling.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Carroll, Heidi J; Whiteman, David C

    2010-11-15

    Epidemiologic research has demonstrated convincingly that certain pigmentary characteristics are associated with increased relative risks of melanoma; however there has been no comprehensive review to rank these characteristics in order of their importance on a population level. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis to quantify the contribution of pigmentary characteristics to melanoma, estimated by the population-attributable fraction (PAF). Eligible studies were those that permitted quantitative assessment of the association between histologically confirmed melanoma and hair colour, eye colour, skin phototype and presence of freckling; we identified 66 such studies using citation databases, followed by manual review of retrieved references. We calculated summary relative risks using weighted averages of the log RR, taking into account random effects, and used these to estimate the PAF. The pooled RRs for pigmentary characteristics were: 2.64 for red/red-blond, 2.0 for blond and 1.46 for light brown hair colour (vs. dark); 1.57 for blue/blue-grey and 1.51 for green/grey/hazel eye colour (vs. dark); 2.27, 1.99 and 1.35 for skin phototypes I, II and III respectively (vs. IV); and 1.99 for presence of freckling. The highest PAFs were observed for skin phototypes 1/II (0.27), presence of freckling (0.23), and blond hair colour (0.23). For eye colour, the PAF for blue/blue-grey eye colour was higher than for green/grey/hazel eye colour (0.18 vs. 0.13). The PAF of melanoma associated with red hair colour was 0.10. These estimates of melanoma burden attributable to pigmentary characteristics provide a basis for designing prevention strategies for melanoma.

  8. Freckle Defect Formation near the Casting Interfaces of Directionally Solidified Superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jianping; Ma, Dexin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Fu; Sun, Baode; Dong, Anping; Li, Fei; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. Ceramic cores create more interfaces in the directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) hollow turbine blades. In order to investigate the location of freckle occurrence in superalloys, superalloy CM247 LC was directionally solidified in an industrial-sized Bridgman furnace. Instead of ceramic cores, Alumina tubes were used inside of the casting specimens. It was found that freckles occur not only on the casting external surfaces, but also appear near the internal interfaces between the ceramic core and superalloys. Meanwhile, the size, initial position, and area of freckle were investigated in various diameters of the specimens. The initial position of the freckle chain reduces when the diameter of the rods increase. Freckle area follows a linear relationship in various diameters and the average freckle fraction is 1.1% of cross sectional area of casting specimens. The flow of liquid metal near the interfaces was stronger than that in the interdendritic region in the mushy zone, and explained why freckle tends to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of castings. This new phenomenon suggests that freckles are more likely to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of the hollow turbine blades. PMID:28774050

  9. Freckle Defect Formation near the Casting Interfaces of Directionally Solidified Superalloys.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jianping; Ma, Dexin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Fu; Sun, Baode; Dong, Anping; Li, Fei; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2016-11-16

    Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. Ceramic cores create more interfaces in the directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) hollow turbine blades. In order to investigate the location of freckle occurrence in superalloys, superalloy CM247 LC was directionally solidified in an industrial-sized Bridgman furnace. Instead of ceramic cores, Alumina tubes were used inside of the casting specimens. It was found that freckles occur not only on the casting external surfaces, but also appear near the internal interfaces between the ceramic core and superalloys. Meanwhile, the size, initial position, and area of freckle were investigated in various diameters of the specimens. The initial position of the freckle chain reduces when the diameter of the rods increase. Freckle area follows a linear relationship in various diameters and the average freckle fraction is 1.1% of cross sectional area of casting specimens. The flow of liquid metal near the interfaces was stronger than that in the interdendritic region in the mushy zone, and explained why freckle tends to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of castings. This new phenomenon suggests that freckles are more likely to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of the hollow turbine blades.

  10. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots and Freckling. Part II. Other Skin Manifestations Characteristic of NF1. NF1 and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still based primarily on clinical observations. The 7 diagnostic criteria of the National Institutes of Health, which were established in 1988, include 3 skin manifestations (café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas). The age at which these diagnostic lesions appear is variable: onset can be late in some patients while others never develop certain symptoms. Definitive diagnosis may therefore be delayed by years. Although the appearance of the characteristic café-au-lait spots and freckling in the early years of childhood are very suggestive of the disease, these signs are not pathognomonic and, in isolation, do not constitute sufficient evidence to establish a definitive diagnosis. Thus, other diagnoses should be considered in patients whose only symptoms are café-au-lait spots and freckling. By contrast, the presence of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas or at least 1 plexiform neurofibroma is a very specific indication of NF1. Identification of the different types of neurofibroma allows us to confirm the diagnosis and initiate appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for treatment of unwanted facial freckles in phototypes II-IV: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    El Zawahry, Bakr; Zaki, Naglaa; Hafez, Vanessa; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hay, Rania Abdel; Fahim, Aya

    2014-11-01

    Facial freckles are a cosmetic concern to Egyptians, particularly young females. Several therapeutic lines exist with variable response rates and limitations. Fractional carbon dioxide (FCO2) laser provides minimal ablation and therefore less down time and less side effects. The efficacy and safety of this laser technology have still not been studied in freckles. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of FCO2 laser in the treatment of unwanted facial freckles in Egyptians. Twenty patients undergone a single session of FCO2 laser and then were followed up clinically a month later. Photographs were taken before treatment and at follow-up visit and were assessed by three blinded investigators. Percent of global improvement was measured on a 4-point grading scale. Patient's satisfaction and adverse events were recorded. Two patients (10 %) showed grade 1 improvement, while eight patients (40 %) showed grade 2 improvement. Nine patients (45 %) showed grade 3 improvement, and only one patient (5 %) showed grade 4 improvement. FCO2 laser resurfacing is effective and safe in treatment of facial freckles in skin phototypes II-IV. It can offer a more practical alternative to topical treatments, and a cheaper alternative to Q-switched lasers.

  12. Genetic determinants of freckle occurrence in the Spanish population: Towards ephelides prediction from human DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Barbara; Ibañez, Maria Victoria; Deserio-Cuesta, Julio Alberto; Soria-Navarro, Raquel; Vilar-Sastre, Inca; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado

    2018-03-01

    Prediction of human pigmentation traits, one of the most differentiable externally visible characteristics among individuals, from biological samples represents a useful tool in the field of forensic DNA phenotyping. In spite of freckling being a relatively common pigmentation characteristic in Europeans, little is known about the genetic basis of this largely genetically determined phenotype in southern European populations. In this work, we explored the predictive capacity of eight freckle and sunlight sensitivity-related genes in 458 individuals (266 non-freckled controls and 192 freckled cases) from Spain. Four loci were associated with freckling (MC1R, IRF4, ASIP and BNC2), and female sex was also found to be a predictive factor for having a freckling phenotype in our population. After identifying the most informative genetic variants responsible for human ephelides occurrence in our sample set, we developed a DNA-based freckle prediction model using a multivariate regression approach. Once developed, the capabilities of the prediction model were tested by a repeated 10-fold cross-validation approach. The proportion of correctly predicted individuals using the DNA-based freckle prediction model was 74.13%. The implementation of sex into the DNA-based freckle prediction model slightly improved the overall prediction accuracy by 2.19% (76.32%). Further evaluation of the newly-generated prediction model was performed by assessing the model's performance in a new cohort of 212 Spanish individuals, reaching a classification success rate of 74.61%. Validation of this prediction model may be carried out in larger populations, including samples from different European populations. Further research to validate and improve this newly-generated freckle prediction model will be needed before its forensic application. Together with DNA tests already validated for eye and hair colour prediction, this freckle prediction model may lead to a substantially more detailed

  13. Skin blotting: a noninvasive technique for evaluating physiological skin status.

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Takeo; Horii, Motoko; Oe, Makoto; Sugama, Junko; Mugita, Yuko; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-06-01

    The skin performs important structural and physiological functions, and skin assessment represents an important step in identifying skin problems. Although noninvasive techniques for assessing skin status exist, no such techniques for monitoring its physiological status are available. This study aimed to develop a novel skin-assessment technique known as skin blotting, based on the leakage of secreted proteins from inside the skin following overhydration in mice. The applicability of this technique was further investigated in a clinical setting. Skin blotting involves 2 steps: collecting proteins by attaching a damp nitrocellulose membrane to the surface of the skin, and immunostaining the collected proteins. The authors implanted fluorescein-conjugated dextran (F-DEX)-containing agarose gels into mice and detected the tissue distribution of F-DEX under different blotting conditions. They also analyzed the correlations between inflammatory cytokine secretion and leakage following ultraviolet irradiation in mice and in relation to body mass index in humans. The F-DEX in mice was distributed in the deeper and shallower layers of skin and leaked through the transfollicular and transepidermal routes, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation induced tumor necrosis factor secretion in the epidermis in mice, which was detected by skin blotting, whereas follicular tumor necrosis factor was associated with body mass index in obese human subjects. These results support the applicability of skin blotting for skin assessment. Skin blotting represents a noninvasive technique for assessing skin physiology and has potential as a predictive and diagnostic tool for skin disorders.

  14. Effects of convection patterns on freckle formation of directionally solidified Nickel-based superalloy casting with abruptly varying cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ling; Shen, Jun; Li, Qiudong; Shang, Zhao

    2017-05-01

    The effects of convection patterns on freckle formation of directionally solidified Nickel-based superalloy sample with abruptly varying cross-sections were investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental results demonstrate that freckles were only observed at the bottom of larger cross-section. Numerical results indicate that this phenomenon should be attributed to the different convection patterns at front of solidification interface. As the withdrawal rate increased, the primary dendrites spacing has an obvious influence on freckle formation. A more in-depth investigation of the convection patterns can provide a better understanding of freckle formation and perhaps offer methods to minimize freckles in turbine blades.

  15. Interactions between ultraviolet light and MC1R and OCA2 variants are determinants of childhood nevus and freckle phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Barón, Anna E.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Gonzalez, Victoria; Aalborg, Jenny; Terzian, Tamara; Stiegmann, Regan A.; C.Torchia, Enrique; Berwick, Marianne; Dellavalle, Robert P.; G.Morelli, Joseph; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Crane, Lori A.; Box, Neil F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Melanocytic nevi (moles) and freckles are well known biomarkers of melanoma risk, and they are influenced by similar ultraviolet (UV) light exposures and genetic susceptibilities to those that increase melanoma risk. Nevertheless, the selective interactions between UV exposures and nevus and freckling genes remain largely undescribed. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study from ages 6 through 10 in 477 Colorado children who had annual information collected for sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and full body skin exams. MC1R and HERC2/OCA2 rs12913832 were genotyped and linear mixed models were used to identify main and interaction effects. Results All measures of sun exposure (chronic, sunburns and waterside vacations) contributed to total nevus counts, and cumulative chronic exposure acted as the major driver of nevus development. Waterside vacations strongly increased total nevus counts in children with rs12913832 blue eye color alleles and facial freckling scores in those with MC1R red hair color variants. Sunburns increased numbers of larger nevi (≥2 mm) in subjects with certain MC1R and rs12913832 genotypes. Conclusions Complex interactions between different UV exposure profiles and genotype combinations determine nevus numbers and size, and the degree of facial freckling. Impact Our findings emphasize the importance of implementing sun-protective behavior in childhood regardless of genetic make-up; although children with particular genetic variants may benefit from specifically targeted preventive measures to counteract their inherent risk of melanoma. Moreover, we demonstrate, for the first time, that longitudinal studies are a highly powered tool to uncover new gene-environment interactions that increase cancer risk. PMID:25410285

  16. Interactions between ultraviolet light and MC1R and OCA2 variants are determinants of childhood nevus and freckle phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Barón, Anna E; Asdigian, Nancy L; Gonzalez, Victoria; Aalborg, Jenny; Terzian, Tamara; Stiegmann, Regan A; Torchia, Enrique C; Berwick, Marianne; Dellavalle, Robert P; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Crane, Lori A; Box, Neil F

    2014-12-01

    Melanocytic nevi (moles) and freckles are well known biomarkers of melanoma risk, and they are influenced by similar UV light exposures and genetic susceptibilities to those that increase melanoma risk. Nevertheless, the selective interactions between UV exposures and nevus and freckling genes remain largely undescribed. We conducted a longitudinal study from ages 6 through 10 years in 477 Colorado children who had annual information collected for sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and full body skin exams. MC1R and HERC2/OCA2 rs12913832 were genotyped and linear mixed models were used to identify main and interaction effects. All measures of sun exposure (chronic, sunburns, and waterside vacations) contributed to total nevus counts, and cumulative chronic exposure acted as the major driver of nevus development. Waterside vacations strongly increased total nevus counts in children with rs12913832 blue eye color alleles and facial freckling scores in those with MC1R red hair color variants. Sunburns increased the numbers of larger nevi (≥2 mm) in subjects with certain MC1R and rs12913832 genotypes. Complex interactions between different UV exposure profiles and genotype combinations determine nevus numbers and size, and the degree of facial freckling. Our findings emphasize the importance of implementing sun-protective behavior in childhood regardless of genetic make-up, although children with particular genetic variants may benefit from specifically targeted preventive measures to counteract their inherent risk of melanoma. Moreover, we demonstrate, for the first time, that longitudinal studies are a highly powered tool to uncover new gene-environment interactions that increase cancer risk. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000611.htm Skin and hair changes during pregnancy To use the sharing features ... women are left with freckles. Your Nails and Hair You may notice changes in the texture and ...

  18. Wash or wipe? A comparative study of skin physiological changes between water washing and wiping after skin cleaning.

    PubMed

    Ogai, K; Matsumoto, M; Aoki, M; Ota, R; Hashimoto, K; Wada, R; Kobayashi, M; Sugama, J

    2017-11-01

    Presently, skin-cleaning agents that claim to be removed by water or wiping alone are commercially available and have been used for the purpose of bed baths. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how water washing and wiping differently affect skin physiological functions or ceramide content. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of water washing and wiping on skin physiological functions and ceramide content. Three kinds of the cleaning agents with different removal techniques (ie, water washing and wiping) were used in this study. Skin physiological functions (ie, transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, and skin pH) and skin ceramide content were measured before and after seven consecutive days of the application of each cleaning agent. No significant differences in skin physiological functions or ceramide content were observed between water washing and wiping. Cleaning agents that claim to be removed by water washing or wiping do not affect skin physiological functions or ceramide content by either removal method. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Contactless physiological signals extraction based on skin color magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Kun Ha; Lee, Eui Chul

    2017-11-01

    Although the human visual system is not sufficiently sensitive to perceive blood circulation, blood flow caused by cardiac activity makes slight changes on human skin surfaces. With advances in imaging technology, it has become possible to capture these changes through digital cameras. However, it is difficult to obtain clear physiological signals from such changes due to its fineness and noise factors, such as motion artifacts and camera sensing disturbances. We propose a method for extracting physiological signals with improved quality from skin colored-videos recorded with a remote RGB camera. The results showed that our skin color magnification method reveals the hidden physiological components remarkably in the time-series signal. A Korea Food and Drug Administration-approved heart rate monitor was used for verifying the resulting signal synchronized with the actual cardiac pulse, and comparisons of signal peaks showed correlation coefficients of almost 1.0. In particular, our method can be an effective preprocessing before applying additional postfiltering techniques to improve accuracy in image-based physiological signal extractions.

  20. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  1. [Physiological features of skin ageing in human].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, I V; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    2013-01-01

    The issue deals with the actual problem of gerontology, notably physiological features of human skin ageing. In the present review the authors have considered the kinds of ageing, central factors, affected on the ageing process (ultraviolet radiation and oxidation stress), as well as the research guidelines of the ageing changes in the skin structure and fuctions: study of mechanical properties, microcirculation, pH and skin thickness. The special attention has been payed to the methods of assessment of skin blood flow, and to results of investigations of age features of peripheral microhemodynamics. The laser Doppler flowmetry technique - one of the modern, noninvasive and extensively used methods for the assessmant of skin blood flow microcirculation system has been expanded in the review. The main results of the study of the ageing changes of skin blood perfusion using this method has been also presented.

  2. Physiological basis for noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy offers a noninvasive, fast, and low-cost alternative to visual screening and biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis. We have previously acquired reflectance spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients and determined the capability of spectral diagnosis using principal component analysis (PCA). However, it is not well elucidated why spectral analysis enables tissue classification. To provide the physiological basis, we used the Monte Carlo look-up table (MCLUT) model to extract physiological parameters from those clinical data. The MCLUT model results in the following physiological parameters: oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, melanin concentration, vessel radius, and scattering parameters. Physiological parameters show that cancerous skin tissue has lower scattering and larger vessel radii, compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrate the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for detection of early precancerous changes in tissue. In the future, a diagnostic algorithm that combines these physiological parameters could be enable non-invasive diagnosis of skin cancer.

  3. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J.; Birarda, Giovanni

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or youngermore » than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. In conclusion, amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.« less

  4. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin

    DOE PAGES

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J.; Birarda, Giovanni; ...

    2017-06-22

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or youngermore » than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. In conclusion, amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.« less

  5. Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin.

    PubMed

    An, Bong-Jeun; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Son, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae Soon; Kim, So-Yeun; Kim, Yeoung-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin was investigated for further industrial application. The green tea polyphenol was separated and irradiated at 40 kGy by y-ray. For an anti-wrinkle effect, the collagenase inhibition effect was higher in the irradiated sample (65.3%) than that of the non-irradiated control (56.8%) at 200 ppm of the concentration (p < 0.05). Collagen biosynthesis rates using a human fibroblast were 19.4% and 16.3% in the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibition effect, which is related to the skin-whitening effect, showed a 45.2% and 42.9% in the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols, respectively, at a 100 ppm level. A higher than 90% growth inhibition on skin cancer cells (SK-MEL-2 and G361) was demonstrated in both the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols. Thus, the irradiation of green tea polyphenol did not change and even increased its anti-wrinkle, skin-whitening and anticancer effects on the human skin. The results indicated that irradiated green tea polyphenol can be used as a natural ingredient with excellent physiological functions for the human skin through cosmetic or food composition.

  6. [The role of endogenous and exogenous factors in the etiology of skin melanoma].

    PubMed

    Zaridze, D G; Mukeriia, A F; Basieva, T Kh; Shlenskaia, I N; Bukin, Iu V

    1992-01-01

    The results of case-control study of skin melanoma carried out in Moscow are presented. They point to considerable influence of endogenous factors on the relative risk of melanoma. The risk of melanoma is increased by such factors as light color of the skin, presence of freckles and moles. Exposure to UV-radiation raised the risk of melanoma, however, after relevant adjustment for the said factors relative risk was reduced. Consumption of greens and high blood levels of alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased the risk of melanoma. Female users of oral contraceptives had significantly lower risk of skin melanoma.

  7. Skin Physiology of the Neonate and Infant: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Oranges, Teresa; Dini, Valentina; Romanelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The skin is a complex and dynamic organ that performs several vital functions. The maturation process of the skin starts at birth with the adaption of the skin to the comparatively dry environment compared to the in utero milieu. This adaptive flexibility results in the unique properties of infant skin. To deliver appropriate care to infant skin, it is necessary to understand that it is evolving with unique characteristics. Recent Advances: The role of biophysical noninvasive techniques in the assessment of skin development underlines the importance of an objective evaluation of skin physiology parameters. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, and pH values are measurable with specific instruments that give us an accurate and reproducible assessment during infant skin maturation. The recording of these values, following standard measurement procedures, allows us to evaluate the integrity of the skin barrier and to monitor the functionality of the maturing skin over time. Critical Issues: During the barrier development, impaired skin function makes the skin vulnerable to chemical damage, microbial infections, and skin diseases, possibly compromising the general health of the infant. Preterm newborns, during the first weeks of life, have an even less developed skin barrier and, therefore, are even more at risk. Thus, it is extremely important to evaluate the risk of infection, skin breakdown, topical agent absorption, and the risk of thermoregulation failure. Future Directions: Detailed and objective evaluations of infant skin maturation are necessary to improve infant skin care. The results of these evaluations should be formed into general protocols that will allow doctors and caregivers to give more personalized care to full-term newborns, preterm newborns, and infants. PMID:26487977

  8. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 150 genes have been identified that affect skin color either directly or indirectly, and we review current understanding of physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. We focus on melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer, melanogenic regulators in melanocytes and factors derived from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hormones, inflammatory cells and nerves. Enzymatic components of melanosomes include tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and dopachrome tautomerase, which depend on the functions of OA1, P, MATP, ATP7A and BLOC-1 to synthesize eumelanins and pheomelanins. The main structural component of melanosomes is Pmel17/gp100/Silv, whose sorting involves adaptor protein 1A (AP1A), AP1B, AP2 and spectrin, as well as a chaperone-like component, MART-1. During their maturation, melanosomes move from the perinuclear area toward the plasma membrane. Microtubules, dynein, kinesin, actin filaments, Rab27a, melanophilin, myosin Va and Slp2-a are involved in melanosome transport. Foxn1 and p53 up-regulate skin pigmentation via bFGF and POMC derivatives including α-MSH and ACTH, respectively. Other critical factors that affect skin pigmentation include MC1R, CREB, ASP, MITF, PAX3, SOX9/10, LEF-1/TCF, PAR-2, DKK1, SCF, HGF, GM-CSF, endothelin-1, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, neurotrophins and neuropeptides. UV radiation up-regulates most factors that increase melanogenesis. Further studies will elucidate the currently unknown functions of many other pigment genes/proteins. PMID:19449448

  9. Numerical simulation of freckle formation in directional solidification of binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felicelli, Sergio D.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Poirier, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification is presented which simulates the formation of segregation models known as 'freckles' during directional solidification of binary alloys. The growth of the two-phase or dendritic zone is calculated by solving the coupled equations of momentum, energy, and solute transport, as well as maintaining the thermodynamic constraints dictated by the phase diagram of the alloy. Calculations for lead-tin alloys show that the thermosolutal convection in the dendritic zone during solidification can produce heavily localized inhomogeneities in the composition of the final alloy.

  10. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hearing, Vincent J

    2009-01-01

    More than 150 genes have been identified that affect skin color either directly or indirectly, and we review current understanding of physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. We focus on melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer, melanogenic regulators in melanocytes, and factors derived from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hormones, inflammatory cells, and nerves. Enzymatic components of melanosomes include tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and dopachrome tautomerase, which depend on the functions of OA1, P, MATP, ATP7A, and BLOC-1 to synthesize eumelanins and pheomelanins. The main structural component of melanosomes is Pmel17/gp100/Silv, whose sorting involves adaptor protein 1A (AP1A), AP1B, AP2, and spectrin, as well as a chaperone-like component, MART-1. During their maturation, melanosomes move from the perinuclear area toward the plasma membrane. Microtubules, dynein, kinesin, actin filaments, Rab27a, melanophilin, myosin Va, and Slp2-a are involved in melanosome transport. Foxn1 and p53 up-regulate skin pigmentation via bFGF and POMC derivatives including alpha-MSH and ACTH, respectively. Other critical factors that affect skin pigmentation include MC1R, CREB, ASP, MITF, PAX3, SOX9/10, LEF-1/TCF, PAR-2, DKK1, SCF, HGF, GM-CSF, endothelin-1, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, neurotrophins, and neuropeptides. UV radiation up-regulates most factors that increase melanogenesis. Further studies will elucidate the currently unknown functions of many other pigment genes/proteins. (c) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines include brown skin spots called lentigines that are similar to freckles, heart ... may have thousands of small dark brown skin spots by the time they reach puberty. Unlike freckles, ...

  12. [Physiological skin changes during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Jean-Luc

    2003-11-29

    A NATURAL PHENOMENON: Pregnancy is a period of hormone, immunological, metabolic and vascular changes. Modifications of the skin, mucosa and integuments are therefore physiological. The modifications are in pigmentation, but also affect nevi, the connective tissue, vessels and appendices. Modifications in pigmentation exist in more than 9 pregnancies out of 10 in the form of local melanosis. Melasma, also know as the 'pregnancy mask' or chloasma, is fairly rare. These disorders in pigmentation are also observed in black-skinned women. Changes in nevi (darker brown colour, increase in size) occur in around 15% of pregnancies. MODIFICATIONS IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Characterised by vergetures, affecting 60 to 90% of women, appear between the 6th and 8th month of pregnancy and for which there is no satisfactory treatment. Vascular modifications are generally proliferative and due to estrogen impregnation that affects the arteriolar and venous systems. Stellar angiomas are present in 50 to 70% of Caucasian women. Bilateral palmar erythema may also be associated with these angiomas. Varicose veins and varicosities of the lower limbs induced by excessive venous pressure are frequent, as well as oedema (salt-water retention, increased capillary permeability). MODIFICATIONS IN THE APPENDICES: These concern the activity of the sweat glands, the size of the sebaceous glands (Montgomery tubercles), the nails and hair growth.

  13. Excessive Weight Favours Skin Physiology - Up to a Point: Another Expression of the Obesity Paradox.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Palma, Lídia; Santos, Osvaldo; Almeida, Maria Angélica; Bujan, Julia; Tavares, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Recently classified as an epidemic by the WHO, obesity (as well as the state of being overweight) clearly affects significant populations across all ages. The relationship between obesity and some diseases (e.g. cardiovascular ones) is known, although many paradoxes remain to be explained. Very little information is available, however, regarding its impact on skin physiology and skin disease. This study aims to examine the influence of excessive weight on epidermal hydration and transepidermal water loss, key variables of skin water balance and skin biomechanics. A convenience sample of 89 healthy female volunteers was selected and divided into 4 groups, according to their BMI (body mass index), as normal (control), overweight, obese (I and II), and morbid. Skin physiology was quantitatively assessed in all individuals in 4 anatomical areas using non-invasive biometrical analysis by reference instrumentation. Descriptive and comparative statistics were applied, adopting a confidence level of 95%. A non-linear alteration for all variables was detected as a function of BMI. Results suggest that excessive weight might favour skin performance within certain limits, reflecting a particular adaptation of the skin to the weight gain and body contour. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Evaluation of skin pathologies by RGB autofluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Plorina, Emilija V.; Derjabo, Alexander; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze

    2017-12-01

    A clinical trial on autofluorescence imaging of malignant and non-malignant skin pathologies comprising 32 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), 4 malignant melanomas (MM), 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 89 nevi, 14 dysplastic nevi, 20 hemangiomas, 23 seborrheic keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 3 actinic keratoses, 3 psoriasis, 1 dematitis, 2 dermatofibromas, 5 papillofibromas, 12 lupus erythematosus, 7 purpura, 6 bruises, 5 freckles, 3 fungal infections, 1 burn, 1 tattoo, 1 age spot, 1 vitiligo, 32 postoperative scars, 8 post cream therapy BCCs, 4 post radiation therapy scars, 2 post laser therapy scars, 1 post freezing scar as well as 114 reference images of healthy skin was performed. The sequence of autofluorescence images of skin pathologies were recorded by smartphone RGB camera under continuous 405 nm LED excitation during 20 seconds with 0.5 fps. Obtained image sequences further were processed with subsequent extraction of autofluorescence intensity and photobleaching parameters.

  15. Evaluating visibility of age spot and freckle based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Misa; Toyota, Saori; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2018-02-01

    In this research, we evaluate the visibility of age spot and freckle with changing the blood volume based on simulated spectral reflectance distribution and the actual facial color images, and compare these results. First, we generate three types of spatial distribution of age spot and freckle in patch-like images based on the simulated spectral reflectance. The spectral reflectance is simulated using Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in multi-layered tissue. Next, we reconstruct the facial color image with changing the blood volume. We acquire the concentration distribution of melanin, hemoglobin and shading components by applying the independent component analysis on a facial color image. We reproduce images using the obtained melanin and shading concentration and the changed hemoglobin concentration. Finally, we evaluate the visibility of pigmentations using simulated spectral reflectance distribution and facial color images. In the result of simulated spectral reflectance distribution, we found that the visibility became lower as the blood volume increases. However, we can see that a specific blood volume reduces the visibility of the actual pigmentations from the result of the facial color images.

  16. Micro-patterned graphene-based sensing skins for human physiological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Manna, Kausik

    2018-03-01

    Ultrathin, flexible, conformal, and skin-like electronic transducers are emerging as promising candidates for noninvasive and nonintrusive human health monitoring. In this work, a wearable sensing membrane is developed by patterning a graphene-based solution onto ultrathin medical tape, which can then be attached to the skin for monitoring human physiological parameters and physical activity. Here, the sensor is validated for monitoring finger bending/movements and for recognizing hand motion patterns, thereby demonstrating its future potential for evaluating athletic performance, physical therapy, and designing next-generation human-machine interfaces. Furthermore, this study also quantifies the sensor’s ability to monitor eye blinking and radial pulse in real-time, which can find broader applications for the healthcare sector. Overall, the printed graphene-based sensing skin is highly conformable, flexible, lightweight, nonintrusive, mechanically robust, and is characterized by high strain sensitivity.

  17. Change in skin physiological parameters in space--report on and results of the first study on man.

    PubMed

    Tronnier, H; Wiebusch, M; Heinrich, U

    2008-01-01

    Astronauts often show skin reactions in space. Systematic tests, e.g. with noninvasive skin physiological test methods, have not yet been done. In an interdisciplinary cooperation, a test series with skin physiological measurements was carried out before, during and after a long-term mission in the International Space Station. The hydration of the stratum corneum (Corneometer), transepidermal water loss (Tewameter), and the surface structure of the skin (SkinVisiometer) were measured. In order to record cutaneous states, the suction elasticity was measured (Cutometer), and an ultrasound measurement with 20 MHz (DermaScan) was also made. In addition, one measuring field of the two inner forearms was treated with a skin care emulsion. There were indications of a delayed epidermal proliferation of the cells, which would correspond to the clinical symptoms. Hydration and TEWL values are improved by respective skin care. On the cutaneous level, the elasticity measurements and the ultrasound picture showed results which correspond to a significant loss of elasticity of the skin. Further examinations are necessary to validate these preliminary results. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A flexible skin patch for continuous physiological monitoring of mental disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Won Ick; Lee, Bong Kuk; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Baek, In-Bok; Yu, Han Young; Kim, Seunghwan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we have newly developed a flexible adhesive skin patch of electrocardiogram (ECG) device for continuous physiological monitoring of mental disorders. In addition, this flexible patch did not cause any damage to the skin even after 24 hours attachment. We have also suggested the possibility of novel interconnection for copper film on polyimide and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers of the flexible patch. Self-align and soldering of IC chips such as resistor between metal pads on flexible skin patch have also successfully fabricated for 5 min at 180 °C in vacuum oven. Low temperature interconnection technology based on a Sn42/Bi58 solder was also developed for flexible ECG devices. As a result, we can monitor the mental health status through a comprehensive analysis of biological signals from flexible ECG devices.

  19. Role of the liver X receptors in skin physiology: Putative pharmacological targets in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Zangbéwendé Guy; Fouache, Allan; Trousson, Amalia; Baron, Silvère; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have been shown to regulate various physiological functions such as lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. Concordant reports have elicited the possibility to target them to cure many human diseases including arteriosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, and diabetes. The high relevance of modulating LXR activities to treat numerous skin diseases, mainly those with exacerbated inflammation processes, contrasts with the lack of approved therapeutic use. This review makes an assessment to sum up the findings regarding the physiological roles of LXRs in skin and help progress towards the therapeutic and safe management of their activities. It focuses on the possible pharmacological targeting of LXRs to cure or prevent selected skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A case study of infant physiologic response to skin-to-skin contact following surgery for complex congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tondi M.; Ludington-Hoe, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with complex congenital heart disease requiring surgical intervention within the first days or weeks of life may be the most seriously ill infants needing intensive nursing and medical care immediately after birth. Skin to skin contact (SSC) is well-accepted and practiced as a positive therapeutic intervention in premature infants, but is not routinely offered to infants in cardiac intensive care units. Physiologic effects of SSC in the congenital heart disease population must be examined before recommending incorporation of SSC into standard care routines. Objective The purpose of this case study was to describe the physiologic response to a single session of SSC in an 18-day-old infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Methods Repeated measures of heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and temperature were recorded 30 minutes prior to SSC, during SSC (including interruptions for bottle and breast feedings), and 10 minutes after SSC was completed. Results All physiologic parameters were clinically acceptable throughout the 135-minute observation. Conclusion This case study provides beginning evidence that SSC is safe in full-term infants following surgery for complex congenital heart disease. Further research with a larger sample is needed to examine effects of SSC on infant physiology before surgery and earlier in the postoperative time period as well as on additional outcomes such as length of stay, maternal-infant interaction, and neurodevelopment. PMID:25325374

  1. A Case Study of Infant Physiologic Response to Skin-to-Skin Contact After Surgery for Complex Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tondi M; Ludington-Hoe, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Infants with complex congenital heart disease requiring surgical intervention within the first days or weeks of life may be the most seriously ill infants needing intensive nursing and medical care. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is well accepted and practiced as a positive therapeutic intervention in premature infants but is not routinely offered to infants in cardiac intensive care units. The physiologic effects of SSC in the congenital heart disease population must be examined before recommending incorporation of SSC into standard care routines. The purpose of this case study was to describe the physiologic response to a single session of SSC in an 18-day-old infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Repeated measures of heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and temperature were recorded 30 minutes before SSC, during SSC (including interruptions for bottle and breast feedings), and 10 minutes after SSC was completed. All physiologic parameters were clinically acceptable throughout the 135-minute observation. This case study provides beginning evidence that SSC is safe in full-term infants after surgery for complex congenital heart disease. Further research with a larger sample is needed to examine the effects of SSC on infant physiology before surgery and earlier in the postoperative time period as well as on additional outcomes such as length of stay, maternal-infant interaction, and neurodevelopment.

  2. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Physiological and Molecular Effects of in vivo and ex vivo Mild Skin Barrier Disruption.

    PubMed

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Weiss, Lina; Hadam, Sabrina; Gonnet, Jessica; Combardière, Béhazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The success of topically applied treatments on skin relies on the efficacy of skin penetration. In order to increase particle or product penetration, mild skin barrier disruption methods can be used. We previously described cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping as an efficient method to open hair follicles, enhance particle penetration, and activate Langerhans cells. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo measurements on human skin to characterize the biological effect and quantify barrier disruption-related inflammation on a molecular level. Despite the known immunostimulatory effects, this barrier disruption and hair follicle opening method was well accepted and did not result in lasting changes of skin physiological parameters, cytokine production, or clinical side effects. Only in ex vivo human skin did we find a discrete increase in IP-10, TGF-β, IL-8, and GM-CSF mRNA. The data underline the safety profile of this method and demonstrate that the procedure per se does not cause substantial inflammation or skin damage, which is also of interest when applied to non-invasive sampling of biomarkers in clinical trials. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Development of a rate model to investigate contributions of anatomic and physiologic determinants of in vivo skin permeation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fleischer, N.M.

    The skin is a heterogeneous, bi-directional impediment to chemical flux, in which the stratum corneum is a major, though not the sole, rate-limiting barrier layer to permeation. Systemic toxicity following dermal exposure to environmental chemicals and use of skin as a portal for systemic administration of drugs have led to extensive investigations of the inward flux of xenobiotics applied to the outer surface of skin. Those investigations mainly utilized in vitro experimental systems that were limited by the absence of normal physiologic functions. The objective of the present research was to investigate an in vivo skin permeation model system thatmore » was sensitive to perturbations of skin capillary physiology and stratum corneum. A [open quotes]fuzzy[close quotes] rat model system was devised that employed outward cutaneous migration of a systemically administered permeation probe, isoflurane. Specially devised, transdermal vapor collection devices were used to capture the outward flux of isoflurane through the skin. Isoflurane flux measurements, coupled with blood isoflurane concentrations, were used to calculate cutaneous permeability coefficients (K[sub p]) of isolflurane, as an index of permeation, under various conditions of normal or perturbed cutaneous physiologic states. Physiologic perturbations were performed to test the sensitivity of the model system to detect effects of minoxidil-mediated vasodilation, phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction, and leukotriene D[sub 4]-mediated increased capillary permeability on the outward flux of isoflurane. Tape stripping and topical ether-ethanol application produced either physical removal or chemical disruption of the stratum corneum, respectively. Minoxidil, leukotriene D[sub 4], tape stripping of stratum corneum, and topical ether-ethanol experiments produced statistically significant increases (52 to 193%) in the K[sub p's], while phenylephrine had no significant effect on isoflurane permeation.« less

  5. The freckle plot (daily turnaround time chart): a technique for timely and effective quality improvement of test turnaround times.

    PubMed

    Pellar, T G; Ward, P J; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1993-06-01

    Test turnaround times are often monitored on a monthly basis. However, such an interval usually means that not all causes for delay in test reporting can be unequivocally identified for institution of remedial action. We have devised a daily chart--the freckle plot--that graphically displays the test turnaround times by laboratory receipt time. Different symbols are used to designate specimens reported within the test's turnaround time limit, those within 10 min beyond that limit, and those well outside the limit. These categories are adjustable to suit different limits of stringency. Freckle plots are produced on a daily basis and can be used to track down causes for test delays. Using the 1-h turnaround time "stat" potassium test as a model, we found 16 causes for test delay, of which 9 were potentially remediable. By applying these remedies, we were able to increase test compliance, in the day shift, from 91.5% (95% confidence interval 88.8%-93.7%) to 97.6% (95% confidence interval 96.4-98.55%), which is significant at P < 10(-7). This daily plot is a useful quality assurance tool, supplementing the more conventional tests used to ensure laboratory quality improvement.

  6. Association of Piebaldism, multiple café-au-lait macules, and intertriginous freckling: clinical evidence of a common pathway between KIT and sprouty-related, ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein homology-1 domain containing protein 1 (SPRED1).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yvonne E; Dugan, Stefanie; Basel, Donald; Siegel, Dawn H

    2013-01-01

    Piebaldism is a rare genodermatosis caused by KIT mutations. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who had the white forelock and leukoderma of piebaldism, but the presence of many café-au-lait macules and axillary and inguinal freckling complicated the diagnosis. Patients with similar cutaneous findings have been previously reported, and their disorder has been attributed to an overlap of piebaldism and neurofibromatosis type 1. Legius syndrome is a recently described syndrome caused by Sprouty-related, Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein homology-1 domain containing protein 1 (SPRED1) mutations that also has multiple café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling. Based on our current understanding of KIT and SPRED1 protein interactions, we propose that café-au-lait macules and freckling may be seen in some patients with piebaldism and does not necessarily represent coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Analysis on unevenness of skin color using the melanin and hemoglobin components separated by independent component analysis of skin color image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Nobutoshi; Fujiwara, Izumi; Inoue, Yayoi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Iwata, Kayoko

    2011-03-01

    Uneven distribution of skin color is one of the biggest concerns about facial skin appearance. Recently several techniques to analyze skin color have been introduced by separating skin color information into chromophore components, such as melanin and hemoglobin. However, there are not many reports on quantitative analysis of unevenness of skin color by considering type of chromophore, clusters of different sizes and concentration of the each chromophore. We propose a new image analysis and simulation method based on chromophore analysis and spatial frequency analysis. This method is mainly composed of three techniques: independent component analysis (ICA) to extract hemoglobin and melanin chromophores from a single skin color image, an image pyramid technique which decomposes each chromophore into multi-resolution images, which can be used for identifying different sizes of clusters or spatial frequencies, and analysis of the histogram obtained from each multi-resolution image to extract unevenness parameters. As the application of the method, we also introduce an image processing technique to change unevenness of melanin component. As the result, the method showed high capabilities to analyze unevenness of each skin chromophore: 1) Vague unevenness on skin could be discriminated from noticeable pigmentation such as freckles or acne. 2) By analyzing the unevenness parameters obtained from each multi-resolution image for Japanese ladies, agerelated changes were observed in the parameters of middle spatial frequency. 3) An image processing system modulating the parameters was proposed to change unevenness of skin images along the axis of the obtained age-related change in real time.

  8. Parents' perceptions of skin cancer threat and children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.

  9. Raman spectroscopy: in vivo quick response code of skin physiological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Le Guillou, Maud; Guichard, Nathalie; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists need to combine different clinically relevant characteristics for a better understanding of skin health. These characteristics are usually measured by different techniques, and some of them are highly time consuming. Therefore, a predicting model based on Raman spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) regression was developed as a rapid multiparametric method. The Raman spectra collected from the five uppermost micrometers of 11 healthy volunteers were fitted to different skin characteristics measured by independent appropriate methods (transepidermal water loss, hydration, pH, relative amount of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol). For each parameter, the obtained PLS model presented correlation coefficients higher than R2=0.9. This model enables us to obtain all the aforementioned parameters directly from the unique Raman signature. In addition to that, in-depth Raman analyses down to 20 μm showed different balances between partially bound water and unbound water with depth. In parallel, the increase of depth was followed by an unfolding process of the proteins. The combinations of all these information led to a multiparametric investigation, which better characterizes the skin status. Raman signal can thus be used as a quick response code (QR code). This could help dermatologic diagnosis of physiological variations and presents a possible extension to pathological characterization.

  10. Raman spectroscopy: in vivo quick response code of skin physiological status.

    PubMed

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Le Guillou, Maud; Guichard, Nathalie; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologists need to combine different clinically relevant characteristics for a better understanding of skin health. These characteristics are usually measured by different techniques, and some of them are highly time consuming. Therefore, a predicting model based on Raman spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) regression was developed as a rapid multiparametric method. The Raman spectra collected from the five uppermost micrometers of 11 healthy volunteers were fitted to different skin characteristics measured by independent appropriate methods (transepidermal water loss, hydration, pH, relative amount of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol). For each parameter, the obtained PLS model presented correlation coefficients higher than R2=0.9. This model enables us to obtain all the aforementioned parameters directly from the unique Raman signature. In addition to that, in-depth Raman analyses down to 20 μm showed different balances between partially bound water and unbound water with depth. In parallel, the increase of depth was followed by an unfolding process of the proteins. The combinations of all these information led to a multiparametric investigation, which better characterizes the skin status. Raman signal can thus be used as a quick response code (QR code). This could help dermatologic diagnosis of physiological variations and presents a possible extension to pathological characterization.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of skin-to-skin contact from birth versus conventional incubator for physiological stabilization in 1200- to 2199-gram newborns.

    PubMed

    Bergman, N J; Linley, L L; Fawcus, S R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional care of prematurely born infants involves extended maternal-infant separation and incubator care. Recent research has shown that separation causes adverse effects. Maternal-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) provides an alternative habitat to the incubator, with proven benefits for stable prematures; this has not been established for unstable or newborn low-birthweight infants. SSC from birth was therefore compared to incubator care for infants between 1200 and 2199 g at birth. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled clinical trial; potential subjects were identified before delivery and randomized by computerized minimization technique at 5 min if eligible. Standardized care and observations were maintained for 6 h. Stability was measured in terms of a set of pre-determined physiological parameters, and a composite cardio-respiratory stabilization score (SCRIP). 34 infants were analysed in comparable groups: 3/18 SSC compared to 12/13 incubator babies exceeded the pre-determined parameters (p < 0.001). Stabilization scores were 77.11 for SSC versus 74.23 for incubator (maximum 78), mean difference 2.88 (95% CI: 0.3-5.46, p = 0.031). All 18 SSC subjects were stable in the sixth hour, compared to 6/13 incubator infants. Eight out of 13 incubator subjects experienced hypothermia. Newborn care provided by skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest results in better physiological outcomes and stability than the same care provided in closed servo-controlled incubators. The cardio-respiratory instability seen in separated infants in the first 6 h is consistent with mammalian "protest-despair" biology, and with "hyper-arousal and dissociation" response patterns described in human infants: newborns should not be separated from their mothers.

  12. Topical application of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract containing genistein and daidzein improves rheological and physiological properties of skin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kouji; Hanamizu, Tomoko; Sone, Toshiro; Chiba, Katsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract (BE) containing genistein and daidzein on the hyaluronic acid (HA) content and rheological and physiological properties of hairless mouse and/or human skin. Topical application of BE for six weeks significantly restored changes in the elasticity and viscoelasticity of mouse skin, increased the HA content, and hydrated and thickened mouse skin. Also, topical application of a gel formula containing 10% BE to the human forearm for three months significantly lessened the decrease in skin elasticity. Therefore, BE is expected to become a new cosmetic ingredient to prevent the loss of skin elasticity through enhancement of HA production.

  13. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  14. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  16. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots, Freckling, and Neurofibromas. An Update. Part I. Dermatological Clinical Criteria Diagnostic of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists, who are generally the first physicians to suspect its diagnosis. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still mainly based on clinical observations and the diagnostic criteria of the National Institute of Health, dating from 1988. Cutaneous manifestations are particularly important because café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas comprise 3 of the 7 clinical diagnostic criteria. However, café-au-lait spots and freckling can also be present in other diseases. These manifestations are therefore not pathognomonic and are insufficient for definitive diagnosis in the early years of life. NF1 is a multisystemic disease associated with a predisposition to cancer. A multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary and dermatologists play an important role. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of pajama properties on skin under mild cold conditions: the interaction between skin and clothing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Gohel, Mayur D I; Li, Yi; Chung, Waiyee J

    2011-07-01

    Clothing is considered the second skin of the human body. The aim of this study was to determine clothing-wearer interaction on skin physiology under mild cold conditions. Skin physiological parameters, subjective sensory response, stress level, and physical properties of clothing fabric from two longitude parallel-designed wear trials were studied. The wear trials involved four kinds of pajamas made from cotton or polyester material that had hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment, conducted for three weeks under mild cold conditions. Statistical tools, factor analysis, hierarchical linear regression, and logistic regression were applied to analyze the strong predictors of skin physiological parameters, stress level, and sensory response. A framework was established to illustrate clothing-wearer interactions with clothing fabric properties, skin physiology, stress level, and sensory response under mild cold conditions. Fabric has various effects on the human body under mild cold conditions. A fabric's properties influence skin physiology, sensation, and psychological response. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Parents’ Perceptions of Skin Cancer Threat and Children’s Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Alexander D.; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Morelli, Joseph G.; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman’s rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. Results After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. Conclusion The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities. PMID:22935145

  19. An Observational Cohort Study Examining the Effect of the Duration of Skin-to-Skin Contact on the Physiological Parameters of the Neonate in a Neonatal Intensive Special Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah; Santamaria, Nick

    2018-06-01

    Focus on skin-to-skin contact (SSC) as a family-centered care intervention in Neonatal Intensive Special Care (NISC) Units continues to increase. Previously, SSC has been shown to improve neonatal physiological stability, support brain development, and promote bonding and attachment. Limited research exists investigating SSC duration and neonatal physiological responses. This study examined the relationship between SSC duration and the neonate's oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and temperature. An observational cohort study was conducted at The Royal Women's Hospital NISC Unit in Melbourne, Australia. For each neonate participant, 1 SSC with their parent was studied (parent convenience) and neonatal physiological parameters recorded, with a bivariate correlation used to explore the relationship between the duration of SSC and the percentage of time during SSC that the neonate's physiological variables remained within a target range. No correlation existed between the duration of SSC and the neonatal physiological variables of oxygen saturation, HR, RR, and temperature. However, neonatal oxygen requirement was more often reduced across the duration of SSC. Due to previously documented benefits to neonates physiologically from SSC, and our supportive finding that SSC reduces neonatal oxygen requirement, we believe that this study adds to the evidence to support promotion of SSC in NISC Units. The duration of SSC does not appear to negatively impact the physiological effects to the neonate. Thus, SSC should be encouraged in all NISC Units to be conducted for the length of time the parent is able. This study should be repeated with a larger sample size.

