Science.gov

Sample records for physiological society 9-10

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 10-11, 1989, and November 9-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, David B., Ed.; Oliker, Michael A., Ed.

    Proceedings from two conferences of a society of specialists in the philosophy of education comprise this document. Fourteen papers are included from the 1989 conference program. They are: (1) "George S. Counts: Dare Educators Inspire World Vision?" (C. A. Ryan); (2) "Political Activities of George S. Counts and John L. Childs" (L. J. Dennis); (3)…

  2. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  3. American Physiological Society Fall Meeting, August 15-20, 1976, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Abstracts of Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presented are abstracts of papers arranged in alphabetical order by first-named author. The proceedings of the American Physiological Society were held jointly with the American Society of Zoologists (ASZ) and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES). (EB)

  4. The developmental genetics and physiology of honeybee societies.

    PubMed

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E

    2010-05-01

    Eusocial animal societies, as diverse as those found in the ants, bees, wasps, shrimp and naked mole-rats, are structured around one or few reproductive females. The remaining females are helpers called 'workers' that are mostly sterile. A paradigm in studies of eusociality is that worker sterility is a key to societal functions because advanced sociality cannot be achieved when there is conflict over reproduction. Yet, traits such as sensory responsiveness, foraging and hoarding behaviour that change between female reproductive life stages also vary between workers. This variation is central to worker division of labour, a complex social trait believed to be instrumental for the ecological success of animal societies. Thus, we took a step back from established views on worker sterility and societal functions, and hypothesized that division of labour can be better understood if adaptive variation in worker behaviour is seen as emerging from pre-existing mechanisms associated with female reproduction. In exploring this reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) in honeybee workers, we established that variation in foraging division of labour correlates with ovary size and is affected by expression changes in vitellogenin, an egg yolk protein precursor. Here, we explain and reconcile the RGPH with data on honeybee sensory sensitivity, genomic mapping, transcript and endocrine profiling, and link our discussion with Ihle et al. (2010, this issue, pp. xx-xx). The findings bring together mechanistic and evolutionary explanations of honeybee worker behaviour. This essay suggests that a broader view on worker reproductive traits can increase the understanding of animal social behaviour. PMID:20514137

  5. The developmental genetics and physiology of honeybee societies

    PubMed Central

    Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Eusocial animal societies, as diverse as those found in the ants, bees, wasps, shrimp and naked mole-rats, are structured around one or few reproductive females. The remaining females are helpers called ‘workers’ that are mostly sterile. A paradigm in studies of eusociality is that worker sterility is a key to societal functions because advanced sociality cannot be achieved when there is conflict over reproduction. Yet, traits such as sensory responsiveness, foraging and hoarding behaviour that change between female reproductive life stages also vary between workers. This variation is central to worker division of labour, a complex social trait believed to be instrumental for the ecological success of animal societies. Thus, we took a step back from established views on worker sterility and societal functions, and hypothesized that division of labour can be better understood if adaptive variation in worker behaviour is seen as emerging from pre-existing mechanisms associated with female reproduction. In exploring this reproductive ground plan hypothesis (RGPH) in honeybee workers, we established that variation in foraging division of labour correlates with ovary size and is affected by expression changes in vitellogenin, an egg yolk protein precursor. Here, we explain and reconcile the RGPH with data on honeybee sensory sensitivity, genomic mapping, transcript and endocrine profiling, and link our discussion with Ihle et al. (2010, this issue, pp. xx-xx). The findings bring together mechanistic and evolutionary explanations of honeybee worker behaviour. This essay suggests that a broader view on worker reproductive traits can increase the understanding of animal social behaviour. PMID:20514137

  6. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  7. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  8. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  9. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  10. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other....

  11. Monitoring physiology trainee needs to focus professional society responses: the APS Trainee Needs Surveys.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Marsha L; Lowy, Melinda E; Sweazea, Karen L; Alvarez, Diego F

    2011-06-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage. Survey findings guided the TAC and other APS committees and groups to focus their efforts toward the issues that were of the greatest interest to trainees. It also led to improved communication with trainees and increased involvement of trainees in APS governance.

  12. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  13. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  14. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  15. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  16. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  17. APS at 125: a look back at the founding of the American Physiological Society.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kathy L

    2013-03-01

    Early efforts in physiological research in the United States were produced by lone investigators working in laboratories funded by their own medical practices. In Europe, however, Claude Bernard and Carl Ludwig produced a new model of scientific research laboratories funded by the state that sought to develop the pursuit of biomedical research as an occupation. American physicians such as Henry Pickering Bowditch and S. Weir Mitchell were exposed to this new "research ethic" during their international studies and brought this new perspective home to America. Along with H. Newell Martin, these men began training professional physiologists who would assume new research positions in academic institutions. In 1887, Bowditch, Mitchell, and H. Newell Martin proposed the formation of a new society for these professional physiologists, the American Physiological Society (APS). Seventeen of the original twenty-eight members met on December 30, 1887, in New York City, NY, to establish APS. From these humble beginnings, APS evolved to become a force for change in American biomedical science.

  18. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This..., enforceable by any party, against the United States, its departments, agencies, or other......

  19. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other....

  20. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other....

  1. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirement of the United States Constitution. Section and subsection captions in this document are for... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other....

  2. The 34th Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are abstracts of papers presented at the annual American Physiological Society meeting and International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia. Papers are grouped by such topic areas as lung fluid balance, renal cardiovascular integration, smooth muscle physiology, neuroendocrines (pituitary), exercise physiology, mechanics of…

  3. APS at 125: A Look Back at the Founding of the American Physiological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Early efforts in physiological research in the United States were produced by lone investigators working in laboratories funded by their own medical practices. In Europe, however, Claude Bernard and Carl Ludwig produced a new model of