  20. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  1. Vitamin E in human skin: organ-specific physiology and considerations for its use in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Jens J; Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, Swarna

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin E has been used for more than 50 years in experimental and clinical dermatology. While a large number of case reports were published in this time, there is still a lack of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well defined dosages and clinical indications. In contrast, advances in basic research on the physiology, mechanism of action, penetration, bioconversion and photoprotection of vitamin E in human skin has led to the development of numerous new formulations for use in cosmetics and skin care products. This article reviews basic mechanisms and possible cosmetic as well as clinical implications of the recent advances in cutaneous vitamin E research. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has antitumorigenic, photoprotective, and skin barrier stabilizing properties. While the current use of vitamin E is largely limited to cosmetics, controlled clinical studies for indications such as atopic dermatitis or preventions of photocarcinogenesis are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of vitamin E.

  2. Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S

    2006-01-01

    The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies.

  3. Skin hydration, microrelief and greasiness of normal skin in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... at greater risk for developing this type of cancer. These include: Fair skin; skin that freckles; blond or red hair Blistering sunburns before the age of 18 Numerous moles, especially if they appeared at a young age ...

  5. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveal Distinct Regulation of Peach Skin Quality Traits by Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Evangelos; Tanou, Georgia; Samiotaki, Martina; Michailidis, Michail; Diamantidis, Grigorios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analyzed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold), harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean), or high (495 m mean) altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage. Skin extracts from distinct developmental stages and growing altitudes exhibited different antioxidant ability against DNA strand-scission. The effects of altitude on skin tissue were further studied using a proteomic approach. Protein expression analysis of the mature fruits depicted altered expression of 42 proteins that are mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of defense, primary metabolism, destination/storage and energy. The majority of these proteins were up-regulated at the low-altitude region. High-altitude environment increased the accumulation of several proteins, including chaperone ClpC, chaperone ClpB, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, TCP domain class transcription factor, and lipoxygenase. We also discuss the altitude-affected protein variations, taking into account their potential role in peach ripening process. This study provides the first characterization of the peach skin proteome and helps to improve our understanding of peach's response to altitude. PMID:27891143

  6. Pigmentation Phenotype, Photosensitivity, and Skin Neoplasms in Patients with Myotonic Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M.; Hilbert, James E.; Martens, William B.; Givens, Shannon; Moxley, Richard T.; Greene, Mark H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a possible excess risk of skin neoplasms in patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM). Risk factors related to this observation have not been defined. Method We collected information regarding personal history of skin tumors, pigmentation phenotype, and skin reaction to sun exposure from 266 DM patients who were enrolled in the US NIH National Registry of Myotonic Dystrophy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Patients and Family Members. Results Seventy-seven subjects reported having skin tumors that were either benign (n=31), malignant (n=32), or both (n=14). Female gender (OR=2.27, 95%CI=1.02–5.05, p=0.04), older age (OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.05–1.16, p<0.001), and DM1 subtype (OR=3.42, 95%CI=1.27–9.26, p=0.02) were associated with a malignant skin tumor. The association between malignant skin tumors and known risk factors [light eye color (OR=1.62, 95%CI=0.78–3.39, p=0.20); light skin complexion (OR=1.31, 95% CI=0.63–2.73, p=0.48), moderate/extensive face freckles (OR=1.47, 95% CI=0.50–4.34, p=0.49)] were modest. Strong, but not statistically significant, associations were noted with sunburn reactions when exposed to sunlight (OR=4.28, 95%CI=0.91–19.95, p=0.06, and 2.19, 95%CI=0.67–7.09, p=0.19 for sunburns with and without blistering, respectively). Conclusions Although our study was limited by small sample size, the risk factors for malignant skin tumors in DM strongly resemble the general population. We recommend that DM patients adhere to sun exposure protective behavior. PMID:28317292

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy evaluation of bladder function: the impact of skin pigmentation on detection of physiologic change during voiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Stothers, Lynn; Molavi, Behnam; Mutabazi, Sharif; Mukisa, Ronald; Macnab, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Background: Prior research indicates the epidermal pigment layer of human skin (Melanin) has a significant absorption coefficient in the near infra-red (NIR) region; hence attenuation of light in vivo is a potential confounder for NIR spectroscopy (NIRS). A NIRS method developed for transcutaneous evaluation of bladder function is being investigated as a means of improving the burden of bladder disease in sub-Saharan Africa. This required development of a simple wireless NIRS device suitable for use as a screening tool in patients with pigmented skin where the NIR light emitted would penetrate through the epidermal pigment layer and return in sufficient quantity to provide effective monitoring. Methods: Two healthy subjects, one with pigmented skin and one with fair skin, were monitored as they voided spontaneously using the prototype transcutaneous NIRS device positioned over the bladder. The device was a self-contained wireless unit with light emitting diodes (wavelengths 760 and 850 nanometres) and interoptode distance of 4cm. The raw optical data were transmitted to a laptop where graphs of chromophore change were generated with proprietary software and compared between the subjects and with prior data from asymptomatic subjects. Results: Serial monitoring was successful in both subjects. Voiding volumes varied between 350 and 380 cc. In each subject the patterns of chromophore change, trend and magnitude of change were similar and matched the physiologic increase in total and oxygenated hemoglobin recognized to occur in normal bladder contraction during voiding. Conclusions: Skin pigmentation does not compromise the ability of transcutaneous NIRS to interrogate physiologic change in the bladder during bladder contraction in healthy subjects.

  8. Neurodegeneration as the presenting symptom in 2 adults with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, Niraj M.; Geschwind, Michael D.; DiGiovanna, John J.; Groden, Catherine; Godfrey, Rena; Yousefzadeh, Matthew J.; Wade, Erin A.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Kraemer, Kenneth H.; Gahl, William A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe the features of 2 unrelated adults with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XP-F) ascertained in a neurology care setting. Methods We report the clinical, imaging, molecular, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity of 2 middle-aged women with progressive neurodegeneration ultimately diagnosed with XP-F. Results Both patients presented with adult-onset progressive neurologic deterioration involving chorea, ataxia, hearing loss, cognitive deficits, profound brain atrophy, and a history of skin photosensitivity, skin freckling, and/or skin neoplasms. We identified compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations in ERCC4 and confirmed deficient NER capacity in skin fibroblasts from both patients. Conclusions These cases illustrate the role of NER dysfunction in neurodegeneration and how adult-onset neurodegeneration could be the major symptom bringing XP-F patients to clinical attention. XP-F should be considered by neurologists in the differential diagnosis of patients with adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration accompanied by global brain atrophy and a history of heightened sun sensitivity, excessive freckling, and skin malignancies. PMID:29892709

  9. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  10. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  11. The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moortgat, Peter; Anthonissen, Mieke; Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Maertens, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum massage is a non-invasive mechanical massage technique performed with a mechanical device that lifts the skin by means of suction, creates a skin fold and mobilises that skin fold. In the late 1970s, this therapy was introduced to treat traumatic or burn scars. Although vacuum massage was invented to treat burns and scars, one can find very little literature on the effects of this intervention. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present an overview of the available literature on the physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on epidermal and dermal skin structures in order to find the underlying working mechanisms that could benefit the healing of burns and scars. The discussion contains translational analysis of the results and provides recommendations for future research on the topic. An extended search for publications was performed using PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Two authors independently identified and checked each study against the inclusion criteria. Nineteen articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. The two most reported physical effects of vacuum massage were improvement of the tissue hardness and the elasticity of the skin. Besides physical effects, a variety of physiological effects are reported in literature, for example, an increased number of fibroblasts and collagen fibres accompanied by an alteration of fibroblast phenotype and collagen orientation. Little information was found on the decrease of pain and itch due to vacuum massage. Although vacuum massage initially had been developed for the treatment of burn scars, this literature review found little evidence for the efficacy of this treatment. Variations in duration, amplitude or frequency of the treatment have a substantial influence on collagen restructuring and reorientation, thus implying possible beneficial influences on the healing potential by mechanotransduction pathways. Vacuum massage may release the mechanical tension associated with

  12. Clinical system model for monitoring the physiological status of jaundice by extracting bilirubin components from skin diffuse reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alla S.; Clark, Joseph; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. The excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. As the bilirubin levels rise in the blood stream, there is a continuous exchange between the extra vascular bilirubin and bilirubin in the blood stream. Exposure to phototherapy alters the concentration of bilirubin in the vascular and extra vascular regions by causing bilirubin in the skin layers to be broken down. Thus, the relative concentration of extra vascular bilirubin is reduced leading to a diffusion of bilirubin out of the vascular region. Diffuse reflectance spectra from human skin contains physiological and structural information of the skin and nearby tissue. A diffuse reflectance spectrum must be captured before and after blanching in order to isolate the intravascular and extra vascular bilirubin. A new mathematical model is proposed with extra vascular bilirubin concentration taken into consideration along with other optical parameters in defining the diffuse reflectance spectrum from human skin. A nonlinear optimization algorithm has been adopted to extract the optical properties (including bilirubin concentration) from the skin reflectance spectrum. The new system model and nonlinear algorithm have been combined to enable extraction of Bilirubin concentrations within an average error of 10%.

  13. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the condition. Significant freckling without darkly pigmented spots or typical pattern Blue nevus, if multiple and confirmed by biopsy Café-au-lait spots, which are light brown spots on skin, or ...

  14. A device for the color measurement and detection of spots on the skin.

    PubMed

    Pladellorens, Josep; Pintó, Agustí; Segura, Jordi; Cadevall, Cristina; Antó, Joan; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Coll, Joaquín

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we present a new and fast easy-to-use device that allows the measurement of color and the detection of spots on the human skin. The developed device is highly practical for relatively untrained operators and uses inexpensive consumer equipment, such as a CCD color camera, a light source composed of LEDs and a laptop. The knowledge of the color of the skin and the detection of spots can be useful in several areas such as in dermatology applications, the cosmetics industry, the biometrics field, health care, etc. In order to perform these measurements the system takes a picture of the skin. After that, the operator selects the region of the skin to be analyzed on the displayed image and the system provides the CIELAB color coordinates, the chroma and the ITA parameter (Individual Tipology Angle), allowing the comparison with other reference images by means of CIELAB color differences. The system also detects spots, such as freckles, age spots, sunspots, pimples, black heads, etc., in a determined region, allowing the objective measurement of their size and area. The colorimetric information provided by a conventional spectrophotometer for the tested samples and the computed values obtained with the new developed system are quite similar, meaning that the developed system can be used to perform color measurements with relatively high accuracy. On the other hand, the feasibility of the system in order to detect and measure spots on the human skin has also been checked over a great amount of images, obtaining results with high precision. In this work, we present a new system that may be very useful in order to measure the color and to detect spots of the skin. Its portability and easy applicability will be very useful in dermatologic and cosmetic studies.

  15. [Methods for measuring skin aging].

    PubMed

    Zieger, M; Kaatz, M

    2016-02-01

    Aging affects human skin and is becoming increasingly important with regard to medical, social and aesthetic issues. Detection of intrinsic and extrinsic components of skin aging requires reliable measurement methods. Modern techniques, e.g., based on direct imaging, spectroscopy or skin physiological measurements, provide a broad spectrum of parameters for different applications.

  16. Skin pigmentation, sun exposure and vitamin D levels in children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Carolina; Ness, Andrew R; Wills, Andrew K; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George

    2014-06-12

    It has been hypothesised that light skin pigmentation has arisen to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D as human populations moved out of Africa and into higher latitudes. Vitamin D, which is primarily obtained through exposure to sunlight (specifically ultraviolet radiation B (UVR-B)), has been inversely associated with several complex diseases. Greater sun exposure, on the other hand, is a well-known cause of skin cancer. The potential of UVR to be beneficial for some health outcomes but detrimental for others has prompted a public health debate on how to balance the positive and negative consequences of sun exposure. In this study we aimed to determine the validity of the evolutionary hypothesis linking lighter skin with higher vitamin D concentrations in a European population. Additionally, we aimed to examine the influence of pigmentation on personal behaviour towards sunlight exposure and the effects of this behaviour on vitamin D. We combined genetic variants strongly associated with skin colour, tanning or freckling to create genetic scores for each of these phenotypes. We examined the association of the scores with pigmentary traits, sun exposure and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels among children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 661 to 5649). We found that fairer-skinned children, i.e. those with higher pigmentation score values, had higher levels of 25(OH)D (0.6 nmol/l; 95% CI 0.2, 1.0; per unit increase in skin colour score; N = 5649). These children also used more protection against the damaging effects of UVR. In this population taking protective measures against sunburn and skin cancer does not seem to remove the positive effect that having a less pigmented skin has on vitamin D production. Our findings require further replication as skin pigmentation showed only a small effect on circulating 25(OH)D.

  17. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek

    2017-07-01

    Research based on self-reported data often indicates that women are the more emotional sex. The present study examined differences in emotion between the sexes across two components of the emotional process: subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli. During the experimental study, participants (N=124; 22.5±2.88; 51 males) subjectively rated their emotional experience (valence and intensity) towards presented positive and negative affective stimuli, while physiological reactions (facial electromyography, heart rate, skin conductance, and finger skin temperature) were measured during expositions. Results from self-reports suggest that women declared more intensive emotional experiences for positive and negative stimuli and rated negative stimuli as more negative in comparison to men. Physiological measurements showed differences between the sexes in the physiological baseline measurements (facial electromyography, skin conductance and finger skin temperature). However, physiological responses towards positive or negative emotional stimuli did not prove to be different between men and women, except for finger skin temperature. Relations between self-reported subjective experiences and physiological changes were weak and insignificant. Collectively, our findings suggest certain emotional differences experienced between men and women. These differences can be found specifically in self-reported subjective experiences, while significant differences were not predominantly present in recorded physiological reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Estrogens and aging skin.

    PubMed

    Thornton, M Julie

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies.

  19. Measuring skin conductance over clothes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.

  20. A stretchable and flexible system for skin-mounted measurement of motion tracking and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Pinghung Wei; Raj, Milan; Yung-Yu Hsu; Morey, Briana; DePetrillo, Paolo; McGrane, Bryan; Xianyan Wang; Lin, Monica; Keen, Bryan; Papakyrikos, Cole; Lowe, Jared; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stretchable wearable system capable of i) measuring multiple physiological parameters and ii) transmitting data via radio frequency to a smart phone. The electrical architecture consists of ultra thin sensors (<; 20 μm thick) and a conformal network of associated active and passive electronics in a mesh-like geometry that can mechanically couple with the curvilinear surfaces of the human body. Spring-like metal interconnects between individual chips on board the device allow the system to accommodate strains approaching ~30% A representative example of a smart patch that measures movement and electromyography (EMG) signals highlights the utility of this new class of medical skin-mounted system in monitoring a broad range of neuromuscular and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Laser-Induced Thermal Damage of Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    identify by block number) Skin Burns Skin Model Laser Effects \\Thermal Predictions 20 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify by...block number) A computerized model was developed for predicting thermal damage of skin by laser exposures. Thermal, optical, and physiological data are...presented for the model. Model predictions of extent of irreversible damage were compared with histologic determinations of the extent of damage

  2. In vitro micro-physiological immune-competent model of the human skin.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Ting, Fiona Chia Wan

    2016-05-21

    Skin allergy, in particular, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis, are common occupational and environmental health problems affecting the quality of life of a significant proportion of the world population. Since all new ingredients to be incorporated into a product are potential skin allergens, it is essential that these ingredients be first tested for their allergenic potential. However, despite the considerable effort using animal models to understand the underlying mechanism of skin sensitization, to date, the molecular and cellular responses due to skin contact with sensitizers are still not fully understood. To replace animal testing and to improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of reconstructed organotypic in vitro models of human skin. Here we describe a miniaturized immune competent in vitro model of human skin based on 3D co-culture of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) as a model of the epidermis barrier and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line (U937) as a model of human dendritic cells. The biological model was fitted in a microfluidic-based cell culture system that provides a dynamic cellular environment that mimics the in vivo environment of skin. The dynamic perfusion of culture media significantly improved the tight junction formation as evidenced by measuring higher values of TEER compared to static culture. This setting also maintained the high viability of cells over extended periods of time up to 17 days. The perfusion-based culture also allows growth of the cells at the air-liquid interface by exposing the apical side of the cells to air while providing the cell nutrients through a basolateral fluidic compartment. The microsystem has been evaluated to investigate the effect of the chemical and physical (UV irradiation) stimulation on the skin barrier (i.e. the TJ integrity). Three-tiered culture differential stimulation allowed the investigation of the

  3. What happens in the skin? Integrating skin permeation kinetics into studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity following topical exposure.

    PubMed

    Dancik, Yuri; Bigliardi, Paul L; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2015-12-01

    Animal-based developmental and reproductive toxicological studies involving skin exposure rarely incorporate information on skin permeation kinetics. For practical reasons, animal studies cannot investigate the many factors which can affect human skin permeation and systemic uptake kinetics in real-life scenarios. Traditional route-to-route extrapolation is based on the same types of experiments and requires assumptions regarding route similarity. Pharmacokinetic modeling based on skin physiology and structure is the most efficient way to incorporate the variety of intrinsic skin and exposure-dependent parameters occurring in clinical and occupational settings into one framework. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models enable the integration of available in vivo, in vitro and in silico data to quantitatively predict the kinetics of uptake at the site of interest, as needed for 21st century toxicology and risk assessment. As demonstrated herein, proper interpretation and integration of these data is a multidisciplinary endeavor requiring toxicological, risk assessment, mathematical, pharmaceutical, biological and dermatological expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sun damage in ultraviolet photographs correlates with phenotypic melanoma risk factors in 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Ryan G; Asdigian, Nancy L; Aalborg, Jenny; Gonzalez, Victoria; Box, Neil F; Huff, Laura S; Barón, Anna E; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Crane, Lori A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2012-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photography has been used to motivate sun safety in behavioral interventions. The relationship between sun damage shown in UV photographs and melanoma risk has not been systematically investigated. To examine the relationship between severity of sun damage in UV photographs and phenotypic melanoma risk factors in children. UV, standard visible and cross-polarized photographs were recorded for 585 children. Computer software quantified sun damage. Full-body nevus counts, skin color by colorimetry, facial freckling, hair and eye color were collected in skin examinations. Demographic data were collected in telephone interviews of parents. Among 12-year-old children, sun damage shown in UV photographs correlated with phenotypic melanoma risk factors. Sun damage was greatest for children who were non-Hispanic white and those who had red hair, blue eyes, increased facial freckling, light skin and greater number of nevi (all P values < .001). Results were similar for standard visible and cross-polarized photographs. Freckling was the strongest predictor of sun damage in visible and UV photographs. All other phenotypic melanoma risk factors were also predictors for the UV photographs. Differences in software algorithms used to score the photographs could produce different results. UV photographs portray more sun damage in children with higher risk for melanoma based on phenotype. Therefore sun protection interventions targeting those with greater sun damage on UV photographs will target those at higher melanoma risk. This study establishes reference ranges dermatologists can use to assess sun damage in their pediatric patients. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion with skin-identical lipids in healthy subjects with atopic dry skin.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, Enzo; Mortillo, Susan; Cameli, Norma; Ardigo, Marco; Mariano, Maria

    2018-05-10

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that adversely affects quality of life. The current study evaluates the efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion, each with skin-identical lipids and emollients, in the treatment of atopic dry skin of subjects with a history of atopic condition. In all, 40 healthy females with clinically dry skin on the lower legs were enrolled in the study and underwent 4 weeks of daily use of the shower cream and 2 additional weeks of both the shower cream and the body lotion. Subjects were evaluated at day 0, week 4, and week 6. Skin barrier function was assessed by Tewameter ® , skin hydration by Corneometer ® , smoothness and desquamation by Visioscan ® , and stratum corneum architecture by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The investigator assessed the degree of dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, and subjective self-assessment evaluated the perception of skin soothing, smoothness, and softness. Skin barrier function and skin moisture maintenance were significantly improved using the shower cream. The lotion with physiological lipids, together with the shower cream, also improved skin barrier function and moisture. Both the shower cream and the body lotion reduced clinical dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, according to the dermatologist, and increased soothing, smoothness, and softness, according to the subjects of the study. The combination of a shower cream and a lotion with physiological lipids efficiently restores skin barrier function and increases skin hydration, becoming an effective skin-care option for patients with atopic dry skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Physiological effects of bombesin].

    PubMed

    Klimov, P K; Mar'ianovich, A T; Poliakov, E L; Kuranova, I L; Churkina, S I

    1985-02-01

    Central or peripheral administration of bombesin--tetradecapeptide obtained from amphibian skin, acted upon the nervous system, behaviour, thermoregulation and gastro-intestinal tract. New experimental data on synthesis, immunohistochemistry and physiological effects of bombesin and related peptides are presented.

  7. Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story.

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F; Chen, Tai C; Lu, Zhiren; Sauter, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Throughout evolution, exposure to sunlight and the photosynthesis of vitamin D(3) in the skin has been critically important for the evolution of land vertebrates. During exposure to sunlight, the solar UVB photons with energies 290-315 nm are absorbed by 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin and converted to previtamin D(3). Previtamin D(3) undergoes a rapid transformation within the plasma membrane to vitamin D(3). Excessive exposure to sunlight will not result in vitamin D intoxication because both previtamin D(3) and vitamin D(3) are photolyzed to several noncalcemic photoproducts. During the winter at latitudes above approximately 35 degrees , there is minimal, if any, previtamin D(3) production in the skin. Altitude also has a significant effect on vitamin D(3) production. At 27 degrees N in November, very little ( approximately 0.5%) previtamin D(3) synthesis was detected in Agra (169 m) and Katmandu (1400 m). There was an approximately 2- and 4-fold increase in previtamin D(3) production at approximately 3400 m and at Everest base camp (5300 m), respectively. Increased skin pigmentation, application of a sunscreen, aging, and clothing have a dramatic effect on previtamin D(3) production in the skin. It is estimated that exposure in a bathing suit to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) is equivalent to ingesting between 10,000 and 25,000 IU of vitamin D(2). The importance of sunlight for providing most humans with their vitamin D requirement is well documented by the seasonal variation in circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Vitamin D deficiency [i.e., 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] is common in both children and adults worldwide. Exposure to lamps that produce UVB radiation is an excellent source for producing vitamin D(3) in the skin and is especially efficacious in patients with fat malabsorption syndromes. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency globally is an underappreciation of sunlight's role in providing humans with their vitamin D(3) requirement. Very

  8. Autonomic physiological data associated with simulator discomfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James C.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Graham, Glenna A.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a physiological monitoring capability for the Army's advanced helicopter simulator facility is reported. Additionally, preliminary physiological data is presented. Our objective was to demonstrate the sensitivity of physiological measures in this simulator to self-reported simulator sickness. The data suggested that heart period, hypergastria, and skin conductance level were more sensitive to simulator sickness than were vagal tone and normal electrogastric activity.

  9. Preslaughter diet management in sheep and goats: effects on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen crossbred buck goats (Kiko x Spanish; BW = 32.8 kg) and wether sheep (Dorset x Suffolk; BW = 39.9 kg) were used to determine the effect of preslaughter diet and feed deprivation time (FDT) on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcasses. Experimental animals were fed either a concentrate (CD) or a hay diet (HD) for 4 d and then deprived of feed for either 12-h or 24-h before slaughter. Blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol and blood metabolite analyses. Longisimus muscle (LM) pH was measured. Skin and carcass swabs were obtained to assess microbial loads. Plasma creatine kinase activity (863.9 and 571.7 ± 95.21 IU) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (1,056.1 and 589.8 ± 105.01 mEq/L) were different (P < 0.05) between sheep and goats. Species and diet treatments had significant effects on the ultimate pH of LM. Pre-holding total coliform (TCC) and aerobic plate counts (APC) of skin were significantly different between species. Goats had lower (P < 0.05) TCC (2.1 vs. 3.0 log10 CFU/cm2) and APC (8.2 vs. 8.5 log10 CFU/cm2) counts in the skin compared to sheep. Preslaughter skin E. coli counts and TCC were different (P < 0.05) between species. Goats had lower (P < 0.05) counts of E. coli (2.2 vs. 2.9 log10 CFU/cm2) and TCC (2.3 vs. 3.0 log10 CFU/cm2) in the skin compared with those in sheep. Diet, species, and FDT had no effect (P > 0.05) on E. coli and TCC in carcass swab samples. The APC of carcass swab samples were only affected (P < 0.05) by the FDT. The results indicated that preslaughter dietary management had no significant changes on hormone and blood metabolite concentrations and sheep might be more prone for fecal contamination than goats in the holding pens at abattoir. PMID:25343027

  10. The effects of immersiveness on physiology.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, B K; Davis, R; Wiederhold, M D

    1998-01-01

    The effects of varying levels of immersion in virtual reality environments on participant's heart rate, respiration rate, peripheral skin temperature, and skin resistance levels were examined. Subjective reports of presence were also noted. Participants were presented with a virtual environment of an airplane flight both as seen from a two-dimensional computer screen and as seen from within a head-mounted display. Subjects were randomly assigned to different order of conditions presented, but all subjects received both conditions. Differences between the non-phobics' physiological responses and the phobic's response when placed in a virtual environment related to the phobia were noted. Also noted were changes in physiology based on degree of immersion.

  11. [Prevention of occupational solar UV radiation-induced epithelial skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P

    2015-03-01

    Malignancies of the skin, with an incidence of more than 200,000 newly registered cases/year, are the most frequently notified malignances in Germany. In Europe, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) account for about 30 cases/100,000 persons and 50-100 cases/100,000 persons, respectively. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the main risk factor to induce these cancers. Increased incidence rates were shown for persons having red/blonde hair as well as light eye colour, acquire sun burns easily, hardly tan and develop freckles. The majority of the malignancies and precursor lesions are acquired by UV exposure in leisure time. However, in highly occupationally UV-exposed outdoor workers, UV monitoring revealed that exposure levels are 2-3 times higher compared to the general population. Occupations likely to be highly exposed are farmers, forestry workers, gardeners, landscapers, fishermen and seafarers, construction workers, builders, tin smiths, sport teachers, mountain guides, etc. Recent metaanalyses showed that occupational UV exposure is a relevant and independent risk factor for SCC and to a lesser extent also for BCC. To prevent occupationally caused malignancies of the skin a significant reduction of occupationally acquired UV dosages in outdoor workers is mandatory. Relevant factors influencing the cumulative sun exposure in outdoor workers are the amount of UV exposure, the specific tasks to be performed in the sun as well as the UV protection habits of the workers. Besides adequate behavior, textile protection by headgear and clothing as well as the regular use of sunscreens and sun glasses are important.

  12. Relationship Between Kinematic and Physiological Indices During Braking Events of Different Intensities.

    PubMed

    Musicant, Oren; Botzer, Assaf; Laufer, Ilan; Collet, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Objective To study the relationship between physiological indices and kinematic indices during braking events of different intensities. Background Based on mental workload theory, driving and other task demands may generate changes in physiological indices, such as the driver's heart rate and skin conductance. However, no attempts were made to associate changes in physiological indices with changes in vehicle kinematics that result from the driver attempts to meet task demands. Method Twenty-five drivers participated in a field experiment. We manipulated braking demands using roadside signs to communicate the speed (km/h) before braking (50 or 60) and the target speed for braking (30 or to a complete stop). In an additional session, we asked drivers to brake as if they were responding to an impending collision. We analyzed the relationship between the intensities of braking events as measured by deceleration values (g) and changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance. Results All physiological indices were associated with deceleration intensity. Especially salient were the differences in physiological indices between the intensive (|g| > 0.5) and nonintensive braking events. The strongest relationship was between braking intensity and skin conductance. Conclusions Skin conductance, heart rate, and heart rate variability can mirror the mental workload elicited by varying braking intensities. Application Associating vehicle kinematics with physiological indices related to short-term driving events may help improve the performance of driver assistance systems.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Oral Supplementation With Ovoderm on Human Skin Physiology: Two Pilot Studies.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Andrés; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Fenaux, Marisa; Erdozain, Sandra; Sarria, Itziar

    2017-11-02

    Collagens and hyaluronic acid have long been used in pharmaceuticals and food supplements for the improvement of skin elasticity and hydration. These compounds provide the building blocks of the skin. Ovoderm is an oral supplement obtained from eggshells that contains naturally occurring collagen and glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid. We evaluated the efficacy of Ovoderm on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging such as elasticity, hydration, and pigmentation. Two pilot studies were run to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with 300 mg Ovoderm on skin parameters. The first consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire intended to perform an assessment on skin, hair, and nail health after 50 days of treatment. The second measured the effect of 5-week treatment on hydration by corneometry, on elasticity with the cutometer, and on pigmentation with the mexameter. In the pilot study 1, participants were predominantly satisfied with the effects obtained on general face (100% volunteers satisfied) and body (94% volunteers satisfied) skin condition and skin properties (100% volunteers satisfied with facial skin softness, 94% with facial skin hydration, and 89% with body skin hydration) and partly with effects on hair (67% volunteers satisfied) and nail (50% volunteers satisfied) condition. The study 2 revealed a statistically significant improvement in skin elasticity (12% increase, p =.0136), a tendency to reduce skin pigmentation (5% decrease), and no significant change in skin hydration. Our study reflects that oral supplementation with Ovoderm is efficacious to reduce the gradual loss of skin elasticity characteristic of aged skin, which helps to improve the appearance of the skin.

  14. Assessment of organ culture for the conservation of human skin allografts.

    PubMed

    Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Stellmann, P; Andrac, L; Nouaille De Gorce, Y; Dignat-George, F; Magalon, G

    2008-03-01

    Human skin allografts are used in the treatment of severe burns and their preservation is therefore critical for optimal clinical benefit. Current preservation methods, such as 4 degrees C storage or cryopreservation, cannot prevent the decrease of tissue viability. The aim of this study was to assess viability and function of skin allografts in a new skin organ culture model, allowing conservation parameters as close as possible to physiological conditions: 32 degrees C, air-liquid interface and physiological skin tension. Twelve skin samples, harvested from 6 living surgical donors, were conserved 35 days in two conditions: conservation at 4 degrees C and organ culture. Viability and function of skin samples were investigated at Day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 using cell culture methods (trypan blue exclusion, Colony Forming Efficiency and Growth Rate), histopathological and histoenzymological studies (Ki67 immunostaining). In the two conditions, fibroblast and keratinocyte viability was progressively affected by storage, with a significant decrease observed after 35 days. No statistical difference could be observed between the two conditions. The two methods were also comparable regarding alterations of fibroblast and keratinocyte culture parameters, which were respectively significantly reduced at Day 7 and 21, compared to fresh skin. By contrast, histopathological and histoenzymological studies revealed a better preservation of skin architecture and proliferative potential at 4 degrees C, as compared to organ culture. These results indicate that skin organ culture does not provide significant advantages for skin allograft preservation. However, its potential use as an experimental model to study skin physiology and wound healing should be further evaluated.

  15. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  16. Environment and the skin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Suskind, R.R.

    The effects of the environment on skin are surveyed. Specific patterns of adverse skin response can be characterized by morphological, physiological, and biochemical features. Cutaneous defenses and adaptations of the skin are discussed. Dermal resiliency, epidermal and pigment components, neural components, immunobiological processes, and the epidermal barrier are examined. Percutaneous absorption is reviewed. Environmental factors that cause adverse skin reactions include water, salts of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, solvents, lipids, aromatics, esters, ultraviolet light, and various modalities of ionizing radiation. Pathologic patterns and reaction sites are discussed in terms of inflammatory, allergic, benign epidermal, eccrine sweat gland, and pilosebaceous reactions, pigmentarymore » disturbances, cancer, and blood vessel changes. Although critical epidemiologic data are limited, cutaneous illnesses constitute a significant segment of occupational disease. Recommendations for further research are summarized. 42 references.« less

  17. The effect of environmental colour on the growth, metabolism, physiology and skin pigmentation of the carnivorous freshwater catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri.

    PubMed

    Costa, D C; Mattioli, C C; Silva, W S; Takata, R; Leme, F O P; Oliveira, A L; Luz, R K

    2017-03-01

    The growth, physiology and skin pigmentation of pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles were evaluated in an experiment using different tank colours (white, yellow, green, blue, brown and black) over an 80 day period. The tank colours did not cause significant differences to final body mass, total length, survival rate, carcass composition (moisture, crude protein, ash, ether extract, calcium, phosphorus, energy), or to plasma protein, triglyceride and cholesterol values. Haematocrit values, however, were highest for fish kept in white tanks (ANOVA P < 0·05), while the greatest haemoglobin levels were recorded for fish kept in blue and brown tanks (P < 0·01). The concentrations of cortisol (P < 0·001) and glucose (P < 0·01) were the most in fish in the black tanks. Tank colour affected skin pigmentation significantly, with fish in white tanks having the highest values of L* (brightness) and the lowest values in blue and black tanks. L*, however, decreased in all treatments throughout the experiment. C* ab increased significantly over the course of the experiment in fish kept in white tanks. Similar increases of C* ab were recorded in the other treatments but to a lesser extent. The use of black tanks during the cultivation of L. alexandri caused stress and should be avoided. Cultivation in white and yellow tanks produced individuals with a pale skin colour, while cultivation in blue and black tanks resulted in juveniles with a darker and more pigmented skin. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Skin aging by glycation: lessons from the reconstructed skin model.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Rousset, Françoise; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aging is the result of several mechanisms which operate simultaneously. Among them, glycation is of particular interest because it is a reaction which affects slowly renewing tissues and macromolecules with elevated half-life, like the dermis, a skin compartment highly affected by aging. Glycation produces crosslinks between macromolecules thereby providing an explanation for the increased age-related stiffness of the skin. Glycation products, also called AGEs (advanced glycation end products), accumulate primarily in extracellular matrix molecules like collagen or elastin. In order to reproduce this phenomenon in vitro we have created a model of reconstructed skin modified by glycation of the collagen used to fabricate the dermal compartment. This system allowed us to uncover biological modifications of dermal markers, and more surprisingly epidermal markers, as well as an increase of metalloproteinases responsible for degradation of the dermal matrix. Consequently, the imbalance between synthesis and degradation that results from glycation, may contribute to skin aging, as shown in this model. Moreover these modifications were shown to be prevented by the addition of aminoguanidine, a well-known inhibitor of glycation. Using this experimental approach our results taken together stress the importance and possibly central role of glycation in skin aging and the usefulness of the reconstructed skin as a model of physiological aging.

  19. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Biological Rhythms in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S.; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism’s rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional–translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism’s sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  1. Interventions for photodamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M; Brooke, R C C; Hollis, S; Griffiths, C E M

    2005-01-25

    Photodamage describes skin changes such as fine and coarse wrinkles, roughness, freckles and pigmentation changes that occur as a result of prolonged exposure to the sun. Many treatments are available to reverse the damage, but it is unclear which work and at what cost in terms of unwanted side effects. To assess the effects of topically applied treatments, tablet treatments, laser and surgical procedures for photodamaged skin. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2002, MEDLINE (1966-June 2002), EMBASE (1974-June 2002), Health Periodicals (1976-June 2002). We checked references of articles and communicated with authors and the pharmaceutical industry. Randomised controlled trials which compared drug or surgical interventions with no treatment, placebo or another drug, in adults with mild, moderate or severe photodamage of the face or forearms. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Thirty studies of variable quality were included. Eight trials showed that topical tretinoin cream, in concentrations of 0.02% or higher, was superior to placebo for participants with mild to severe photodamage on the face and forearms (although losses to follow-up were relatively high in most studies). For example, the relative risk of improvement for 0.05% tretinoin cream, compared to placebo (three studies), at 24 weeks, was 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.39 to 2.14). This effect was not seen for 0.001% topical tretinoin (one study) or 0.01% (three studies). A dose-response relationship was evident for both effectiveness and skin irritation. One small within-patient study showed benefit from topical ascorbic acid compared with placebo. Tazarotene (0.01% to 0.1%) and isotretinoin (0.1%) both showed significant improvement over placebo for moderate photodamage (one study each). There is limited evidence (one trial), to show that the effectiveness of 0.05% tretinoin, is equivalent to the

  2. TRP channels in the skin.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as 'polymodal cellular sensors' on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Order-picking in deep cold--physiological responses of younger and older females. Part 2: body core temperature and skin surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Baldus, Sandra; Kluth, Karsten; Strasser, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    So far, it was unclear to what extent working in deep cold-storage depots has an influence on female order-pickers body core temperature and skin surface temperature considering different age groups. Physiological effects of order-picking in a chill room (+3°C) and cold store (-24°C) were examined on 30 female subjects (Ss), classified in two age groups (20- to 35- year-olds and 40- to 65-year-olds). The body core temperature was taken every 15 min at the tympanum and the skin surface temperature was recorded continuously at seven different positions. Working in the chill room induced a decrease of the body core temperature up to 0.5K in comparison to the value at the outset for both age groups which could be compensated by all Ss during the breaks. Working in the cold store caused a decline up to 1.1K for the younger Ss and 1.3K for the older Ss. A complete warming-up during the breaks was often not possible. Regarding the skin surface temperature, working in the chill room can be considered as unproblematic, whereas significantly lower temperatures at nose, fingers and toes, associated with substantial negative subjective sensations, were recorded while working in the cold store.

  4. Self-regulation method: psychological, physiological and clinical considerations. An overview.

    PubMed

    Ikemi, A; Tomita, S; Kuroda, M; Hayashida, Y; Ikemi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Body-oriented therapies as relaxation training and certain forms of meditation are gaining popularity in the treatment and prevention of psychosomatic disorders. In this paper, a new method of self-control called self-regulation method (SRM), derived from autogenic training and Zen meditation, is presented. The technique of SRM is introduced. Secondly, physiological studies on SRM using skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and cortical evoked potentials are presented. Thirdly, the results of psychological tests conducted on SRM are presented. These psycho-physiological studies suggest that SRM may elicit a state of 'relaxed alertness'. Fourthly, clinical applications of SRM are discussed, and 3 cases are presented. Finally, SRM is discussed in relation to the psychology and physiology of 'relaxed alertness'.

  5. Assessment, prevention and management of skin tears.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Maureen

    2017-04-28

    Skin tears are common in older people. They are acute wounds that are at high risk of becoming complex, chronic wounds due to the interplay between the physiological changes in the skin and trauma from the external environment. Skin tears have been reported to have prevalence rates equal to, or greater than, those for pressure ulcers. A comprehensive risk assessment should include assessment of the individual's general health (chronic/critical disease, polypharmacy and cognitive, sensory and nutritional status); mobility (history of falls, impaired mobility, dependent activities of daily living, and mechanical trauma); and skin (extremes of age, fragile skin and previous skin tears). A recognised classification system should be used to identify and document skin tears and guide treatment decisions in line with local wound management protocols. Nurses and carers are in a prime position to prevent, assess and manage skin tears.

  6. Chicken skin virome analyzed by high-throughput sequencing shows a composition highly different from human skin.

    PubMed

    Denesvre, Caroline; Dumarest, Marine; Rémy, Sylvie; Gourichon, David; Eloit, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show that human skin at homeostasis is a complex ecosystem whose virome include circular DNA viruses, especially papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. To determine the chicken skin virome in comparison with human skin virome, a chicken swabs pool sample from fifteen indoor healthy chickens of five genetic backgrounds was examined for the presence of DNA viruses by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results indicate a predominance of herpesviruses from the Mardivirus genus, coming from either vaccinal origin or presumably asymptomatic infection. Despite the high sensitivity of the HTS method used herein to detect small circular DNA viruses, we did not detect any papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or circoviruses, indicating that these viruses may not be resident of the chicken skin. The results suggest that the turkey herpesvirus is a resident of chicken skin in vaccinated chickens. This study indicates major differences between the skin viromes of chickens and humans. The origin of this difference remains to be further studied in relation with skin physiology, environment, or virus population dynamics.

  7. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    PubMed

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin transcriptome profiles associated with coat color in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous molecular genetic studies of physiology and pigmentation of sheep skin have focused primarily on a limited number of genes and proteins. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation, Illumina sequencing technology was used to catalog global gene expression profiles in skin of sheep with white versus black coat color. Results There were 90,006 and 74,533 unigenes assembled from the reads obtained from white and black sheep skin, respectively. Genes encoding for the ribosomal proteins and keratin associated proteins were most highly expressed. A total of 2,235 known genes were differentially expressed in black versus white sheep skin, with 479 genes up-regulated and 1,756 genes down-regulated. A total of 845 novel genes were differentially expressed in black versus white sheep skin, consisting of 107 genes which were up-regulated (including 2 highly expressed genes exclusively expressed in black sheep skin) and 738 genes that were down-regulated. There was also a total of 49 known coat color genes expressed in sheep skin, from which 13 genes showed higher expression in black sheep skin. Many of these up-regulated genes, such as DCT, MATP, TYR and TYRP1, are members of the components of melanosomes and their precursor ontology category. Conclusion The white and black sheep skin transcriptome profiles obtained provide a valuable resource for future research to understand the network of gene expression controlling skin physiology and melanogenesis in sheep. PMID:23758853

  9. The skin of fish as a transport epithelium: a review.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2013-10-01

    The primary function of fish skin is to act as a barrier. It provides protection against physical damage and assists with the maintenance of homoeostasis by minimising exchange between the animal and the environment. However in some fish, the skin may play a more active physiological role. This is particularly true in species that inhabit specialised environmental niches (e.g. amphibious and air-breathing fish such as the lungfish), those with physiological characteristics that may subvert the need for the integument as a barrier (e.g. the osmoconforming hagfish), and/or fish with anatomical modifications of the epidermis (e.g. reduced epithelial thickness). Using examples from different fish groups (e.g. hagfishes, elasmobranchs and teleosts), the importance of fish skin as a transport epithelium for gases, ions, nitrogenous waste products, and nutrients was reviewed. The role of the skin in larval fish was also examined, with early life stages often utilising the skin as a surrogate gill, prior to the development of a functional branchial epithelium.

  10. [Skin hydration and hydrating products].

    PubMed

    Duplan, H; Nocera, T

    2018-05-01

    One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum. The present article brings together data recently acquired in the fields of skin hydration and the characterisation of dehydrated or dry skin, whether through study of the regulatory processes involved or as a result of changes in the techniques used for in situ measurement, and thus in optimisation of management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

    There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

  12. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Palma, Lídia; Marques, Liliana Tavares; Bujan, Julia; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing) terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years) were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set - Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38), and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11). Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0), 15 (T1), and 30 (T2) in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg). This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days) significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions.

  13. The outcomes of barrier protection in periwound skin and stoma care.

    PubMed

    Stephen-Haynes, Jackie

    This article considers the anatomy and physiology of the skin,wound healing, excoriation, maceration, peristomal skin and the importance of periwound protection. The results of a 54-patient study of the use of barrier film forming skin protection in periwound skin are presented and a 10-patient healthy volunteer experimental evaluation. The results confirm the effectiveness of barrier protection in healthy skin in an experimental evaluation and a 54-patient study requiring periwound protection.

  14. Physiological and structural properties of saponin-skinned single smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The study of the fundamental events underlying the generation and regulation of force in smooth muscle would be greatly facilitated if the permeability of the cell membrane were increased so that the intracellular environment of the contractile apparatus could be manipulated experimentally. To initiate such an analysis, we developed a saponin permeabilization procedure that was used to "skin" isolated smooth muscle cells from the stomach of the toad, Bufo marinus. Suspensions of single cells isolated enzymatically were resuspended in high-K+ rigor solution (0 ATP, 5 mM EGTA) and exposed for 5 min to 25 micrograms/ml saponin. Virtually all the cells in a suspension were made permeable by this procedure and shortened to less than one-third their initial length when ATP and Ca++ were added; they re-extended when free Ca++ was removed. Analysis of the protein content of the skinned cells revealed that, although their total protein was reduced by approximately 30%, they retained most of their myosin and actin. Skinning was accompanied by a rearrangement of actin and myosin filaments within the cells such that a fine fibrillar structure became visible under the light microscope and a tight clustering of acting filaments around myosin filaments was revealed by the electron microscope. Face-on views of saponin-treated cell membranes revealed the presence of 70-80-A-wide pits or holes. The shortening rate of skinned cells was sensitive to [Ca++] between pCa 7 and pCa 5 and was half-maximal at approximately pCa 6.2. Shortening was also dependent on [ATP] but could be increased at low [ATP] by pretreatment with adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S), which suggests that myosin phosphorylation was more sensitive to low substrate concentrations than was cross-bridge cycling. To determine whether a significant limitation to free diffusion existed in the skinned cells, a computer model of the cell and the unstirred layer surrounding it was developed. Simulations

  15. Physiological and structural properties of saponin-skinned single smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kargacin, G J; Fay, F S

    1987-07-01

    The study of the fundamental events underlying the generation and regulation of force in smooth muscle would be greatly facilitated if the permeability of the cell membrane were increased so that the intracellular environment of the contractile apparatus could be manipulated experimentally. To initiate such an analysis, we developed a saponin permeabilization procedure that was used to "skin" isolated smooth muscle cells from the stomach of the toad, Bufo marinus. Suspensions of single cells isolated enzymatically were resuspended in high-K+ rigor solution (0 ATP, 5 mM EGTA) and exposed for 5 min to 25 micrograms/ml saponin. Virtually all the cells in a suspension were made permeable by this procedure and shortened to less than one-third their initial length when ATP and Ca++ were added; they re-extended when free Ca++ was removed. Analysis of the protein content of the skinned cells revealed that, although their total protein was reduced by approximately 30%, they retained most of their myosin and actin. Skinning was accompanied by a rearrangement of actin and myosin filaments within the cells such that a fine fibrillar structure became visible under the light microscope and a tight clustering of acting filaments around myosin filaments was revealed by the electron microscope. Face-on views of saponin-treated cell membranes revealed the presence of 70-80-A-wide pits or holes. The shortening rate of skinned cells was sensitive to [Ca++] between pCa 7 and pCa 5 and was half-maximal at approximately pCa 6.2. Shortening was also dependent on [ATP] but could be increased at low [ATP] by pretreatment with adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S), which suggests that myosin phosphorylation was more sensitive to low substrate concentrations than was cross-bridge cycling. To determine whether a significant limitation to free diffusion existed in the skinned cells, a computer model of the cell and the unstirred layer surrounding it was developed. Simulations

  16. Physiological and pathological characterization of capsaicin-induced reversible nerve degeneration and hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Chiang, H; Chang, K-C; Kan, H-W; Wu, S-W; Tseng, M-T; Hsueh, H-W; Lin, Y-H; Chao, C-C; Hsieh, S-T

    2018-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the physiology, psychophysics, pathology and their relationship in reversible nociceptive nerve degeneration, and the physiology of acute hyperalgesia. We enrolled 15 normal subjects to investigate intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) density, contact heat-evoked potential (CHEP) and thermal thresholds during the capsaicin-induced skin nerve degeneration-regeneration; and CHEP and thermal thresholds at capsaicin-induced acute hyperalgesia. After 2-week capsaicin treatment, IENF density of skin was markedly reduced with reduced amplitude and prolonged latency of CHEP, and increased warm and heat pain thresholds. The time courses of skin nerve regeneration and reversal of physiology and psychophysics were different: IENF density was still lower at 10 weeks after capsaicin treatment than that at baseline, whereas CHEP amplitude and warm threshold became normalized within 3 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Although CHEP amplitude and IENF density were best correlated in a multiple linear regression model, a one-phase exponential association model showed better fit than a simple linear one, that is in the regeneration phase, the slope of the regression line between CHEP amplitude and IENF density was steeper in the subgroup with lower IENF densities than in the one with higher IENF densities. During capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia, recordable rate of CHEP to 43 °C heat stimulation was higher with enhanced CHEP amplitude and pain perception compared to baseline. There were differential restoration of IENF density, CHEP and thermal thresholds, and changed CHEP-IENF relationships during skin reinnervation. CHEP can be a physiological signature of acute hyperalgesia. These observations suggested the relationship between nociceptive nerve terminals and brain responses to thermal stimuli changed during different degree of skin denervation, and CHEP to low-intensity heat stimulus can reflect the physiology of hyperalgesia. © 2018 European Pain

  17. Physiological regeneration of skin appendages and implications for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Randall, Valerie A; Widelitz, Randall B.; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Ting-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The concept of regenerative medicine is relatively new, but animals are well known to remake their hair and feathers regularly by normal regenerative physiological processes. Here we focus on 1) how extra-follicular environments can regulate hair and feather stem cell activities and 2) how different configurations of stem cells can shape organ forms in different body regions to fulfil changing physiological needs. PMID:22505663

  18. Next generation human skin constructs as advanced tools for drug development.

    PubMed

    Abaci, H E; Guo, Zongyou; Doucet, Yanne; Jacków, Joanna; Christiano, Angela

    2017-11-01

    Many diseases, as well as side effects of drugs, manifest themselves through skin symptoms. Skin is a complex tissue that hosts various specialized cell types and performs many roles including physical barrier, immune and sensory functions. Therefore, modeling skin in vitro presents technical challenges for tissue engineering. Since the first attempts at engineering human epidermis in 1970s, there has been a growing interest in generating full-thickness skin constructs mimicking physiological functions by incorporating various skin components, such as vasculature and melanocytes for pigmentation. Development of biomimetic in vitro human skin models with these physiological functions provides a new tool for drug discovery, disease modeling, regenerative medicine and basic research for skin biology. This goal, however, has long been delayed by the limited availability of different cell types, the challenges in establishing co-culture conditions, and the ability to recapitulate the 3D anatomy of the skin. Recent breakthroughs in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and microfabrication techniques such as 3D-printing have allowed for building more reliable and complex in vitro skin models for pharmaceutical screening. In this review, we focus on the current developments and prevailing challenges in generating skin constructs with vasculature, skin appendages such as hair follicles, pigmentation, immune response, innervation, and hypodermis. Furthermore, we discuss the promising advances that iPSC technology offers in order to generate in vitro models of genetic skin diseases, such as epidermolysis bullosa and psoriasis. We also discuss how future integration of the next generation human skin constructs onto microfluidic platforms along with other tissues could revolutionize the early stages of drug development by creating reliable evaluation of patient-specific effects of pharmaceutical agents. Impact statement Skin is a complex tissue that hosts various

  19. Skin of colour: Characteristics and disease.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Zohra

    2017-02-01

    Skin colour varies from pale white to very dark. Fitzpatrick's skin phototypes are based on the person's skin colour and its response to sun exposure in terms of burning and tanning of the skin. Fitzpatrick's type 1V-V1 is known as the skin of colour and type 1-111 is the fair or white skin. The colour of the skin and texture of the hair are the most apparent phenotype to differentiate the different races; this correlates closely with the geography and ultraviolet radiation of the sun. There are notable differences in skin disease incidence, presentation, and treatment based on skin type. Differences in skin anatomy and physiology between the fair skin and the skin of colour may explain disparities in skin disorders and provide insight into appropriate differences in the management of cutaneous disease. Differences in culture and habits may produce skin lesions unknown to the local physicians. Temperature, humidity and rainfall are closely interwoven with the fauna and flora of the area. Hot and humid climate favours bacterial and fungal infections. Today in this multicultural society due to globalization, a physician has to see patients from all over the globe. There is a need for the physicians to know the diseases of people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds for early diagnosis and treatment.

  20. The influence of body mass index on skin susceptibility to sodium lauryl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Löffler, H; Aramaki, J U N; Effendy, Isaak

    2002-02-01

    The influence of nutrition on the physiological functions of man is well studied. Numerous diseases can be exacerbated by obesity. However, it has not yet been determined whether body weight and body mass index (BMI), as an indicator of a high body fat store, can influence skin sensitivity. This study investigates the correlation between body mass index and the epidermal functions, evaluated by bioengineering methods, before and after an irritant patch test with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Epidermal functions were evaluated using an evaporimeter, chromameter and laser-Doppler-flowmeter. Patch testing was conducted for 48 h with two different concentrations of SLS (0.25% and 0.5%) on the forearms of healthy volunteers. Measurements were performed 24h after patch removal. Obese individuals showed significantly increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin blood flow and skin colour (red) as compared to a control group. However, the degree of skin sensitivity to SLS was not correlated with BMI. Basal biophysical parameters of the skin are primarily correlated with the BMI. This may be caused by obesity-induced physiological changes, e.g. increased sweat gland activity, high blood pressure and physiological temperature-regulating system. The epidermal barrier function, as evaluated after SLS patch testing is, however, not correlated with a high BMI, indicating a normal skin barrier.

  1. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-11-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2~1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm2. Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves.

  2. Physiological reactivity and facial expression to emotion-inducing films in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwon; Kim, Kiwoong

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the physiological reactivity and recognition to emotional stimuli in outpatients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Skin conductance response, skin conductance level, heart rate, respiration, corrugator muscle, and orbicularis muscle were all measured using five emotion-eliciting film clips. The patients reported lower intensity of experienced anger and disgust than controls. The patient and control groups did not differ in accuracy to recognize emotions except anger. Anger, fear, amusement, and sadness had a discriminative effect on physiological responses in the two groups. These findings provide helpful physiological evidence influenced by harmful or favorable emotional stimuli. Future directions may include to clarify how physiological reactivity and subject experience to emotion are related to their functioning. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The top skin-associated genes: a comparative analysis of human and mouse skin transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert; Hevezi, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The mouse represents a key model system for the study of the physiology and biochemistry of skin. Comparison of skin between mouse and human is critical for interpretation and application of data from mouse experiments to human disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure and immunology of mouse and human skin. Moreover, we present a systematic comparison of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. To this end, we have recently used a genome-wide database of human gene expression to identify genes highly expressed in skin, with no, or limited expression elsewhere - human skin-associated genes (hSAGs). Analysis of our set of hSAGs allowed us to generate a comprehensive molecular characterization of healthy human skin. Here, we used a similar database to generate a list of mouse skin-associated genes (mSAGs). A comparative analysis between the top human (n=666) and mouse (n=873) skin-associated genes (SAGs) revealed a total of only 30.2% identity between the two lists. The majority of shared genes encode proteins that participate in structural and barrier functions. Analysis of the top functional annotation terms revealed an overlap for morphogenesis, cell adhesion, structure, and signal transduction. The results of this analysis, discussed in the context of published data, illustrate the diversity between the molecular make up of skin of both species and grants a probable explanation, why results generated in murine in vivo models often fail to translate into the human.

  4. Skin temperature and heart rate can be used to estimate physiological strain during exercise in the heat in a cohort of fit and unfit males.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Buller, Mark; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the previously developed physiological strain index (PSI) model using heart rate and skin temperature to provide further insight into the detection and estimation of thermal and physiological heat strain indices. A secondary aim was to characterize individuals who excel in their performance in the heat. 56 male participants completed 2 walking trials (3.5 miles per hour, 5% grade) in controlled environments of 43.3 °C and 15.5 °C (40% humidity). Core and skin temperature, along with heart rate and PSI, were continually monitored during exercise. Participants completed a physical fitness test. The logistic regression model exhibited 4 false positives and 1 false negative at the 40% decision boundary. The "Not at Risk" group (N = 33) had higher body weight (84 ± 13 vs. 77 ± 10 kg, respectively) compared to the "At Risk" (N = 23) group, p < 0.05. The "Not at Risk" group had a faster 3-mile run time compared to the "At Risk" group (21:53 ± 3:13 vs. 25:16 ± 2:37, respectively), p < 0.05. During the Heat Trial, the "At Risk" group had a higher rating of perceived exertion at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the "Not at Risk" group (13.5 ± 2.8 vs. 11.5 ± 1.8 and 14.8 ± 3.2 vs. 12.2 ± 2.0 for "At Risk" vs. "Not at Risk" at 60 and 90 minutes, respectively), p < 0.05. The previously developed model relating heart rate and skin temperature to PSI is highly accurate at assessing heat risk status. Participants classified as "At Risk" had lower physical performance scores and different body weights compared to the "Not at Risk" group and perceived themselves as working harder during exercise in the heat. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. An implementation algorithm to improve skin-to-skin practice in the first hour after birth.

    PubMed

    Brimdyr, Kajsa; Cadwell, Karin; Stevens, Jeni; Takahashi, Yuki

    2018-04-01

    Evidence supporting the practice of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding soon after birth points to physiologic, social, and psychological benefits for both mother and baby. The 2009 revision of Step 4 of the WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" elaborated on the practice of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and her newly born baby indicating that the practice should be "immediate" and "without separation" unless documented medically justifiable reasons for delayed contact or interruption exist. While in immediate, continuous, uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact with mother in the first hour after birth, babies progress through 9 instinctive, complex, distinct, and observable stages including self-attachment and suckling. However, the most recent Cochrane review of early skin-to-skin contact cites inconsistencies in the practice; the authors found "inadequate evidence with respect to details … such as timing of initiation and dose." This paper introduces a novel algorithm to analyse the practice of skin to skin in the first hour using two data sets and suggests opportunities for practice improvement. The algorithm considers the mother's Robson criteria, skin-to-skin experience, and Widström's 9 Stages. Using data from vaginal births in Japan and caesarean births in Australia, the algorithm utilizes data in a new way to highlight challenges to best practice. The use of a tool to analyse the implementation of skin-to-skin care in the first hour after birth illuminates the successes, barriers, and opportunities for improvement to achieving the standard of care for babies. Future application should involve more diverse facilities and Robson's classifications. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Designing skin response meter for psycho galvanic reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhokalia, Dhruv M.; Atreya, Parul; Kumar, Arun

    2011-12-01

    Human skin offers some resistance to current and voltage. This resistance changes with the emotional state of the body. The circuit proposed here measures changes in our skin resistance following changes in our mental state. In the relaxed state, the resistance offered by the skin is as high as 2 mega-ohms or more, which reduces to 500 kilo-ohms or less when the emotional stress is too high. The reduction in skin resistance is related to increased blood flow and permeability followed by the physiological changes during high stress. This increases the electrical conductivity of the skin. This circuit is useful to monitor the skin's response to relaxation techniques. It is very sensitive and shows response during a sudden moment of stress. Even a deep sigh will give response in the circuit. The circuit uses a sensitive amplifier to sense variations in the skin resistance. IC CA3140 is designed as a resistance- to-voltage converter that outputs varying voltage based on the skin's conductivity.

  7. Skin-to-skin contact by fathers and the impact on infant and paternal outcomes: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Shefaly; He, Hong-Gu; Morelius, Evalotte

    2016-09-01

    to summarise research evidence on the impact of father-infant skin-to-skin contact on infant and paternal outcomes. an integrative literature review. PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health. studies included were: (1) published in English between January 1995 to September 2015; (2) primary researches; and (3) focused on fathers providing skin-to-skin contact with their infants and its impact on infant and paternal outcomes. The Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklists were used to appraise the scientific rigour of the studies. twelve studies (10 quantitative and two qualitative) were included in this review. Father-infant skin-to-skin contact had positive impacts on infants' outcomes, including temperature and pain, bio-physiological markers, behavioural response, as well as paternal outcomes, which include parental role attainment, paternal interaction behaviour, and paternal stress and anxiety. a father's involvement in providing skin-to-skin contact seems to be feasible and beneficial to both infants and fathers. However, there has been a scarcity of literature that exclusively examines fathers' involvement and perceptions related to skin-to-skin contact in the postpartum period. Future research should examine skin-to-skin contact by fathers and its associated benefits, as well as fathers' perceptions on father-infant SSC among varied populations. a father's involvement in providing skin-to-skin contact should be promoted during the postnatal period. Father-infant skin-to-skin contact is a valuable alternative, especially during the unavailability of mothers due to special circumstances, including medical emergencies and caesarean section. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin physiology in microgravity: a 3-month stay aboard ISS induces dermal atrophy and affects cutaneous muscle and hair follicles cycling in mice.

    PubMed

    Neutelings, Thibaut; Nusgens, Betty V; Liu, Yi; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gabriel, Maude; Colige, Alain; Lambert, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing program was the longest rodent space mission ever performed. It provided 20 research teams with organs and tissues collected from mice having spent 3 months on the International Space Station (ISS). Our participation to this experiment aimed at investigating the impact of such prolonged exposure to extreme space conditions on mouse skin physiology. Mice were maintained in the MDS for 91 days aboard ISS (space group (S)). Skin specimens were collected shortly after landing for morphometric, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses. An exact replicate of the experiment in the MDS was performed on ground (ground group (G)). A significant reduction of dermal thickness (-15%, P =0.05) was observed in S mice accompanied by an increased newly synthetized procollagen (+42%, P =0.03), likely reflecting an increased collagen turnover. Transcriptomic data suggested that the dermal atrophy might be related to an early degradation of defective newly formed procollagen molecules. Interestingly, numerous hair follicles in growing anagen phase were observed in the three S mice, validated by a high expression of specific hair follicles genes, while only one mouse in the G controls showed growing hairs. By microarray analysis of whole thickness skin, we observed a significant modulation of 434 genes in S versus G mice. A large proportion of the upregulated transcripts encoded proteins related to striated muscle homeostasis. These data suggest that a prolonged exposure to space conditions may induce skin atrophy, deregulate hair follicle cycle, and markedly affect the transcriptomic repertoire of the cutaneous striated muscle panniculus carnosus.

  9. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J

    2009-06-07

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject.

  10. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  11. Low-level luminescence of the human skin.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Popp, F A

    1997-08-01

    For the first time systematic measurements of the low-level luminescence of the human skin ("bi-ophotons") have been performed by means of a photon detector device set up in darkness. Several months of daily investigations have shown that body light emission follows definite and well-known biological rhythms, such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months, 9 months, and reflects the left-right symmetry of the body. The results confirm that biophotons are related to physiological functions. This technique provides a new and powerful noninvasive diagnostic method. In particular, skin research and development may use it for testing the influence of different skin treatments.

  12. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons.

  13. The body's tailored suit: Skin as a mechanical interface.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Floriane S; Boulter, Etienne; Estrach, Soline; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-11-01

    Skin, by nature, is very similar to the Rouquayrol-Denayrouze suit mentioned by Jules Verne in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea: it allows "to risk (…) new physiological conditions without suffering any organic disorder". Mechanical cues, to the same extent as other environmental parameters, are such "new physiological conditions". Indeed, skin's primary function is to form a protective barrier to shield inner tissues from the external environment. This requires unique mechanical properties as well as the ability to sense mechanical cues from the environment in order to prevent or repair mechanical damages as well as to function as the primary mechanosensory interface of the whole body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel and recurrent non-truncating mutations of the MITF basic domain: genotypic and phenotypic variations in Waardenburg and Tietz syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Sandy; Balguerie, Xavier; Goldenberg, Alice; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Cabot, Annick; Amstutz-Montadert, Isabelle; Young, Paul; Joly, Pascal; Bodereau, Virginie; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Jamieson, Robyn V; Krause, Amanda; Chen, Hongsheng; Baumann, Clarisse; Nunes, Luis; Dollfus, Hélène; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor, which regulates melanocyte development and the biosynthetic melanin pathway. A notable relationship has been described between non-truncating mutations of its basic domain and Tietz syndrome, which is characterized by albinoid-like hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, rather than the patchy depigmentation seen in Waardenburg syndrome, and severe hearing loss. Twelve patients with new or recurrent non-truncating mutations of the MITF basic domain from six families were enrolled in this study. We observed a wide range of phenotypes and some unexpected features. All the patients had blue irides and pigmentation abnormalities that ranged from diffuse hypopigmentation to Waardenburg-like patches. In addition, they showed congenital complete hearing loss, diffuse hypopigmentation of the skin, freckling and ocular abnormalities, more frequently than patients with MITF mutations outside the basic domain. In conclusion, the non-truncating mutations of the basic domain do not always lead to Tietz syndrome but rather to a large range of phenotypes. Sun-exposed freckles are interestingly observed more frequently in Asian populations. This variability argues for the possible interaction with modifier loci. PMID:22258527

  15. Molecular aspects of ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis in the skin.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeffrey; Tron, Victor A

    2005-12-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential physiological process that controls cell numbers during physiological processes, and eliminates abnormal cells that can potentially harm an organism. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge of apoptosis induction in skin by UV radiation. A review of the literature was undertaken focusing on cell death in the skin secondary to UV radiation. It is evident that a number of apoptotic pathways, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are induced following exposure to damaging UV radiation. Although our understanding of the apoptotic processes is gradually increasing, many important aspects remain obscure. These include interconnections between pathways, wavelength-specific differences and cell type differences.

  16. Implantable biosensors: analysis of fluorescent light propagation through skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, D. P.; McShane, Michael J.; Pishko, Michael V.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2001-06-01

    Progress towards a painless and hygienic glucose monitoring procedure for diabetics continues as the growth of diabetes mellitus reaches epidemic proportions in the American population. Utilizing an implantable fluorescence based glucose assay, the minimally invasive approach presented here has previously shown promise towards this goal in terms of glucose specificity and quantification for in vitro environments. However, in realistic physiological circumstances the depth of the implant can vary and optical properties of skin can change due to normal physiological conditions. Additionally, naturally occurring auto-fluorescence can obscure the sensor signal. An important concern under these conditions is that variations of fluorescent intensity due to these or other causes might be mistaken for glucose concentration fluctuations. New data shows that fluorescence-based glucose assays can be probed and interpreted in terms of glucose concentrations through pig skin at depths of up to 700 mm when immobilized in a bio-compatible polymer. When a combination of two fluorophores are employed as demonstrated here, reasonable changes in skin thickness and the confounding effects of the variations inherent in skin can be overcome for this glucose sensing application.

  17. Influence of metabolism in skin on dosimetry after topical exposure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bronaugh, R.L.; Collier, S.W.; Macpherson, S.E.

    1994-12-01

    Metabolism of chemicals occurs in skin and therefore should be taken into account when one determines topical exposure dose. Skin metabolism is difficult to measure in vivo because biological specimens may also contain metabolites from other tissues. Metabolism in skin during percutaneous absorption can be studied with viable skin in flow-through diffusion cells. Several compounds metabolized by microsomal enzymes in skin (benzo[a]pyrene and 7-ethoxycoumarin) penetrated human and hairless guinea pig skin predominantly unmetabolized. However, compounds containing a primary amino group (p-aminobenzoic acid, benzocaine, and azo color reduction products) were substrates for acetyltransferase activity in skin and were substantially metabolized duringmore » absorption. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model has been developed with an input equation, allowing modeling after topical exposure. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  18. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Yun-Soung; Lee, Jongwoo; Ameen, Abid; Shi, Luke; Li, Ming; Wang, Shuodao; Ma, Rui; Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Zhan; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-28

    Materials and designs are presented for electronics and sensors that can be conformally and robustly integrated onto the surface of the skin. A multifunctional device of this type can record various physiological signals relevant to health and wellness. This class of technology offers capabilities in biocompatible, non-invasive measurement that lie beyond those available with conventional, point-contact electrode interfaces to the skin. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Kangaroo supported diagonal flexion positioning: New insights into skin-to-skin contact for communication between mothers and very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Buil, A; Carchon, I; Apter, G; Laborne, F X; Granier, M; Devouche, E

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin contact shows benefits in the relationship developed between a mother and her premature infant. In the skin-to-skin session, face-to-face exchanges are impossible in vertical infant positioning. We therefore undertook an observational, prospective, single-center study using kangaroo "supported diagonal flexion" (SDF) positioning. The first aim was to evaluate the safety of kangaroo SDF positioning compared to the usual vertical positioning. The second aim was to evaluate SDF positioning on early communication between the mother and her infant and to improve their well-being. Fifteen mothers and their very premature infants (birth 26<32 weeks' gestation) were assigned to one of the two kangaroo positioning modes, either the current vertical positioning (n=7) or SDF positioning (n=8). Physiological variables and critical events were recorded before, during, and after ten successive skin-to-skin contact sessions. The first and last sessions were videotaped to allow later behavioral measurements. Mothers' risk for depression and feelings about the way they experienced communication with their infant were assessed through questionnaires. In terms of the infant's physiology, no negative effects were associated with SDF positioning in comparison with the usual vertical positioning. SDF positioning led to fewer disorganized gestures, negative vocalizations, and drowsiness, in favor of more deep sleep. SDF led to more mother-infant eye-to-eye contact as well as maternal vocalizations, smiles, and caressing, although these differences did not reach significance. The score for the risk of postnatal depression decreased significantly between the first and the last session in the SDF group, whereas it did not change in the vertical positioning group. These results support the idea that the kangaroo SDF positioning technique is physiologically safe, has obvious immediate benefits on mothers' infant-directed communicative behaviors, and respects the baby's naturally

  20. Detection of essential hypertension with physiological signals from wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arindam; Torres, Juan Manuel Mayor; Danieli, Morena; Riccardi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of essential hypertension can support the prevention of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death. The traditional method of identification of hypertension involves periodic blood pressure measurement using brachial cuff-based measurement devices. While these devices are non-invasive, they require manual setup for each measurement and they are not suitable for continuous monitoring. Research has shown that physiological signals such as Heart Rate Variability, which is a measure of the cardiac autonomic activity, is correlated with blood pressure. Wearable devices capable of measuring physiological signals such as Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response, Skin Temperature have recently become ubiquitous. However, these signals are not accurate and are prone to noise due to different artifacts. In this paper a) we present a data collection protocol for continuous non-invasive monitoring of physiological signals from wearable devices; b) we implement signal processing techniques for signal estimation; c) we explore how the continuous monitoring of these physiological signals can be used to identify hypertensive patients; d) We conduct a pilot study with a group of normotensive and hypertensive patients to test our techniques. We show that physiological signals extracted from wearable devices can distinguish between these two groups with high accuracy.

  1. Wearable physiological systems and technologies for metabolic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Brooks, George A; Klonoff, David C

    2018-03-01

    Wearable sensors allow continuous monitoring of metabolites for diabetes, sports medicine, exercise science, and physiology research. These sensors can continuously detect target analytes in skin interstitial fluid (ISF), tears, saliva, and sweat. In this review, we will summarize developments on wearable devices and their potential applications in research, clinical practice, and recreational and sporting activities. Sampling skin ISF can require insertion of a needle into the skin, whereas sweat, tears, and saliva can be sampled by devices worn outside the body. The most widely sampled metabolite from a wearable device is glucose in skin ISF for monitoring diabetes patients. Continuous ISF glucose monitoring allows estimation of the glucose concentration in blood without the pain, inconvenience, and blood waste of fingerstick capillary blood glucose testing. This tool is currently used by diabetes patients to provide information for dosing insulin and determining a diet and exercise plan. Similar technologies for measuring concentrations of other analytes in skin ISF could be used to monitor athletes, emergency responders, warfighters, and others in states of extreme physiological stress. Sweat is a potentially useful substrate for sampling analytes for metabolic monitoring during exercise. Lactate, sodium, potassium, and hydrogen ions can be measured in sweat. Tools for converting the concentrations of these analytes sampled from sweat, tears, and saliva into blood concentrations are being developed. As an understanding of the relationships between the concentrations of analytes in blood and easily sampled body fluid increases, then the benefits of new wearable devices for metabolic monitoring will also increase.

  2. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-05-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.

  3. Measurements of glucose on the skin surface, in stratum corneum and in transcutaneous extracts: implications for physiological sampling.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, David D; Young, Douglas F

    2003-09-01

    Obtaining representative physiological samples for glucose analysis remains a challenge especially when developing less invasive glucose monitoring systems for diabetic patients. In the present study the glucose content of the stratum corneum was compared with the amount of glucose obtained by short aqueous extractions from a site on the dorsal wrist, using high pressure liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Ten successive aqueous 1-minute extractions of the site yielded a total of 60 ng cm(-2). The total glucose content of the stratum corneum of the site, determined from 30 successive tape-strippings of the site, was 360 ng cm(-2). After tape-stripping, the transcutaneous aqueous extraction rate was 86 +/- 13 ng cm(-2) min(-1), compared with rates of 80-600 ng cm(-2) min(-1) obtained with suction effusion or microdialysis after tape-stripping. Glucose on the surface of the skin and within the stratum corneum should be considered as sources of extraneous glucose contamination during testing of less invasive glucose monitoring devices.

  4. 75 FR 54897 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Muscle Physiology Review. Date..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin...

  5. Standards for the Protection of Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a vital organ, and through our skin we are in close contact with the entire environment. If we lose our skin we lose our life. The barrier function of the skin is mainly driven by the sophisticated epidermis in close relationship with the dermis. The epidermal epithelium is a mechanically, chemically, biologically and immunologically active barrier submitted to continuous turnover. The barrier function of the skin needs to be protected and restored. Its own physiology allows its recovery, but many times this is not sufficient. This chapter is focused on the standards to restore, treat and prevent barrier function disruption. These standards were developed from a scientific, academic and clinical point of view. There is a lack of standardized administrative recommendations. Still, there is a walk to do that will help to reduce the social and economic burden of diseases characterized by an abnormal skin barrier function. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Problematic internet users' skin conductance and anxiety increase after exposure to the internet.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michela; Roaro, Alessandra; Re, Federica; Osborne, Lisa A; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2017-12-01

    To examine the impact of cessation of an internet session on skin conductance responses and anxiety of higher and lower problem internet users, in order to explore possible physiological withdrawal effects. Participants were measured in terms of their skin conductance before (15min), during (15min), and after (15min) an internet session, and completed self-report measures of state anxiety and problematic internet use. Higher, but not lower, problem users showed increased skin conductance after internet use was stopped, relative to before their internet session. Higher problem users' GSR scores increased, as the time from internet cessation became longer. Higher problem users also showed increased levels of anxiety, following their internet session, which correlated with their skin conductance scores. These results suggest that, following termination of an internet session, withdrawal-like effects are seen, both psychologically and physiologically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fiber improves epidermal skin physiology in atopic dermatitis: safety assessment, mode of action and controlled, randomized single-blinded exploratory in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, Joachim W; Breternitz, Maria; Kowatzki, Doreen; Bauer, Andrea; Bossert, Joerg; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2010-08-01

    The epidermal part of the skin is the major interface between the internal body and the external environment. The skin has a specific physiology and is to different degrees adapted for protection against multiple exogenous stress factors. Clothing is the material with the longest and most intensive contact to human skin. It plays a critical role especially in inflammatory dermatoses or skin conditions with an increased susceptibility of bacterial and fungal infections like atopic dermatitis. Previously, we have shown a dose-dependent antibacterial and antifungal activity of silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fibres. We studied the mode of action of silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fiber and performed a broad safety assessment. The principal aim was to analyse the effects of wearing the textile on epidermal skin physiology in 37 patients with atopic dermatitis in a controlled, randomized single-blinded in vivo study. Furthermore, the sensitization potential was tested in a patch test in 111 panellists. We could demonstrate in vitro a dose-dependent scavenging of induced reactive oxygen species by silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fibers. Safety assessment of these fibres showed no detectable release of silver ions. Furthermore, ex vivo assessment after 24 h application both in healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis by sequential tape stripping and subsequently raster electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis analysis revealed no detectable amounts of silver in any of stratum corneum layers. Serum analysis of silver showed no detectable levels. The in vivo patch testing of 111 volunteers revealed no sensitization against different SeaCell Active (SeaCell GmbH, Rudolstadt, Germany) containing fabrics. The in vivo study on 37 patients with known atopic dermatitis and mild-to-moderate eczema on their arms were randomly assigned to either silver-loaded seaweed fibre T-shirts or to cotton T-shirts for 8 weeks. A significant

  8. Pediatric dermatohistopathology--histopathology of skin diseases in newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Wobser, Marion; Ernestus, Karen; Hamm, Henning

    2015-06-01

    While neonatal skin physiology has been thoroughly examined using non-invasive techniques in recent years, only few systematic studies and review articles addressing the histopathology of neonatal skin have been published thus far. In most cases, histopathological findings of dermatoses in neonatal skin do not significantly differ from those seen in adult skin. Nevertheless, a comprehensive knowledge of embryonic and fetal skin development as well as the microanatomical structure of neonatal skin can contribute to a better understanding of various dermatoses of infancy. In the first part of this review article, we present the histopathological features of such skin diseases, which, though generally rare, almost exclusively appear during the first weeks of life due to distinctive structural and functional features of neonatal skin. The second part is dedicated to classic dermatoses of infancy and their histopathological features. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kirilina, Evgeniya; Jelzow, Alexander; Heine, Angela; Niessing, Michael; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Brühl, Rüdiger; Ittermann, Bernd; Jacobs, Arthur M; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2012-05-15

    A major methodological challenge of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is its high sensitivity to haemodynamic fluctuations in the scalp. Superficial fluctuations contribute on the one hand to the physiological noise of fNIRS, impairing the signal-to-noise ratio, and may on the other hand be erroneously attributed to cerebral changes, leading to false positives in fNIRS experiments. Here we explore the localisation, time course and physiological origin of task-evoked superficial signals in fNIRS and present a method to separate them from cortical signals. We used complementary fNIRS, fMRI, MR-angiography and peripheral physiological measurements (blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance and skin blood flow) to study activation in the frontal lobe during a continuous performance task. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to analyse the fNIRS data, which included an additional predictor to account for systemic changes in the skin. We found that skin blood volume strongly depends on the cognitive state and that sources of task-evoked systemic signals in fNIRS are co-localized with veins draining the scalp. Task-evoked superficial artefacts were mainly observed in concentration changes of oxygenated haemoglobin and could be effectively separated from cerebral signals by GLM analysis. Based on temporal correlation of fNIRS and fMRI signals with peripheral physiological measurements we conclude that the physiological origin of the systemic artefact is a task-evoked sympathetic arterial vasoconstriction followed by a decrease in venous volume. Since changes in sympathetic outflow accompany almost any cognitive and emotional process, we expect scalp vessel artefacts to be present in a wide range of fNIRS settings used in neurocognitive research. Therefore a careful separation of fNIRS signals originating from activated brain and from scalp is a necessary precondition for unbiased fNIRS brain activation maps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Gene editing for skin diseases: designer nucleases as tools for gene therapy of skin fragility disorders.

    PubMed

    March, Oliver P; Reichelt, Julia; Koller, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review concerns current gene editing strategies for blistering skin diseases with respect to individual genetic constellations and distinct conditions. What advances does it highlight? Specificity and safety dominate the discussion of gene editing applications for gene therapy, where a number of tools are implemented. Recent developments in this rapidly progressing field pose further questions regarding which tool is best suited for each particular use. The current treatment of inherited blistering skin diseases, such as epidermolysis bullosa (EB), is largely restricted to wound care and pain management. More effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required, and targeting the genetic basis of these severe diseases is now within reach. Here, we describe current gene editing tools and their potential to correct gene function in monogenetic blistering skin diseases. We present the features of the most frequently used gene editing techniques, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), determining their preferential application for specific genetic conditions, including the type of mutational inheritance, the targeting site within the gene or the possibility to target the mutation specifically. Both tools have traits beneficial in specific situations. Promising developments in the field engender gene editing as a potentially powerful therapeutic option for future clinical applications. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Skin bioengineering: preclinical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Santamaría, L; Guerrero-Aspizua, S; Del Río, M

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative Medicine is an emerging field that combines basic research and clinical observations in order to identify the elements required to replace damaged tissues and organs in vivo and to stimulate the body's intrinsic regenerative capacity. Great benefits are expected in this field as researchers take advantage of the potential regenerative properties of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and more recently, of induced pluripotent stem cells. Bioengineered skin emerged mainly in response to a critical need for early permanent coverage of extensive burns. Later this technology was also applied to the treatment of chronic ulcers. Our group has established a humanized mouse model of skin grafting that involves the use of bioengineered human skin in immunodeficient mice. This model is suitable for the study of physiologic and pathologic cutaneous processes and the evaluation of treatment strategies for skin diseases, including protocols for gene and cell therapy and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Irradiation of skin with visible light induces reactive oxygen species and matrix-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Liebel, Frank; Kaur, Simarna; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Kollias, Nikiforos; Southall, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Daily skin exposure to solar radiation causes cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a primary factor in skin damage. Although the contribution of the UV component to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology. Solar radiation comprises <10% of UV, and thus the purpose of this study was to examine the physiological response of skin to visible light (400-700 nm). Irradiation of human skin equivalents with visible light induced production of ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. Commercially available sunscreens were found to have minimal effects on reducing visible light-induced ROS, suggesting that UVA/UVB sunscreens do not protect the skin from visible light-induced responses. Using clinical models to assess the generation of free radicals from oxidative stress, higher levels of free radical activity were found after visible light exposure. Pretreatment with a photostable UVA/UVB sunscreen containing an antioxidant combination significantly reduced the production of ROS, cytokines, and MMP expression in vitro, and decreased oxidative stress in human subjects after visible light irradiation. Taken together, these findings suggest that other portions of the solar spectrum aside from UV, particularly visible light, may also contribute to signs of premature photoaging in skin.

  13. Radiofrequency for the treatment of skin laxity: mith or truth*

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues; Soares, Viviane Pinheiro Campos; da Silva, Fernanda Souza; Moreira, Tatiane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nonablative radiofrequency is a procedure commonly used for the treatment of skin laxity from an increase in tissue temperature. The goal is to induce thermal damage to thus stimulate neocollagenesis in deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. However, many of these devices haven't been tested and their parameters are still not accepted by the scientific community. Because of this, it is necessary to review the literature regarding the physiological effects and parameters for application of radiofrequency and methodological quality and level of evidence of studies. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, PEDro, SciELO, PubMed, LILACS and CAPES and experimental studies in humans, which used radiofrequency devices as treatment for facial or body laxity, were selected. The results showed that the main physiological effect is to stimulate collagen synthesis. There was no homogeneity between studies in relation to most of the parameters used and the methodological quality of studies and level of evidence for using radiofrequency are low. This fact complicates the determination of effective parameters for clinical use of this device in the treatment of skin laxity. The analyzed studies suggest that radiofrequency is effective, however the physiological mechanisms and the required parameters are not clear in the literature. PMID:26560216

  14. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  15. Study Progress of Physiological Responses in High Temperature Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Zheng, G. Z.; Bu, W. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lu, Y. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Certain workers are exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Heat stress will result in a series of physiological responses, and cause adverse effects on the health and safety of workers. This paper summarizes the physiological changes of cardiovascular system, core temperature, skin temperature, water-electrolyte metabolism, alimentary system, neuroendocrine system, reaction time and thermal fatigue in high temperature environments. It can provide a theoretical guidance for labor safety in high temperature environment.

  16. The influence of hypoxia on the thermal sensitivity of skin colouration in the bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    de Velasco, Jesus Barraza; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2008-09-01

    One physiological mechanism used by reptiles to remain within thermal optima is their ability to reversibly alter skin colour, imparting changes in overall reflectance, and influencing the rate of heat gain from incident radiation. The ability to lighten or darken their skin is caused by the movement of pigment within the dermal chromatophore cells. Additionally, lizards, as ectotherms, significantly lower their preferred body temperatures when experiencing stressors such as hypoxia. This decrease in preferred temperature has been proposed to be the result of a downward adjustment of the thermal set-point, the temperature around which the body temperature is typically defended. We tested the hypothesis that lightening of the skin in lizards would be modified by hypoxia in a manner consistent with the known reduction in preferred temperatures. Skin colouration values of the dorsal skin of bearded dragons were analysed at three different levels of oxygen (20.8, 9.9 and 4.9 kPa) and at temperatures spanning the preferred temperature range (30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 C). Hypoxic lizards lightened their skin at lower ambient temperatures more than normoxic ones, and in an oxygen-dependent fashion. The orchestrated adjustment of skin reflectance suggests that this physiological trait is being regulated at a new and lower set-point. Evidence from this study demonstrates that skin colouration plays a role in body temperature regulation and that the reduction in temperature set-point so prevalent in hypoxia is also manifested in this physiological trait.

  17. Measuring and Validating Levels of Steroid Hormones in the Skin of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    relationship between serum and skin concentrations of aldosterone , c) how long it takes for aldosterone , corticosterone, and cortisol to be measurable in...opening up a new avenue of research in physiological response studies. REFERENCES Bechshoft T, Wright A, Weisser JJ, Teilmann J, Dietz R, Hansen M...Björklund E & Styrishave B. Developing a new research tool for use in free-ranging cetaceans: recovering cortisol from harbor porpoise skin. Conservation Physiology , 3: doi:10.1093/conphys/cov016

  18. Reconstitution of full‐thickness skin by microcolumn grafting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Vuong, Linh N.; Fisher, Jeremy M.; Farinelli, William A.; Anderson, R. Rox

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In addition to providing a physical barrier, skin also serves a diverse range of physiological functions through different specialized resident cell types/structures, including melanocytes (pigmentation and protection against ultraviolet radiation), Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity), fibroblasts (maintaining extracellular matrix, paracrine regulation of keratinocytes), sweat glands (thermoregulation) and hair follicles (hair growth, sensation and a stem cell reservoir). Restoration of these functional elements has been a long‐standing challenge in efforts to engineer skin tissue, while autologous skin grafting is limited by the scarcity of donor site skin and morbidity caused by skin harvesting. We demonstrate an alternative approach of harvesting and then implanting μm‐scale, full‐thickness columns of human skin tissue, which can be removed from a donor site with minimal morbidity and no scarring. Fresh human skin microcolumns were used to reconstitute skin in wounds on immunodeficient mice. The restored skin recapitulated many key features of normal human skin tissue, including epidermal architecture, diverse skin cell populations, adnexal structures and sweat production in response to cholinergic stimulation. These promising preclinical results suggest that harvesting and grafting of microcolumns may be useful for reconstituting fully functional skin in human wounds, without donor site morbidity. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27296503

  19. Reconstitution of full-thickness skin by microcolumn grafting.

    PubMed

    Tam, Joshua; Wang, Ying; Vuong, Linh N; Fisher, Jeremy M; Farinelli, William A; Anderson, R Rox

    2017-10-01

    In addition to providing a physical barrier, skin also serves a diverse range of physiological functions through different specialized resident cell types/structures, including melanocytes (pigmentation and protection against ultraviolet radiation), Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity), fibroblasts (maintaining extracellular matrix, paracrine regulation of keratinocytes), sweat glands (thermoregulation) and hair follicles (hair growth, sensation and a stem cell reservoir). Restoration of these functional elements has been a long-standing challenge in efforts to engineer skin tissue, while autologous skin grafting is limited by the scarcity of donor site skin and morbidity caused by skin harvesting. We demonstrate an alternative approach of harvesting and then implanting μm-scale, full-thickness columns of human skin tissue, which can be removed from a donor site with minimal morbidity and no scarring. Fresh human skin microcolumns were used to reconstitute skin in wounds on immunodeficient mice. The restored skin recapitulated many key features of normal human skin tissue, including epidermal architecture, diverse skin cell populations, adnexal structures and sweat production in response to cholinergic stimulation. These promising preclinical results suggest that harvesting and grafting of microcolumns may be useful for reconstituting fully functional skin in human wounds, without donor site morbidity. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Artificial skin in perspective: concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Brohem, Carla A; Cardeal, Laura B da Silva; Tiago, Manoela; Soengas, María S; Barros, Silvia B de Moraes; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2011-02-01

    Skin, the largest organ of the human body, is organized into an elaborate layered structure consisting mainly of the outermost epidermis and the underlying dermis. A subcutaneous adipose-storing hypodermis layer and various appendages such as hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels are also present in the skin. These multiple components of the skin ensure survival by carrying out critical functions such as protection, thermoregulation, excretion, absorption, metabolic functions, sensation, evaporation management, and aesthetics. The study of how these biological functions are performed is critical to our understanding of basic skin biology such as regulation of pigmentation and wound repair. Impairment of any of these functions may lead to pathogenic alterations, including skin cancers. Therefore, the development of genetically controlled and well characterized skin models can have important implications, not only for scientists and physicians, but also for manufacturers, consumers, governing regulatory boards and animal welfare organizations. As cells making up human skin tissue grow within an organized three-dimensional (3D) matrix surrounded by neighboring cells, standard monolayer (2D) cell cultures do not recapitulate the physiological architecture of the skin. Several types of human skin recombinants, also called artificial skin, that provide this critical 3D structure have now been reconstructed in vitro. This review contemplates the use of these organotypic skin models in different applications, including substitutes to animal testing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-07-01

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  3. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

  4. Effect of estrogens on skin aging and the potential role of SERMs

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Susan; Thornton, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In humans, structural and functional changes attributable to aging are more visibly evident in the skin than in any other organ. Estrogens have significant effects on skin physiology and modulate epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts and melanocytes, in addition to skin appendages including the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Importantly, skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews the effects of estrogens on skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging that occur in human skin. The relevance of estrogen replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal women and the potential value of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as a therapy for diminishing skin aging are also highlighted. PMID:18044179

  5. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the skin.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Semak, Igor; Kim, Tae-Kang; Janjetovic, Zorica; Slominski, Radomir M; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2017-11-01

    The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors. Moreover, they attenuate the pathological processes including carcinogenesis and other hyperproliferative/inflammatory conditions. Interestingly, mitochondria appear to be a central hub of melatonin metabolism in the skin cells. Furthermore, substantial evidence has accumulated on the protective role of the melatonin against ultraviolet radiation and the attendant mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin and its metabolites appear to have a modulatory impact on mitochondrion redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, as well as the anti-apoptotic effects. Of note, some metabolites exhibit even greater impact than melatonin alone. Herein, we emphasize that melatonin-mitochondria axis would control integumental functions designed to protect local and perhaps global homeostasis. Given the phylogenetic origin and primordial actions of melatonin, we propose that the melatonin-related mitochondrial functions represent an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in cellular adaptive response to skin injury and repair.

  6. [Experiments for physiologic improvement of disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Beyer, C; Wozniak, K D; Höhne, K; Laub, R

    1990-11-01

    The use of customary trade disinfectants lead to occupational disease no. 80 in many employers of public health. For that reason our aim is to improve the skin compatibility of this disinfectants. Its possible to achieve a pH-shift to a more physiological level eighter by buffer salt addition or by neutralization. Following this, disinfectants were investigated in a microbiological test.

  7. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  8. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

  9. Physiological indicators of pathologic video game use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Dyer, W Justin; Densley, Rebecca; Money, Nathan M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2015-03-01

    Pathologic video game use (PVGU) has been associated with a host of negative psychological, physical, and social outcomes during adolescence; however, little research has examined physiological predictors of such use. The purpose of the study was to examine physiological predictors of the development of PVGU across adolescence. The article involves a 1-year longitudinal study across midadolescence. Participants were 374 adolescents and their parents from a large metropolitan area in the Northwest United States. PVGU was assessed via questionnaire, as were a number of control variables. A number of physiological indicators including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and galvanic skin conductance (indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity, respectively) were measured during baseline, a cognitively stimulating task (Rubik's cube), and a family problem-solving task. Less RSA withdrawal to a cognitively simulating task was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms, but less RSA withdrawal to a family problem-solving task was associated with the presence of pathologic video game symptoms (p < .05). For girls only, galvanic skin conductance activation during the family problem solving was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms (p < .01). These findings suggest that adolescents who do not find cognitive tasks stimulating physiologically have a greater severity of PVGU. Additionally, adolescents who show physiological signs of stress in a family task were more likely to have PVGU symptoms and only girls have more severe PVGU levels. This study is the first to show that physiological indicators predict PVGU over time in adolescence and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of PVGU in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  11. The tell-tale: what do heart rate; skin temperature and skin conductance reveal about emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities?

    PubMed

    Vos, Pieter; De Cock, Paul; Munde, Vera; Petry, Katja; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Maes, Bea

    2012-01-01

    Identifying emotions in people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities is a difficult challenge. Since self-reports are not available, behaviour is the most used source of information. Given the limitations and caveats associated with using behaviour as the sole source of information about their emotions, it is important to supplement behavioural information with information from another source. As it is accepted that emotions consist of language, behaviour and physiology, in this article we investigated if physiology could give information about the emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities. To this aim we tested hypotheses derived from the motivational model of Bradley, Codispoti, Cuthbert, and Lang (2001) about the relation between heart rate and the valence of emotions and between heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature and behavioural expressions of emotions of people with severe and profound intellectual disability. We presented 27 participants with 4 staff-selected negative and 4 staff-selected positive stimuli. The situations were videotaped and their heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature was measured. Each behaviour of the participant was coded using the observational method developed by Petry and Maes (2006). As hypothesized, we found a lower heart rate when participants were presented with negative stimuli than when they were presented with positive stimuli in the first 6s of stimuli presentation. Their skin temperature was higher for the expression of low intensity negative emotions compared to the expression of low intensity positive emotions. The results suggest that, as with people without disability, heart rate and skin temperature can give information about the emotions of persons with severe and profound ID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pandian, P S; Mohanavelu, K; Safeer, K P; Kotresh, T M; Shakunthala, D T; Gopal, Parvati; Padaki, V C

    2008-05-01

    The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented.

  13. Effects of elevated physiological temperatures on sarcoplasmic reticulum function in mechanically skinned muscle fibers of the rat.

    PubMed

    van der Poel, C; Stephenson, D G

    2007-07-01

    Properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with respect to Ca(2+) loading and release were measured in mechanically skinned fiber preparations from isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the rat that were either kept at room temperature (23 degrees C) or exposed to temperatures in the upper physiological range for mammalian skeletal muscle (30 min at 40 or 43 degrees C). The ability of the SR to accumulate Ca(2+) was significantly reduced by a factor of 1.9-2.1 after the temperature treatments due to a marked increase in SR Ca(2+) leak, which persisted for at least 3 h after treatment. Results with blockers of Ca(2+) release channels (ruthenium red) and SR Ca(2+) pumps [2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone] indicate that the increased Ca(2+) leak was not through the SR Ca(2+) release channel or the SR Ca(2+) pump, although it is possible that the leak pathway was via oligomerized Ca(2+) pump molecules. No significant change in the maximum SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was observed after the temperature treatment, although there was a tendency for a decrease in the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. The observed changes in SR properties were fully prevented by the superoxide (O(2)(*-)) scavenger Tiron (20 mM), indicating that the production of O(2)(*-) at elevated temperatures is responsible for the increase in SR Ca(2+) leak. Results show that physiologically relevant elevated temperatures 1) induce lasting changes in SR properties with respect to Ca(2+) handling that contribute to a marked increase in the SR Ca(2+) leak and, consequently, to the reduction in the average coupling ratio between Ca(2+) transport and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and muscle performance, and 2) that these changes are mediated by temperature-induced O(2)(*-) production.

  14. Human physiological responses to wooden indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Lian, Zhiwei; Wu, Yong

    2017-05-15

    Previous studies are mainly focused on non-wooden environments, whereas few are concerned with wooden ones. How wooden indoor environments impact the physiology of the occupants is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinct physiological responses to wooden and non-wooden indoor environments, assessed by physiological parameters tests including blood pressure, electrocardiogram measurements, electro-dermal activity, oxyhemoglobin saturation, skin temperature, and near distance vision. Twenty healthy adults participated in this experiment, and their physiological responses were evaluated in a 90minute investigation. The results illustrated that; less tension and fatigue were generated in the wooden rooms than in the non-wooden rooms when the participants did their work. In addition, the study also found that the wooden environments benefit the autonomic nervous system, respiratory system, and visual system. Moreover, wooden rooms play a valuable role in physiological regulation and ease function especially after a consecutive period of work. These results provide an experimental basis to support that wooden environment is beneficial to indoor occupants than the non-wooden indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the Attitudes and Physiological Responses Preservice Learners Have towards Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvousis, Aphroditi; Heilmann, John; Golden, Jeanne; Kalinowski, Joseph; Hudson, Suzanne; Hough, Monica Strauss

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes and physiological responses demonstrated by preservice learners towards young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) and two physiological measures (skin conductance and heart rate responses) were obtained. Four behaviors (two control and two problematic) depicting…

  16. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  17. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  18. The risk of hydroquinone and sunscreen over-absorption via photodamaged skin is not greater in senescent skin as compared to young skin: nude mouse as an animal model.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-08-25

    Intrinsic aging and photoaging modify skin structure and components, which subsequently change percutaneous absorption of topically applied permeants. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate drug/sunscreen permeation via young and senescent skin irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. Both young and senescent nude mice were subjected to UVA (10 J/cm(2)) and/or UVB radiation (175 mJ/cm(2)). Physiological parameters, immunohistology, and immunoblotting were employed to examine the aged skin. Hydroquinone and sunscreen permeation was determined by in vitro Franz cell. In vivo skin absorption was documented using a hydrophilic dye, rhodamine 123 (log P=-0.4), as a permeant. UVA exposure induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) upregulation. Epidermal tight junction (TJ) were degraded by UVA. UVB increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from 13 to 24 g/m(2)/h. Hyperplasia and inflammation, but not loss of TJ, were also observed in UVB-treated skin. UVA+UVB- and UVA-irradiated skin demonstrated similar changes in histology and biomarkers. UVA+UVB or UVA exposure increased hydroquinone flux five-fold. A negligible alteration of hydroquinone permeation was shown with UVB exposure. Hydroquinone exhibited a lower penetration through senescent skin than young skin. Both UVA and UVB produced enhancement of oxybenzone flux and skin uptake. However, the amount of increase was less than that of hydroquinone delivery. Photoaging did not augment skin absorption of sunscreens with higher lipophilicity, including avobenzone and ZnO. Exposure to UVA generally increased follicular entrance of these permeants, which showed two- to three-fold greater follicular uptake compared to the untreated group. Photoaging had less impact on drug/sunscreen absorption with more lipophilic permeants. Percutaneous absorption did not increase in skin subjected to both intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  19. Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Offerta, Alessia; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Venera, Cardile

    2014-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses. The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin. The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry). Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation. Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO FILM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASE, HARRY W.; LEVONIAN, EDWARD

    THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM WHICH WOULD ALLOW THE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF STUDENTS VIEWING FILM MATERIAL UNDER CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM CONDITIONS. THE GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE (GSR) WAS MEASURED BY SENSORS AND USED AS AN INDICATOR OF STUDENT INTERACTION WITH THE FILM MATERIAL. IN…

  1. Effects of a Skin Barrier Cream on Management of Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis in Older Women: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kon, Yuka; Ichikawa-Shigeta, Yoshie; Iuchi, Terumi; Nakajima, Yukari; Nakagami, Gojiro; Tabata, Keiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Sugama, Junko

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a skin barrier cream with moisturization and skin-protectant characteristics for improving the severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) pertaining to the skin physiology and appearance. We measured the following outcomes: (1) skin physiological characteristics indicating skin protection and enhancement of the skin's moisture barrier (stratum corneum hydration, dermis hydration level, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH); and (2) changes in skin appearance (the degree of erythema and pigmentation, and the sulcus cutis condition). Single-blind, cluster randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Japan between November 7, 2011, and May 6, 2012. We used block randomization to obtain a random sample of 6 (4 experimental and 2 control) out of 10 available wards. All subjects were elderly women with IAD of the buttock or inner thigh. We assessed 295 patients, but only 33 met inclusion criteria; 18 were allocated to the experimental group and 15 were allocated to the control group. All participants were managed with cleansing with a skin cleanser and application of a moisturizer daily. In addition, a skin barrier cream designed to enhance the skin's moisture barrier and act as a protective barrier was applied to the skin of patients in the experimental group 3 times a day when absorptive briefs were changed. Skin physiological and appearance characteristics were scored only at the buttock or thigh area. All data were collected on days 1 and 14 of the study. Univariate analysis found that the erythema index was lower in the intervention group than in the control group at day 14 (P = .004). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between use of the skin barrier cream and increased stratum corneum hydration (β= .443, P = .031), decreased skin pH (β=-.439, P = .020), and magnitude of erythema (β=-.451, P = .018). Study findings suggest that a barrier

  2. Prefrontal oxygenation correlates to the responses in facial skin blood flows during exposure to pleasantly charged movie.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Asahara, Ryota; Yoshikawa, Miho; Kusunoki, Shinya; Ishida, Tomoko

    2017-11-01

    Our laboratory reported that facial skin blood flow may serve as a sensitive tool to assess an emotional status. Cerebral neural correlates during emotional interventions should be sought in relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow. To test the hypothesis that prefrontal activity has positive relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow during emotionally charged stimulation, we examined the dynamic changes in prefrontal oxygenation (with near-infrared spectroscopy) and facial skin blood flows (with two-dimensional laser speckle and Doppler flowmetry) during emotionally charged audiovisual challenges for 2 min (by viewing comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 14 subjects. Hand skin blood flow and systemic hemodynamics were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Positively charged emotional stimulation (comedy) simultaneously decreased ( P  <   0.05) prefrontal oxygenation and facial skin blood flow, whereas negatively charged (horror) or neutral (landscape) emotional stimulation did not alter or slightly decreased them. Any of hand skin blood flow and systemic cardiovascular variables did not change significantly during positively charged emotional stimulation. The changes in prefrontal oxygenation had a highly positive correlation with the changes in facial skin blood flow without altering perfusion pressure, and they were inversely correlated with the subjective rating of pleasantness. The reduction in prefrontal oxygenation during positively charged emotional stimulation suggests a decrease in prefrontal neural activity, which may in turn elicit neurally mediated vasoconstriction of facial skin blood vessels. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  3. Application of protease technology in dermatology: rationale for incorporation into skin care with initial observations on formulations designed for skin cleansing, maintenance of hydration, and restoration of the epidermal permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews background on proteases and their functions, their physiological significance in skin, and the potential implications of incorporating specific proteases and protease blends into dermatological products, including skin care formulations. The history of protease blend formulations used in wound model studies and for other disorders is reviewed. In vitro data with use of a specific 3-protease blend with evaluation of the impact on various skin proteins and peptides is also discussed in this article.

  4. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  5. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

  7. Silk-molded flexible, ultrasensitive, and highly stable electronic skin for monitoring human physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; Gu, Yang; Xiong, Zuoping; Cui, Zheng; Zhang, Ting

    2014-03-05

    Flexible and transparent E-skin devices are achieved by combining silk-molded micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ultrathin films. The E-skin sensing device demonstrates superior sensitivity, a very low detectable pressure limit, a fast response time, and a high stability for the detection of superslight pressures, which may broaden their potential use as cost-effective wearable electronics for healthcare applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Biometrical characteristics and physiological responses to a local cold exposure of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Savourey, G; Sendowski, I; Bittel, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to describe the physiological responses observed in 19 subjects during immersion of the arm up to the elbow in water at 5 degrees C (5 min) followed by a 10-min recovery and secondly, to correlate the observed physiological responses with biometrical characteristics of the subjects (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max, percentage fat content of whole body, BF, and arm, forearm and hand skinfold thickness). The results showed that the time courses of changes in forearm and hand skin temperature were different compared to those of finger skin temperatures both during local cooling and during rewarming (P < 0.05). Cardiovascular responses (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures) and finger skin temperatures were not related to the biometrical characteristics of the subjects. However, at the end of the immersion, decreased hand skin temperature was correlated to VO2max (r = 0.45, P < or = 0.05) whereas decreased forearm skin temperature was correlated both to VO2max (r = 0.44, P < or = 0.05) and to skinfold thickness (r = -0.44, P < or = 0.05) but not to BF. During the beginning of the recovery period only, outside, inside forearm and hand skin temperatures were related to VO2max (r = 0.54, P < or = 0.05; r = 0.66, P < or = 0.01 and r = 0.45, P < or = 0.05, respectively) and all the skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.47 to -0.71, P < or = 0.05). It was concluded that the local skin temperature profiles differed according to the upper limb segment both during cooling and during early rewarming. Moreover, VO2max and upper limb skinfold thickness but not BF did influence the forearm and hand skin temperature changes during cooling and early rewarming but not the finger skin temperature changes and cardiovascular responses.

  9. Quantitative characterization of mechanically indented in vivo human skin in adults and infants using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pin-Chieh; Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Joa, Frank; Moore, Dave; Gillman, Elisa; Kidd, Kimberly; Nolan, Ryan M.; Odio, Mauricio; Carr, Andrew; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Influenced by both the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the tissue constituents and the time-evolved redistribution of fluid within the tissue, the biomechanical response of skin can reflect not only localized pathology but also systemic physiology of an individual. While clinical diagnosis of skin pathologies typically relies on visual inspection and manual palpation, a more objective and quantitative approach for tissue characterization is highly desirable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometry-based imaging modality that enables in vivo assessment of cross-sectional tissue morphology with micron-scale resolution, which surpasses those of most standard clinical imaging tools, such as ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. This pilot study investigates the feasibility of characterizing the biomechanical response of in vivo human skin using OCT. OCT-based quantitative metrics were developed and demonstrated on the human subject data, where a significant difference between deformed and nondeformed skin was revealed. Additionally, the quantified postindentation recovery results revealed differences between aged (adult) and young (infant) skin. These suggest that OCT has the potential to quantitatively assess the mechanically perturbed skin as well as distinguish different physiological conditions of the skin, such as changes with age or disease.

  10. Poria cocos Wolf extracts represses pigmentation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, HyunKyung; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2018-04-30

    In skin, melanocytes determine skin color using melanogenesis, which induces protective mechanism to oxidative stress and UV damage. However, when melanin is excessive produced by the various stimulus, the accumulated melanin induces hyperpigmentation disease such as melasma, freckles, Melanism ware induced. Therefore, it is implicated to finding potential agents for whitening to be used in cosmetic products. In our present study, we show that Poria cocos Wolf extracts decreased melanin synthesis in B16F10. And then this inhibition of melanogenesis was provoked by regulation of tyrosinase activity and tyrosinase and MITF expression. Moreover, Poria cocos Wolf extracts contained cream improved skin tone using increase of bright value. Overall, these results provide evidence to potential agent for whitening to be used in cosmetic products.

  11. Exploring the "brain-skin connection": Leads and lessons from the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Paus, R

    Research into how the central nervous system (CNS) and the skin of mammals are physiologically connected and how this "brain-skin connection" may be therapeutically targeted in clinical medicine has witnessed a renaissance. A key element in this development has been the discovery that mammalian skin and its appendages, namely human scalp hair follicles (HFs), not only are important, long-underestimated target tissues for classical neurohormones, neurotrophins and neuropeptides, but also are eminent peripheral tissue sources for the production and/or release of these neuromediators. This essay summarizes the many different levels of biology at which human scalp HFs respond to and generate a striking variety of neurohormones, and portrays HFs as prototypic, cyclically remodelled miniorgans that utilize these neurohormones to autoregulate their growth, hair shaft production, rhythmic organ transformation, pigmentation, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and immune status. The essay also explores how preclinical research on human scalp HFs can be exploited to unveil and explore "novel" and clinically as yet untapped, but most likely ancestral functions of neurohormones within mammalian epithelial biology that still impact substantially on human skin physiology. Arguably, systematic investigation of the "brain-skin connection" is one of the most intriguing current research frontiers in investigative dermatology, not the least since it has reversed the traditional CNS focus in studying the interactions between two key organ systems by placing the skin epithelium on center stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  13. Tropical bat as mammalian model for skin carotenoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Ismael; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Ríos, José; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal

    2016-01-01

    Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments de novo, and must consume them in their diet. Most mammals, including humans, are indiscriminate accumulators of carotenoids but inefficiently distribute them to some tissues and organs, such as skin. This limits the potential capacity of these organisms to benefit from the antioxidant and immunostimulatory functions that carotenoids fulfill. Indeed, to date, no mammal has been known to have evolved physiological mechanisms to incorporate and deposit carotenoids in the skin or hair, and mammals have therefore been assumed to rely entirely on other pigments such as melanins to color their integument. Here we use high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS) to show that the frugivorous Honduran white bat Ectophylla alba colors its skin bright yellow with the deposition of the xanthophyll lutein. The Honduran white bat is thus a mammalian model that may help developing strategies to improve the assimilation of lutein in humans to avoid macular degeneration. This represents a change of paradigm in animal physiology showing that some mammals actually have the capacity to accumulate dietary carotenoids in the integument. In addition, we have also discovered that the majority of the lutein in the skin of Honduran white bats is present in esterified form with fatty acids, thereby permitting longer-lasting coloration and suggesting bright color traits may have an overlooked role in the visual communication of bats. PMID:27621447

  14. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  15. Soft, skin-mounted microfluidic systems for measuring secretory fluidic pressures generated at the surface of the skin by eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Xue, Yeguang; Xia, Wei; Ray, Tyler R; Reeder, Jonathan T; Bandodkar, Amay J; Kang, Daeshik; Xu, Shuai; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2017-07-25

    During periods of activity, sweat glands produce pressures associated with osmotic effects to drive liquid to the surface of the skin. The magnitudes of these pressures may provide insights into physiological health, the intensity of physical exertion, psychological stress factors and/other information of interest, yet they are currently unknown due to absence of means for non-invasive measurement. This paper introduces a thin, soft wearable microfluidic system that mounts onto the surface of the skin to enable precise and routine measurements of secretory fluidic pressures generated at the surface of the skin by eccrine sweat glands (surface SPSG, or s-SPSG) at nearly any location on the body. These platforms incorporate an arrayed collection of unit cells each of which includes an opening to the skin, an inlet through which sweat can flow, a capillary bursting valve (CBV) with a unique bursting pressure (BP), a corresponding microreservoir to receive sweat and an outlet to the surrounding ambient to allow release of backpressure. The BPs systematically span the physiologically relevant range, to enable a measurement precision approximately defined by the ratio of the range to the number of unit cells. Human studies demonstrate measurements of s-SPSG under different conditions, from various regions of the body. Average values in healthy young adults lie between 2.4 and 2.9 kPa. Sweat associated with vigorous exercise have s-SPSGs that are somewhat higher than those associated with sedentary activity. For all conditions, the forearm and lower back tend to yield the highest and lowest s-SPSGs, respectively.

  16. Impact of the Mk VI SkinSuit on skin microbiota of terrestrial volunteers and an International Space Station-bound astronaut.

    PubMed

    Stabler, Richard A; Rosado, Helena; Doyle, Ronan; Negus, David; Carvil, Philip A; Kristjánsson, Juan G; Green, David A; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Davies, Cadi; Mogensen, Andreas; Scott, Jonathan; Taylor, Peter W

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation. Each volunteer displayed a diverse, distinct bacterial population at each skin site. Short (8 h) periods of dry hyper-buoyancy flotation wearing either gym kit or SkinSuit elicited changes in the composition of the skin microbiota at the genus level but had little or no impact on community structure at the phylum level or the richness and diversity of the bacterial population. We also determined the composition of the skin microbiota of an astronaut during pre-flight training, during an 8-day visit to the International Space Station involving two 6-7 h periods of SkinSuit wear, and for 1 month after return. Changes in composition of bacterial skin communities at five body sites were strongly linked to changes in geographical location. A distinct ISS bacterial microbiota signature was found which reversed to a pre-flight profile on return. No changes in microbiome complexity or diversity were noted, with little evidence for colonisation by potentially pathogenic bacteria; we conclude that short periods of SkinSuit wear induce changes to the composition of the skin microbiota but these are unlikely to compromise the healthy skin microbiome.

  17. Development of mathematical models of environmental physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Selected articles concerned with mathematical or simulation models of human thermoregulation are presented. The articles presented include: (1) development and use of simulation models in medicine, (2) model of cardio-vascular adjustments during exercise, (3) effective temperature scale based on simple model of human physiological regulatory response, (4) behavioral approach to thermoregulatory set point during exercise, and (5) importance of skin temperature in sweat regulation.

  18. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  19. Experimental study on physiological responses and thermal comfort under various ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye; Lian, Zhiwei; Liu, Weiwei; Shen, Qi

    2008-01-28

    This study mainly explored the thermal comfort from the perspective of physiology. Three physiological parameters, including skin temperature (local and mean), electrocardiograph (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG), were investigated to see how they responded to the ambient temperature and how they were related to the thermal comfort sensation. A total of four ambient temperatures (21 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 26 degrees C and 29 degrees C) were created, while the other thermal conditions including the air velocity (about 0.05+/-0.01 m/s) and the air humidity (about 60+/-5 m/s) were kept as stable as possible throughout the experiments. Twenty healthy students were tested with questionnaire investigation under those thermal environments. The statistical analysis shows that the skin temperature (local and mean), the ratio of LF(norm) to HF(norm) of ECG and the global relative power of the different EEG frequency bands will be sensitive to the ambient temperatures and the thermal sensations of the subjects. It is suggested that the three physiological parameters should be considered all together in the future study of thermal comfort.

  20. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  1. Inflammation-free, gas-permeable, lightweight, stretchable on-skin electronics with nanomeshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Akihito; Lee, Sungwon; Cooray, Nawalage Florence; Lee, Sunghoon; Mori, Mami; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Jin, Hanbit; Yoda, Leona; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Akira; Sekino, Masaki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Tamotsu; Amagai, Masayuki; Someya, Takao

    2017-09-01

    Thin-film electronic devices can be integrated with skin for health monitoring and/or for interfacing with machines. Minimal invasiveness is highly desirable when applying wearable electronics directly onto human skin. However, manufacturing such on-skin electronics on planar substrates results in limited gas permeability. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically investigate their long-term physiological and psychological effects. As a demonstration of substrate-free electronics, here we show the successful fabrication of inflammation-free, highly gas-permeable, ultrathin, lightweight and stretchable sensors that can be directly laminated onto human skin for long periods of time, realized with a conductive nanomesh structure. A one-week skin patch test revealed that the risk of inflammation caused by on-skin sensors can be significantly suppressed by using the nanomesh sensors. Furthermore, a wireless system that can detect touch, temperature and pressure is successfully demonstrated using a nanomesh with excellent mechanical durability. In addition, electromyogram recordings were successfully taken with minimal discomfort to the user.

  2. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of low relative humidity, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, hydration state of skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), recovery sebum level and skin temperature as physiological responses. We asked subjects to judge thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Sixteen non-smoking healthy male students were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test room conditions were adjusted to provide a Ta of 25 degrees C and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%.RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland and on cardiovascular reactions like blood pressure and HR. However, it was obvious that low RH affects SCT, the dryness of the ocular mucosa and the stratum corneum of the skin and causes a decrease in mean skin temperature. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin, and the mean skin temperature decreases. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 30%, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 10%. Subjects felt cold immediately after a change in RH while they had only a slight perception of dryness at the change of humidity.

  3. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  4. Remittance spectroscopy of human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Geyer, A; Vilser, W; Karte, K; Wollina, U

    1996-08-01

    The skin is an easily accessible organ on which non-invasive examination methods can be applied. Recently spectroscopic methods have been introduced in characterization of skin under physiological and pathological conditions. To examine remittance spectroscopic qualities of human skin in vivo and to clarify the influence of selected test conditions, a single-beam spectrometer MCS 410 (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) has been used. Remittance spectra readings were performed in 35 volunteers. Wavelength ranged from 362 nm to 780 nm. Individual remittance values and their standard deviations were obtained from 20 readings under standardized test conditions. The effect of pressure, rubbing, cooling, washing, greasing and degreasing on average remittance values was investigated. Statistical analysis was done with paired Student's f-test and Fisher's test. Pressure increased remittance values over a wide range of wavelength, peaking at 518 nm. Greasing and degreasing modified spectral remittance of shorter wavelength peaking around 362 nm. Rubbing and cooling did not induce significant variations of spectral remittance of skin. Spectral remittance provides an individual profile in human skin, which may be influenced by pressure and greasing/ degreasing. To establish standardized test conditions with a narrow range of intra-individual variation these items have to be kept constant.

  5. A physiologically based mathematical model of dermal absorption in man.

    PubMed

    Auton, T R; Westhead, D R; Woollen, B H; Scott, R C; Wilks, M F

    1994-01-01

    A sound understanding of the mechanisms determining percutaneous absorption is necessary for toxicological risk assessment of chemicals contacting the skin. As part of a programme investigating these mechanisms we have developed a physiologically based mathematical model. The structure of the model parallels the multi-layer structure of the skin, with separate surface, stratum corneum and viable tissue layers. It simulates the effects of partitioning and diffusive transport between the sub-layers, and metabolism in the viable epidermis. In addition the model describes removal processes on the surface of the skin, including the effects of washing and desquamation, and rubbing off onto clothing. This model is applied to data on the penetration of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl through human skin in vivo and in vitro. Part of this dataset is used to estimate unknown model parameter values and the remainder is used to provide a partial validation of the model. Only a small fraction of the applied dose was absorbed through the skin; most of it was removed by washing or onto clothing. The model provides a quantitative description of these loss processes on the skin surface.

  6. Analysis of skin oil by FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasarathy, Keshava B.; Chittur, Krishnan K.; Dasarathy, Belur V.

    1996-11-01

    Secreted skin oil is a complex mixture of lipids, cholesterol, fatty acids, and a large number of other components. Its composition varies among individuals and with changes in physiology. In this paper, the feasibility of obtaining reproducible spectra of skin oils from individuals with a very simple, noninvasive technique is reported. Using pattern recognition algorithms, spectra could be classified on the basis of ethnicity and gender. Differences in spectra between individuals were larger than those between replicate samples taken from the same individual. While there are easier techniques for gender and ethnic identification, our purpose in this paper is to show that information of some value exists in skin-oil spectra. We believe that this approach could be used for such practical discrimination problems such as the determination of high and low cholesterol levels if confirmatory information for training such classifiers were available.

  7. The relationship between dermal papillary structure and skin surface properties, color, and elasticity.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, K; Nakamura, T; Oba, A

    2016-08-01

    The skin contains an undulating structure called the dermal papillary structure between the border of the epidermis and dermis. The physiological importance of the dermal papillary structures has been discussed, however, the dermal papillary structures have never been evaluated for their contribution to skin appearance. In this study, we investigated the correlation between the dermal papillary structure and skin color and elasticity. In addition, the relationship was validated with skin model experiments. The dermal papillary structures in the skin of the female cheek were quantitatively measured by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy images. In addition, the skin color and elasticity were measured at the same site. A skin model with dermal papilla-like structures was created by referring to the optical and shape properties of the skin using agar gel and a scattering sheet. Correlations were found between the dermal papillary structures and skin color irregularity and skin elasticity. These relationships were verified by the experiments employing a skin model. The results of this study indicated that the dermal papillary structure is also an important factor for skin appearance such as color and elasticity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ice slurry ingestion reduces both core and facial skin temperatures in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Sumire; Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Internal body cooling by ingesting ice slurry has recently attracted attention. Because ice slurries are ingested through the mouth, it is possible that this results in conductive cooling of the facial skin and brain. However, no studies have investigated this possibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ice slurry ingestion on forehead skin temperature at the point of conductive cooling between the forehead skin and brain. Eight male subjects ingested either 7.5g/kg of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE), a cold sports drink (4°C; COOL), or a warm sports drink (37°C; CON) for 15min in a warm environment (30°C, 80% relative humidity). Then, they remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature, forehead skin temperature (Thead), heart rate, nude body mass, and urine specific gravity were measured. Subjective thermal sensation (TS) was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. With ICE, Tre and Thead were significantly reduced compared with CON and COOL conditions (p<0.05). The results of the other physiological indices were not significantly different. TS with ICE was significantly lower than that with CON and COOL (p<0.05) and was correlated with Tre or Thead (p<0.05). These results indicate that ice slurry ingestion may induce conductive cooling between forehead skin and brain, and reduction in core and forehead skin temperature reduced thermal sensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Individualized, Perception-Based Protocol to Investigate Human Physiological Responses to Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L.; Bush, Emily C.; Galenti, Elizabeth S.; Welch, E. Brian; Towse, Theodore F.

    2018-01-01

    Cold exposure, a known stimulant of the thermogenic effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT), is the most widely used method to study BAT physiology in adult humans. Recently, individualized cooling has been recommended to standardize the physiological cold stress applied across participants, but critical experimental details remain unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a detailed methodology for an individualized, perception-based protocol to investigate human physiological responses to cooling. Participants were wrapped in two water-circulating blankets and fitted with skin temperature probes to estimate BAT activity and peripheral vasoconstriction. We created a thermoesthesia graphical user interface (tGUI) to continuously record the subject's perception of cooling and shivering status during the cooling protocol. The protocol began with a 15 min thermoneutral phase followed by a series of 10 min cooling phases and concluded when sustained shivering (>1 min duration) occurred. Researchers used perception of cooling feedback (tGUI ratings) to manually adjust and personalize the water temperature at each cooling phase. Blanket water temperatures were recorded continuously during the protocol. Twelve volunteers (ages: 26.2 ± 1.4 years; 25% female) completed a feasibility study to evaluate the proposed protocol. Water temperature, perception of cooling, and shivering varied considerably across participants in response to cooling. Mean clavicle skin temperature, a surrogate measure of BAT activity, decreased (−0.99°C, 95% CI: −1.7 to −0.25°C, P = 0.16) after the cooling protocol, but an increase in supraclavicular skin temperature was observed in 4 participants. A strong positive correlation was also found between thermoesthesia and peripheral vasoconstriction (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001). The proposed individualized, perception-based protocol therefore has potential to investigate the physiological responses to cold stress applied across populations with

  10. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of mother/baby skin-to-skin care on successful breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Carfoot, Sue; Williamson, Paula R; Dickson, Rumona

    2003-06-01

    to examine the effects of early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby on the initiation and duration of breast feeding. electronic databases--the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE,CINAHL and EMBASE. References of studies were examined to identify additional trials and contact was made with researchers in the field. Study selection criteria: randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in any language in which skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term newborn babies was compared to routine contact. Primary outcomes were success of first breast feed and duration of breast feeding. Secondary outcomes included, baby temperature and behaviour. STUDY-QUALITY ASSESSMENT: validity of included studies was assessed using criteria defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. Application of inclusion criteria, validity assessment and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers with a third reviewer to resolve differences. seven randomised controlled trials were identified. Five studies assessed duration of breast feeding with mixed results. None of the studies assessed the success of the first breast-feeding experience. Study quality was variable with methods of randomisation and blinding of assessment unclear in four of the five studies providing relevant results. the findings of this systematic review fail to support the current initiatives to implement changes in clinical practice to include skin-to-skin contact. Methodological flaws within the included studies prohibit firm conclusions being reached with regard to the effect of skin-to-skin contact on the duration of breast feeding, timing of first breast feed or baby physiological factors. The review highlights the need for further primary research to assess the effect of skin-to-skin contact on the breast-feeding experience.

  11. Who is really in control of skin immunity under physiological circumstances - lymphocytes, dendritic cells or keratinocytes?

    PubMed

    Schröder, J M; Reich, K; Kabashima, K; Liu, F T; Romani, N; Metz, M; Kerstan, A; Lee, P H A; Loser, K; Schön, M P; Maurer, M; Stoitzner, P; Beissert, S; Tokura, Y; Gallo, R L

    2006-11-01

    Our views of the skin immunity theatre are undergoing constant change. These not only reflect paradigm shifts in general immunology and skin biology, but also have profound clinical implications, which call for strategic changes in dermatological therapy. Nowhere can this be witnessed at a greater level of instructiveness and fascination than when addressing the question posed by this new Controversies feature. Thus, after a very long period of dominance by T cells and Langerhans cells as 'lead actors' on the skin immunity stage, the lowly keratinocyte has recently made an astounding theatrical appearance as a key protagonist of the innate skin immunity system, which may control even acquired skin immune responses. Further enhancing dramatic complexity and tension, the mast cell has entered as an additional actor claiming centre stage, and the epidermal Langerhans cell has slipped in a surprise appearance as the chief agent of immunotolerance. May you, esteemed reader, enjoy the spectacle offered here by selected immunodermatology authorities who double as 'stage managers' pushing their respective favourite actors into the limelight. You get everything you may expect from a good performance - complete with the impresario's overture that lures you into the theatre and sets the stage, competing divas, recently discovered new talents and even the critic's digest while the performance is still ongoing. By the time the curtain drops, you will have reached your own, independent conclusions on how to answer the title question of this play - at least for the time being...

  12. An anisotropic, hyperelastic model for skin: experimental measurements, finite element modelling and identification of parameters for human and murine skin.

    PubMed

    Groves, Rachel B; Coulman, Sion A; Birchall, James C; Evans, Sam L

    2013-02-01

    The mechanical characteristics of skin are extremely complex and have not been satisfactorily simulated by conventional engineering models. The ability to predict human skin behaviour and to evaluate changes in the mechanical properties of the tissue would inform engineering design and would prove valuable in a diversity of disciplines, for example the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which currently rely upon experiments performed in animal models. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive anisotropic, hyperelastic constitutive model of human skin and to validate this model using laboratory data. As a corollary, the mechanical characteristics of human and murine skin have been compared. A novel experimental design, using tensile tests on circular skin specimens, and an optimisation procedure were adopted for laboratory experiments to identify the material parameters of the tissue. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed along three load axes on excised murine and human skin samples, using a single set of material parameters for each skin sample. A finite element model was developed using the transversely isotropic, hyperelastic constitutive model of Weiss et al. (1996) and was embedded within a Veronda-Westmann isotropic material matrix, using three fibre families to create anisotropic behaviour. The model was able to represent the nonlinear, anisotropic behaviour of the skin well. Additionally, examination of the optimal material coefficients and the experimental data permitted quantification of the mechanical differences between human and murine skin. Differences between the skin types, most notably the extension of the skin at low load, have highlighted some of the limitations of murine skin as a biomechanical model of the human tissue. The development of accurate, predictive computational models of human tissue, such as skin, to reduce, refine or replace animal models and to inform developments in the medical, engineering and cosmetic fields, is a

  13. The use of allodermis prepared from Euro skin bank to prepare autologous tissue engineered skin for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, P; Ralston, D R; MacNeil, S

    2013-09-01

    Over the past two decades a range of 3D models for human skin have been described. Some include native collagen and intrinsic basement membrane proteins and fibroblasts, others are based on xenogeneic collagen or synthetic supports often without fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to look at the influence of media calcium, basement membrane and fibroblasts on the quality of 3D tissue engineered skin produced using human de-epidermized acellular dermis. In this study we deliberately used Euro skin as the source of the donor dermis to examine to what extent this could provide an effective dermal substrate for producing 3D skin for clinical use. Keratinocytes were cultured in the presence and absence of fibroblasts and both with and without basement membrane on decellularized dermis at calcium concentrations ranging from 250μM to 1.6mM over a period of 14 days. Results showed the formation of a well attached epithelium with many of the features of normal skin in the presence of a basement membrane. This was largely independent of the presence of fibroblasts and not greatly influenced by the concentration of calcium in the media. However there was a clear requirement for physiological levels of calcium in the formation of a stratified epithelium in the absence of a basement membrane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  15. The Emergence of Physiology and Form: Natural Selection Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural Selection describes how species have evolved differentially, but it is descriptive, non-mechanistic. What mechanisms does Nature use to accomplish this feat? One known way in which ancient natural forces affect development, phylogeny and physiology is through gravitational effects that have evolved as mechanotransduction, seen in the lung, kidney and bone, linking as molecular homologies to skin and brain. Tracing the ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes that have facilitated mechanotransduction identifies specific homologous cell-types and functional molecular markers for lung homeostasis that reveal how and why complex physiologic traits have evolved from the unicellular to the multicellular state. Such data are reinforced by their reverse-evolutionary patterns in chronic degenerative diseases. The physiologic responses of model organisms like Dictyostelium and yeast to gravity provide deep comparative molecular phenotypic homologies, revealing mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as the final common pathway for vertical integration of vertebrate physiologic evolution; mTOR integrates calcium/lipid epistatic balance as both the proximate and ultimate positive selection pressure for vertebrate physiologic evolution. The commonality of all vertebrate structure-function relationships can be reduced to calcium/lipid homeostatic regulation as the fractal unit of vertebrate physiology, demonstrating the primacy of the unicellular state as the fundament of physiologic evolution. PMID:27534726

  16. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity in young and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-05-01

    In order to compare the physiological and the subjective responses to low relative humidity of elderly and young men, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, hydration state of the skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum level recovery and skin temperatures as physiological responses. We asked subjects to evaluate thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Eight non-smoking healthy male students (21.7+/-0.8 yr) and eight non-smoking healthy elderly men (71.1+/-4.1 yr) were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test-room conditions were adjusted to provide 25 degrees C Ta and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%. RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland or change of mean skin temperature. SCT of the elderly group under 10% RH was significantly longer than that of the young group. In particular, considering the SCT change, the nasal mucous membrane seems to be affected more in the elderly than in the young in low RH. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain greater than 30% RH, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain greater than 10% RH. On the thermal sensation of the legs, at the lower humidity level, the elderly group felt cooler than the young group. On the dry sensation of the eyes and throat, the young group felt drier than the elderly group at the lower humidity levels. From the above results, the elderly group had difficulty in feeling dryness in the nasal mucous membrane despite being easily affected by low humidity. On the other hand, the young group felt the change of humidity sensitively despite not being severely affected by low humidity. Ocular mucosa and

  17. Annotation and prediction of stress and workload from physiological and inertial signals.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arindam; Danieli, Morena; Riccardi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Continuous daily stress and high workload can have negative effects on individuals' physical and mental well-being. It has been shown that physiological signals may support the prediction of stress and workload. However, previous research is limited by the low diversity of signals concurring to such predictive tasks and controlled experimental design. In this paper we present 1) a pipeline for continuous and real-life acquisition of physiological and inertial signals 2) a mobile agent application for on-the-go event annotation and 3) an end-to-end signal processing and classification system for stress and workload from diverse signal streams. We study physiological signals such as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Skin Temperature (ST), Inter Beat Interval (IBI) and Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) collected using a non-invasive wearable device; and inertial signals collected from accelerometer and gyroscope sensors. We combine them with subjects' inputs (e.g. event tagging) acquired using the agent application, and their emotion regulation scores. In our experiments we explore signal combination and selection techniques for stress and workload prediction from subjects whose signals have been recorded continuously during their daily life. The end-to-end classification system is described for feature extraction, signal artifact removal, and classification. We show that a combination of physiological, inertial and user event signals provides accurate prediction of stress for real-life users and signals.

  18. Development of a Perfusion Platform for Dynamic Cultivation of in vitro Skin Models.

    PubMed

    Strüver, Kay; Friess, Wolfgang; Hedtrich, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructed skin models are suitable test systems for toxicity testing and for basic investigations on (patho-)physiological aspects of human skin. Reconstructed human skin, however, has clear limitations such as the lack of immune cells and a significantly weaker skin barrier function compared to native human skin. Potential reasons for the latter might be the lack of mechanical forces during skin model cultivation which is performed classically in static well-plate setups. Mechanical forces and shear stress have a major impact on tissue formation and, hence, tissue engineering. In the present work, a perfusion platform was developed allowing dynamic cultivation of in vitro skin models. The platform was designed to cultivate reconstructed skin at the air-liquid interface with a laminar and continuous medium flow below the dermis equivalent. Histological investigations confirmed the formation of a significantly thicker stratum corneum compared to the control cultivated under static conditions. Moreover, the skin differentiation markers involucrin and filaggrin as well as the tight junction proteins claudin 1 and occludin showed increased expression in the dynamically cultured skin models. Unexpectedly, despite improved differentiation, the skin barrier function of the dynamically cultivated skin models was not enhanced compared with the skin models cultivated under static conditions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Generation of Genetically Modified Organotypic Skin Cultures Using Devitalized Human Dermis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingting; Sen, George L

    2015-12-14

    Organotypic cultures allow the reconstitution of a 3D environment critical for cell-cell contact and cell-matrix interactions which mimics the function and physiology of their in vivo tissue counterparts. This is exemplified by organotypic skin cultures which faithfully recapitulates the epidermal differentiation and stratification program. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes are genetically manipulable through retroviruses where genes can be easily overexpressed or knocked down. These genetically modified keratinocytes can then be used to regenerate human epidermis in organotypic skin cultures providing a powerful model to study genetic pathways impacting epidermal growth, differentiation, and disease progression. The protocols presented here describe methods to prepare devitalized human dermis as well as to genetically manipulate primary human keratinocytes in order to generate organotypic skin cultures. Regenerated human skin can be used in downstream applications such as gene expression profiling, immunostaining, and chromatin immunoprecipitations followed by high throughput sequencing. Thus, generation of these genetically modified organotypic skin cultures will allow the determination of genes that are critical for maintaining skin homeostasis.

  20. Smart Garment Fabrics to Enable Non-Contact Opto-Physiological Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, Dmitry; Hu, Sijung; Hassan, Harnani; Dwyer, Vincent; Ashayer-Soltani, Roya; Hunt, Chris; Shen, Jinsong

    2018-03-29

    Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is an emerging technology used to assess microcirculation and cardiovascular signs by collecting backscattered light from illuminated tissue using optical imaging sensors. The aim of this study was to study how effective smart garment fabrics could be capturing physiological signs in a non-contact mode. The present work demonstrates a feasible approach of, instead of using conventional high-power illumination sources, integrating a grid of surface-mounted light emitting diodes (LEDs) into cotton fabric to spotlight the region of interest (ROI). The green and the red LEDs (525 and 660 nm) placed on a small cotton substrate were used to locally illuminate palm skin in a dual-wavelength iPPG setup, where the backscattered light is transmitted to a remote image sensor through the garment fabric. The results show that the illuminations from both wavelength LEDs can be used to extract heart rate (HR) reaching an accuracy of 90% compared to a contact PPG probe. Stretching the fabric over the skin surface alters the morphology of iPPG signals, demonstrating a significantly higher pulsatile amplitude in both channels of green and red illuminations. The skin compression by the fabric could be potentially utilised to enhance the penetration of illumination into cutaneous microvascular beds. The outcome could lead a new avenue of non-contact opto-physiological monitoring and assessment with functional garment fabrics.

  1. Early skin-to-skin contact or incubator for very preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Laila; Støen, Ragnhild; Rygh, Hilde; Sognnæs, Margunn; Follestad, Turid; Mohn, Hilde S; Nissen, Ingrid; Bergseng, Håkon

    2016-12-12

    Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of skin-to-skin care in the delivery room for very preterm infants born at gestational age 28 0 -31 6 weeks with birth weight >1000 grams. Infants with severe congenital malformations or need of intubation in the delivery room are excluded. A detailed checklist and a flowchart were prepared for the study, and all involved professionals (neonatologists, neonatal nurses, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, midwives) participated in medical simulation training prior to study start on February 1, 2014. A consultant in neonatology and a neonatal nurse are present at all deliveries. Infants with birth weight <1500 grams receive an intravenous line with glucose, amino acids, and caffeine citrate in the delivery room. Infants with gestational age <30 weeks are routinely put on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). After initial stabilization, infants are randomized to skin-to-skin care or are transferred to the nursery in an incubator. Primary outcome is cognitive development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Secondary outcomes are safety defined as hypothermia, respiratory failure, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, physiological stability after birth and motor, language and cognitive development at 1 year for the child, and mental health measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at discharge, and at 3 months and 2

  2. Using Copper to Improve the Well-Being of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Borkow, Gadi

    2014-01-01

    Copper has two key properties that are being exploited in consumer and medical device products in the last decade. On the one hand, copper has potent biocidal properties. On the other hand, copper is involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes critical for the appropriate functioning of almost all tissues in the human body. In the skin, copper is involved in the synthesis and stabilization of extracellular matrix skin proteins and angiogenesis. This manuscript reviews clinical studies that show that the use of textile consumer and medical device products, embedded with microscopic copper oxide particles, improve the well-being of the skin. These include studies showing a) cure of athlete’s foot infections and improvement in skin elasticity, especially important for individuals suffering from diabetes; b) reduction of facial fine line and wrinkles; and c) enhancement of wound healing; by copper oxide embedded socks, pillowcases and wound dressings, respectively. The manuscript also reviews and discusses the mechanisms by which the presence of copper in these products improves skin well-being. PMID:26361585

  3. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Behnaz, Alex; Zhang, Yihui; Yu, Ki Jun; Cheng, Huanyu; Shi, Mingxing; Bian, Zuguang; Liu, Zhuangjian; Kim, Yun-Soung; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Park, Jae Suk; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Rogers, John A.

    2013-10-01

    Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples.

  4. Physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Latham, Melissa D; Cook, Nina; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Kettle, Jonathan W L; Schwartz, Orli; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images. Adolescent participants did not exhibit fear-potentiated startle blink. However, they did display affect-consistent zygomatic and corrugator activity during reactivity, as well as inhibition of some of these facial patterns during regulation. Skin conductance demonstrated arousal dependent activity during reactivity, and overall decreases during regulation. These findings suggest that early adolescents display reactivity to valenced pictures, but not to startle probes. Psychophysiological patterns during emotion regulation indicate additional effort and/or attention during the regulation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhibin; Li, Nianping; Cui, Haijiao; Peng, Jinqing; Chen, Haowen; Liu, Penglong

    2017-01-01

    Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments’ conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm) and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC) located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET*) was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*. PMID:28934173

  6. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhibin; Li, Nianping; Cui, Haijiao; Peng, Jinqing; Chen, Haowen; Liu, Penglong

    2017-09-21

    Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments' conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm) and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC) located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET*) was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  7. In vivo skin moisturizing measurement by high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mesrar, J; Ognard, J; Garetier, M; Chechin, D; Misery, L; Ben Salem, D

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rarely used for the exploration of skin, even if studies have validated both feasibility of skin MRI and its interest for anatomical, physiological, and biochemical study of the skin. The purpose of this study is to explore moisturizing of the different skin layers using 3-T scan. An MRI of the heel's skin was performed using a 23 mm coil diameter on a 3T scan with a FFE (Fast Field Echo) 3D T1-weighted sequence and a TSE (Turbo Spin Echo) calculation T2-weighted sequence (pixels size of respectively 60 and 70 μm). This study was conducted on 35 healthy volunteers, who were scanned before applying moisturizer topic and 1 h after applying it. Region of interest in the stratum corneum, the epidermis and the dermis were generated on the T2 mapping. The thickness of each layer was measured. The T1 sequence allowed accurate cross-examination repositioning to ensure the comparability of the measurements. Among the 35 cases, two were excluded from the analysis because of movement artifacts. Measurements before and after moisturizer topic application displayed a T2 increase of 48.94% (P < 0.0001) in the stratum corneum and of 5.45% (P < 0.0001) in the epidermis yet without significant difference in the dermis. There was no significant link between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the T2 increase. However, there was a strong correlation between the thickness of the stratum corneum and the thickness of the epidermis (P < 0.001; rhô=0.72). High-resolution MRI allows fine exploration of anatomical and physiological properties of the skin and can further be used to extend the studies of skin hydration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A first vascularized skin equivalent as an alternative to animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Groeber, Florian; Engelhardt, Lisa; Lange, Julia; Kurdyn, Szymon; Schmid, Freia F; Rücker, Christoph; Mielke, Stephan; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents mimic key aspects of the human skin, and can thus be employed as wound coverage for large skin defects or as in vitro test systems as an alternative to animal models. However, current skin equivalents lack a functional vasculature limiting clinical and research applications. This study demonstrates the generation of a vascularized skin equivalent with a perfused vascular network by combining a biological vascularized scaffold (BioVaSc) based on a decellularized segment of a porcine jejunum and a tailored bioreactor system. Briefly, the BioVaSc was seeded with human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and human microvascular endothelial cells. After 14 days at the air-liquid interface, hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistological staining revealed a specific histological architecture representative of the human dermis and epidermis including a papillary-like architecture at the dermal-epidermal-junction. The formation of the skin barrier was measured non-destructively using impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, endothelial cells lined the walls of the formed vessels that could be perfused with a physiological volume flow. Due to the presence of a complex in-vivo-like vasculature, the here shown skin equivalent has the potential for skin grafting and represents a sophisticated in vitro model for dermatological research.

  9. The importance of optical methods for non-invasive measurements in the skin care industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2010-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are concerned with treating skin disease, as well as maintaining and promoting skin health. They are dealing with a unique tissue that defines our body in space. As such, skin provides not only the natural boundary with the environment inhibiting body dehydration as well as penetration of exogenous aggressors to the body, it is also ideally situated for optical measurements. A plurality of spectroscopic and imaging methods is being used to understand skin physiology and pathology and document the effects of topically applied products on the skin. The obvious advantage of such methods over traditional biopsy techniques is the ability to measure the cutaneous tissue in vivo and non-invasively. In this work, we will review such applications of various spectroscopy and imaging methods in skin research that is of interest the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Examples will be given on the importance of optical techniques in acquiring new insights about acne pathogenesis and infant skin development.

  10. Development of a numerical model to predict physiological strain of firefighter in fire hazard.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Yang, Jie; Song, Guowen; Li, Rui; Xiang, Chunhui; Li, Jun

    2018-02-26

    This paper aims to develop a numerical model to predict heat stress of firefighter under low-level thermal radiation. The model integrated a modified multi-layer clothing model with a human thermoregulation model. We took the coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer in the clothing, the size-dependent heat transfer in the air gaps, and the controlling active and controlled passive thermal regulation in human body into consideration. The predicted core temperature and mean skin temperature from the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results. Parametric study was conducted and the result demonstrated that the radiative intensity had a significant influence on the physiological heat strain. The existence of air gap showed positive effect on the physiological heat strain when air gap size is small. However, when the size of air gap exceeds 6 mm, a different trend was observed due to the occurrence of natural convection. Additionally, the time length for the existence of the physiological heat strain was greater than the existence of the skin burn under various heat exposures. The findings obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the physiological strain of firefighter and shed light on textile material engineering for achieving higher protective performance.

  11. The regulatory role of the tetrapeptide AcSDKP in skin and hair physiology and the prevention of ageing effects in these tissues--a potential cosmetic role.

    PubMed

    Hajem, N; Chapelle, A; Bignon, J; Pinault, A; Liu, J-M; Salah-Mohellibi, N; Lati, E; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J

    2013-06-01

    The naturally occurring tetrapeptide acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) recognized as a potent angiogenic factor was shown recently to contribute to the repair of cutaneous injuries. In the current article, we report the ability of AcSDKP to exert a beneficial effect on normal healthy skin and scalp and to compensate for the ageing process. In vitro AcSDKP at 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M significantly stimulates the growth of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts and follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, it enhances the growth of human epidermal keratinocyte progenitor and stem cells as shown in a clonogenic survival assay. Topical treatment of ex vivo cultured skin explants with 10⁻⁵ M AcSDKP increases the thickness of the epidermis and upregulates the synthesis of keratins 14 and 19, fibronectin, collagen III and IV as well as the glycoaminoglycans (GAGs). In the ex vivo-cultured hair follicles, AcSDKP promotes hair shaft elongation and induces morphological and molecular modifications matching the criteria of hair growth. Furthermore, AcSDKP at 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M was shown to improve epidermal barrier, stimulating expression of three protein components of tight junctions (claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1) playing an important role in connecting neighbouring cells. This tetrapeptide exercises also activation of SIRT1 implicated in the control of cell longevity. Indeed, a two-fold increase in the synthesis of SIRT1 by cultured keratinocytes was observed in the presence of 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M AcSDKP. In conclusion, these findings provide convincing evidence of the regulatory role of AcSDKP in skin and hair physiology and suggest a cosmetic use of this natural tetrapeptide to prevent skin ageing and hair loss and to promote the cutaneous regeneration and hair growth. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Estimation of the viscous properties of skin and subcutaneous tissue in uniaxial stress relaxation tests.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Cutlip, Robert G; Welcome, Daniel; Dong, Ren G

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of viscoelastic properties of soft tissues is essential for the finite element modelling of the stress/strain distributions in finger-pad during vibratory loading, which is important in exploring the mechanism of hand-arm vibration syndrome. In conventional procedures, skin and subcutaneous tissue have to be separated for testing the viscoelastic properties. In this study, a novel method has been proposed to simultaneously determine the viscoelastic properties of skin and subcutaneous tissue in uniaxial stress relaxation tests. A mathematical approach has been derived to obtain the creep and relaxation characteristics of skin and subcutaneous tissue using uniaxial stress relaxation data of skin/subcutaneous composite specimens. The micro-structures of collagen fiber networks in the soft tissue, which underline the tissue mechanical characteristics, will be intact in the proposed method. Therefore, the viscoelastic properties of soft tissues obtained using the proposed method would be more physiologically relevant than those obtained using the conventional method. The proposed approach has been utilized to measure the viscoelastic properties of soft tissues of pig. The relaxation curves of pig skin and subcutaneous tissue obtained in the current study agree well with those in literature. Using the proposed approach, reliable material properties of soft tissues can be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner, which simultaneously improves the physiological relevance.

  13. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Webb, R. Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Behnaz, Alex; Zhang, Yihui; Yu, Ki Jun; Cheng, Huanyu; Shi, Mingxing; Bian, Zuguang; Liu, Zhuangjian; Kim, Yun-Soung; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Park, Jae Suk; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Rogers, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples. PMID:24037122

  14. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  15. Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Callum

    2015-06-01

    The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Growing skin: Tissue expansion in pediatric forehead reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zollner, Alexander M.; Buganza Tepole, Adrian; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Tissue expansion is a common surgical procedure to grow extra skin through controlled mechanical over-stretch. It creates skin that matches the color, texture, and thickness of the surrounding tissue, while minimizing scars and risk of rejection. Despite intense research in tissue expansion and skin growth, there is a clear knowledge gap between heuristic observation and mechanistic understanding of the key phenomena that drive the growth process. Here, we show that a continuum mechanics approach, embedded in a custom-designed finite element model, informed by medical imaging, provides valuable insight into the biomechanics of skin growth. In particular, we model skin growth using the concept of an incompatible growth configuration. We characterize its evolution in time using a second-order growth tensor parameterized in terms of a scalar-valued internal variable, the in-plane area growth. When stretched beyond the physiological level, new skin is created, and the in-plane area growth increases. For the first time, we simulate tissue expansion on a patient-specific geometric model, and predict stress, strain, and area gain at three expanded locations in a pediatric skull: in the scalp, in the forehead, and in the cheek. Our results may help the surgeon to prevent tissue over-stretch and make informed decisions about expander geometry, size, placement, and inflation. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in reconstructive surgery, and enhance treatment for patients with birth defects, burn injuries, or breast tumor removal. PMID:22052000

  17. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser].

    PubMed

    D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Malvestio, A; Rosani, R; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G; Filon, F Larese

    2007-01-01

    Occupational chromium dermatitis occurs frequently among cement and metal workers, workers dealing with leather tanning and employees in the ceramic industry. The present study, using an in-vitro system, evaluated percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and a suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat was used as donor phase. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using the cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. The amount of chromium permeated through the skin was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. We calculated a permeation flux of 0.843 +/- 0.25 ng cm(-2) h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1 +/- 0.7 h. The cleaning procedure significantly increased chromium skin content, whereas skin passage was not increased. These results showed that chromium powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination did not decrease skin absorption. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic agents.

  18. Recent use of medical infrared thermography in skin neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, C; Vardasca, R; Mendes, J

    2018-03-25

    Infrared thermal imaging captures the infrared radiation emitted by the skin surface. The thermograms contain valuable information, since the temperature distribution can be used to characterize physiological anomalies. Thus, the use of infrared thermal imaging (IRT) has been studied as a possible medical tool to aid in the diagnosis of skin oncological lesions. The aim of this review is to assess the current state of the applications of IRT in skin neoplasm identification and characterization. A literature survey was conducted using the reference bibliographic databases: Scopus, PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Keywords (thermography, infrared imaging, thermal imaging and skin cancer) were combined and its presence was verified at the title and abstract of the article or as a main topic. Only articles published after 2013 were considered during this search. In total, 55 articles were encountered, resulting in 14 publications for revision after applying the exclusion criteria. It was denoted that IRT have been used to characterize and distinguish between malignant and benign neoplasms and different skin cancer types. IRT has also been successfully applied in the treatment evaluation of these types of lesions. Trends and future challenges have been established to improve the application of IRT in this field, disclosing that dynamic thermography is a promising tool for early identification of oncological skin conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kainuma, Shigeto; Umeda, Sakurako; Makuuchi, Ayako; Fukumoto, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Kamata, Noriko; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hiura, Yoshikazu; Morimura, Mina; Shuto, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity. PMID:28717080

  20. Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kainuma, Shigeto; Umeda, Sakurako; Makuuchi, Ayako; Fukumoto, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Isaka, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Kamata, Noriko; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hiura, Yoshikazu; Morimura, Mina; Shuto, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity.

  1. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Rain influences the physiological and metabolic responses to exercise in hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Eiko; Matsumoto, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor exercise often proceeds in rainy conditions. However, the cooling effects of rain on human physiological responses have not been systematically studied in hot conditions. The present study determined physiological and metabolic responses using a climatic chamber that can precisely simulate hot, rainy conditions. Eleven healthy men ran on a treadmill at an intensity of 70% VO2max for 30 min in the climatic chamber at an ambient temperature of 33°C in the presence (RAIN) or absence (CON) of 30 mm · h(-1) of precipitation and a headwind equal to the running velocity of 3.15 ± 0.19 m · s(-1). Oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, blood parameters, volume of expired air and sweat loss were measured. Oesophageal and mean skin temperatures were significantly lower from 5 to 30 min, and heart rate was significantly lower from 20 to 30 min in RAIN than in CON (P < 0.05 for all). Plasma lactate and epinephrine concentrations (30 min) and sweat loss were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in RAIN compared with CON. Rain appears to influence physiological and metabolic responses to exercise in heat such that heat-induced strain might be reduced.

  3. Establishment, characterization and immortalization of a fibroblast cell line from the Chinese red belly toad Bombina maxima skin.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Gao, Qian; Su, Weiting; Zeng, Lin; Wang, Jinhuan; Hu, Yi; Nie, Wenhui; Ma, Xutong; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The skin of the amphibian Bombina maxima is rich in biologically active proteins and peptides, most of which have mammalian analogues. The physiological functions of most of the mammalian analogues are still unknown. Thus, Bombina maxima skin may be a promising model to reveal the physiological role of these proteins and peptides because of their large capacity for secretion. To investigate the physiological role of these proteins and peptides in vitro, a fibroblast cell line was successfully established from Bombina maxima tadpole skin. The cell line grew to form a monolayer with cells of a uniform shape and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are typical characteristics of fibroblasts. Further identification at a molecular level revealed that they strongly expressed the fibroblast marker protein vimentin. The chromosome number of these cells is 2n = 28, and most of them were diploid. Growth property analysis showed that they grew well for 14 passages. However, cells showed decreased proliferative ability after passage 15. Thus, we tried to immortalize the cells through the overexpression of SV40 T antigen. After selecting by G418, cells stably expressed SV40 large T antigen and showed enhanced proliferative ability and increased telomerase activity. Signal transduction analysis revealed functional p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in immortalized Bombina maxima dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblast cells and the immortalized fibroblast cells from Bombina maxima cultured in the present study can be used to investigate the physiological role of Bombina maxima skin-secreted proteins and peptides. In addition, the methods for primary cell culturing and cell immortalization will be useful for culturing and immortalizing cells from other types of amphibians.

  4. Construction of 3D multicellular microfluidic chip for an in vitro skin model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sojin; Jin, Seon-Pil; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Sung, Gun Yong; Chung, Jin Ho; Sung, Jong Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Current in vitro skin models do not recapitulate the complex architecture and functions of the skin tissue. In particular, on-chip construction of an in vitro model comprising the epidermis and dermis layer with vascular structure for mass transport has not been reported yet. In this study, we aim to develop a microfluidic, three-dimensional (3D) skin chip with fluidic channels using PDMS and hydrogels. Mass transport within the collagen hydrogel matrix was verified with fluorescent model molecules, and a transport-reaction model of oxygen and glucose inside the skin chip was developed to aid the design of the microfluidic skin chip. Comparison of viabilities of dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cultured in the chip with various culture conditions revealed that the presence of flow plays a crucial role in maintaining the viability, and both cells were viable after 10 days of air exposure culture. Our 3D skin chip with vascular structures can be a valuable in vitro model for reproducing the interaction between different components of the skin tissue, and thus work as a more physiologically realistic platform for testing skin reaction to cosmetic products and drugs.

  5. The effects of self-induced mood states on behavior and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Matheny, K B; Blue, F R

    1977-10-01

    The effects of reading emotionally loaded statements on behavioral tasks and physiological measures were investigated. Statements were constructed to arouse elation, depression, or neutrality. Ss were both pre- and posttested on Writing Speed, Reaction Time, Decision Time, and Spontaneous Verbalizations. Base rates were obtained for heart rate and galvanic skin response. Elation Ss significantly outperformed both Neutral and Depression Ss on the Reaction Time task. Scores for Neutral Ss fell between those of Elation and Depression Ss on three of the four behavioral measures. No significant differneces were found on the physiological measures.

  6. Outdoor thermal physiology along human pathways: a study using a wearable measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu; Shi, Rui; de Dear, Richard

    2015-05-01

    An outdoor summer study on thermal physiology along subjects' pathways was conducted in a Japanese city using a unique wearable measurement system that measures all the relevant thermal variables: ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed ( U) and short/long-wave radiation ( S and L), along with some physio-psychological parameters: skin temperature ( T skin), pulse rate, subjective thermal sensation and state of body motion. U, S and L were measured using a globe anemo-radiometer adapted use with pedestrian subjects. The subjects were 26 healthy Japanese adults (14 males, 12 females) ranging from 23 to 74 years in age. Each subject wore a set of instruments that recorded individual microclimate and physiological responses along a designated pedestrian route that traversed various urban textures. The subjects experienced varying thermal environments that could not be represented by fixed-point routine observational data. S fluctuated significantly reflecting the mixture of sunlit/shade distributions within complex urban morphology. U was generally low within urban canyons due to drag by urban obstacles such as buildings but the subjects' movements enhanced convective heat exchanges with the atmosphere, leading to a drop in T skin. The amount of sweating increased as standard effective temperature (SET*) increased. A clear dependence of sweating on gender and body size was found; males sweated more than females; overweight subjects sweated more than standard/underweight subjects. T skin had a linear relationship with SET* and a similarly clear dependence on gender and body size differences. T skin of the higher-sweating groups was lower than that of the lower-sweating groups, reflecting differences in evaporative cooling by perspiration.

  7. In vitro 3D full thickness skin equivalent tissue model using silk and collagen biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Evangelia; Seiberg, Miri; Garlick, Jonathan; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches to develop skin equivalents often only include the epidermal and dermal components. Yet, full thickness skin includes the hypodermis, a layer below the dermis of adipose tissue containing vasculature, nerves and fibroblasts, necessary to support the epidermis and dermis. In the present study, we developed a full thickness skin equivalent including an epidermis, dermis and hypodermis that could serve as an in vitro model for studying skin development, disease or as a platform for consumer product testing as a means to avoid animal testing. The full thickness skin equivalent was easy to handle and was maintained in culture for greater than 14 days while expressing physiologically relevant morphologies of both the epidermis and dermis, as seen by keratin 10, collagen I and collagen IV expression. The skin equivalent produced glycerol and leptin, markers of adipose tissue metabolism. This work serves as a foundation for our understanding of some of the necessary factors needed to develop a stable, functional model of full-thickness skin. PMID:23161763

  8. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Chad Webb, R.; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or ‘epidermal’, photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  9. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Webb, R Chad; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-19

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  10. Skin corrosion test: a comparison between reconstructed human epidermis and full thickness skin models.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Carolina Motter; do Nascimento Pedrosa, Tatiana; Pennacchi, Paula Comune; de Assis, Silvia Romano; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; de Moraes Barros, Silvia Berlanga; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2018-04-01

    Currently, there is a strong global trend towards the development of in vitro models to replace the use of animals in safety evaluation tests. Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) models have been employed as an alternative method to animal testing of skin corrosion and irritation potential of chemical compounds. However, the consequences of an absence of the dermal compartment in these models should be considered since the cross-talk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is fundamental for promoting proper epidermal stratification, homeostasis, inflammatory response and wound healing. In this study, we compare in-house developed models of Reconstructed Human Epidermis (i.e. USP-RHE) and full thickness skin (i.e. USP-FTS) regarding their response when submitted to skin corrosion assays, based on Guideline 431 (OECD). The results show that both models correctly classified the four substances tested (2-phenylethyl bromide, benzylacetone, lactic acid, octanoic acid) as corrosive or non-corrosive. Furthermore, we have demonstrated higher cell viability of the USP-FTS model compared to the USP-RHE model, a sign of its improved barrier function, following the exposure to the substances test on the corrosion assay. This emphasizes the importance of employing in vitro models that are more physiologically relevant and that better mimic the in vivo situation for the toxicological screening of substances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermoregulatory responses to skin wetting during prolonged treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Bassett, D R; Nagle, F J; Mookerjee, S; Darr, K C; Ng, A V; Voss, S G; Napp, J P

    1987-02-01

    We examined the physiological responses to skin wetting during a 120-min level treadmill run to assess whether skin wetting would reduce the dehydration and the increase in core temperature associated with prolonged exercise. Testing was conducted in an environmental chamber (T = 29.5 degrees C, wind velocity = 3 m X sec-1) under two different humidity conditions (33 or 66% relative humidity). Ten male subjects performed two runs in each humidity condition; one served as a control run. The other included spraying the body with 50 ml of water (T = 29.5 degrees C) every 10 min. Spraying had no effect on rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate, oxygen consumption, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or percent change in plasma volume in both the humid and the dry conditions. Spraying produced a significant reduction in mean skin temperature (Tsk), which increased the (Tre - Tsk) gradient. At the same time, overall skin conductance (K) was decreased, presumably as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the low Tsk. Since heat transfer from the body's core to the skin is expressed by the equation: heat transfer = K X (Tre - Tsk) the spraying had no effect on heat transfer away from the core, and Tre remained unchanged.

  12. Topical effectiveness of a cosmetic skincare treatment for acne-prone skin: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bartenjev, Igor; Oremović, Lenka; Rogl Butina, Mirjam; Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Bouloc, Anne; Voda, Karmen; Šitum, Mirna

    2011-06-01

    Physiological acne is a milder form of clinical acne and is very frequent in adult women (18 years of age and older). Acne therapy is usually unnecessary in such cases, and so appropriate cosmetic treatments are sought. To determine the effectiveness of a topical cosmetic hydrating skincare treatment for adult acne-prone skin (Normaderm, Vichy, France) against the clinical signs of physiological acne: few inflammatory and retentional lesions, uneven (grainy) skin relief, dilated pores, and occasional and/or local hyperseborrhea. Within the study, the tested product's keratolytic, antimicrobial, and antiseborrheic properties, and its overall ability to improve the clinical signs of physiological acne present in adult subjects were evaluated through objective and clinical evaluation methods by the investigators and through self-evaluation questionnaires by the subjects themselves. The study group was composed of 50 adult women between 18 and 35 years of age with combination or oily acne-prone skin, who were chosen according to previously defined inclusion criteria. They applied the product tested twice daily on thoroughly cleansed skin for a period of 2 months. The results were evaluated after 30 (±2) and 60 (±2) days. The number of inflammatory and retentional lesions on the forehead, cheeks, and chin decreased after 60 days of use (an average of 30.7% and 70.7%, respectively). The level of sebum secretion on the forehead decreased by 33.4% and the level of skin scaling decreased by 38.5% after 60 days of use. The moisture content in the horny layer on the forehead, cheeks, and chin increased by an average 39.7%. The decrease in pore size and content after 60 days of use was very noticeable. The subjects evaluated all the studied characteristics of the product tested very positively, with results already showing after 30 days of use. The results of the study confirm that the product tested is suitable for the cosmetic care of adult acne-prone skin, either as an

  13. High-resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Ekman, Drew R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to control water or treated wastewater effluent at 5, 20, and 100% levels for 21 d, using an on-site, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. Both sex-specific and non-sex-specific responses were observed in the mucus metabolome, the latter suggesting the induction of general compensatory pathways for xenobiotic exposures. Altogether, 85 statistically significant treatment-dependent metabolite changes were observed out of the 310 total endogenous metabolites that were detected (156 of the 310 were annotated). Partial least squares-regression models revealed strong covariances between the mucus metabolomes and up-regulated hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts reported previously for these same fish. These regression models suggest that mucus metabolomic changes reflected, in part, processes by which the fish biotransformed xenobiotics in the effluent. In keeping with this observation, we detected a phase II transformation product of bisphenol A in the skin mucus of male fish. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the utility of mucus as a minimally invasive matrix for simultaneously assessing exposures and effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:788-796. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  14. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  15. [Effect of a synthetic detergent (Syndet) on the pH of the skin of infants].

    PubMed

    Braun, F; Lachmann, D; Zweymüller, E

    1986-06-01

    The long- and short-term effects on the skin of infants of a synthetic detergent (syndet) with an acid pH were investigated and compared to ordinary soap. The short-term effect was determined by measuring the skin pH on different parts of the body before and 20 min after washing with syndet. The long-term effect was tested in a second group, in which the infants were washed either with ordinary soap or with syndet for 3 days. The skin pH was measured 4-5 h after washing. The results were evaluated statistically. The results show that for a short time syndet displaces the skin pH towards acid pH in younger infants; however, the skin pH is not influenced in older infants. Syndet keeps the skin pH in the physiological range for a longer time after washing than ordinary soap.

  16. Three-dimensional multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy reveals melanin and blood oxygenation in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Mathias; Buehler, Andreas; Aguirre, Juan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging plays a major role in disease detection in dermatology. However, current optical methods are limited by lack of three-dimensional detection of pathophysiological parameters within skin. It was recently shown that single-wavelength optoacoustic (photoacoustic) mesoscopy resolves skin morphology, i.e. melanin and blood vessels within epidermis and dermis. In this work we employed illumination at multiple wavelengths for enabling three-dimensional multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) of natural chromophores in human skin in vivo operating at 15-125 MHz. We employ a per-pulse tunable laser to inherently co-register spectral datasets, and reveal previously undisclosed insights of melanin, and blood oxygenation in human skin. We further reveal broadband absorption spectra of specific skin compartments. We discuss the potential of MSOM for label-free visualization of physiological biomarkers in skin in vivo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Changes in biophysical properties of the skin following radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Hou, Ming-Feng; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Chiang, Wenchang; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common adverse effect in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effects of radiotherapy on biophysical properties of the skin have rarely been investigated. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to determine the effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer on skin biophysical parameters. We measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, pH, sebum level, pigmentation, and blood flow) in 144 breast cancer patients by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. The measurements were simultaneously performed on the irradiated breast and the corresponding contralateral unirradiated breast for comparison. Following radiotherapy, the irradiated breast showed a significant decrease in skin hydration, increase in skin pH, increase in pigmentation, and increase in cutaneous blood flow. The contralateral unirradiated breast showed a slight increase in pigmentation but no significant changes in any of the other biophysical parameters after radiotherapy. No significant associations were found between patient characteristics (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy) and changes in skin biophysical parameters following radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy for breast cancer induces measurable and significant changes in biophysical properties of the skin including hydration, pH, pigmentation, and blood flow. These findings give us a greater understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on skin physiology, and provide non-invasive and objective methods to assess radiation dermatitis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through the study of asymmetrical facial skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mac-Mary, Sophie; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Jeudy, Adeline; Sladen, Christelle; Williams, Cara; Bell, Mike; Humbert, Philippe

    2010-09-23

    Published studies assessing whether asymmetrical facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology report only clinical observations. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure through a window. Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetrical signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer, mechanical properties with Cutometer, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analysis). Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance. This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.

  19. Optical characterization of murine model's in-vivo skin using Mueller matrix polarimetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, Azael; Martinez-Ponce, Geminiano; Garcia-Torales, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetric imaging (MMPI) provides a complete characterization of an anisotropic optical medium. Subsequent single value decomposition allows image interpretation in terms of basic optical anisotropies, such as depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. In this work, healthy in-vivo skin at different anatomical locations of a biological model (Rattus norvegicus) was imaged by the MMPI technique using 532nm coherent illumination. The body parts under study were back, abdomen, tail, and calvaria. Because skin components are randomly distributed and skin thickness depends on its location, polarization measures arise from the average over a single detection element (pixel) and on the number of free optical paths, respectively. Optical anisotropies over the imaged skin indicates, mainly, the presence of components related to the physiology of the explored region. In addition, a MMPI-based comparison between a tumor on the back of one test subject and proximal healthy skin was made. The results show that the single values of optical anisotropies can be helpful in distinguishing different areas of in-vivo skin and also lesions.

  20. Physiological responses and partisan bias: beyond self-reported measures of party identification.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Giessing, Ann; Nielsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    People are biased partisans: they tend to agree with policies from political parties they identify with, independent of policy content. Here, we investigate how physiological reactions to political parties shape bias. Using changes in galvanic skin conductance responses to the visual presentation of party logos, we obtained an implicit and physiological measure of the affective arousal associated with political parties. Subsequently, we exposed subjects to classical party cue experiments where the party sponsors of specific policies were experimentally varied. We found that partisan bias only obtains among those exhibiting a strong physiological reaction to the party source; being a self-reported party identifier is not sufficient on its own. This suggests that partisan bias is rooted in implicit, affective reactions.

  1. Physiological Responses and Partisan Bias: Beyond Self-Reported Measures of Party Identification

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Giessing, Ann; Nielsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    People are biased partisans: they tend to agree with policies from political parties they identify with, independent of policy content. Here, we investigate how physiological reactions to political parties shape bias. Using changes in galvanic skin conductance responses to the visual presentation of party logos, we obtained an implicit and physiological measure of the affective arousal associated with political parties. Subsequently, we exposed subjects to classical party cue experiments where the party sponsors of specific policies were experimentally varied. We found that partisan bias only obtains among those exhibiting a strong physiological reaction to the party source; being a self-reported party identifier is not sufficient on its own. This suggests that partisan bias is rooted in implicit, affective reactions. PMID:26010527

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy and microscopic imaging: novel approaches for comparing barrier physical properties in native and human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo; Zhang, Guojin; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy and imaging have been used to compare barrier properties in human skin, porcine skin, and two human skin equivalents, Epiderm 200X with an enhanced barrier and Epiderm 200 with a normal barrier. Three structural characterizations were performed. First, chain packing and conformational order were compared in isolated human stratum corneum (SC), isolated porcine SC, and in the Epiderm 200X surface layers. The infrared (IR) spectrum of isolated human SC revealed a large proportion of orthorhombically packed lipid chains at physiological temperatures along with a thermotropic phase transition to a state with hexagonally packed chains. In contrast, the lipid phase at physiological temperatures in both porcine SC and in Epiderm 200X, although dominated by conformationally ordered chains, lacked significant levels of orthorhombic subcell packing. Second, confocal Raman imaging of cholesterol bands showed extensive formation of cholesterol-enriched pockets within the human skin equivalents (HSEs). Finally, IR imaging tracked lipid barrier dimensions as well as the spatial disposition of ordered lipids in human SC and Epiderm 200X. These approaches provide a useful set of experiments for exploring structural differences between excised human skin and HSEs, which in turn may provide a rationale for the functional differences observed among these preparations.

  3. Skin care practice in German nursing homes: a German-wide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan; Rahn, Yasmin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lahmann, Nils

    2013-04-01

    Due to anatomical and physiological changes in the course of aging and due to increased vulnerability, there are special skin care needs in elderly and care-dependent persons. Little is known about skin care practice in German long-term care facilities. The aim of the study was to gather epidemiological data about skin care practice in German nursing homes. In spring 2012 a German-wide cross sectional study was conducted in 47 nursing homes. Based on standardized data collection sheets. demographics and variables about methods and frequencies of skin cleansing and application of skin care products for 3 552 nursing home residents were collected and analyzed. The variables age, gender and level of care dependency was representative for the group of all German nursing home residents. More than 90% of investigated nursing home residents required skin care assistance. Washing body parts or the whole body were conducted most frequently (89.1%, 95% CI 88.0- 90.1). Skin care leave-on products were used in 91.7% (95% CI 90.7-92.6), whereas there were large variations between individuals. In total, more than 100 brands were used. Skin care practice in multimorbid care dependent persons shows large variations. How skin care products meet the special requirements of aged skin and whether they enhance the skin barrier function and prevent cuteneous skin damage is unknown. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  4. Skin problems in immunodeficient patients.

    PubMed

    Itin, Peter H; Battegay, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The most important function of the skin besides social communication is active protection against mechanical, chemical and microbial threat. The epidermis has biochemical, physical, immunological and anti-infective properties, and is the most important shield against aggressors. Chronic immunosuppression impairs this cutaneous quality and therefore numerous mucocutaneous complications can occur. The physiological colonization of commensal microbes helps to limit the expansion of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi by a continuous release of antimicrobial peptides from keratinocytes. Genetic or acquired immunodeficiency influences these factors. Malignant neoplastic diseases such as leukemia or lymphomas can also lead to severe immunodeficiency. Drug-induced immunodeficiency is common in organ-transplanted patients with the aim to prevent organ rejection. Such patients with prolonged immunodeficiency often develop atypical presentations of mucocutaneous infections. This is the reason why such patients should be biopsied liberally. In addition to the conventional histology, a part of the biopsy should be used for microbiological cultures. Long-term complications of oncogenic viruses have to be considered leading to epithelial cancers (HPV), Kaposi sarcomas (HHV8), lymphomas (EBV) and Merkel cell tumor (polyomavirus) apart from more known acute infections of the skin. Important mucocutaneous markers of immunosuppression such as oral hairy leukoplakia, oral candidiasis and eczema molluscatum exist. This work reviews the pathophysiology of skin protection and describes typical mucocutaneous problems in immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W; Reeder, Nancy L; Reilman, Raymond A; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64) with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741) were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  6. Seeking better topical delivery technologies of moisturizing agents for enhanced skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Kim, Jeong Tae; Barua, Sonia; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Kyung Bin; Lee, Jaehwi

    2018-01-01

    An adequate hydration level is essential to maintain epidermal barrier functions and normal physiological activities of skin tissues. Diverse moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical formulations for dermal deliveries have thus extensively been investigated. This review comprehensively discusses scientific outcomes of moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical vehicles for skin moisturization, thereby providing insight into designing innovative pharmaceutical formulations for effective skin moisturization. Areas covered: We discussed the functions of various moisturizing agents ranging from conventional creams to novel moisturizers which has recently been explored. In addition, novel pharmaceutical formulations for efficient dermal delivery of the moisturizers, in particular, nanocarriers, were discussed along with their uses in commercial products. Expert opinion: Although various moisturizing agents have demonstrated their promising effects, exploitation of pharmaceutical formulations for their dermal delivery have been limited to few commonly used moisturizing agents. Thus, combinatorial investigation of novel moisturizers and pharmaceutical vehicles should be further conducted. As a new concept for improving skin moisturization, skin regeneration technologies using therapeutic cells have recently shown great promise for skin moisturization, but major challenges remain, such as efficient delivery and prolonged survival of such cells. Thus, novel approaches for improving skin moisturization require continuous efforts of pharmaceutical scientists to address the remaining problems.

  7. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  8. Design and Fabrication of Human Skin by Three-Dimensional Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P.; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air–liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases. PMID:24188635

  9. Design and fabrication of human skin by three-dimensional bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian; Singh, Gurtej; Trasatti, John P; Bjornsson, Chris; Xu, Xiawei; Tran, Thanh Nga; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Karande, Pankaj

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, a flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complex living architectures, is a novel approach for the design and engineering of human organs and tissues. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 3D bioprinting for tissue engineering using human skin as a prototypical example. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were used as constituent cells to represent the epidermis and dermis, and collagen was used to represent the dermal matrix of the skin. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize printing parameters for maximum cell viability as well as for the optimization of cell densities in the epidermis and dermis to mimic physiologically relevant attributes of human skin. Printed 3D constructs were cultured in submerged media conditions followed by exposure of the epidermal layer to the air-liquid interface to promote maturation and stratification. Histology and immunofluorescence characterization demonstrated that 3D printed skin tissue was morphologically and biologically representative of in vivo human skin tissue. In comparison with traditional methods for skin engineering, 3D bioprinting offers several advantages in terms of shape- and form retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. It has a broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulation discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous grafts for wound healing. The proof-of-concept studies presented here can be further extended for enhancing the complexity of the skin model via the incorporation of secondary and adnexal structures or the inclusion of diseased cells to serve as a model for studying the pathophysiology of skin diseases.

  10. Growth on demand: Reviewing the mechanobiology of stretched skin

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Holland, Maria A.; Honda, Kord S.; Gosain, Arun K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Skin is a highly dynamic, autoregulated, living system that responds to mechanical stretch through a net gain in skin surface area. Tissue expansion uses the concept of controlled overstretch to grow extra skin for defect repair in situ. While the short-term mechanics of stretched skin have been studied intensely by testing explanted tissue samples ex vivo, we know very little about the long-term biomechanics and mechanobiology of living skin in vivo. redHere we explore the long-term effects of mechanical stretch on the characteristics of living skin using a mathematical model for skin growth. We review the molecular mechanisms by which skin responds to mechanical loading and model their effects collectively in a single scalar-valued internal variable, the surface area growth. redThis allows us to adopt a continuum model for growing skin based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a reversible elastic and an irreversible growth part.redTo demonstrate the inherent modularity of this approach, we implement growth as a user-defined constitutive subroutine into the general purpose implicit finite element program Abaqus/Standard. To illustrate the features of the model, we simulate the controlled area growth of skin in response to tissue expansion with multiple filling points in time. Our results demonstrate that the field theories of continuum mechanics can reliably predict the manipulation of thin biological membranes through mechanical overstretch. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to rationalize clinical process parameters such as expander geometry, expander size, filling volume, filling pressure, and inflation timing to minimize tissue necrosis and maximize patient comfort in plastic and reconstructive surgery. While initially developed for growing skin, our model can easily be generalized to arbitrary biological structures to explore the physiology and pathology of stretch-induced growth of other living systems such as hearts

  11. Regulation of skin pigmentation and thickness by dickkopf 1 (DKK1)

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Morita, Akimichi; Maeda, Akira; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, not only functions as a head inducer during development, but also regulates joint remodeling and bone formation, which suggests roles for DKK1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple myeloma. We recently demonstrated that levels of DKK1 in palmoplantar dermal fibroblasts are physiologically higher than those observed in non-palmoplantar dermal fibroblasts. Thus, the DKK1-rich mesenchyme in palmoplantar dermis affects the overlying epithelium and induces a palmoplantar phenotype in the epidermis. More specifically, DKK1 suppresses melanocyte function and growth via the regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and β-catenin. Furthermore, DKK1 induces the expression of keratin 9 and α-Kelch-like ECT2 interacting protein (αKLEIP) but down-regulates the expression of β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, protein kinase C and proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in keratinocytes. Treatment of reconstructed skin with DKK1 reproduces the hypopigmentation and thickening of skin via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These studies elucidate why human palmoplantar skin is thicker and paler than non-palmoplantar skin via the secretion of DKK1 by fibroblasts that affect the overlying epidermis. Thus, DKK1 may be useful for reducing skin pigmentation and for thickening photo-aged skin and palmoplantar wounds caused by diabetes mellitus and rheumatic skin diseases. PMID:19675559

  12. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Seo, InSeok; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael D; Kollias, Nikiforos; Ruvolo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Visible light (400-700 nm) lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions.

  13. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Seo, InSeok; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael D.; Kollias, Nikiforos; Ruvolo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Visible light (400–700 nm) lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions. PMID:26121474

  14. Changes in Physiology before, during, and after Yawning

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Timothy P.; Shoup-Knox, Melanie L.; Gordis, Elana B.; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate function of yawning continues to be debated. Here, we examine physiological measurements taken before, during, and after yawns in humans, in an attempt to identify key proximate mechanisms associated with this behavior. In two separate studies we measured changes in heart rate, lung volume, eye closure, skin conductance, ear pulse, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and respiratory rate. Data were depicted from 75 s before and after yawns, and analyzed at baseline, during, and immediately following yawns. Increases in heart rate, lung volume, and eye muscle tension were observed during or immediately following yawning. Patterns of physiological changes during yawning were then compared to data from non-yawning deep inhalations. In one study, respiration period increased following the execution of a yawn. Much of the variance in physiology surrounding yawning was specific to the yawning event. This was not the case for deep inhalation. We consider our findings in light of various hypotheses about the function of yawning and conclude that they are most consistent with the brain cooling hypothesis. PMID:22319494

  15. Skin microdialysis coupled with laser speckle contrast imaging to assess microvascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cracowski, J L; Gaillard-Bigot, F; Cracowski, C; Roustit, M; Millet, C

    2011-11-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) can be used to assess real-time responses of skin microcirculation to pharmacological interventions. The main objective of this study was to determine whether intradermal or subdermal microdialysis fiber insertion, coupled with skin flux recording using LSCI, can be used to assess baseline cutaneous flux and the post-occlusive reactive hyperemic response. The microdialysis sites were compared to control area without microdialysis fibers. One dermal and two subdermal microdialysis fibers were randomly inserted in the right forearm skin of six healthy volunteers. We performed consecutively tests of post-occlusive hyperemia, infusion of 29 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), local thermal hyperemia at 43°C and a second 29 mM SNP infusion at the end of the experiment. Two hours after fiber insertion, cutaneous vascular conductances (CVC) at the subdermal fiber sites were not different from their respective control regions of interest, while at the dermal site CVC remained higher (0.48+/-0.15 versus 0.37+/-0.1 PU.mm Hg(-1), P=0.003). The peak CVC and area under the curve observed during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia were similar at all fiber sites and their respective controls. We observed a similar increase in CVC using 29 mM SNP infusion, 40 min local heating at 43°C, and their combination. Finally, physiological and pharmacological responses of the subdermal sites were reproducible in terms of amplitude, whether expressed as raw CVC or as % CVCmax. We showed that studying skin microvascular physiological or pharmacological responses using inserted subdermal microdialysis fibers coupled with LSCI is feasible and reproducible, and provides two-dimensional information. This technique will be useful for future mechanistic studies of skin microcirculation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human skin pigmentation, migration and disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2012-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation evolved as a compromise between the conflicting physiological demands of protection against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthesis of UVB-dependent vitamin D3. Living under high UVR near the equator, ancestral Homo sapiens had skin rich in protective eumelanin. Dispersals outside of the tropics were associated with positive selection for depigmentation to maximize cutaneous biosynthesis of pre-vitamin D3 under low and highly seasonal UVB conditions. In recent centuries, migrations and high-speed transportation have brought many people into UVR regimes different from those experienced by their ancestors and, accordingly, exposed them to new disease risks. These have been increased by urbanization and changes in diet and lifestyle. Three examples—nutritional rickets, multiple sclerosis (MS) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)—are chosen to illustrate the serious health effects of mismatches between skin pigmentation and UVR. The aetiology of MS in particular provides insight into complex and contingent interactions of genetic and environmental factors necessary to trigger lethal disease states. Low UVB levels and vitamin D deficiencies produced by changes in location and lifestyle pose some of the most serious disease risks of the twenty-first century. PMID:22312045

  17. Identifying and quantifying main components of physiological noise in functional near infrared spectroscopy on the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kirilina, Evgeniya; Yu, Na; Jelzow, Alexander; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Jacobs, Arthur M; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising method to study functional organization of the prefrontal cortex. However, in order to realize the high potential of fNIRS, effective discrimination between physiological noise originating from forehead skin haemodynamic and cerebral signals is required. Main sources of physiological noise are global and local blood flow regulation processes on multiple time scales. The goal of the present study was to identify the main physiological noise contributions in fNIRS forehead signals and to develop a method for physiological de-noising of fNIRS data. To achieve this goal we combined concurrent time-domain fNIRS and peripheral physiology recordings with wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). Depth selectivity was achieved by analyzing moments of photon time-of-flight distributions provided by time-domain fNIRS. Simultaneously, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and skin blood flow (SBF) on the forehead were recorded. WCA was employed to quantify the impact of physiological processes on fNIRS signals separately for different time scales. We identified three main processes contributing to physiological noise in fNIRS signals on the forehead. The first process with the period of about 3 s is induced by respiration. The second process is highly correlated with time lagged MAP and HR fluctuations with a period of about 10 s often referred as Mayer waves. The third process is local regulation of the facial SBF time locked to the task-evoked fNIRS signals. All processes affect oxygenated haemoglobin concentration more strongly than that of deoxygenated haemoglobin. Based on these results we developed a set of physiological regressors, which were used for physiological de-noising of fNIRS signals. Our results demonstrate that proposed de-noising method can significantly improve the sensitivity of fNIRS to cerebral signals.

  18. Multimodal physiological sensor for motion artefact rejection.

    PubMed

    Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Kidmose, Preben; Mandic, Danilo P

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a novel physiological sensor, which combines electrical and mechanical modalities in a co-located arrangement, to reject motion-induced artefacts. The mechanically sensitive element consists of an electret condenser microphone containing a light diaphragm, allowing it to detect local mechanical displacements and disregard large-scale whole body movements. The electrically sensitive element comprises a highly flexible membrane, conductive on one side and insulating on the other. It covers the sound hole of the microphone, thereby forming an isolated pocket of air between the membrane and the diaphragm. The co-located arrangement of the modalities allows the microphone to sense mechanical disturbances directly through the electrode, thus providing an accurate proxy to artefacts caused by relative motion between the skin and the electrode. This proxy is used to reject such artefacts in the electrical physiological signals, enabling enhanced recording quality in wearable health applications.

  19. Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Portella, Maria J; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study. Individuals were asked to view a set of emotional film clips capable to induce seven emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement, tenderness and neutral state. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and subjective emotional responses were measured for each film clip. In comparison with neutral films, SCL was significantly increased after viewing fear films, and HR was also significantly incremented for anger and fear films. Physiological variations were associated with arousal measures indicating a convergence between subjective and objective reactions. Women appeared to display significantly greater SCL and HR responses for films inducing sadness. The findings suggest that physiological activation would be more easily induced by emotion-eliciting films that tap into emotions with higher subjective arousal such as anger and fear.

  20. The evolution of human skin coloration.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, N G; Chaplin, G

    2000-07-01

    Skin color is one of the most conspicuous ways in which humans vary and has been widely used to define human races. Here we present new evidence indicating that variations in skin color are adaptive, and are related to the regulation of ultraviolet (UV) radiation penetration in the integument and its direct and indirect effects on fitness. Using remotely sensed data on UV radiation levels, hypotheses concerning the distribution of the skin colors of indigenous peoples relative to UV levels were tested quantitatively in this study for the first time. The major results of this study are: (1) skin reflectance is strongly correlated with absolute latitude and UV radiation levels. The highest correlation between skin reflectance and UV levels was observed at 545 nm, near the absorption maximum for oxyhemoglobin, suggesting that the main role of melanin pigmentation in humans is regulation of the effects of UV radiation on the contents of cutaneous blood vessels located in the dermis. (2) Predicted skin reflectances deviated little from observed values. (3) In all populations for which skin reflectance data were available for males and females, females were found to be lighter skinned than males. (4) The clinal gradation of skin coloration observed among indigenous peoples is correlated with UV radiation levels and represents a compromise solution to the conflicting physiological requirements of photoprotection and vitamin D synthesis. The earliest members of the hominid lineage probably had a mostly unpigmented or lightly pigmented integument covered with dark black hair, similar to that of the modern chimpanzee. The evolution of a naked, darkly pigmented integument occurred early in the evolution of the genus Homo. A dark epidermis protected sweat glands from UV-induced injury, thus insuring the integrity of somatic thermoregulation. Of greater significance to individual reproductive success was that highly melanized skin protected against UV-induced photolysis of

  1. The colour of blood in skin: a comparison of Allen's test and photonics simulations.

    PubMed

    Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Alander, Jarmo

    2010-11-01

    The colour of the skin reflects many physiological and pathological states of an individual. Usually, the skin colour is examined by the bare eye alone. Several scaling systems have been developed to quantify the sensory evaluation of skin colour. In this work, the reflectance of the skin is measured directly using an objective instrument. Haemoglobin inside the dermal circulation is one of the key factors of skin colour and it also has a major role in the appearance of many skin lesions and scars. To quantitatively measure and analyse such conditions, the relation between the skin colour and the haemoglobin concentration in the skin needs to be resolved. To examine the effect of blood concentration on the skin colour, five Allen's tests were performed on 20 persons. The skin colour change was measured using a spectrophotometer by changing the blood concentration by the Allen's test. Light interaction with the skin was simulated with a Monte Carlo model, tuning the blood concentration parameter until the simulated and the measured spectra matched, yielding the relationship between the skin colour and the blood concentration. The simulation produced spectra similar to those measured. The change in the blood concentration in the simulation model and in the skin produced changes similar to the spectra. The reflectance of the skin was found to be a nonlinear function of the blood concentration. The relationship found between skin colour and blood concentration makes it possible to quantify those skin conditions expressed by blood volume better than plain colour. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Newborn Skin: Common Skin Problems.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Tanakol, Ali; Engýn, Burhan; Onel, Cristina; Sýmsek, Ersin; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalçýn; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2017-01-01

    The newborn skin can be separated from adult's skin in several ways. In dermatologic examination it can be easily observed that it is thinner, less hairy and has less sweat and sebaceous gland secretions. These differentiations present especially in preterm newborns. Their skin is exposed to mechanical trauma, bacteria and weather, heat alterations. At birth, newborn skin is protected by the coverage of vernix caseosa, which has lubricating and antibacterial features and its pH ranges from 6.7 to 7.4. Beneath the vernix caseosa the skin has a pH of 5.5-6.0. In newborn dermatologic examination it is very important to distinguish transient benign dermatoses and severe diseases, make early diagnosis and treat congenital skin disorders. Although the benign cases are common in this life period, clinical presentations can be much more exaggerated, dramatic and cause a great deal of anxiety to parents. Therefore, as a doctor, knowing the dermatological, pathological and non-pathological common skin rashes guides the family in the right direction, offers advice to reduce uncertainty and time for the treatment of severe conditions and builds a confidential doctor-patient relationship. In this review, our aim is to provide a general overview to common skin rashes in newborn period.

  3. Phasic and tonic fluctuations in brain, muscle, and skin temperatures during motivated drinking behavior in rats: physiological correlates of motivation and reward.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Michael S; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2010-01-15

    Since brain metabolism is accompanied by heat production, measurement of brain temperature offers a method for assessing global alterations in metabolic neural activity. This approach, high-resolution (5-s bin) temperature recording from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin, was used to study motivated drinking behavior in rats. Experienced animals were presented with a cup containing 5-ml of Coca-Cola(R) (Coke) beverage that resulted, within certain latencies, in initiation of a continuous chain of licking until all liquid was fully consumed. While cup presentation induced rapid, gradual NAcc temperature increase peaking at the start of drinking, temperatures slowly decreased during Coke consumption, but phasically increased again in the post-consumption period when rats were hyperactive, showing multiple interactions with an empty cup. Muscle temperatures followed a similar pattern, but the changes were weaker and delayed compared to those in the brain. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, steadily maintained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during the post-consumption period. Substitution of the expected Coke with either sugar-free Diet Coke(R) or water resulted in numerous drinking attempts but ultimately no consumption. During these tests, locomotor activation was much greater and more prolonged, brain and muscle temperatures increased monophasically, and their elevation was significantly greater than that with regular Coke tests. Food deprivation decreased drinking latencies, did not change the pattern of temperature fluctuations during Coke consumption, but temperature elevations were greater than in controls. Our data suggest sustained neural activation triggered by appetitive stimuli and associated with activational (seeking) aspects of appetitive motivated behavior. This seeking-related activation is rapidly ceased following consumption, suggesting this change as a neural correlate of

  4. Phasic and tonic fluctuations in brain, muscle and skin temperatures during motivated drinking behavior in rats: physiological correlates of motivation and reward

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Michael S.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    Since brain metabolism is accompanied by heat production, measurement of brain temperature offers a method for assessing global alterations in metabolic neural activity. This approach, high-resolution (5-s bin) temperature recording from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin, was used to study motivated drinking behavior in rats. Experienced animals were presented with a cup containing 5-ml of Coca-Cola® (Coke) beverage that resulted, within certain latencies, in initiation of a continuous chain of licking until all liquid was fully consumed. While cup presentation induced rapid, gradual NAcc temperature increase peaking at the start of drinking, temperatures slowly decreased during Coke consumption, but phasically increased again in the post-consumption period when rats were hyperactive, showing multiple interactions with an empty cup. Muscle temperatures followed a similar pattern, but the changes were weaker and delayed compared to those in the brain. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, steadily maintained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during the post-consumption period. Substitution of the expected Coke with either sugar-free Diet Coke® or water resulted in numerous drinking attempts but ultimately no consumption. During these tests, locomotor activation was much greater and more prolonged, brain and muscle temperatures increased monophasically, and their elevation was significantly greater than that with regular Coke tests. Food deprivation decreased drinking latencies, did not change the pattern of temperature fluctuations during Coke consumption, but temperature elevations were greater than in controls. Our data suggest sustained neural activation triggered by appetitive stimuli and associated with activational (seeking) aspects of appetitive motivated behavior. This seeking-related activation is rapidly ceased following consumption, suggesting this change as a neural correlate of reward

  5. Elevated Skin Blood Flow Influences Near Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements During Supine Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows determination of tissue oxygenation/blood flow based on spectrophotometric quantitation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin present within a tissue. This technique has gained acceptance as a means of detecting and quantifying changes in tissue blood flow due to physiological perturbation, such as that which is elicited in skeletal muscle during exercise. Since the NIRS technique requires light to penetrate the skin and subcutaneous fat in order to reach the muscle of interest, changes in skin blood flow may alter the NIRS signal in a fashion unrelated to blood flow in the muscle of interest. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of skin blood flow to the NIRS signal obtained from resting vastus lateralis muscle of the thigh.

  6. Helicobacter pylori-induced premature senescence of extragastric cells may contribute to chronic skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori, one of the most frequently observed bacterium in the human intestinal flora, has been widely studied since Marshall and Warren documented a link between the presence of H. pylori in the gastrointestinal tract and gastritis and gastric ulcers. Interestingly, H. pylori has also been found in several other epithelial tissues, including the eyes, ears, nose and skin that may have direct or indirect effects on host physiology and may contribute to extragastric diseases, e.g. chronic skin diseases. More recently, it has been shown that H. pylori cytotoxin CagA expression induces cellular senescence of human gastric nonpolarized epithelial cells that may lead to gastrointestinal disorders and systemic inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that also chronic skin diseases may be promoted by stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of skin cells, namely fibroblasts and keratinocytes, stimulated with H. pylori cytotoxins. Future studies involving cell culture models and clinical specimens are needed to verify the involvement of H. pylori in SIPS-based chronic skin diseases.

  7. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    PubMed

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (P<0.001) and heart rate variability (P<0.01). Branding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Animal, Microbial, and Fungal Borne Skin Pathology in the Mountain Wilderness: A Review.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, William E; Levandowski, William; Califf, Tom; Manly, Cory; Levandowski, Cecilia Blair

    2017-06-01

    Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. This paper aims to review skin illness and injury sustained from organisms in the mountains of North America. Other factors such as increased ultraviolet radiation, temperature extremes, and decreasing atmospheric pressure along with human physiologic parameters, which contribute to disease severity, will also be discussed. After reading this review, one should feel more comfortable identifying potentially harmful organisms, as well as diagnosing, treating, and preventing organism-inflicted skin pathology sustained in the high country. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Skin and psyche--from the surface to the depth of the inner world.

    PubMed

    Beltraminelli, Helmut; Itin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    About 30% of dermatology patients have signs or symptoms of psychological problems. Dermatologists should be familiar with the basics needed to identify, advise and treat these patients. Because of the complex interaction between skin and psyche, it is difficult to distinguish whether the primary problem is the skin or the psyche. Sometimes the clinical picture is a consequence of interactions between them and other factors. The interactions between skin and psyche are well known in history, art and literature--perhaps better known today because the marked emphasis on such images in our modern multimedia society. Aging is increasingly perceived as an illness and not as a physiological process. Through globalization, many different cultural approaches to the skin have entered in our daily life and influence our communication. This article considers the most important dermatoses which often show primary or secondary interaction with the psyche.

  10. Physiological arousal, distress tolerance, and social problem-solving deficits among adolescent self-injurers.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-02-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However, objective physiological and behavioral data supporting this model are lacking. The authors compared adolescent self-injurers (n = 62) with noninjurers (n = 30) and found that self-injurers showed higher physiological reactivity (skin conductance) during a distressing task, a poorer ability to tolerate this distress, and deficits in several social problem-solving abilities. These findings highlight the importance of attending to increased arousal, distress tolerance, and problem-solving skills in the assessment and treatment of NSSI.

  11. Multi-sector thermo-physiological head simulator for headgear research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René M.; Annaheim, Simon

    2017-02-01

    A novel thermo-physiological human head simulator for headgear testing was developed by coupling a thermal head manikin with a thermo-physiological model. As the heat flux at head-site is directly measured by the head manikin, this method provides a realistic quantification of the heat transfer phenomena occurring in the headgear, such as moisture absorption-desorption cycles, condensation, or moisture migration across clothing layers. Before coupling, the opportunities of the head manikin for representing the human physiology were evaluated separately. The evaluation revealed reduced precision in forehead and face temperature predictions under extreme heterogeneous temperature distributions and no initial limitation for simulating temperature changes observed in the human physiology. The thermo-physiological model predicted higher sweat rates when applied for coupled than for pure virtual simulations. After coupling, the thermo-physiological human head simulator was validated using eight human experiments. It precisely predicted core, mean skin, and forehead temperatures with average rmsd values within the average experimental standard deviation (rmsd of 0.20 ± 0.15, 0.83 ± 0.34, and 1.04 ± 0.54 °C, respectively). However, in case of forehead, precision was lower for the exposures including activity than for the sedentary exposures. The representation of the human sweat evaporation could be affected by a reduced evaporation efficiency and the manikin sweat dynamics. The industry will benefit from this thermo-physiological human head simulator leading to the development of helmet designs with enhanced thermal comfort and, therefore, with higher acceptance by users.

  12. Multi-sector thermo-physiological head simulator for headgear research.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René M; Annaheim, Simon

    2017-02-01

    A novel thermo-physiological human head simulator for headgear testing was developed by coupling a thermal head manikin with a thermo-physiological model. As the heat flux at head-site is directly measured by the head manikin, this method provides a realistic quantification of the heat transfer phenomena occurring in the headgear, such as moisture absorption-desorption cycles, condensation, or moisture migration across clothing layers. Before coupling, the opportunities of the head manikin for representing the human physiology were evaluated separately. The evaluation revealed reduced precision in forehead and face temperature predictions under extreme heterogeneous temperature distributions and no initial limitation for simulating temperature changes observed in the human physiology. The thermo-physiological model predicted higher sweat rates when applied for coupled than for pure virtual simulations. After coupling, the thermo-physiological human head simulator was validated using eight human experiments. It precisely predicted core, mean skin, and forehead temperatures with average rmsd values within the average experimental standard deviation (rmsd of 0.20 ± 0.15, 0.83 ± 0.34, and 1.04 ± 0.54 °C, respectively). However, in case of forehead, precision was lower for the exposures including activity than for the sedentary exposures. The representation of the human sweat evaporation could be affected by a reduced evaporation efficiency and the manikin sweat dynamics. The industry will benefit from this thermo-physiological human head simulator leading to the development of helmet designs with enhanced thermal comfort and, therefore, with higher acceptance by users.

  13. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p < 0.0001) increase in serum testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p < 0.0001), but not dose-dependent, increase in concentration reaching a peak concentration of 1.2 ng/mL (4.1 nm) at 4.9 h which was delayed by 2 h after peak serum testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing increases skin permeability and the risk of excessive absorption of antibiotics and sunscreens: the influence of skin recovery on drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-06-01

    While laser skin resurfacing is expected to result in reduced barrier function and increased risk of drug absorption, the extent of the increment has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to establish the skin permeation profiles of tetracycline and sunscreens after exposure to the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser during postoperative periods. Physiological and histopathological examinations were carried out for 5 days after laser treatment on nude mice. Percutaneous absorption of the permeants was determined by an in vitro Franz cell. Ablation depths varied in reaching the stratum corneum (10 μm, 2.5 J/cm²) to approach the epidermis (25 μm, 6.25 J/cm²) and upper dermis (40 μm, 10 J/cm²). Reepithelialization evaluated by transepidermal water loss was complete within 2-4 days and depended on the ablation depth. Epidermal hyperplasia was observed in the 40-μm-treated group. The laser was sufficient to disrupt the skin barrier and allow the transport of the permeants into and across the skin. The laser fluence was found to play an important role in modulating skin absorption. A 25-μm ablation depth increased tetracycline flux 84-fold. A much smaller enhancement (3.3-fold) was detected for tetracycline accumulation within the skin. The laser with different fluences produced enhancement of oxybenzone skin deposition of 3.4-6.4-fold relative to the untreated group. No penetration across the skin was shown regardless of whether titanium dioxide was applied to intact or laser-treated skin. However, laser resurfacing increased the skin deposition of titanium dioxide from 46 to 109-188 ng/g. Tetracycline absorption had recovered to the level of intact skin after 5 days, while more time was required for oxybenzone absorption. The in vivo skin accumulation and plasma concentration revealed that the laser could increase tetracycline absorption 2-3-fold. The experimental results indicated that clinicians should be cautious when determining the

  16. Physiological responses to treadmill exercise and ambient temperature in normal and malignant hyperthermia susceptible pigs.

    PubMed Central

    D'Allaire, S; DeRoth, L

    1986-01-01

    Ten susceptible and ten resistant pigs to malignant hyperthermia were used to observe the effects of exercise and ambient temperature on selected physiological parameters. Pigs were submitted to a ten minute exercise on a treadmill operating at a speed of 1.8 km/h and inclined to 11 degrees. Exercise in the first group was at an ambient temperature of 14 degrees C, and in the second at 29 degrees C. The right carotid artery was previously cannulated for blood pressure measurements and for repeated blood sampling during exercise. Arterial pressure, heart rate, rectal and cutaneous temperatures were recorded. Levels of cortisol, creatine kinase and its isoenzymes were measured. At 14 degrees C, exercise caused some physiological adjustments in susceptible animals; heart rate, skin temperature and cortisol levels increased (P less than 0.05). In resistant pigs, only the heart rate was elevated significantly following exertional stress at 14 degrees C. Exercise at 29 degrees C produced severe stress and marked physiological changes: heart rate, rectal and skin temperatures and cortisol levels increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant swine. At 29 degrees C, susceptible pigs also had higher levels of serum cortisol, total creatine kinase and MM isoenzyme (P less than 0.05) compared to resistant pigs. The results indicate that, following exertional or thermal stress, susceptible pigs undergo more extensive physiological changes than do resistant pigs. Similar levels of stress prior to slaughter may trigger physiological changes which in the susceptible pigs would likely result in pale, soft exudative myopathy. PMID:3742362

  17. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Muratov, Eugene

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, wemore » found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between

  18. He said what? Physiological and cognitive responses to imagining and witnessing outgroup racism.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Francine; Kawakami, Kerry; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions. The results from Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants in both roles showed (a) no activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal stress axis (decreased cortisol) and (b) activation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (increased skin conductance). However, experiencers but not forecasters displayed a physiological profile indicative of an orienting response (decreased heart rate and increased skin conductance) rather than a defensive response (increased heart rate and increased skin conductance). Furthermore, the results from Experiment 2 provided additional evidence that experiencers are not distressed or regulating their emotional responses. In particular, experiencers showed less cognitive impairment on a Stroop task than forecasters. Together these findings indicate that when people actually encounter outgroup bias, they respond with apathy and do not censure the racist. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    PubMed Central

    van ’ t Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  20. Characteristics of wettedness and equi-skin temperature line in the evaporative regulation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochida, T.

    1983-07-01

    As a result of the analysis of physiological experimental data, the characteristics of the wettedness were clarified, i.e., the value of the wettedness is not constant but differs in accordance with the environmental humidity even when the skin temperature is the same, and it was shown that the evaporative heat loss from the skin surface is inversely proportional to the wetttedness. Based on the properties of the wetedness observed, a new thermal sensation chart in the evaporative regulation region was proposed as an index for evaluating the warmth or the coldness in the environment. The feature of the present chart is that the locus of the equal skin temperature appears as a curved line on the psychrometric chart and that the wettedness on the equi-skin temperature line is not constant but takes varying values. The curved equal skin temperature line means that the influence of the environmental humidity on thermal sensation becomes smaller as the humidity of the environmental humidity on thermal sensation becomes smaller as the humidity of the environment is lowered.

  1. Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, the in vitro system was reconstructed with or without fibroblasts in order to test the global influence of the presence of this cell type. We then assessed the impact of the origin of the fibroblast strain on the degree of pigmentation using fetal versus adult fibroblasts. In both experiments, impressive variation in skin pigmentation at the macroscopic level was observed and confirmed by quantitative parameters related to skin color, melanin content and melanocyte numbers. These data confirmed the responsiveness of the model and demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts do indeed impact the degree of skin pigmentation. We then hypothesized that a physiological state associated with pigmentary alterations such as photo-aging could be linked to dermal fibroblasts modifications that accumulate over time. Pigmentation of skin reconstructed using young unexposed fibroblasts (n = 3) was compared to that of tissues containing natural photo-aged fibroblasts (n = 3) which express a senescent phenotype. A stimulation of pigmentation in the presence of the natural photo-aged fibroblasts was revealed by a significant increase in the skin color (decrease in Luminance) and an increase in both epidermal melanin content and melanogenic gene expression, thus confirming our hypothesis. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the level of pigmentation of the skin model is influenced by dermal fibroblasts and that natural photo-aged fibroblasts can contribute to the hyperpigmentation that is

  2. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  3. Development and application of an antibody-based protein microarray to assess physiological stress in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ruth I; Cattet, Marc R L; Sarauer, Bryan L; Nielsen, Scott E; Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2016-01-01

    A novel antibody-based protein microarray was developed that simultaneously determines expression of 31 stress-associated proteins in skin samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. The microarray determines proteins belonging to four broad functional categories associated with stress physiology: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis proteins, apoptosis/cell cycle proteins, cellular stress/proteotoxicity proteins and oxidative stress/inflammation proteins. Small skin samples (50-100 mg) were collected from captured bears using biopsy punches. Proteins were isolated and labelled with fluorescent dyes, with labelled protein homogenates loaded onto microarrays to hybridize with antibodies. Relative protein expression was determined by comparison with a pooled standard skin sample. The assay was sensitive, requiring 80 µg of protein per sample to be run in triplicate on the microarray. Intra-array and inter-array coefficients of variation for individual proteins were generally <10 and <15%, respectively. With one exception, there were no significant differences in protein expression among skin samples collected from the neck, forelimb, hindlimb and ear in a subsample of n = 4 bears. This suggests that remotely delivered biopsy darts could be used in future sampling. Using generalized linear mixed models, certain proteins within each functional category demonstrated altered expression with respect to differences in year, season, geographical sampling location within Alberta and bear biological parameters, suggesting that these general variables may influence expression of specific proteins in the microarray. Our goal is to apply the protein microarray as a conservation physiology tool that can detect, evaluate and monitor physiological stress in grizzly bears and other species at risk over time in response to environmental change.

  4. Commensal–dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Shruti; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Linehan, Jonathan L.; Han, Seong-Ji; Harrison, Oliver J.; Wilhelm, Christoph; Conlan, Sean; Himmelfarb, Sarah; Byrd, Allyson L.; Deming, Clayton; Quinones, Mariam; Brenchley, Jason M.; Kong, Heidi H.; Tussiwand, Roxanne; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Merad, Miriam; Segre, Julia A; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    The skin represents the primary interface between the host and the environment. This organ is also home to trillions of microorganisms that play an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity1–4. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse and can be remodelled over time or in response to environmental challenges5–7. How, in the context of this complexity, individual commensal microorganisms may differentially modulate skin immunity and the consequences of these responses for tissue physiology remains unclear. Here we show that defined commensals dominantly affect skin immunity and identify the cellular mediators involved in this specification. In particular, colonization with Staphylococcus epidermidis induces IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells that home to the epidermis, enhance innate barrier immunity and limit pathogen invasion. Commensal-specific T-cell responses result from the coordinated action of skin-resident dendritic cell subsets and are not associated with inflammation, revealing that tissue-resident cells are poised to sense and respond to alterations in microbial communities. This interaction may represent an evolutionary means by which the skin immune system uses fluctuating commensal signals to calibrate barrier immunity and provide heterologous protection against invasive pathogens. These findings reveal that the skin immune landscape is a highly dynamic environment that can be rapidly and specifically remodelled by encounters with defined commensals, findings that have profound implications for our understanding of tissue-specific immunity and pathologies. PMID:25539086

  5. Mechanisms of sampling interstitial fluid from skin using a microneedle patch.

    PubMed

    Samant, Pradnya P; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2018-05-01

    Although interstitial fluid (ISF) contains biomarkers of physiological significance and medical interest, sampling of ISF for clinical applications has made limited impact due to a lack of simple, clinically useful techniques that collect more than nanoliter volumes of ISF. This study describes experimental and theoretical analysis of ISF transport from skin using microneedle (MN) patches and demonstrates collection of >1 µL of ISF within 20 min in pig cadaver skin and living human subjects using an optimized system. MN patches containing arrays of submillimeter solid, porous, or hollow needles were used to penetrate superficial skin layers and access ISF through micropores (µpores) formed upon insertion. Experimental studies in pig skin found that ISF collection depended on transport mechanism according to the rank order diffusion < capillary action < osmosis < pressure-driven convection, under the conditions studied. These findings were in agreement with independent theoretical modeling that considered transport within skin, across the interface between skin and µpores, and within µpores to the skin surface. This analysis indicated that the rate-limiting step for ISF sampling is transport through the dermis. Based on these studies and other considerations like safety and convenience for future clinical use, we designed an MN patch prototype to sample ISF using suction as the driving force. Using this approach, we collected ISF from human volunteers and identified the presence of biomarkers in the collected ISF. In this way, sampling ISF from skin using an MN patch could enable collection of ISF for use in research and medicine.

  6. Soft microfluidic assemblies of sensors, circuits, and radios for the skin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Yihui; Jia, Lin; Mathewson, Kyle E; Jang, Kyung-In; Kim, Jeonghyun; Fu, Haoran; Huang, Xian; Chava, Pranav; Wang, Renhan; Bhole, Sanat; Wang, Lizhe; Na, Yoon Joo; Guan, Yue; Flavin, Matthew; Han, Zheshen; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-04-04

    When mounted on the skin, modern sensors, circuits, radios, and power supply systems have the potential to provide clinical-quality health monitoring capabilities for continuous use, beyond the confines of traditional hospital or laboratory facilities. The most well-developed component technologies are, however, broadly available only in hard, planar formats. As a result, existing options in system design are unable to effectively accommodate integration with the soft, textured, curvilinear, and time-dynamic surfaces of the skin. Here, we describe experimental and theoretical approaches for using ideas in soft microfluidics, structured adhesive surfaces, and controlled mechanical buckling to achieve ultralow modulus, highly stretchable systems that incorporate assemblies of high-modulus, rigid, state-of-the-art functional elements. The outcome is a thin, conformable device technology that can softly laminate onto the surface of the skin to enable advanced, multifunctional operation for physiological monitoring in a wireless mode.

  7. Observing and Understanding Arterial and Venous Circulation Differences in a Physiology Laboratory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S.; Neves, Ben-Hur S.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each…

  8. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) Promotes Wound Re-Epithelialisation in Frog and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-You; Emelianov, Vladimir; Paredes, Roberto; Debus, Sebastian; Augustin, Matthias; Funk, Wolfgang; Amaya, Enrique; Kloepper, Jennifer E.; Hardman, Matthew J.; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis) skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression). Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters. PMID:24023889

  9. FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

  10. Measurements and Characterizations of Mechanical Properties of Human Skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Han Wook; Park, Yon Kyu

    A skin is an indispensible organ for humans because it contributes to metabolism using its own biochemical functions and protects the human body from external stimuli. Recently, mechanical properties such as a thickness, a friction and an elastic coefficient have been used as a decision index in the skin physiology and in the skin care market due to the increased awareness of wellbeing issues. In addition, the use of mechanical properties is known to have good discrimination ability in the classification of human constitutions, which are used in the field of an alternative medicine. In this study, a system that measures mechanical properties such as a friction and an elastic coefficient is designed. The equipment consists of a load cell type (manufactured by the authors) for the measurements of a friction coefficient, a decompression tube for the measurement of an elastic coefficient. Using the proposed system, the mechanical properties of human skins from different constitutions were compared, and the relative repeatability error for measurements of mechanical properties was determined to be less than 2%. Combining the inspection results of medical doctors in the field of an alternative medicine, we could conclude that the proposed system might be applicable to a quantitative constitutional diagnosis between human constitutions within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  11. Local Melatoninergic System as the Protector of Skin Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kleszczyński, Konrad; Semak, Igor; Janjetovic, Zorica; Żmijewski, Michał A.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Slominski, Radomir M.; Reiter, Russel J.; Fischer, Tobias W.

    2014-01-01

    The human skin is not only a target for the protective actions of melatonin, but also a site of melatonin synthesis and metabolism, suggesting an important role for a local melatoninergic system in protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced damages. While melatonin exerts many effects on cell physiology and tissue homeostasis via membrane bound melatonin receptors, the strong protective effects of melatonin against the UVR-induced skin damage including DNA repair/protection seen at its high (pharmocological) concentrations indicate that these are mainly mediated through receptor-independent mechanisms or perhaps through activation of putative melatonin nuclear receptors. The destructive effects of the UVR are significantly counteracted or modulated by melatonin in the context of a complex intracutaneous melatoninergic anti-oxidative system with UVR-enhanced or UVR-independent melatonin metabolites. Therefore, endogenous intracutaneous melatonin production, together with topically-applied exogenous melatonin or metabolites would be expected to represent one of the most potent anti-oxidative defense systems against the UV-induced damage to the skin. In summary, we propose that melatonin can be exploited therapeutically as a protective agent or as a survival factor with anti-genotoxic properties or as a “guardian” of the genome and cellular integrity with clinical applications in UVR-induced pathology that includes carcinogenesis and skin aging. PMID:25272227

  12. Misophonia: physiological investigations and case descriptions.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Miren; Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    Misophonia is a relatively unexplored chronic condition in which a person experiences autonomic arousal (analogous to an involuntary "fight-or-flight" response) to certain innocuous or repetitive sounds such as chewing, pen clicking, and lip smacking. Misophonics report anxiety, panic, and rage when exposed to trigger sounds, compromising their ability to complete everyday tasks and engage in healthy and normal social interactions. Across two experiments, we measured behavioral and physiological characteristics of the condition. Interviews (Experiment 1) with misophonics showed that the most problematic sounds are generally related to other people's behavior (pen clicking, chewing sounds). Misophonics are however not bothered when they produce these "trigger" sounds themselves, and some report mimicry as a coping strategy. Next, (Experiment 2) we tested the hypothesis that misophonics' subjective experiences evoke an anomalous physiological response to certain auditory stimuli. Misophonic individuals showed heightened ratings and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to auditory, but not visual stimuli, relative to a group of typically developed controls, supporting this general viewpoint and indicating that misophonia is a disorder that produces distinct autonomic effects not seen in typically developed individuals.

  13. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  14. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2015-01-01

    Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control.

  15. Inkjet-Printed Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Temperature Sensors on a Skin-Conformable Polyurethane Substrate.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Tiina; Niittynen, Juha; Kankkunen, Timo; Kraft, Thomas M; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2016-10-18

    Epidermal electronic systems (EESs) are skin-like electronic systems, which can be used to measure several physiological parameters from the skin. This paper presents materials and a simple, straightforward fabrication process for skin-conformable inkjet-printed temperature sensors. Epidermal temperature sensors are already presented in some studies, but they are mainly fabricated using traditional photolithography processes. These traditional fabrication routes have several processing steps and they create a substantial amount of material waste. Hence utilizing printing processes, the EES may become attractive for disposable systems by decreasing the manufacturing costs and reducing the wasted materials. In this study, the sensors are fabricated with inkjet-printed graphene/PEDOT:PSS ink and the printing is done on top of a skin-conformable polyurethane plaster (adhesive bandage). Sensor characterization was conducted both in inert and ambient atmosphere and the graphene/PEDOT:PSS temperature sensors (thermistors) were able reach higher than 0.06% per degree Celsius sensitivity in an optimal environment exhibiting negative temperature dependence.

  16. A novel fully-humanised 3D skin equivalent to model early melanoma invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David S; Robinson, Neil D P; Caley, Matthew P; Chen, Mei; O’Toole, Edel A; Armstrong, Jane L; Przyborski, Stefan; Lovat, Penny E

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma remains incurable, emphasising the acute need for improved research models to investigate the underlying biological mechanisms mediating tumour invasion and metastasis, and to develop more effective targeted therapies to improve clinical outcome. Available animal models of melanoma do not accurately reflect human disease and current in vitro human skin equivalent models incorporating melanoma cells are not fully representative of the human skin microenvironment. We have developed a robust and reproducible, fully-humanised 3D skin equivalent comprising a stratified, terminally differentiated epidermis and a dermal compartment consisting of fibroblast-generated extracellular matrix. Melanoma cells incorporated into the epidermis were able to invade through the basement membrane and into the dermis, mirroring early tumour invasion in vivo. Comparison of our novel 3D melanoma skin equivalent with melanoma in situ and metastatic melanoma indicates this model accurately recreates features of disease pathology, making it a physiologically representative model of early radial and vertical growth phase melanoma invasion. PMID:26330548

  17. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  18. Pycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women.

    PubMed

    Marini, A; Grether-Beck, S; Jaenicke, T; Weber, M; Burki, C; Formann, P; Brenden, H; Schönlau, F; Krutmann, J

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of nutritional supplements to benefit human skin. Molecular evidence substantiating such effects, however, is scarce. In the present study we investigated whether nutritional supplementation of women with the standardized pine bark extract Pycnogenol® will improve their cosmetic appearance and relate these effects to expression of corresponding molecular markers of their skin. For this purpose 20 healthy postmenopausal women were supplemented with Pycnogenol for 12 weeks. Before, during and after supplementation, their skin condition was assessed (i) by employing non-invasive, biophysical methods including corneometry, cutometry, visioscan and ultrasound analyses and (ii) by taking biopsies and subsequent PCR for gene expression analyses related to extracellular matrix homeostasis. Pycnogenol supplementation was well tolerated in all volunteers. Pycnogenol significantly improved hydration and elasticity of skin. These effects were most pronounced in women presenting with dry skin conditions prior to the start of supplementation. The skin-physiological improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid synthase-1 (HAS-1), an enzyme critically involved in the synthesis of hyaluronic acid, and a noticeable increase in gene expression involved in collagen de novo synthesis. This study provides skin-physiological and for the first time molecular evidence that Pycnogenol supplementation benefits human skin by increasing skin hydration and skin elasticity. These effects are most likely due to an increased synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules such as hyaluronic acid and possibly collagen. Pycnogenol supplementation may thus be useful to counteract the clinical signs of skin aging. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Overcoming the challenges of studying conservation physiology in large whales: a review of available methods

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kathleen E.; Moore, Michael J.; Rolland, Rosalind M.; Kellar, Nicholas M.; Hall, Ailsa J.; Kershaw, Joanna; Raverty, Stephen A.; Davis, Cristina E.; Yeates, Laura C.; Fauquier, Deborah A.; Rowles, Teresa K.; Kraus, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Large whales are subjected to a variety of conservation pressures that could be better monitored and managed if physiological information could be gathered readily from free-swimming whales. However, traditional approaches to studying physiology have been impractical for large whales, because there is no routine method for capture of the largest species and there is presently no practical method of obtaining blood samples from free-swimming whales. We review the currently available techniques for gathering physiological information on large whales using a variety of non-lethal and minimally invasive (or non-invasive) sample matrices. We focus on methods that should produce information relevant to conservation physiology, e.g. measures relevant to stress physiology, reproductive status, nutritional status, immune response, health, and disease. The following four types of samples are discussed: faecal samples, respiratory samples (‘blow’), skin/blubber samples, and photographs. Faecal samples have historically been used for diet analysis but increasingly are also used for hormonal analyses, as well as for assessment of exposure to toxins, pollutants, and parasites. Blow samples contain many hormones as well as respiratory microbes, a diverse array of metabolites, and a variety of immune-related substances. Biopsy dart samples are widely used for genetic, contaminant, and fatty-acid analyses and are now being used for endocrine studies along with proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. Photographic analyses have benefited from recently developed quantitative techniques allowing assessment of skin condition, ectoparasite load, and nutritional status, along with wounds and scars from ship strikes and fishing gear entanglement. Field application of these techniques has the potential to improve our understanding of the physiology of large whales greatly, better enabling assessment of the relative impacts of many anthropogenic and ecological pressures. PMID:27293590

  20. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor

    2017-02-08

    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  1. Simulation of fluorescent measurements in the human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, Igor V.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Utz, Sergei R.; Pilipenko, Helena A.

    1995-05-01

    Reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are successfully used for skin disease diagnostics. Human skin optical parameters are defined by its turbid, scattering properties with nonuniform absorption and fluorescence chromophores distribution, its multilayered structure, and variability under different physiological and pathological conditions. Theoretical modeling of light propagation in skin could improve the understanding of these condition and may be useful in the interpretation of in vivo reflectance and autofluorescence (AF) spectra. Laser application in medical optical tomography, tissue spectroscopy, and phototherapy stimulates the development of optical and mathematical light-tissue interaction models allowing to account the specific features of laser beam and tissue inhomogeneities. This paper presents the version of a Monte Carlo method for simulating of optical radiation propagation in biotissue and highly scattering media, allowing for 3D geometry of a medium. The simulation is based on use of Green's function of medium response to single external pulse. The process of radiation propagation is studied in the area with given boundary conditions, taking into account the processes of reflection and refraction at the boundaries of layers inside the medium under study. Results of Monte Carlo simulation were compared with experimental investigations and demonstrated good agreement.

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  3. Emotional and physiological responses of fluent listeners while watching the speech of adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K; Everhart, D Erik; Kalinowski, Joseph; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2007-01-01

    People who stutter produce speech that is characterized by intermittent, involuntary part-word repetitions and prolongations. In addition to these signature acoustic manifestations, those who stutter often display repetitive and fixated behaviours outside the speech producing mechanism (e.g. in the head, arm, fingers, nares, etc.). Previous research has examined the attitudes and perceptions of those who stutter and people who frequently interact with them (e.g. relatives, parents, employers). Results have shown an unequivocal, powerful and robust negative stereotype despite a lack of defined differences in personality structure between people who stutter and normally fluent individuals. However, physiological investigations of listener responses during moments of stuttering are limited. There is a need for data that simultaneously examine physiological responses (e.g. heart rate and galvanic skin conductance) and subjective behavioural responses to stuttering. The pairing of these objective and subjective data may provide information that casts light on the genesis of negative stereotypes associated with stuttering, the development of compensatory mechanisms in those who stutter, and the true impact of stuttering on senders and receivers alike. To compare the emotional and physiological responses of fluent speakers while listening and observing fluent and severe stuttered speech samples. Twenty adult participants (mean age = 24.15 years, standard deviation = 3.40) observed speech samples of two fluent speakers and two speakers who stutter reading aloud. Participants' skin conductance and heart rate changes were measured as physiological responses to stuttered or fluent speech samples. Participants' subjective responses on arousal (excited-calm) and valence (happy-unhappy) dimensions were assessed via the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) rating scale with an additional questionnaire comprised of a set of nine bipolar adjectives. Results showed significantly increased

  4. Associations between First-Time Expectant Women's Representations of Attachment and Their Physiological Reactivity to Infant Cry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ablow, Jennifer C.; Marks, Amy K.; Shirley Feldman, S.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2013-01-01

    Associations among 53 primiparous women's Adult Attachment Interview classifications (secure-autonomous vs. insecure-dismissing) and physiological and self-reported responses to infant crying were explored. Heart rate, skin conductance levels, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded continuously. In response to the cry,…

  5. The power of clinicians' affective communication: how reassurance about non-abandonment can reduce patients' physiological arousal and increase information recall in bad news consultations. An experimental study using analogue patients.

    PubMed

    Sep, Milou S C; van Osch, Mara; van Vliet, Liesbeth M; Smets, Ellen M A; Bensing, Jozien M

    2014-04-01

    The diagnosis of incurable cancer may evoke physiological arousal in patients. Physiological arousal can negatively impact patients' recall of information provided in the medical consultation. We aim to investigate whether clinicians' affective communication during a bad news consultation will decrease patients' physiological arousal and will improve recall. Healthy women (N=50), acting as analogue patients, were randomly assigned to watch one out of the two versions of a scripted video-vignette of a bad news consultation in which clinician's communication differed: standard vs. affective communication. Participants' skin conductance levels were obtained during video-watching, and afterwards their recall was assessed. While the diagnosis increased skin conductance levels in all analogue patients, skin conductance levels during the remainder of the consultation decreased more in the affective communication condition than in the standard condition. Analogue patients' recall was significantly higher in the affective condition. Breaking bad news evokes physiological arousal. Affective communication can decrease this evoked physiological arousal and might be partly responsible for analogue patients' enhanced information recall. Although our findings need to be translated to clinical patients, they suggest that clinicians need to deal with patients' emotions before providing additional medical information. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot clinical study for quantitative spectral diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S; Migden, Michael R; Nguyen, Tri H; Tunnell, James W

    2010-12-01

    Several research groups have demonstrated the non-invasive diagnostic potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for early cancer detection. By combining both modalities, one can simultaneously measure quantitative parameters related to the morphology, function and biochemical composition of tissue and use them to diagnose malignancy. The objective of this study was to use a quantitative reflectance/fluorescence spectroscopic technique to determine the optical properties of normal skin and non-melanoma skin cancers and the ability to accurately classify them. An additional goal was to determine the ability of the technique to differentiate non-melanoma skin cancers from normal skin. The study comprised 48 lesions measured from 40 patients scheduled for a biopsy of suspected non-melanoma skin cancers. White light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence spectra (wavelength range = 350-700 nm) were collected from each suspected lesion and adjacent clinically normal skin using a custom-built, optical fiber-based clinical instrument. After measurement, the skin sites were biopsied and categorized according to histopathology. Using a quantitative model, we extracted various optical parameters from the measured spectra that could be correlated to the physiological state of tissue. Scattering from cancerous lesions was significantly lower than normal skin for every lesion group, whereas absorption parameters were significantly higher. Using numerical cut-offs for our optical parameters, our clinical instrument could classify basal cell carcinomas with a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 89%, respectively. Similarly, the instrument classified actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 50%. The measured optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal skin and non-melanoma skin cancers are significantly different from each other and correlate well

  7. The physiological and phenotypic determinants of human tanning measured as change in skin colour following a single dose of ultraviolet B radiation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Terence H; Jackson, Ian J; Rees, Jonathan L

    2010-07-01

    Experimental study of the in vivo kinetics of tanning in human skin has been limited by the difficulties in measuring changes in melanin pigmentation independent of the ultravioletinduced changes in erythema. The present study attempted to experimentally circumvent this issue. We have studied erythemal and tanning responses following a single exposure to a range of doses of ultraviolet B irradiation on the buttock and the lower back in 98 subjects. Erythema was assessed using reflectance techniques at 24 h and tanning measured as the L* spectrophotometric score at 7 days following noradrenaline iontophoresis. We show that dose (P < 0.0001), body site (P < 0.0001), skin colour (P < 0.0001), ancestry (P = 0.0074), phototype (P = 0.0019) and sex (P = 0.04) are all independent predictors of erythema. Quantitative estimates of the effects of these variables are reported, but the effects of ancestry and phototype do not appear solely explainable in terms of L* score. Dose (P < 0.0001), body site (P < 0.0001) and skin colour (P = 0.0365) or, as an alternative to skin colour, skin type (P = 0.0193) predict tanning, with those with lighter skin tanning slightly more to a defined UVB dose. If erythema is factored into the regression, then only dose and body site remain significant predictors of tanning: therefore neither phototype nor pigmentary factors, such as baseline skin colour, or eye or hair colour, predict change in skin colour to a unit erythemal response.

  8. Effect of botanicals on inflammation and skin aging: analyzing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Amanda; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its immune system manifest a decline in physiologic function as it undergoes aging. External insults such as ultraviolet light exposure cause inflammation, which may enhance skin aging even further leading to cancer and signs of photoaging. There is a potential role for botanicals as an adjunct modality in the prevention of skin aging. Numerous over-the-counter anti-aging products are commercially available, many of which boast unverified claims to reduce stress, inflammation and correct signs of aging. In this article we reviewed the scientific literature for data on frequently published "anti-inflammaging" additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea. We also analyzed the evidence available on five promising ingredients commonly found in anti-aging products, namely, argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry. Though there may be an increasing amount of scientific data on a few of these novel botanicals, in general, there remains a lack of clinical data to support the anti-aging claims made.

  9. Comparison of native porcine skin and a dermal substitute using tensiometry and digital image speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jason R; Phillips, Brett T; Conkling, Nicole; Fourman, Mitchell; Melendez, Mark M; Bhatnagar, Divya; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-10-01

    Dermal substitutes are currently used in plastic surgery to cover various soft tissue defects caused by trauma, burns, or ablative cancer surgery. Little information is available on the biomechanical properties of these dermal substitutes after adequate incorporation as compared to normal skin. Determining parameters such as tensile strength in these skin substitutes will help us further understand their wound healing properties and potential in developing artificial tissue constructs. We hypothesize that a dermal substitute has a lower stress-strain curve and altered stress-induced deformation quantified with tensiometry and digital image speckle correlation (DISC) analysis. Two separate 5×10-cm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of 3 female swine. Fibrin glue was applied before either a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) or application of artificial dermal matrix. On day 42, cultured autologous keratinocytes were applied as a cell sheet to the wound covered with Integra. On day 56, the wounds were fully excised and fresh tissue specimens, including normal skin, were stored in a physiological solution and prepared for analysis. Rectangular samples were excised from the center of each specimen measuring 4×4×30 mm. Using a tensiometer and DISC analysis, we evaluated the tensile strength of 3 different groups of skin, namely, normal, FTSG, and Integra. There is a significant difference between the Integra specimen when compared to normal skin and FTSG. We found a minimal difference in the stress-strain curves of the latter two. Integra alone shows plastic deformation with continued stretching before ultimate midline fracture. There is significant change between the Young's moduli of the normal skin and the Integra, whereas there is little difference between the FTSG and the normal skin; DISC confirms this analysis. The normal skin and FTSG show a convergence of vectors to a linear plane, whereas Integra shows very little organization. Using 2 different

  10. Parameterization using Fourier series expansion of the diffuse reflectance of human skin to vary the concentration of the melanocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narea, J. Freddy; Muñoz, Aarón A.; Castro, Jorge; Muñoz, Rafael A.; Villalba, Caroleny E.; Martinez, María. F.; Bravo, Kelly D.

    2013-11-01

    Human skin has been studied in numerous investigations, given the interest in knowing information about physiology, morphology and chemical composition. These parameters can be determined using non invasively optical techniques in vivo, such as the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The human skin color is determined by many factors, but primarily by the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin. The melanin is produced by the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. This research characterize the spectral response of the human skin using the coefficients of Fourier series expansion. Simulating the radiative transfer equation for the Monte Carlo method to vary the concentration of the melanocytes (fme) in a simplified model of human skin. It fits relating the Fourier series coefficient a0 with fme. Therefore it is possible to recover the skin biophysical parameter.

  11. Infrared thermography: A non-invasive window into thermal physiology.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique that measures mid to long-wave infrared radiation emanating from all objects and converts this to temperature. As an imaging technique, the value of modern infrared thermography is its ability to produce a digitized image or high speed video rendering a thermal map of the scene in false colour. Since temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing animal physiology and metabolic heat production an energetically expensive process, measuring temperature and energy exchange in animals is critical to understanding physiology, especially under field conditions. As a non-contact approach, infrared thermography provides a non-invasive complement to physiological data gathering. One caveat, however, is that only surface temperatures are measured, which guides much research to those thermal events occurring at the skin and insulating regions of the body. As an imaging technique, infrared thermal imaging is also subject to certain uncertainties that require physical modelling, which is typically done via built-in software approaches. Infrared thermal imaging has enabled different insights into the comparative physiology of phenomena ranging from thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow adjustments, evaporative cooling, and to respiratory physiology. In this review, I provide background and guidelines for the use of thermal imaging, primarily aimed at field physiologists and biologists interested in thermal biology. I also discuss some of the better known approaches and discoveries revealed from using thermal imaging with the objective of encouraging more quantitative assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Beneficial effects of pro-/antioxidant-based nutraceuticals in the skin rejuvenation techniques.

    PubMed

    de Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mikhal'Chik, E; Korkina, L

    2007-04-15

    Modern technologies of skin rejuvenation include many physical and chemical intervention tools--laser irradiation, oxygen and ozone therapy, chemical peels, plastic surgery operations--affecting by different mechanisms the sensitive physiological free radical/antioxidant balance in the skin. All these interventions induce from mild to severe tissue damage, providing beneficial biochemical stimuli for skin re-epithelization and rejuvenation. Paradoxically, free radical production in the course of tissue inflammation helps to combat free radical damage consequent to the ageing process. We have studied two animal models (experimental burn and trichloracetic peeling), reproducing on the Wistar rat the effects generated by the commonly practiced aesthetic medicine procedures of laser resurfacing and chemical peels, demonstrating that the severe oxidative stress induced both systemically and on skin can be modulated by the oral pre- and post treatment administration of specific nutraceutical formulations. Potent antioxidants (RRR-alpha-tocopherol, coenzyme Q10), enhancing antioxidant defences, coupled with mild pro-oxidants, enhancers of a specific immune defense (soy phospholipids, L-methionine), at the blood and the skin levels, proved in fact to be beneficial in vivo, on the rat, for skin healing, trophism and accelerated re-epithelization. Data obtained allow us to predict the possibility of innovative protocols for dermocosmetology, enabling successful lowering of the risk of permanent adverse effects, and prolonging the duration of the beneficial effects of dermocosmetologic procedures.

  14. Electrically induced reorganization phenomena of liquid metal film printed on biological skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cangran; Yi, Liting; Yu, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Liquid metal has been demonstrated to be directly printable on biological skin as physiological measurement elements. However, many fundamental issues remained unclear so far. Here, we disclosed an intriguing phenomenon of electrically induced reorganization of liquid metal film. According to the experiments, when applying an external electric field to liquid metal films which were spray printed on biological skin, it would induce unexpected transformations of the liquid metals among different morphologies and configurations. These include shape shift from a large liquid metal film into a tiny sphere and contraction of liquid metal pool into spherical one. For comprehensively understanding the issues, the impacts of the size, voltage, orientations of the liquid metal electrodes, etc., were clarified. Further, effects of various substrates such as in vitro skin and in vivo skin affecting the liquid metal transformations were experimentally investigated. Compared to the intact tissues, the contraction magnitude of the liquid metal electrode appears weaker on in vivo skin of nude mice under the same electric field. The mechanisms lying behind such phenomena were interpreted through theoretical modeling. Lastly, typical applications of applying the current effect into practical elements such as electrical gating devices were also illustrated as an example. The present findings have both fundamental and practical values, which would help design future technical strategies in fabricating electronically controlled liquid metal electronics on skin.

  15. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed.

  16. System and method for leveraging human physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency

    DOEpatents

    Shye, Alex; Pan, Yan; Scholbrock, Benjamin; Miller, J. Scott; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Dick, Robert P

    2014-03-25

    A system and method for leveraging physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency are disclosed. In some embodiments, the system and method may optimize, for example, a particular processor-based architecture based on, for example, end user satisfaction. In some embodiments, the system and method may determine, for example, whether their users are satisfied to provide higher efficiency, improved reliability, reduced power consumption, increased security, and a better user experience. The system and method may use, for example, biometric input devices to provide information about a user's physiological traits to a computer system. Biometric input devices may include, for example, one or more of the following: an eye tracker, a galvanic skin response sensor, and/or a force sensor.

  17. Physiological basis of tingling paresthesia evoked by hydroxy-alpha-sanshool.

    PubMed

    Lennertz, Richard C; Tsunozaki, Makoto; Bautista, Diana M; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2010-03-24

    Hydroxy-alpha-sanshool, the active ingredient in plants of the prickly ash plant family, induces robust tingling paresthesia by activating a subset of somatosensory neurons. However, the subtypes and physiological function of sanshool-sensitive neurons remain unknown. Here we use the ex vivo skin-nerve preparation to examine the pattern and intensity with which the sensory terminals of cutaneous neurons respond to hydroxy-alpha-sanshool. We found that sanshool excites virtually all D-hair afferents, a distinct subset of ultrasensitive light-touch receptors in the skin and targets novel populations of Abeta and C fiber nerve afferents. Thus, sanshool provides a novel pharmacological tool for discriminating functional subtypes of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The identification of sanshool-sensitive fibers represents an essential first step in identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tingling paresthesia that accompanies peripheral neuropathy and injury.

  18. Physiological basis of tingling paresthesia evoked by hydroxy-α-sanshool

    PubMed Central

    Lennertz, Richard C; Tsunozaki, Makoto; Bautista, Diana M; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxy-α-sanshool, the active ingredient in plants of the prickly ash plant family, induces robust tingling paresthesia by activating a subset of somatosensory neurons. However, the subtypes and physiological function of sanshool-sensitive neurons remain unknown. Here we use the ex vivo skin-nerve preparation to examine the pattern and intensity with which the sensory terminals of cutaneous neurons respond to hydroxy-α-sanshool. We found that sanshool excites virtually all D-hair afferents, a distinct subset of ultra-sensitive light touch receptors in the skin, and targets novel populations of Aβ and C-fiber nerve afferents. Thus, sanshool provides a novel pharmacological tool for discriminating functional subtypes of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The identification of sanshool-sensitive fibers represents an essential first step in identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tingling paresthesia that accompanies peripheral neuropathy and injury. PMID:20335471

  19. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. Methods We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Results Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Conclusions Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control. PMID:26079873

  20. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Terbinafine in Rats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Yeganeh, Mahboubeh; McLachlan, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model capable of describing and predicting terbinafine concentrations in plasma and tissues in rats and humans. A PB-PK model consisting of 12 tissue and 2 blood compartments was developed using concentration-time data for tissues from rats (n = 33) after intravenous bolus administration of terbinafine (6 mg/kg of body weight). It was assumed that all tissues except skin and testis tissues were well-stirred compartments with perfusion rate limitations. The uptake of terbinafine into skin and testis tissues was described by a PB-PK model which incorporates a membrane permeability rate limitation. The concentration-time data for terbinafine in human plasma and tissues were predicted by use of a scaled-up PB-PK model, which took oral absorption into consideration. The predictions obtained from the global PB-PK model for the concentration-time profile of terbinafine in human plasma and tissues were in close agreement with the observed concentration data for rats. The scaled-up PB-PK model provided an excellent prediction of published terbinafine concentration-time data obtained after the administration of single and multiple oral doses in humans. The estimated volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) obtained from the PB-PK model agreed with the reported value of 11 liters/kg. The apparent volume of distribution of terbinafine in skin and adipose tissues accounted for 41 and 52%, respectively, of the Vss for humans, indicating that uptake into and redistribution from these tissues dominate the pharmacokinetic profile of terbinafine. The PB-PK model developed in this study was capable of accurately predicting the plasma and tissue terbinafine concentrations in both rats and humans and provides insight into the physiological factors that determine terbinafine disposition. PMID:12069977

  1. Physiological responses to acute cold exposure in young lean men

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Tellez, Borja; Sanchez-Delgado, Guillermo; A. Alcantara, Juan M.; Acosta-Manzano, Pedro; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; R. Ruiz, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively describe the physiological responses to an acute bout of mild cold in young lean men (n = 11, age: 23 ± 2 years, body mass index: 23.1 ± 1.2 kg/m2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis and how it is regulated. Resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, skin temperature, thermal comfort perception, superficial muscle activity, hemodynamics of the forearm and abdominal regions, and heart rate variability were measured under warm conditions (22.7 ± 0.2°C) and during an individualized cooling protocol (air-conditioning and water cooling vest) in a cold room (19.4 ± 0.1°C). The temperature of the cooling vest started at 16.6°C and decreased ~ 1.4°C every 10 minutes until participants shivered (93.5 ± 26.3 min). All measurements were analysed across 4 periods: warm period, at 31% and at 64% of individual´s cold exposure time until shivering occurred, and at the shivering threshold. Energy expenditure increased from warm period to 31% of cold exposure by 16.7% (P = 0.078) and to the shivering threshold by 31.7% (P = 0.023). Fat oxidation increased by 72.6% from warm period to 31% of cold exposure (P = 0.004), whereas no changes occurred in carbohydrates oxidation. As shivering came closer, the skin temperature and thermal comfort perception decreased (all P<0.05), except in the supraclavicular skin temperature, which did not change (P>0.05). Furthermore, the superficial muscle activation increased at the shivering threshold. It is noteworthy that the largest physiological changes occurred during the first 30 minutes of cold exposure, when the participants felt less discomfort. PMID:29734360

  2. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  3. Observing and understanding arterial and venous circulation differences in a physiology laboratory activity.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Caroline; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Lara, Marcus Vinícius S; Neves, Ben-Hur S; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present article is to describe three simple practical experiments that aim to observe and discuss the anatomic and physiological functions and differences between arteries and veins as well as the alterations observed in skin blood flow in different situations. For this activity, students were divided in small groups. In each group, a volunteer is recruited for each experiment. The experiments only require a sphygmomanometer, rubber bands, and a clock and allow students to develop a hypothesis to explain the different responses to the interruption of arterial and venous blood flow. At the end, students prepare a short report, and the results are discussed. This activity allows students to perceive the presence of physiology in their daily lives and helps them to understand the concepts related to the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  4. Heart rate variation and electroencephalograph--the potential physiological factors for thermal comfort study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Lian, Z; Liu, W; Jiang, C; Liu, Y; Lu, H

    2009-04-01

    Human thermal comfort researches mainly focus on the relation between the environmental factors (e.g. ambient temperature, air humidity, and air velocity, etc.) and the thermal comfort sensation based on a large amount of subjective field investigations. Although some physiological factors, such as skin temperature and metabolism were used in many thermal comfort models,they are not enough to establish a perfect thermal comfort model. In this paper,another two physiological factors, i.e. heart rate variation (HRV) and electroencephalograph (EEG), are explored for the thermal comfort study. Experiments were performed to investigate how these physiological factors respond to the environmental temperatures, and what is the relationship between HRV and EEG and thermal comfort. The experimental results indicate that HRV and EEG may be related to thermal comfort, and they may be useful to understand the mechanism of thermal comfort.

  5. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  6. Skin-interfaced systems for sweat collection and analytics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jungil; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Baker, Lindsay B.; Rogers, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary advances in materials, mechanics, and microsystem designs for biocompatible electronics, soft microfluidics, and electrochemical biosensors establish the foundations for emerging classes of thin, skin-interfaced platforms capable of capturing, storing, and performing quantitative, spatiotemporal measurements of sweat chemistry, instantaneous local sweat rate, and total sweat loss. This review summarizes scientific and technical progress in this area and highlights the implications in real time and ambulatory modes of deployment during physical activities across a broad range of contexts in clinical health, physiology research, fitness/wellness, and athletic performance. PMID:29487915

  7. Stuttered and Fluent Speakers' Heart Rate and Skin Conductance in Response to Fluent and Stuttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hudock, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found simultaneous increases in skin conductance response and decreases in heart rate when normally fluent speakers watched and listened to stuttered speech compared with fluent speech, suggesting that stuttering induces arousal and emotional unpleasantness in listeners. However, physiological responses of persons…

  8. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Larsson, Marcus; Marraccini, Paolo; Strömberg, Tomas; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Early detection of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent onset and progress of cardiovascular disease. Optical imaging techniques might have a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, hyperspectral imaging was investigated for this application. The main aim of the study was to identify spectral and spatial characteristics that can aid identification of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. The first part of the study involved a numerical simulation of human skin affected by hypercholesterolemia. A literature survey was performed to identify characteristic morphological and physiological parameters. Realistic models were prepared and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain hyperspectral images. Based on the simulations optimal wavelength regions for differentiation between normal and cholesterol rich skin were identified. Minimum Noise Fraction transformation (MNF) was used for analysis. In the second part of the study, the simulations were verified by a clinical study involving volunteers with elevated and normal levels of cholesterol. The faces of the volunteers were scanned by a hyperspectral camera covering the spectral range between 400 nm and 720 nm, and characteristic spectral features of the affected skin were identified. Processing of the images was done after conversion to reflectance and masking of the images. The identified features were compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging of facial skin can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Improved penetration of wild ginseng extracts into the skin using low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Hae Choi, Jeong; Song, Yeon Suk; Lee, Hae-June; Hong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2018-04-01

    Wild ginseng (WG) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that grows in natural environments in deep mountains. WG has been thought to exert potent physiological and medicinal effects, and, recently, its use in skin care has attracted much interest. This study investigated the efficient penetration of WG extracts into the skin by means of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP), and its effects on the skin at the cellular and tissue levels. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HRM-2 hairless mice were used to confirm the improved absorption of WG extracts into the skin using LTAPP. The gene expression levels in NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes in skin tissues after WG treatment were monitored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although WG extracts did not show any significant effects on proliferative activity and cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 1:800, it significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the in vivo study, the combinational treatment of LTAPP and WG markedly induced the expression of fibronectin and integrin α6, and it thickened. Our results showed that LTAPP treatment safely and effectively accelerated the penetration of the WG extracts into the skin, thereby increasing the effects of WG on the skin.

  10. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    PubMed

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Skin Color and Pigmentation in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O

    2017-02-01

    Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  13. Physiological responses associated with cultural attachment.

    PubMed

    Yap, Wei Jie; Christopoulos, George I; Hong, Ying-Yi

    2017-05-15

    Cultural attachment (CA) suggests that cultural symbols can function as attachment figures, in a similar way to prototypical maternal attachment figures. In order to further understand the psychophysiological mechanisms of CA, we examine whether cultural symbols regulate peripheral physiological indicators of arousal in response to symbolic threats. We supraliminally expose participants to neutral or threatening stimuli, followed by the subliminal presentation of CA and control images, while recording their Skin Conductance Responses (SCR). In tandem with previous work, threat increased SCR when the subliminal image was a control. However, the subliminal presence of a cultural symbol reduced this typically high SCR to threat, potentially suggesting that the threat-related arousal was mitigated. Importantly, metrics related to the way an individual is related to the environment, i.e. the need for cognitive closure, affected physiological responses towards threat and cultural images. Overall, the present study sets the basis for potential emotional mechanisms that could explain how cultural symbols can act as extensions of the prototypical attachment figures and confer the sense of security in the face of threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Misophonia: physiological investigations and case descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Miren; Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.

    2013-01-01

    Misophonia is a relatively unexplored chronic condition in which a person experiences autonomic arousal (analogous to an involuntary “fight-or-flight” response) to certain innocuous or repetitive sounds such as chewing, pen clicking, and lip smacking. Misophonics report anxiety, panic, and rage when exposed to trigger sounds, compromising their ability to complete everyday tasks and engage in healthy and normal social interactions. Across two experiments, we measured behavioral and physiological characteristics of the condition. Interviews (Experiment 1) with misophonics showed that the most problematic sounds are generally related to other people's behavior (pen clicking, chewing sounds). Misophonics are however not bothered when they produce these “trigger” sounds themselves, and some report mimicry as a coping strategy. Next, (Experiment 2) we tested the hypothesis that misophonics' subjective experiences evoke an anomalous physiological response to certain auditory stimuli. Misophonic individuals showed heightened ratings and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to auditory, but not visual stimuli, relative to a group of typically developed controls, supporting this general viewpoint and indicating that misophonia is a disorder that produces distinct autonomic effects not seen in typically developed individuals. PMID:23805089

  15. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Taradaj, Jakub; Dymarek, Robert; Sopel, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study. PMID:27413744

  16. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaitanis, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Demonstration of the Rat Ischemic Skin Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Jacob; Wu, Mack; Gould, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    The propensity for chronic wounds in humans increases with ageing, disease conditions such as diabetes and impaired cardiovascular function, and unrelieved pressure due to immobility. Animal models have been developed that attempt to mimic these conditions for the purpose of furthering our understanding of the complexity of chronic wounds. The model described herein is a rat ischemic skin flap model that permits a prolonged reduction of blood flow resulting in wounds that become ischemic and resemble a chronic wound phenotype (reduced vascularization, increased inflammation and delayed wound closure). It consists of a bipedicled dorsal flap with 2 ischemic wounds placed centrally and 2 non-ischemic wounds lateral to the flap as controls. A novel addition to this ischemic skin flap model is the placement of a silicone sheet beneath the flap that functions as a barrier and a splint to prevent revascularization and reduce contraction as the wounds heal. Despite the debate of using rats for wound healing studies due to their quite distinct anatomic and physiologic differences compared to humans (i.e., the presence of a panniculus carnosus muscle, short life-span, increased number of hair follicles, and their ability to heal infected wounds) the modifications employed in this model make it a valuable alternative to previously developed ischemic skin flap models. PMID:25866964

  18. Demonstration of the rat ischemic skin wound model.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Andrea N; Kesl, Shannon L; Sherwood, Jacob; Wu, Mack; Gould, Lisa J

    2015-04-01

    The propensity for chronic wounds in humans increases with ageing, disease conditions such as diabetes and impaired cardiovascular function, and unrelieved pressure due to immobility. Animal models have been developed that attempt to mimic these conditions for the purpose of furthering our understanding of the complexity of chronic wounds. The model described herein is a rat ischemic skin flap model that permits a prolonged reduction of blood flow resulting in wounds that become ischemic and resemble a chronic wound phenotype (reduced vascularization, increased inflammation and delayed wound closure). It consists of a bipedicled dorsal flap with 2 ischemic wounds placed centrally and 2 non-ischemic wounds lateral to the flap as controls. A novel addition to this ischemic skin flap model is the placement of a silicone sheet beneath the flap that functions as a barrier and a splint to prevent revascularization and reduce contraction as the wounds heal. Despite the debate of using rats for wound healing studies due to their quite distinct anatomic and physiologic differences compared to humans (i.e., the presence of a panniculus carnosus muscle, short life-span, increased number of hair follicles, and their ability to heal infected wounds) the modifications employed in this model make it a valuable alternative to previously developed ischemic skin flap models.

  19. Peptide Reactivity of Isothiocyanates - Implications for Skin Allergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Isabella; Samuelsson, Kristin; Ponting, David J.; Törnqvist, Margareta; Ilag, Leopold L.; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2016-02-01

    Skin allergy is a chronic condition that affects about 20% of the population of the western world. This disease is caused by small reactive compounds, haptens, able to penetrate into the epidermis and modify endogenous proteins, thereby triggering an immunogenic reaction. Phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) and ethyl isothiocyanate (EITC) have been suggested to be responsible for allergic skin reactions to chloroprene rubber, the main constituent of wetsuits, orthopedic braces, and many types of sports gear. In the present work we have studied the reactivity of the isothiocyanates PITC, EITC, and tetramethylrhodamine-6-isothiocyanate (6-TRITC) toward peptides under aqueous conditions at physiological pH to gain information about the types of immunogenic complexes these compounds may form in the skin. We found that all three compounds reacted quickly with cysteine moieties. For PITC and 6-TRITC the cysteine adducts decomposed over time, while stable adducts with lysine were formed. These experimental findings were verified by DFT calculations. Our results may suggest that the latter are responsible for allergic reactions to isothiocyanates. The initial adduct formation with cysteine residues may still be of great importance as it prevents hydrolysis and facilitates the transport of isothiocyanates into epidermis where they can form stable immunogenic complexes with lysine-containing proteins.

  20. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  1. The development of a 3D immunocompetent model of human skin.

    PubMed

    Chau, David Y S; Johnson, Claire; MacNeil, Sheila; Haycock, John W; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2013-09-01

    As the first line of defence, skin is regularly exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical insults. Therefore, determining the skin sensitization potential of new chemicals is of paramount importance from the safety assessment and regulatory point of view. Given the questionable biological relevance of animal models to human as well as ethical and regulatory pressure to limit or stop the use of animal models for safety testing, there is a need for developing simple yet physiologically relevant models of human skin. Herein, we describe the construction of a novel immunocompetent 3D human skin model comprising of dendritic cells co-cultured with keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This model culture system is simple to assemble with readily-available components and importantly, can be separated into its constitutive individual layers to allow further insight into cell-cell interactions and detailed studies of the mechanisms of skin sensitization. In this study, using non-degradable microfibre scaffolds and a cell-laden gel, we have engineered a multilayer 3D immunocompetent model comprised of keratinocytes and fibroblasts that are interspersed with dendritic cells. We have characterized this model using a combination of confocal microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy and have shown differentiation of the epidermal layer and formation of an epidermal barrier. Crucially the immune cells in the model are able to migrate and remain responsive to stimulation with skin sensitizers even at low concentrations. We therefore suggest this new biologically relevant skin model will prove valuable in investigating the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis and other skin pathologies in human. Once fully optimized, this model can also be used as a platform for testing the allergenic potential of new chemicals and drug leads.

  2. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  3. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W.; Reeder, Nancy L.; Reilman, Raymond A.; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S.; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64) with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741) were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin’s carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin. PMID:26539826

  4. Living with a leaky skin: upregulation of ion transport proteins during sloughing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nicholas C; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2017-06-01

    Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo , the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions. We also measured transepithelial potential, cutaneous resistance, active ion transport and the distribution, abundance and gene expression of the key ion transport proteins sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) during sloughing. We hypothesised that the increase in transepithelial efflux of ions during sloughing is a consequence of increased permeability and/or a reduction in the abundance or expression of cutaneous ion transport proteins, resulting in disruption of internal ion homeostasis. There was a significant increase in sodium and chloride efflux during sloughing in R. marina However, although in vitro skin resistance decreased after sloughing, active sodium transport increased commensurate with an increase in NKA and ENaC protein abundance in the skin. These changes in skin function associated with sloughing did not affect the maintenance of internal electrolyte homeostasis. These results suggest that during sloughing, amphibians actively maintain internal homeostasis by increasing cutaneous rates of ion uptake. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Microvesicating effects of sulfur mustard on an in vitro human skin model.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Patrick J; Petrali, John P; Stolper, Gina; Hamilton, Tracey A; Jackson, George R; Wertz, Philip W; Ito, Susumu; Smith, William J; Klausner, Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    Bis-(beta-chloroethyl) sulfide (SM) is a potent skin vesicant previously used for chemical warfare. Progress in determination of the mechanistic basis of SM pathology, and development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic countermeasures to SM exposure has been hampered by lack of physiologically relevant models of human skin. The current work evaluated a newly developed tissue engineered full-thickness human skin model in a completely in vitro approach to investigation of SM-induced dermal pathology. The model was first characterized with regard to overall morphology, lipid composition, basement membrane (BM) composition and ultrastructural features that are important targets of SM pathologic activity. Well-developed BM ultrastructural features were observed at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), thus demonstrating successful resolution of a primary deficiency of models previously evaluated for SM studies. Studies were then conducted to evaluate histopathological effects of SM on the model. Good replication of in vivo effects was observed, including apoptosis of basal keratinocytes (KC) and microblister formation at the DEJ. Tissue engineered skin models with well-developed basement membrane structures thus appear to be useful tools for in vitro mechanistic studies of SM vesicant activity and development of preventive/therapeutic approaches for SM pathology.

  6. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians. PMID:21070683

  7. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Boyles, Justin G.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians.

  8. Emotion recognition based on physiological changes in music listening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghwa; André, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    Little attention has been paid so far to physiological signals for emotion recognition compared to audiovisual emotion channels such as facial expression or speech. This paper investigates the potential of physiological signals as reliable channels for emotion recognition. All essential stages of an automatic recognition system are discussed, from the recording of a physiological dataset to a feature-based multiclass classification. In order to collect a physiological dataset from multiple subjects over many weeks, we used a musical induction method which spontaneously leads subjects to real emotional states, without any deliberate lab setting. Four-channel biosensors were used to measure electromyogram, electrocardiogram, skin conductivity and respiration changes. A wide range of physiological features from various analysis domains, including time/frequency, entropy, geometric analysis, subband spectra, multiscale entropy, etc., is proposed in order to find the best emotion-relevant features and to correlate them with emotional states. The best features extracted are specified in detail and their effectiveness is proven by classification results. Classification of four musical emotions (positive/high arousal, negative/high arousal, negative/low arousal, positive/low arousal) is performed by using an extended linear discriminant analysis (pLDA). Furthermore, by exploiting a dichotomic property of the 2D emotion model, we develop a novel scheme of emotion-specific multilevel dichotomous classification (EMDC) and compare its performance with direct multiclass classification using the pLDA. Improved recognition accuracy of 95\\% and 70\\% for subject-dependent and subject-independent classification, respectively, is achieved by using the EMDC scheme.

  9. Affective and physiological correlates of the perception of unimodal and bimodal emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Pedro J; Oliveira, Jorge; Alghazzawi, Daniyal; Fardoun, Habib; Gamito, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Despite the multisensory nature of perception, previous research on emotions has been focused on unimodal emotional cues with visual stimuli. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence on the extent to which incongruent emotional cues from visual and auditory sensory channels affect pupil size. To investigate the effects of audiovisual emotional information perception on the physiological and affective response, but also to determine the impact of mismatched cues in emotional perception on these physiological indexes. Pupil size, electrodermal activity and affective subjective responses were recorded while 30 participants were exposed to visual and auditory stimuli with varied emotional content in three different experimental conditions: pictures and sounds presented alone (unimodal), emotionally matched audio-visual stimuli (bimodal congruent) and emotionally mismatched audio-visual stimuli (bimodal incongruent). The data revealed no effect of emotional incongruence on physiological and affective responses. On the other hand, pupil size covaried with skin conductance response (SCR), but the subjective experience was partially dissociated from autonomic responses. Emotional stimuli are able to trigger physiological responses regardless of valence, sensory modality or level of emotional congruence.

  10. Characterization of oily mature skin by biophysical and skin imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    de Melo, M O; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2018-02-13

    The skin is a complex biological system and may suffer change according to the environmental factors, as higher temperatures can increase sebum excretion, presenting oiliness and acne. These alterations can persist during the aging and provoke more changes in aged skin. In this study we evaluated the mature oily skin characteristics using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Sixty healthy female subjects, aged between 39 and 55 years old were recruited and separated into 2 groups according to their skin type: normal/dry and oily skin. The skin was evaluated in terms of stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) sebum content, dermis thickness and echogenicity, skin microrelief, and pores content. The mature oily skin presented no significant differences when compared to the normal/dry skin on the stratum corneum water content and TEWL parameters. The sebum content was significantly higher on the oily skin group. The microrelief analysis showed an increase of skin roughness values in the oily skin and increase of scaliness in the normal/dry skin. The oily skin showed lower dermis echogenicity mainly in the frontal region and higher dermis thickness when compared to normal/dry skin. The mature oily skin showed different characteristics from normal/dry skin in terms of sebum content, microrelief parameters, and dermis thickness. This way, the characterization of mature oily skin in an objective way is very important to development of dermocosmetic products for more effective treatments focused specially on this type of skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation of Visible Light Diffuse Reflection in Neonatal Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atencio, J. A. Delgado; Rodríguez, E. E.; Rodríguez, A. Cornejo; Rivas-Silva, J. F.

    2008-04-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition that happens commonly in newborns as result of desbalance between the production and the elimination of the bilirubin. Around 50% of newborns in term and something more of 60% of the near-term becomes jaundiced in the first week of life. This excess of bilirubin in the blood is exhibited in the skin, the sclera of the eyes and the mucous of mouth like a characteristic yellow coloration. In this work we make several numerical simulations of the spectral diffuse reflection for the skin of newborns that present different values of the biological parameters (bilirubin content, grade of pigmentation and content of blood) that characterize it. These simulations will allow us to evaluate the influence of these parameters on the experimental determination of bilirubin by noninvasive optical methods. The simulations are made in the spectral range of 400-700 nm using the Monte Carlo code MCML and two programs developed in LabVIEW by the authors. We simulated the diffuse reflection spectrum of neonatal skin for concentrations of bilirubin in skin that covers an ample range: from physiological to harmful numbers. We considered the influence of factors such as grade of pigmentation and content of blood.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of time-domain fNIRS and physiological signals during a cognitive task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelzow, A.; Tachtsidis, I.; Kirilina, E.; Niessing, M.; Brühl, R.; Wabnitz, H.; Heine, A.; Ittermann, B.; Macdonald, R.

    2011-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a commonly used technique to measure the cerebral vascular response related to brain activation. It is known that systemic physiological processes, either independent or correlated with the stimulation task, can influence the optical signal making its interpretation challenging. The aim of the present work is to investigate the impact of task-evoked changes in the systemic physiology on fNIRS measurements for a cognitive paradigm. For this purpose we carried out simultaneous measurements of time-domain fNIRS on the forehead and systemic physiological signals, i.e. mean blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, galvanic skin response, scalp blood flow (flux) and red blood cell (RBC) concentration changes. We performed measurements on 15 healthy volunteers during a semantic continuous performance task (CPT). The optical data was analyzed in terms of depth-selective moments of distributions of times of flight of photons through the tissue. In addition, cerebral activation was localized by a subsequent fMRI experiment on the same subject population using the same task. We observed strong non-cerebral task-evoked changes in concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin in the forehead. We investigated the temporal behavior and mutual correlations between hemoglobin changes and the systemic processes. Mean blood pressure (BP), galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate exhibited significant changes during the activation period, whereby BP and GSR showed the highest correlation with optical measurements.

  13. A Review on Bradykinin-Related Peptides Isolated from Amphibian Skin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinping; Li, Bin; Chen, Tianbao; Kwok, Hang Fai

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian skin secretion has great potential for drug discovery and contributes hundreds of bioactive peptides including bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs). More than 50 BRPs have been reported in the last two decades arising from the skin secretion of amphibian species. They belong to the families Ascaphidae (1 species), Bombinatoridae (3 species), Hylidae (9 speices) and Ranidae (25 species). This paper presents the diversity of structural characteristics of BRPs with N-terminal, C-terminal extension and amino acid substitution. The further comparison of cDNA-encoded prepropeptides between the different species and families demonstrated that there are various forms of kininogen precursors to release BRPs and they constitute important evidence in amphibian evolution. The pharmacological activities of isolated BRPs exhibited unclear structure–function relationships, and therefore the scope for drug discovery and development is limited. However, their diversity shows new insights into biotechnological applications and, as a result, comprehensive and systematic studies of the physiological and pharmacological activities of BRPs from amphibian skin secretion are needed in the future. PMID:25793726

  14. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  15. The development of the friction coefficient inspection equipment for skin using a load cell.

    PubMed

    Song, Han Wook; Park, Yon Kyu; Lee, Sung Jun; Woo, Sam Yong; Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2008-01-01

    The skin is an indispensible organ for human because it contributes to the metabolism using its own biochemical functions as well as it protects the human body from the exterior stimuli. Recently, the friction coefficient have been used as the decision index of the progress for the bacterial aliments in the field of the skin physiology and the importance of friction coefficient have been increased in the skin care market because of the needs of the well being times. In addition, the usage of friction coefficient is known to have the big discrimination ability in classification of human constitutions, which is utilized in the alternative medicine. In this study, we designed a system which used the multi axes load cell and hemi-circular probe and tried to measure the friction coefficient of hand skins repeatedly. Using this system, the relative repeatability error for the measurement of the friction coefficient was below 4 %. The coefficient is not concerned in curvatures of tips. Using this system, we will try to establish the standard for classification of constitutions.

  16. Skin-Attachable, Stretchable Electrochemical Sweat Sensor for Glucose and pH Detection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Yun; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Lee, Geumbee; Oh, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hanchan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2018-04-25

    As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate. For the detection of glucose and pH, CoWO 4 /CNT and polyaniline/CNT nanocomposites were coated onto the CNT-AuNS electrodes, respectively. A reference electrode was prepared via chlorination of silver nanowires. Encapsulation of the stretchable sensor with sticky silbione led to a skin-attachable sweat sensor. Our sensor showed high performance with sensitivities of 10.89 μA mM -1 cm -2 and 71.44 mV pH -1 for glucose and pH, respectively, with mechanical stability up to 30% stretching and air stability for 10 days. The sensor also showed good adhesion even to wet skin, allowing the detection of glucose and pH in sweat from running while being attached onto the skin. This work suggests the application of our stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor to health management as a high-performance healthcare wearable device.

  17. Terahertz time-lapse imaging of hydration in physiological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David B.; Taylor, Zachary D.; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Sung, Shijun; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.

    2011-02-01

    This study describes terahertz (THz) imaging of hydration changes in physiological tissues with high water concentration sensitivity. A fast-scanning, pulsed THz imaging system (centered at 525 GHz; 125 GHz bandwidth) was utilized to acquire a 35 mm x 35 mm field-of-view with 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm pixels in less than two minutes. THz time-lapsed images were taken on three sample systems: (1) a simple binary system of water evaporating from a polypropylene towel, (2) the accumulation of fluid at the site of a sulfuric acid burn on ex vivo porcine skin, and (3) the evaporative dehydration of an ex vivo porcine cornea. The diffusion-regulating behavior of corneal tissue is elucidated, and the correlation of THz reflectivity with tissue hydration is measured using THz spectroscopy on four ex vivo corneas. We conclude that THz imaging can discern small differences in the distribution of water in physiological tissues and is a good candidate for burn and corneal imaging.

  18. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  19. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  20. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  1. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  2. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  3. Effects of racing games on risky driving behaviour, and the significance of personality and physiological data.

    PubMed

    Deng, Mingming; Chan, Alan H S; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Racing games have emerged as top-selling products in the video and computer game industry. The effect of playing racing games on the inclination of gamers to take risks has been investigated. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the impact of personality traits on the effects of playing racing games on risk-taking inclination was examined. The Vienna Test System, which includes the Eysenck Personality Profile Test and the Vienna Risk-Taking Test, was used to measure risk-taking inclination and risk-taking while driving. Experiment 2 was designed and conducted to analyse the effects of different intensity levels of car racing games on risk-taking inclination, and to study the relationship between physiological data and risk-taking inclination. Physiological data on skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure were measured with the NeuroDyne System. Participants playing a racing game were more inclined to take risks in critical road traffic situations than those playing a neutral game. The adventurousness dimension of the Eysenck Personality Profile Test correlated significantly positively with risk-taking inclination. More importantly, the effect of the intensity level of a racing game on risk-taking inclination was significant. The higher the intensity level of the racing game, the higher the risk-taking inclination while driving. The effect of intensity level of the racing game on skin conductance was significantly positive. Skin conductance correlated significantly positively with risk-taking inclination. The effect of playing racing games on risk-taking inclination is linked to personality and physiological data. Some recommendations are proposed as a result of this study for racing game management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Physiology-based face recognition in the thermal infrared spectrum.

    PubMed

    Buddharaju, Pradeep; Pavlidis, Ioannis T; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Bazakos, Mike

    2007-04-01

    The current dominant approaches to face recognition rely on facial characteristics that are on or over the skin. Some of these characteristics have low permanency can be altered, and their phenomenology varies significantly with environmental factors (e.g., lighting). Many methodologies have been developed to address these problems to various degrees. However, the current framework of face recognition research has a potential weakness due to its very nature. We present a novel framework for face recognition based on physiological information. The motivation behind this effort is to capitalize on the permanency of innate characteristics that are under the skin. To establish feasibility, we propose a specific methodology to capture facial physiological patterns using the bioheat information contained in thermal imagery. First, the algorithm delineates the human face from the background using the Bayesian framework. Then, it localizes the superficial blood vessel network using image morphology. The extracted vascular network produces contour shapes that are characteristic to each individual. The branching points of the skeletonized vascular network are referred to as Thermal Minutia Points (TMPs) and constitute the feature database. To render the method robust to facial pose variations, we collect for each subject to be stored in the database five different pose images (center, midleft profile, left profile, midright profile, and right profile). During the classification stage, the algorithm first estimates the pose of the test image. Then, it matches the local and global TMP structures extracted from the test image with those of the corresponding pose images in the database. We have conducted experiments on a multipose database of thermal facial images collected in our laboratory, as well as on the time-gap database of the University of Notre Dame. The good experimental results show that the proposed methodology has merit, especially with respect to the problem of

  5. Physiological strain of stock car drivers during competitive racing.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Lara A; Ferguson, David P; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    Heat strain experienced by motorsport athletes competing in National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) may be significant enough to impair performance or even result in a life-threatening accident. There is a need to carefully quantify heat strain during actual NASCAR race competitions in order to faithfully represent the magnitude of the problem and conceptualize future mitigation practices. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the thermoregulatory and physiological strain associated with competitive stock car driving. Eight male stock car drivers (29.0±10.0yr; 176.2±3.3cm, 80.6±15.7kg) participated in sanctioned stock car races. Physiological measurements included intestinal core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and body mass before and after completion of the race. Pre-race Tc was 38.1±0.1°C which increased to 38.6±0.2°C post-race (p=0.001). Tsk increased from 36.1±0.2°C pre-race to 37.3±0.3°C post-race (p=0.001) whereas the core-to-skin temperature gradient decreased from a pre-race value of 2.0±0.3°C to 1.3±0.3°C post-race (p=0.005). HRs post-race were 80±0.1% of the drivers' age-predicted maximum HR. Physiological Strain Index (PSI) post-race was 4.9, which indicates moderate strain. Drivers' thermal sensation based on the ASHRAE Scale increased from 1.3±0.5 to 2.8±0.4, and their perception of exertion (RPE) responses also increased from 8.4±1.6 to 13.9±1.8 after competition. Heat strain associated with competitive stock car racing is significant. These findings suggest the need for heat mitigation practices and provide evidence that motorsport should consider strategies to become heat acclimatized to better meet the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular challenges of motorsport competition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Eye involvement in neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Baier, M; Pitz, S

    2016-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) are characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with irregular penetrance and a broad spectrum of different clinical phenotypes. There are large variations in the age of onset, progression and prognosis. Symptoms are often manifested early in childhood. Characteristics which the two main forms NF1 and NF2 have in common are a positive family history, characteristic skin alterations, such as café au lait macules, axillary or inguinal freckling and neural tumors such as neurofibroma and optic glioma (NF1) as well as (bilateral) vestibular schwannomas (NF2). An interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary for the diagnostics and therapy.

  7. Children's Skin Conductance Reactivity as a Mechanism of Risk in the Context of Parental Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Keller, Peggy S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children's physiological reactivity was examined as a moderator of relations between parental dysphoria and child adjustment problems, addressing gaps in the study of child characteristics as risk processes. Method: One hundred fifty-seven children (86 boys, 71 girls) were assessed twice over a two-year interval. Skin conductance level…

  8. Matching the skin barrier to the skin type.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hyacinth; North, Jacqui; Davenport, Rebecca; Williams, Julia

    Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common (Herlufsson et al, 2006; Williams et al, 2010), and can interfere with the security of stoma products. Stoma patients are reliant on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Bekkers et al (1996) highlighted that, if the peristomal skin becomes damaged, it not only affects the person physically, but also psychologically, ultimately prolonging rehabilitation and adaptation to the stoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintaining skin integrity is a basic and essential skill in ensuring good stoma management. This article explores the assessment of four stoma patients, highlighting the importance of matching their skin type with their skin barrier for optimum skin protection. The patients have kindly agreed for their case studies to be published as a means of informing others. All names have been changed in line with Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) guidelines to maintain patient confidentiality. This article was originally presented at the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists' (WCET) annual conference in 2010, receiving first prize at poster presentations.

  9. Physiological Responses to Salinity Vary with Proximity to the Ocean in a Coastal Amphibian.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Brusch, George A; Hopkins, Zoë M; French, Susannah S

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater organisms are increasingly exposed to elevated salinity in their habitats, presenting physiological challenges to homeostasis. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to osmotic stress and yet are often subject to high salinity in a variety of inland and coastal environments around the world. Here, we examine the physiological responses to elevated salinity of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) inhabiting a coastal stream on the Pacific coast of North America and compare the physiological responses to salinity stress of newts living in close proximity to the ocean with those of newts living farther upstream. Although elevated salinity significantly affected the osmotic (body weight, plasma osmolality), stress (corticosterone), and immune (bactericidal ability) responses of newts, animals found closer to the ocean were generally less reactive to salt stress than those found farther upstream. Our results provide possible evidence for some physiological tolerance in this species to elevated salinity in coastal environments. As freshwater environments become increasingly saline and more stressful, understanding the physiological tolerances of vulnerable groups such as amphibians will become increasingly important to our understanding of their abilities to respond, to adapt, and, ultimately, to survive.

  10. Skin sensitivity and skin microbiota: Is there a link?

    PubMed

    Seite, Sophie; Misery, Laurent

    2018-05-21

    Sensitive skin is defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, accompanied or not by erythema, in response to stimuli which normally should not provoke such sensations and that cannot be linked to skin disease. Even if its pathophysiology is not completely known, hyper-reactivity of the cutaneous nervous system associated with an abnormal skin barrier has been hypothesized as a primary culprit including more recently a role of the cutaneous microbiota. The objective of this short review is to discuss the relationship between the skin microbiota, skin sensitivity and the skin barrier function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution and permeability of capillaries at the skin of the conception vessel and the governor vessel in healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Guo, Yi; Guo, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Sai; Pan, Ping

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the distribution and permeability of blood vessels on the Conception Vessel and the Governor Vessel in the physiological state. Evans blue (EB) solution was injected into the marginal ear vein of healthy rabbits. Three hours after injection, the rabbits were sacrificed and the skin on the Conception Vessel and the Governor Vessel and the corresponding bilateral non-channels was collected. EB was extracted with 7:3 acetone: physiological saline, and the absorbance of EB at each skin tissue was measured with a spectrophotometer. The A value of EB absorbance at the Conception Vessel on the abdominal skin was lower than that of the corresponding bilateral non-channels with a statistically significant difference (P< 0.01). The A value of EB absorbance at the Governor Vessel on the back was higher than that of the corresponding bilateral non-channels (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the A value of EB absorbance between the bilateral non-channels of the abdomen and the back (P > 0.05). There were differences in capillary distribution and permeability between the Conception Vessel, the Governor Vessel and the corresponding bilateral non-meridians.

  12. Skin oxygen tension is improved by immersion in oxygen-enriched water.

    PubMed

    Reading, S A; Yeomans, M; Levesque, C

    2013-12-01

    The perceived health and physiologic functioning of skin depends on adequate oxygen availability. Economical and easily used therapeutic approaches to increase skin oxygenation could improve the subjective appearance of the skin as well as support the management of some cutaneous conditions related to chronic hypoxic ischaemia (e.g. ulcerative wounds). We have tested the hypothesis that the O2 partial pressure of skin (PskO2 ) increases during immersion in water enriched with high levels of dissolved oxygen. A commercially available device was used to produce water containing 45 to 65 mg L(-1) of dissolved O2 . Young adults (YA; n = 7), older adults (OA; n = 13) and older adults with diabetes (OAD; n = 11) completed different experiments that required them to immerse their feet in tap water (<2 mg L(-1) of O2 ; control) or O2 -enriched water (O2 -H2 O; experimental) for 30 min. Transcutaneous oximetry was used to measure PskO2 for 20 min pre- and post-immersion. Pre-immersion mean (standard deviation) PskO2 on the plantar surface of the big toe was 75 (10), 67 (10) and 65 (10) mmHg in YA, OA and OAD, respectively. Post-immersion PskO2 was 244 (25), 193 (28) and 205 (28) mmHg for the same groups. We also show that post-immersion PskO2 varies by location and with advancing age. Water is an effective vehicle for transporting dissolved O2 across the skin surface and could be used as a basis for development of economical therapeutic approaches that improve skin oxygen tension to support skin health and function. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Multiple Days of Heat Exposure on Firefighters' Work Performance and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Vincent, Grace; Tran, Jacqueline; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulated effect of ambient heat on the performance of, and physiological and perceptual responses to, intermittent, simulated wildfire fighting tasks over three consecutive days. Firefighters (n = 36) were matched and allocated to either the CON (19°C) or HOT (33°C) condition. They performed three days of intermittent, self-paced simulated firefighting work, interspersed with physiological testing. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area) to determine work performance. Participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion and thermal sensation after each task. Heart rate, core temperature (Tc), and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded continuously throughout the simulation. Fluids were consumed ad libitum. Urine volume was measured throughout, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. All food and fluid consumption was recorded. There was no difference in work output between experimental conditions. However, significant variation in performance responses between individuals was observed. All measures of thermal stress were elevated in the HOT, with core and skin temperature reaching, on average, 0.24 ± 0.08°C and 2.81 ± 0.20°C higher than the CON group. Participants' doubled their fluid intake in the HOT condition, and this was reflected in the USG scores, where the HOT participants reported significantly lower values. Heart rate was comparable between conditions at nearly all time points, however the peak heart rate reached each circuit was 7 ± 3% higher in the CON trial. Likewise, RPE was slightly elevated in the CON trial for the majority of tasks. Participants' work output was comparable between the CON and HOT conditions, however the performance change over time varied significantly between individuals. It is likely that the increased fluid replacement in the heat, in concert with frequent rest breaks and task rotation, assisted with the regulation of physiological responses

  14. East Indian Sandalwood and alpha-santalol odor increase physiological and self-rated arousal in humans.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Eva; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2006-07-01

    In Ayurvedic medicine, East Indian Sandalwood is an important remedy for the treatment of both somatic and mental disorders. In this investigation, the effects of inhalation of East Indian Sandalwood essential oil and its main compound, alpha-santalol, on human physiological parameters (blood oxygen saturation, respiration rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, surface electromyogram, and blood pressure) and self-ratings of arousal (alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation and vigor) were studied in healthy volunteers. Compared to either an odorless placebo or alpha-santalol, Sandalwood oil elevated pulse rate, skin conductance level, and systolic blood pressure. alpha-Santalol, however, elicited higher ratings of attentiveness and mood than did Sandalwood oil or the placebo. Correlation analyses revealed that these effects are mainly due to perceived odor quality. The results suggest a relation between differences in perceived odor quality and differences in arousal level.

  15. The effect of skin fatty acids on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Yvonne; Ohlsen, Knut; Donat, Stefanie; Engelmann, Susanne; Kusch, Harald; Albrecht, Dirk; Cartron, Michael; Hurd, Alexander; Foster, Simon J

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of the human nose and skin. Human skin fatty acids, in particular cis-6-hexadecenoic acid (C-6-H), have high antistaphylococcal activity and can inhibit virulence determinant production. Here, we show that sub-MIC levels of C-6-H result in induction of increased resistance. The mechanism(s) of C-6-H activity was investigated by combined transcriptome and proteome analyses. Proteome analysis demonstrated a pleiotropic effect of C-6-H on virulence determinant production. In response to C-6-H, transcriptomics revealed altered expression of over 500 genes, involved in many aspects of virulence and cellular physiology. The expression of toxins (hla, hlb, hlgBC) was reduced, whereas that of host defence evasion components (cap, sspAB, katA) was increased. In particular, members of the SaeRS regulon had highly reduced expression, and the use of specific mutants revealed that the effect on toxin production is likely mediated via SaeRS.

  16. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  17. Predicting musically induced emotions from physiological inputs: linear and neural network models.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Vempala, Naresh N; Sandstrom, Gillian M

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music often leads to physiological responses. Do these physiological responses contain sufficient information to infer emotion induced in the listener? The current study explores this question by attempting to predict judgments of "felt" emotion from physiological responses alone using linear and neural network models. We measured five channels of peripheral physiology from 20 participants-heart rate (HR), respiration, galvanic skin response, and activity in corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major facial muscles. Using valence and arousal (VA) dimensions, participants rated their felt emotion after listening to each of 12 classical music excerpts. After extracting features from the five channels, we examined their correlation with VA ratings, and then performed multiple linear regression to see if a linear relationship between the physiological responses could account for the ratings. Although linear models predicted a significant amount of variance in arousal ratings, they were unable to do so with valence ratings. We then used a neural network to provide a non-linear account of the ratings. The network was trained on the mean ratings of eight of the 12 excerpts and tested on the remainder. Performance of the neural network confirms that physiological responses alone can be used to predict musically induced emotion. The non-linear model derived from the neural network was more accurate than linear models derived from multiple linear regression, particularly along the valence dimension. A secondary analysis allowed us to quantify the relative contributions of inputs to the non-linear model. The study represents a novel approach to understanding the complex relationship between physiological responses and musically induced emotion.

  18. Electric Stimulus Opens Intercellular Spaces in Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Susumu; Kimura, Yuki; Mikami, Aya; Shiota, Kanako; Toyoda, Mao; Tamura, Atsushi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kogure, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Iontophoresis is a technology for transdermal delivery of ionic small medicines by faint electricity. Since iontophoresis can noninvasively deliver charged molecules into the skin, this technology could be a useful administration method that may enhance patient comfort. Previously, we succeeded in the transdermal penetration of positively charged liposomes (diameters: 200–400 nm) encapsulating insulin by iontophoresis (Kajimoto, K., Yamamoto, M., Watanabe, M., Kigasawa, K., Kanamura, K., Harashima, H., and Kogure, K. (2011) Int. J. Pharm. 403, 57–65). However, the mechanism by which these liposomes penetrated the skin was difficult to define based on general knowledge of principles such as electro-repulsion and electro-osmosis. In the present study, we confirmed that rigid nanoparticles could penetrate into the epidermis by iontophoresis. We further found that levels of the gap junction protein connexin 43 protein significantly decreased after faint electric stimulus (ES) treatment, although occludin, CLD-4, and ZO-1 levels were unchanged. Moreover, connexin 43 phosphorylation and filamentous actin depolymerization in vivo and in vitro were observed when permeation of charged liposomes through intercellular spaces was induced by ES. Ca2+ inflow into cells was promoted by ES with charged liposomes, while a protein kinase C inhibitor prevented ES-induced permeation of macromolecules. Consequently, we demonstrate that ES treatment with charged liposomes induced dissociation of intercellular junctions via cell signaling pathways. These findings suggest that ES could be used to regulate skin physiology. PMID:24318878

  19. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jian-Nan; Huang, Song; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent. PMID:26903706

  20. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jian-Nan; Huang, Song; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent.

  1. Parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care to their newborn infant—Part 1: A qualitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Eriksson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care (SSC) to their newborn infants. Background SSC care for newborn infants has been reported to have positive physiological and psychological benefits to the infants and their parents. No systematic review regarding parental experiences has been identified. Design In this first part of a meta-study, the findings of a systematic literature review on parental experience of SSC care are presented. Data sources Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in a bibliography of the topic. Review methods After a quality-appraisal process, data from the original articles were extracted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The systematic and manual searches led to the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from nine countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. Two themes that characterized the provision of SSC emerged: a restoring experience and an energy-draining experience. Conclusion This review has added scientific and systematic knowledge about parental experiences of providing SSC. Further research about fathers’ experiences is recommended. PMID:25319746

  2. Probe pressure effects on human skin diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Tunnell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy are popular research techniques for noninvasive disease diagnostics. Most systems include an optical fiber probe that transmits and collects optical spectra in contact with the suspected lesion. The purpose of this study is to investigate probe pressure effects on human skin spectroscopic measurements. We conduct an in-vivo experiment on human skin tissue to study the short-term (<2 s) and long-term (>30 s) effects of probe pressure on diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements. Short-term light probe pressure (P0 < 9 mN∕mm2) effects are within 0 ± 10% on all physiological properties extracted from diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements, and less than 0 ± 5% for diagnostically significant physiological properties. Absorption decreases with site-specific variations due to blood being compressed out of the sampled volume. Reduced scattering coefficient variation is site specific. Intrinsic fluorescence shows a large standard error, although no specific pressure-related trend is observed. Differences in tissue structure and morphology contribute to site-specific probe pressure effects. Therefore, the effects of pressure can be minimized when the pressure is small and applied for a short amount of time; however, long-term and large pressures induce significant distortions in measured spectra. PMID:21280899

  3. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    PubMed

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper.

  4. Age-related changes in the proteoglycans of human skin. Specific cleavage of decorin to yield a major catabolic fragment in adult skin.

    PubMed

    Carrino, David A; Onnerfjord, Patrik; Sandy, John D; Cs-Szabo, Gabriella; Scott, Paul G; Sorrell, J Michael; Heinegård, Dick; Caplan, Arnold I

    2003-05-09

    Dramatic changes occur in skin as a function of age, including changes in morphology, physiology, and mechanical properties. Changes in extracellular matrix molecules also occur, and these changes likely contribute to the overall age-related changes in the physical properties of skin. The major proteoglycans detected in extracts of human skin are decorin and versican. In addition, adult human skin contains a truncated form of decorin, whereas fetal skin contains virtually undetectable levels of this truncated decorin. Analysis of this molecule, herein referred to as decorunt, indicates that it is a catabolic fragment of decorin rather than a splice variant. With antibody probes to the core protein, decorunt is found to lack the carboxyl-terminal portion of decorin. Further analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry shows that the carboxyl terminus of decorunt is at Phe(170) of decorin. This result indicates that decorunt represents the amino-terminal 43% of the mature decorin molecule. Such a structure is inconsistent with alternative splicing of decorin and suggests that decorunt is a catabolic fragment of decorin. A neoepitope antiserum, anti-VRKVTF, was generated against the carboxyl terminus of decorunt. This antiserum does not recognize intact decorin in any skin proteoglycan sample tested on immunoblots but recognizes every sample of decorunt tested. The results with anti-VRKVTF confirm the identification of the carboxyl terminus of decorunt. Analysis of collagen binding by surface plasmon resonance indicates that the affinity of decorunt for type I collagen is 100-fold less than that of decorin. This observation correlates with the structural analysis of decorunt, in that it lacks regions of decorin previously shown to be important for interaction with type I collagen. The detection of a catabolic fragment of decorin suggests the existence of a specific catabolic pathway for this proteoglycan. Because of the

  5. Development of a Rat Model to Investigate Contributions of Anatomic and Physiologic Determinants of in Vivo Skin Permeation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    physiologic states. Physiologic perturbations were performed to test the sensitivity of the model system to detect effects of minoxidil -mediated... Minoxidil , leukotriene D̂ , tape stripping of stratum corneum, and topical ether-ethanol experiments produced statistically significant increases (52 to... Minoxidil 68 B. Phenylephrine 69 C. Leukotriene D̂ 69 D. Ether-Ethanol 70 E. Tape stripping 76 8. Data analysis 77 Vlll RESULTS 80 1

  6. Validation of the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Quesada, José Ignacio Priego; de Anda, Rosa María Cibrián Ortiz; Soriano, Pedro Pérez; Palmer, Rosario Salvador; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René Michel; Annaheim, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to lack of validation. The aim of this work was to validate the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures against a dedicated database containing 43 different human experiments representing a wide range of conditions. The validation was conducted based on root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) and bias. The thermophysiological model by Fiala showed a good precision when predicting core and mean skin temperature (rmsd 0.26 and 0.92 °C, respectively) and also local skin temperatures for most body sites (average rmsd for local skin temperatures 1.32 °C). However, an increased deviation of the predictions was observed for the forehead skin temperature (rmsd of 1.63 °C) and for the thigh during exercising exposures (rmsd of 1.41 °C). Possible reasons for the observed deviations are lack of information on measurement circumstances (hair, head coverage interference) or an overestimation of the sweat evaporative cooling capacity for the head and thigh, respectively. This work has highlighted the importance of collecting details about the clothing worn and how and where the sensors were attached to the skin for achieving more precise results in the simulations.

  7. Dermatoxin and phylloxin from the waxy monkey frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagei: cloning of precursor cDNAs and structural characterization from lyophilized skin secretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-07-15

    Amphibian skin is a morphologically, biochemically and physiologically complex organ that performs the wide range of functions necessary for amphibian survival. Here we describe the primary structures of representatives of two novel classes of amphibian skin antimicrobials, dermatoxin and phylloxin, from the skin secretion of Phyllomedusa sauvagei, deduced from their respective precursor encoding cDNAs cloned from a lyophilized skin secretion library. A degenerate primer, designed to a highly conserved domain in the 5'-untranslated region of analogous peptide precursor cDNAs from Phyllomedusa bicolor, was employed in a 3'-RACE reaction. Peptides with molecular masses coincident with precursor-deduced mature toxin peptides were identified in LC/MS fractions of skin secretion and primary structures were confirmed by MS/MS fragmentation. This integrated experimental approach can thus rapidly expedite the primary structural characterization of amphibian skin peptides in a manner that circumvents specimen sacrifice whilst preserving robustness of scientific data.

  8. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Kellogg, Dean L; Johnson, John M

    2015-04-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography. Data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure). Pharmacological agents were administered via intradermal microdialysis. We prepared four skin sites: one site was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 34°C (32 ± 10%CVCmax) one site was heated to 39°C (38 ± 11%CVCmax); and two sites were cooled, one to 29°C (22 ± 7%CVCmax) and the other 24°C (16 ± 4%CVCmax). After 20 min at these temperatures to allow stabilization of skin blood flow, isoproterenol was perfused in concentrations of 10, 30, 100, and 300 μM. Each concentration was perfused for 15 min. Relative to the CVC responses to isoproterenol at the thermoneutral skin temperature (34°C) (+21 ± 10%max), low skin temperatures reduced (at 29°C) (+17 ± 6%max) or abolished (at 24°C) (+1 ± 5%max) the vasodilator response, and warm (39°C) skin temperatures enhanced the vasodilator response (+40 ± 9%max) to isoproterenol. These data indicate that β-adrenergic function was influenced by local skin temperature. This finding raises the possibility that a part of the vasoconstrictor response to direct skin cooling could include reduced background β-receptor mediated vasodilation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  10. [Portable multi-purpose device for monitoring of physiological informations].

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Togawa, T

    1983-05-01

    Unconstrained system that measures physiological information as skin temperatures and heart rate per unit time of a human subject was developed. The system contained portable device included memory control unit, instrumentation unit, timer and batteries, read-out unit, test unit and verify unit. Total number of data and channels, and interval were selected by switches in the memory control unit. The data from the instrumentation unit were transferred to memory control unit and stored in the Erasable Programmable ROM (EPROM). After measurement, EPROM chip was taken off the memory control unit and put on the read-out unit which transferred the data to the microcomputer. The data were directly calculated and analyzed by microcomputer. In application of the instrumentation unit, 8-channel skin thermometer was developed and tested. After amplification, 8 analog signals were multiplexed and converted into the binary codes. The digital signals were sequentially transferred to memory control unit and stored in the EPROM under controlled signal. The accuracy of the system is determined primarily by the accuracy of the sensor of instrumentation unit. The overall accuracy of 8-channel skin thermometer is conservatively stated within 0.1 degree C. This may prove to be useful in providing an objective measurement of human subjects, and can be used in studying environmental effect for human body and sport activities in a large population setting.

  11. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Physiological Strain in French Vineyard Workers Wearing Protective Equipment to Conduct Re-Entry Tasks in Humid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Grimbuhler, Sonia; Viel, Jean-François

    2018-06-19

    The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) plays an important role in reducing exposure to pesticides in vineyard farming activities, including re-entry tasks. However, discomfort from clothing systems may increase the physiological burden on workers. We compared the physiological burdens of vineyard workers wearing three different types of PPE during canopy management in field humid conditions while accounting for occupational, climatic, and geographical environments. The study was conducted in the Bordeaux vineyards of southern France during June 2012. A total of 42 workers from seven vineyards consented to field observations. The following PPE garments were randomly allocated: HF Estufa polyamide (Brisa®), Tyvek® Classic Plus, and Tychem® C Standard. Participant sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Skin temperature and heart rate were monitored continuously using portable devices. Multivariate multilevel linear regression models were performed to account for the hierarchical structure of data. No significant difference was found for mean skin temperature during work. Regardless of the cardiac strain parameter considered, the Tyvek® Classic Plus garment produced the poorest results (P ≤ 0.03). Under the very humid conditions encountered during the field study, the thinness and breathability of the Tyvek® Classic Plus garment resulted in undergarment humidity, imposing additional physiological burden on vineyard workers. These results confirm that the idea of using generic coveralls in any farming activity is unsuitable. Compromises should be created between physiological costs and protection, depending on the agricultural task performed, the crop grown, and the environmental conditions encountered.

  13. Skin autofluorescence reflects individual seasonal UV exposure, skin photodamage and skin cancer development in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Hædersdal, Merete; Wulf, Hans Christian Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin cancers varies among organ transplant recipients (OTRs). To improve individual risk assessment of skin cancer, objectively quantified skin photodamage is needed. We measured personal UVR-exposure dose in OTRs and assessed the relation between individual UVR exposure, skin cancer and objectively measured photodamage in terms of skin autofluorescence, pigmentation, and black light-evaluated solar lentigines. Danish OTRs with (n=15) and without a history of skin cancer (n=15) kept sun diaries from May to September and wore personal dosimeters recording time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED). Photodamage was quantified as skin autofluorescence with excitation at 370nm (F370) and 430nm (F430), skin pigmentation (pigment protection factor, PPF), and black light-evaluated solar lentigines. OTRs with skin cancer received a higher UVR dose than OTRs without skin cancer (median 116 SED vs. 67 SED, p=0.07) and UVR exposure doses were correlated with increased PPF (p=0.052) and F370 on the shoulder (F370 shoulder ) (p=0.04). We found that skin cancer was associated with F370 shoulder (OR 10.53, CI 3.3-31,938; p=0.018) and time since transplantation (OR 1.34, CI 0.95-1.91, p=0.097). A cut-off at 7.2 arbitrary units, 89% of OTRs with skin cancer had F370 shoulder values above 7.2 arbitrary units and F370 shoulder was additionally related to patient age (p=0.09) and black light-evaluated solar lentigines (p=0.04). F370 autofluorescence indicates objectively measured photodamage and may be used for individual risk assessment of skin cancer development in OTRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Physiological patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared with patterns while reading Sanskrit and a modern language.

    PubMed

    Travis, F; Olson, T; Egenes, T; Gupta, H K

    2001-07-01

    This study tested the prediction that reading Vedic Sanskrit texts, without knowledge of their meaning, produces a distinct physiological state. We measured EEG, breath rate, heart rate, and skin conductance during: (1) 15-min Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice; (2) 15-min reading verses of the Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit; and (3) 15-min reading the same verses translated in German, Spanish, or French. The two reading conditions were randomly counterbalanced, and subjects filled out experience forms between each block to reduce carryover effects. Skin conductance levels significantly decreased during both reading Sanskrit and TM practice, and increased slightly during reading a modern language. Alpha power and coherence were significantly higher when reading Sanskrit and during TM practice, compared to reading modern languages. Similar physiological patterns when reading Sanskrit and during practice of the TM technique suggests that the state gained during TM practice may be integrated with active mental processes by reading Sanskrit.

  15. Ionic skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Keplinger, Christoph; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-12-03

    Electronic skins (i.e., stretchable sheets of distributed sensors) report signals using electrons, whereas natural skins report signals using ions. Here, ionic conductors are used to create a new type of sensory sheet, called "ionic skin". Ionic skins are highly stretchable, transparent, and biocompatible. They readily measure strains from 1% to 500%, and pressures as low as 1 kPa. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Battery-free, stretchable optoelectronic systems for wireless optical characterization of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Araki, Hitoshi; Chiarelli, Antonio M.; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Sheng, Xing; Liu, Yuhao; Lee, Jung Woo; Jang, Kyung-In; Heo, Seung Yun; Cho, Kyoungyeon; Luo, Hongying; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Kim, Joonhee; Yan, Lingqing; Feng, Xue; Xu, Sheng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in materials, mechanics, and electronic device design are rapidly establishing the foundations for health monitoring technologies that have “skin-like” properties, with options in chronic (weeks) integration with the epidermis. The resulting capabilities in physiological sensing greatly exceed those possible with conventional hard electronic systems, such as those found in wrist-mounted wearables, because of the intimate skin interface. However, most examples of such emerging classes of devices require batteries and/or hard-wired connections to enable operation. The work reported here introduces active optoelectronic systems that function without batteries and in an entirely wireless mode, with examples in thin, stretchable platforms designed for multiwavelength optical characterization of the skin. Magnetic inductive coupling and near-field communication (NFC) schemes deliver power to multicolored light-emitting diodes and extract digital data from integrated photodetectors in ways that are compatible with standard NFC-enabled platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Examples in the monitoring of heart rate and temporal dynamics of arterial blood flow, in quantifying tissue oxygenation and ultraviolet dosimetry, and in performing four-color spectroscopic evaluation of the skin demonstrate the versatility of these concepts. The results have potential relevance in both hospital care and at-home diagnostics. PMID:27493994

  17. Battery-free, stretchable optoelectronic systems for wireless optical characterization of the skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Salvatore, Giovanni A; Araki, Hitoshi; Chiarelli, Antonio M; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Sheng, Xing; Liu, Yuhao; Lee, Jung Woo; Jang, Kyung-In; Heo, Seung Yun; Cho, Kyoungyeon; Luo, Hongying; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Kim, Joonhee; Yan, Lingqing; Feng, Xue; Xu, Sheng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in materials, mechanics, and electronic device design are rapidly establishing the foundations for health monitoring technologies that have "skin-like" properties, with options in chronic (weeks) integration with the epidermis. The resulting capabilities in physiological sensing greatly exceed those possible with conventional hard electronic systems, such as those found in wrist-mounted wearables, because of the intimate skin interface. However, most examples of such emerging classes of devices require batteries and/or hard-wired connections to enable operation. The work reported here introduces active optoelectronic systems that function without batteries and in an entirely wireless mode, with examples in thin, stretchable platforms designed for multiwavelength optical characterization of the skin. Magnetic inductive coupling and near-field communication (NFC) schemes deliver power to multicolored light-emitting diodes and extract digital data from integrated photodetectors in ways that are compatible with standard NFC-enabled platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Examples in the monitoring of heart rate and temporal dynamics of arterial blood flow, in quantifying tissue oxygenation and ultraviolet dosimetry, and in performing four-color spectroscopic evaluation of the skin demonstrate the versatility of these concepts. The results have potential relevance in both hospital care and at-home diagnostics.

  18. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. PMID:26347269

  19. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included.

  20. Pharmacological induction of skin pigmentation unveils the neuroendocrine circuit regulated by light.

    PubMed

    Bertolesi, Gabriel E; Vazhappilly, Sherene T; Hehr, Carrie L; McFarlane, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Light-regulated skin colour change is an important physiological process in invertebrates and lower vertebrates, and includes daily circadian variation and camouflage (i.e. background adaptation). The photoactivation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in the eye initiates an uncharacterized neuroendocrine circuit that regulates melanin dispersion/aggregation through the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). We developed experimental models of normal or enucleated Xenopus embryos, as well as in situ cultures of skin of isolated dorsal head and tails, to analyse pharmacological induction of skin pigmentation and α-MSH synthesis. Both processes are triggered by a melanopsin inhibitor, AA92593, as well as chloride channel modulators. The AA9253 effect is eye-dependent, while functional data in vivo point to GABAA receptors expressed on pituitary melanotrope cells as the chloride channel blocker target. Based on the pharmacological data, we suggest a neuroendocrine circuit linking mRGCs with α-MSH secretion, which is used normally during background adaptation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow < 0 and of those, 38 were sensitisers.Conclusions. There was no significant difference in the incidence of skin sensitisation above and below the LogKow = 1 threshold. Reaction chemistry considerations could explain the skin sensitisation observed for the 38 sensitisers with a LogKow < 0. The LogKow threshold is a self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  2. Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases in mouse skin via posttranslational mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Staniforth, Vanisree; Huang, Wen-Ching; Aravindaram, Kandan; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2012-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and -9 are known to be overexpressed in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin tissues and contribute to the acceleration of photoaging and the development of skin cancer. But the specific molecular mechanisms that can control or interfere with the expression and regulation of these MMP-2 and -9 activities in skin are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to analyze the suppressive effects of ferulic acid (FA), an abundant phenolic compound present in various dietary and medicinal plants, on UVB radiation-induced MMP-2 and -9 activities in mouse skin. For attenuation of chronic UVB irradiation damage to skin, inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry analysis. However, the in situ suppressive effects of FA did not interfere with the transcription or translation of MMP-2 and -9, suggesting that its action could be mediated via the proteasome pathway. Histological analyses showed that FA attenuates the degradation of collagen fibers, abnormal accumulation of elastic fibers and epidermal hyperplasia induced by UVB, demonstrating the functional and physiological relevance of FA effects in UVB-irradiated skin tissues. Together, our findings provide a novel and increased insight into the in vivo action of FA and suggest a possible clinical application in skin pathophysiological conditions associated with overexpression of MMP-2 and -9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  4. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin Biopsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Skin Biopsy What's in ... en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...

  5. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  6. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy - skin; Skin cancer - biopsy; Melanoma - biopsy; Squamous cell cancer - biopsy; Basal cell cancer - biopsy; Mohs microsurgery ... dermatitis Infection from bacteria or fungus Melanoma Basal cell skin cancer Squamous cell skin cancer

  7. The investigation of the skin characteristics of males focusing on gender differences, skin perception, and skin care habits.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Koji; Akamatsu, Hisashi

    2013-05-01

    Various studies have examined the properties of male skin. However, because these studies mostly involved simple measurement with non-invasive devices, a lack of understanding of the properties of male skin remains. In this study, we focused and investigated not only on simple instrumental measurements but also on gender differences and men's subjective perceptions of skin and daily skin care habits. Barrier function depends on corneocyte maturation level as well as sebum amount. Irrespective of the skin type, a high percentage of male subjects perceived a 'tacky feeling'. However, the percentage of men perceiving a 'shiny feeling' differed by skin type. Furthermore, there was a relationship between skin care habits and skin function. Men who did not perform a daily skincare regimen demonstrated a significantly higher sebum amount and transepidermal water loss value than those who did perform a daily skincare regimen. The results of this study indicate that male skin has two specific characteristics: impaired barrier function because of the excess amount of sebum and a lack of an appropriate skin care regimen because of the 'tacky feeling' caused by excess sebum. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A preliminary study of differentially expressed genes in expanded skin and normal skin: implications for adult skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Liang, Yimin; Sheng, Lingling; Shen, Guoxiong; Liu, Kai; Gu, Bin; Meng, Fanjun; Li, Qingfeng

    2011-03-01

    In adults, severely damaged skin heals by scar formation and cannot regenerate to the original skin structure. However, tissue expansion is an exception, as normal skin regenerates under the mechanical stretch resulting from tissue expansion. This technique has been used clinically for defect repair and organ reconstruction for decades. However, the phenomenon of adult skin regeneration during tissue expansion has caused little attention, and the mechanism of skin regeneration during tissue expansion has not been fully understood. In this study, microarray analysis was performed on expanded human skin and normal human skin. Significant difference was observed in 77 genes, which suggest a network of several integrated cascades, including cytokines, extracellular, cytoskeletal, transmembrane molecular systems, ion or ion channels, protein kinases and transcriptional systems, is involved in the skin regeneration during expansion. Among these, the significant expression of some regeneration related genes, such as HOXA5, HOXB2 and AP1, was the first report in tissue expansion. Data in this study suggest a list of candidate genes, which may help to elucidate the fundamental mechanism of skin regeneration during tissue expansion and which may have implications for postnatal skin regeneration and therapeutic interventions in wound healing.

  9. Fractional Skin Harvesting: Autologous Skin Grafting without Donor-site Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Farinelli, William A.; Jiménez-Lozano, Joel; Franco, Walfre; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Cheung, Evelyn J.; Purschke, Martin; Doukas, Apostolos G.; Anderson, R. Rox

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional autologous skin grafts are associated with significant donor-site morbidity. This study was conducted to determine feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a new strategy for skin grafting based on harvesting small columns of full-thickness skin with minimal donor-site morbidity. Methods: The swine model was used for this study. Hundreds of full-thickness columns of skin tissue (~700 µm diameter) were harvested using a custom-made harvesting device, and then applied directly to excisional skin wounds. Healing in donor and graft sites was evaluated over 3 months by digital photographic measurement of wound size and blinded, computer-aided evaluation of histological features and compared with control wounds that healed by secondary intention or with conventional split-thickness skin grafts (STSG). Results: After harvesting hundreds of skin columns, the donor sites healed rapidly without scarring. These sites reepithelialized within days and were grossly and histologically indistinguishable from normal skin within 7 weeks. By contrast, STSG donor sites required 2 weeks for reepithelialization and retained scar-like characteristics in epidermal and dermal architecture throughout the experiment. Wounds grafted with skin columns resulted in accelerated reepithelialization compared with ungrafted wounds while avoiding the “fish-net” patterning caused by STSG. Conclusion: Full-thickness columns of skin can be harvested in large quantities with negligible long-term donor-site morbidity, and these columns can be applied directly to skin wounds to enhance wound healing. PMID:25289241

  10. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  11. Physiological reactivity to faces via live and video-mediated communication in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Riby, Deborah M; Whittle, Lisa; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth

    2012-01-01

    The human face is a powerful elicitor of emotion, which induces autonomic nervous system responses. In this study, we explored physiological arousal and reactivity to affective facial displays shown in person and through video-mediated communication. We compared measures of physiological arousal and reactivity in typically developing individuals and those with the developmental disorders Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants attended to facial displays of happy, sad, and neutral expressions via live and video-mediated communication. Skin conductance level (SCL) indicated that live faces, but not video-mediated faces, increased arousal, especially for typically developing individuals and those with WS. There was less increase of SCL, and physiological reactivity was comparable for live and video-mediated faces in ASD. In typical development and WS, physiological reactivity was greater for live than for video-mediated communication. Individuals with WS showed lower SCL than typically developing individuals, suggesting possible hypoarousal in this group, even though they showed an increase in arousal for faces. The results are discussed in terms of the use of video-mediated communication with typically and atypically developing individuals and atypicalities of physiological arousal across neurodevelopmental disorder groups.

  12. A Study on the Effects of Sympathetic Skin Response Parameters in Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozhan; Yildiz, Murat; Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Bilgin, Suleyman; Akkus, Selami; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan R; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-03-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), usually observed commonly in females over age 30, is a rheumatic disease accompanied by extensive chronic pain. In the diagnosis of the disease non-objective psychological tests and physiological tests and laboratory test results are evaluated and clinical experiences stand out. However, these tests are insufficient in differentiating FMS with similar diseases that demonstrate symptoms of extensive pain. Thus, objective tests that would help the diagnosis are needed. This study analyzes the effect of sympathetic skin response (SSR) parameters on the auxiliary tests used in FMS diagnosis, the laboratory tests and physiological tests. The study was conducted in Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Turkey with 60 patients diagnosed with FMS for the first time and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. In the study all participants underwent laboratory tests (blood tests), certain physiological tests (pulsation, skin temperature, respiration) and SSR measurements. The test data and SSR parameters obtained were classified using artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, in the ANN framework, where only laboratory and physiological test results were used as input, a simulation result of 96.51 % was obtained, which demonstrated diagnostic accuracy. This data, with the addition of SSR parameter values obtained increased to 97.67 %. This result including SSR parameters - meaning a higher diagnostic accuracy - demonstrated that SSR could be a new auxillary diagnostic method that could be used in the diagnosis of FMS.

  13. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  15. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D--Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysokinski, Daniel; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-04-06

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is involved in almost all skin cancer cases, but on the other hand, it stimulates the production of pre-vitamin D3, whose active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3), plays important physiological functions on binding with its receptor (vitamin D receptor, VDR). UV-induced DNA damages in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts are frequently found in skin cancer and its precursors. Therefore, removing these lesions is essential for the prevention of skin cancer. As UV-induced DNA damages are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), the interaction of 1,25VD3 with NER components can be important for skin cancer transformation. Several studies show that 1,25VD3 protects DNA against damage induced by UV, but the exact mechanism of this protection is not completely clear. 1,25VD3 was also shown to affect cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several signaling pathways, so it can be considered as a potential modulator of the cellular DNA damage response, which is crucial for mutagenesis and cancer transformation. 1,25VD3 was shown to affect DNA repair and potentially NER through decreasing nitrosylation of DNA repair enzymes by NO overproduction by UV, but other mechanisms of the interaction between 1,25VD3 and NER machinery also are suggested. Therefore, the array of NER gene functioning could be analyzed and an appropriate amount of 1.25VD3 could be recommended to decrease UV-induced DNA damage important for skin cancer transformation.

  16. [A case of skin autograft for skin ulcers in ichthyosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijun; Tang, Xueyang

    2017-10-28

    Ichthyosis refers to a group of skin diseases characterized by abnormal keratinization of the epidermis, resulting in dryness, roughness and scale of the skin. A girl with ichthyosis, who presented with skin ulcers and infection of the right dorsal foot, was admitted to our department. An autologous razor-thin skin grafting procedure was performed to repair the skin ulcers after debridement and vacuum sealing drain. After 8 months of follow-up, both the donor and recipient site healed well and there were no newly formed ulcers or infections. Although the skin quality of ichthyosis is poor, the lesion area can still be used as donor or recipient cite.

  17. Skin condition and its relationship to systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Anna; Tworek, Damian; Szewczyk, Karolina; Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Kurmanowska, Zofia; Górski, Paweł; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Piotrowski, Wojciech Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The systemic (extrapulmonary) effects and comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute substantially to its burden. The supposed link between COPD and its systemic effects on distal organs could be due to the low-grade systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the systemic inflammation may influence the skin condition in COPD patients. Forty patients with confirmed diagnosis of COPD and a control group consisting of 30 healthy smokers and 20 healthy never-smokers were studied. Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin sebum content, melanin index, erythema index, and skin temperature were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at the volar forearm of all participants using a multifunctional skin physiology monitor. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were measured in serum using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were significant differences between COPD patients and healthy never-smokers in skin temperature, melanin index, sebum content, and hydration level ( P <0.05), but not for transepidermal water loss and erythema index. No significant difference was noted between COPD patients and smokers in any of the biophysical properties of the skin measured. The mean levels of hsCRP and IL-6 in serum were significantly higher in COPD patients and healthy smokers in comparison with healthy never-smokers. There were significant correlations between skin temperature and serum hsCRP ( R =0.40; P =0.02) as well as skin temperature and serum IL-6 ( R =0.49; P =0.005) in smokers. Stratum corneum hydration correlated significantly with serum TNF-α ( R =0.37; P =0.01) in COPD patients. Differences noted in several skin biophysical properties and biomarkers of systemic inflammation between COPD patients, smokers, and healthy never

  18. Comparison of conventional phototherapy and phototherapy along with Kangaroo mother care on cutaneous bilirubin of neonates with physiological jaundice.

    PubMed

    Goudarzvand, Laleh; Dabirian, Akram; Nourian, Manijeh; Jafarimanesh, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2017-11-27

    One of the adjuvant and desirable therapies is skin contact between mother and baby or Kangaroo mother care (KMC) that is a cheap, accessible, relaxing, noninvasive and easy method. This study aimed to compare the effect of conventional phototherapy method and phototherapy along with KMC on cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice. In this randomized clinical trial, all infants with physiological jaundice who referred for phototherapy to Mofid Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran were selected by convenience sampling based on inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into two groups of conventional phototherapy (n = 35) and phototherapy along with KMC (n = 35). The results showed that there was a significant difference in the average volume of skin bilirubin before treatment with cutaneous bilirubin every 24 h after treatment (p < .001). This significant difference was present in both intervention and control groups. Although the average volume of skin bilirubin every 24 h after treatment was lower in the intervention group than the control group, this difference was not statistically significant (p = .236). Mean duration of hospitalization of infants in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group (2.09 versus 3.03 d, p < .001). Although KMC along with phototherapy has a favorable effect on the reduction of cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice, there are not significant differences in routine care. This may need to do KMC for a longer time (more than 1 h) which must be surveyed in the future studies. KMC was effective in reduction of the duration of hospitalization in jaundiced infants.

  19. Does dietary fluid intake affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, M; Tomova-Simitchieva, T; Dobos, G; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2018-02-02

    Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years. Searches resulted in 216 records, 23 articles were read in full text, and six were included. The mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56 years. Overall the evidence is weak in terms of quantity and methodological quality. Disregarding the methodological limitations a slight increase in stratum corneum and "deep" skin hydration was observed after additional water intake, particularly in individuals with lower prior water consumption. Reductions of clinical signs of dryness and roughness were observed. The extensibility and elasticity of the skin increased slightly. Unclear associations were shown between water intake and transepidermal water loss, sebum content, and skin surface pH. Additional dietary water intake may increase stratum corneum hydration. The underlying biological mechanism for this possible relationship is unknown. Whether this association also exists in aged subjects is unclear. Research is needed to answer the question whether increased fluid intake decreases signs of dry skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. On skin expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-reported skin colour and erythemal sensitivity vs. objectively measured constitutive skin colour in an African population with predominantly dark skin.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Wilkes, Marcus; du Plessis, Johan L; Reeder, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    Skin colour is an important factor in skin-related diseases. Accurate determination of skin colour is important for disease prevention and supporting healthy sun behaviour, yet such data are lacking for dark skin types. Self-perceived, natural skin colour and sun-skin reaction were compared with objectively measured skin colour among an African population with predominantly dark skin. Unexposed skin of 556 adults (70.1% Black) was measured with a reflectance spectrophotometer to calculate an individual typology angle (°ITA). Participants reported self-perceived skin colour and erythemal sensitivity. There was a strong, positive monotonic correlation between self-reported and measured skin colour (Spearman ρ = 0.6438, P < 0.001), but only a weak correlation between self-reported erythemal sensitivity and measured skin colour (Spearman ρ = 0.2713, P < 0.001). Self-report biases in underestimation and overestimation of skin colour were evident. Many participants with 'dark brown' and 'black' skin had difficulty in classifying erythemal sensitivity. In Africa, self-reported skin colour could potentially be used in lieu of spectrophotometer measurements, but options for questions on sunburn and tanning require suitable adjustment. Our study provides evidence of range in °ITA values among residents in Africa and reinforces previous results that self-report may be reliable for determining skin colour, but not erythemal sensitivity, for dark skin individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nano titanium dioxide photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration: A potential hazard of TiO{sub 2} on skin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lu, Naihao; Zhu Zhening; Zhao Xuqi

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a prevalent post-translational modification which occurs as a result of oxidative and nitrative stress, it may be directly involved in the onset and/or progression of diseases. Considering the existence of nano titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in environment and sunscreen products along with the high content of nitrite in sweat, the UV-exposed skin may be a significant target for the photosensitized damage. In this paper, tyrosine nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was initiated in the UV-irradiated reaction mixture containing 0.2-3.0 mg/ml of three commercially nano TiO{sub 2} products and 0.25-1.0 mM NO{sub 2}{sup -}. It wasmore » found that anatase TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} showed prominent photocatalytic activity on promoting the formation of protein tyrosine nitration, and the optimum condition for the reaction was around physiological pH. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic effect of rutile on protein tyrosine nitration was subtle. The potential physiological significance of nano TiO{sub 2}-photocatalytic protein nitration was also demonstrated in mouse skin homogenate. Although the relationship between photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration and chronic cutaneous diseases needs further study, the toxicity of nano TiO{sub 2} to the skin disease should be paid more attention in the production and utilization process.« less

  4. Ambulatory recording of physiological variables during an ascent of Mt Aconcagua.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dale R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive case study was to use an ambulatory biosensor system to capture data in real time in a harsh environment and to obtain continuous physiological measurements during an ascent of Argentina's Mt Aconcagua, the highest point in the Western Hemisphere. Between the 5800-m-high camp and the 6962-m summit, a 41-year-old male with previous high-altitude mountaineering experience was measured for minute-by-minute heart rate (60-154 beats/min), respiration rate (2-42 breaths/min), skin temperature (11.7-36.1°C), and core temperature (36.9-38.7°C) (1240 min of data: 417 min rest/sleep; 643 min ascent; 180 min descent). All of the measured variables were significantly correlated with each other (p < 0.01). There were incidences of "open leads" and "recovered data," indicating the potential for some aberrant data; however, data exist for each minute of the 1240 minutes of collection, and the values are within the expected physiological ranges. This study demonstrates the potential application of telemetry to monitor physiological variables during high altitude mountaineering. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Wang, Faming; Song, Guowen

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration. The simulated core and mean skin temperatures were compared to the published experimental results of subject tests at three levels of ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Although lower signal-to-noise-ratio was observed, the developed model demonstrated positive performance at predicting core temperatures with a maximum difference between the simulations and measurements of no more than 0.43 °C. Generally, the current model predicted the mean skin temperatures with reasonable accuracy. It could be applied to predict human physiological responses and assess thermal comfort and heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  7. Protective effects of skin permeable epidermal and fibroblast growth factor against ultraviolet-induced skin damage and human skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    An, Jae Jin; Eum, Won Sik; Kwon, Hyuck Se; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Soo Yun; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kim, Dae Won; Han, Kyu Huyng; Park, Jinseu; Jang, Sang Ho; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal and fibroblast growth factor (EGF and FGF1) proteins play an important role in the regeneration and proliferation of skin cells. EGF and FGF1 have considerable potential as possible therapeutic or cosmetic agents for the treatment of skin damage including wrinkles. Using protein transduction domains (PTD), we investigated whether PTD-EGF and FGF1 transduced into skin cells and tissue. Transduced proteins showed protective effects in a UV-induced skin damage model as well as against skin wrinkles. Transduced PTD-EGF and FGF1 proteins were detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The effects of PTD-EGF and FGF1 were examined by WST assay, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and skin wrinkle parameters. The PTD-EGF and FGF1 increased cell proliferation and collagen type 1 alpha 1 protein accumulation in skin tissue. Also, PTD-EGF and FGF1 inhibited UV-induced skin damage. Furthermore, topical application of PTD-EGF and FGF1 contained ampoules which were considered to improve the wrinkle parameters of human skin. These results show that PTD-EGF and FGF1 can be a potential therapeutic or cosmetic agent for skin damaged and injury including wrinkles and aging. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sensitive skin in Europe.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Boussetta, S; Nocera, T; Perez-Cullell, N; Taieb, C

    2009-04-01

    Sensitive skin appears as a very frequent condition, but there is no comparative data between countries. To perform an epidemiological approach to skin sensitivity in different European countries. An opinion poll was conducted in eight European countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland. This sample (4506 persons) was drawn from a representative sample of each population aged 15 years or older. Sensitive or very sensitive skin was declared by 38.4% and slightly or not sensitive skin by 61.6%. Women declared more sensitive skin than men. A dermatological disease was declared by 31.2% of people with very sensitive skin, 17.6% of those with sensitive skin, 8.7% of those with slightly sensitive skin and 3.7% of those who do not have sensitive skin. A history of childhood atopic dermatitis was more frequent in patients with sensitive or very sensitive skin. The interviewees who declared that they had dry or oily skin also reported significantly more frequently sensitive or very sensitive skin than those with normal skin. Sensitive and very sensitive skins were clearly more frequent in Italy and France. This study is the first study that compares skin sensitivity in European countries. Prevalence is high, but significant differences are noted between these countries. Dermatological antecedents (or treatments?) could be involved in the occurrence of skin sensitivity.

  9. Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D3 and Stratum Corneum Hydration for the Treatment of Xerotic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 has been called the “sunshine” vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D3 is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D3 have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D3 may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D3 (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D3. PMID:23112909

  10. Assessing the relationship between vitamin D3 and stratum corneum hydration for the treatment of xerotic skin.

    PubMed

    Russell, Meghan

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D(3) has been called the "sunshine" vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D(3) is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D(3) have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D(3) may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D(3) (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D(3).

  11. Evaluation of drug and sunscreen permeation via skin irradiated with UVA and UVB: comparisons of normal skin and chronologically aged skin.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Yang, Shih-Yung; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the predominant cause of skin aging. A systematic evaluation of drug skin permeation via photoaged skin is lacking. The aim of this work was to investigate whether UVA and UVB affect absorption by the skin of drugs and sunscreens, including tetracycline, quercetin, and oxybenzone. The dorsal skin of nude mice was subjected to UVA (24 and 39 J/cm(2)) or UVB (150, 200, and 250 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation. Levels of skin water loss, erythema, and sebum were evaluated, and histological examinations of COX-2 and claudin-1 expressions were carried out. Permeation of the permeants into and through the skin was determined in vitro using a Franz cell. In vivo skin uptake was also evaluated. Senescent skin (24 weeks old) was used for comparison. Wrinkling and scaling were significant signs of skin treated with UVA and UVB, respectively. The level of claudin-1, an indicator of tight junctions (TJs), was reduced by UVA and UVB irradiation. UVA enhanced tetracycline and quercetin skin deposition by 11- and 2-fold, respectively. A similar enhancement was shown for flux profiles. Surprisingly, a lower UVA dose revealed greater enhancement compared to the higher dose. The skin deposition and flux of tetracycline both decreased with UVB exposure. UVB also significantly reduced quercetin flux. The skin absorption behavior of chronologically aged skin approximated that of the UVA group, with photoaged skin showing higher enhancement. UV generally exhibited a negligible effect on modulating oxybenzone permeation. Skin disruption produced by UV does not necessarily result in enhanced skin absorption. It depends on the UV wavelength, irradiated energy, and physicochemical properties of the permeant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report establishing drug permeation profiles for UV-irradiated skin. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validating the Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    hours, in addition to other manipulations (e.g. blubber biopsies). This process has shown to significantly raise both cortisol and aldosterone above...cetacean skin samples will bring new possibilities for stress assessment in cetaceans, opening up a new avenue of research in physiological response

  13. Genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies a physiological role for the AHR in epidermal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, Ellen; Podolsky, Michael; Smits, Jos; Cui, Xiao; John, Christian; Gowda, Krishne; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Schalkwijk, Joost; Perdew, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by xenobiotics is known to affect epidermal differentiation and skin barrier formation. The physiological role of endogenous AHR signaling in keratinocyte differentiation is not known. We used murine and human skin models to address the hypothesis that AHR activation is required for normal keratinocyte differentiation. Using transcriptome analysis of Ahr-/- and Ahr+/+ murine keratinocytes, we found significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes linked to epidermal differentiation. Primary Ahr-/- keratinocytes showed a significant reduction in terminal differentiation gene and protein expression, similar to Ahr+/+ keratinocytes treated with AHR antagonists GNF351 and CH223191, or the selective AHR modulator (SAhRM), SGA360. In vitro keratinocyte differentiation led to increased AHR levels and subsequent nuclear translocation, followed by induced CYP1A1 gene expression. Monolayer cultured primary human keratinocytes treated with AHR antagonists also showed an impaired terminal differentiation program. Inactivation of AHR activity during human skin equivalent development severely impaired epidermal stratification, terminal differentiation protein expression and stratum corneum formation. As disturbed epidermal differentiation is a main feature of many skin diseases, pharmacological agents targeting AHR signaling or future identification of endogenous keratinocyte-derived AHR ligands should be considered as potential new drugs in dermatology. PMID:25602157

  14. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology.

  15. Nutrition and skin.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  16. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of skin cancer and premature skin aging just like too much sun. In fact, most tanning beds emit mainly UVA rays, which may increase the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Physical activity Being physically active is good for your skin! It increases the ...

  17. Ingestion of hyaluronans (molecular weights 800 k and 300 k) improves dry skin conditions: a randomized, double blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Chinatsu; Yoshida, Takushi; Yoshida, Hideto; Sakamoto, Wakako; Odanaka, Wataru; Sato, Toshihide; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Yasunobu; Urushibata, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been increasingly used as a dietary supplement to improve the skin. However, the effect of ingested HA may depend on its molecular weight (MW) because its physiological activities in the body vary with its MW. In this study, we examined the effects of ingested HA with varying MW on the skin. In this randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study, 61 subjects with dry skin received oral HA (120 mg/day), of MWs 800 k and 300 k or placebo, for 6 weeks. The skin moisture contents of the first two groups increased more than those of the placebo group during the ingestion period. In addition, group HA 300 k exhibited significant improvements in skin moisture content 2 weeks after ingestion ended compared with the placebo group. A questionnaire survey about subjective facial aging symptoms showed that the HA treated groups exhibited significantly improved the skin condition compared with the placebo treated group. Furthermore, dermatologists objectively evaluated the clinical symptoms of the facial and whole body skin, showing that no adverse events were related to daily ingestion of HA. This study shows that both of ingesting HAs (MWs 800 k and 300 k) improved the skin condition by increasing the moisture content.

  18. Ingestion of hyaluronans (molecular weights 800 k and 300 k) improves dry skin conditions: a randomized, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Chinatsu; Yoshida, Takushi; Yoshida, Hideto; Sakamoto, Wakako; Odanaka, Wataru; Sato, Toshihide; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Yasunobu; Urushibata, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been increasingly used as a dietary supplement to improve the skin. However, the effect of ingested HA may depend on its molecular weight (MW) because its physiological activities in the body vary with its MW. In this study, we examined the effects of ingested HA with varying MW on the skin. In this randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study, 61 subjects with dry skin received oral HA (120 mg/day), of MWs 800 k and 300 k or placebo, for 6 weeks. The skin moisture contents of the first two groups increased more than those of the placebo group during the ingestion period. In addition, group HA 300 k exhibited significant improvements in skin moisture content 2 weeks after ingestion ended compared with the placebo group. A questionnaire survey about subjective facial aging symptoms showed that the HA treated groups exhibited significantly improved the skin condition compared with the placebo treated group. Furthermore, dermatologists objectively evaluated the clinical symptoms of the facial and whole body skin, showing that no adverse events were related to daily ingestion of HA. This study shows that both of ingesting HAs (MWs 800 k and 300 k) improved the skin condition by increasing the moisture content. PMID:25834304

  19. Effect of kangaroo mother care on vital physiological parameters of the low birth weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun Kumarendu; Hazra, Avijit; Som, Tapas; Munian, Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch) on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min), heart rate (HR/ min), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO2) were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy.

  20. Safety of long-term subcutaneous free flap skin banking after skin-sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, Ralph; Djedovic, Gabriel; Morandi, Evi Maria; Heiser, Dietmar; Rieger, Ulrich Michael; Bauer, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    A persistent problem in autologous breast reconstruction in skin-sparing mastectomies is skin restoration after skin necrosis or secondary oncological resection. As a solution to facilitate reconstruction, skin banking of free-flap skin has been proposed in cases where the overlying skin envelope must be resected, as this technique spares the patient an additional donor site. Herein, we present the largest series to date in which this method was used. We investigated its safety and the possibility of skin banking for prolonged periods of time. All skin-sparing mastectomies and immediate autologous breast reconstructions from December 2009 until June 2013 at our institution were analysed. We identified 31 patients who underwent 33 free flap reconstructions in which skin banking was performed. Our median skin banking period was 7 days, with a maximum duration of 171 days. In 22.5% of cases, the banked skin was used to reconstruct overlying skin defects, and in 9.6% of cases to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex. Microbiological and histological investigations of the banked skin revealed neither clinical infections nor malignancies. In situ skin banking, even for prolonged periods of time, is a safe and cost-effective method to ensure that skin defects due to necrosis or secondary oncological resection can be easily reconstructed.

  1. Sympathetic nervous system activity measured by skin conductance quantifies the challenge of walking adaptability tasks after stroke.

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Chatterjee, Sudeshna A; McGuirk, Theresa E; Porges, Eric C; Fox, Emily J; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K

    2018-02-01

    Walking adaptability tasks are challenging for people with motor impairments. The construct of perceived challenge is typically measured by self-report assessments, which are susceptible to subjective measurem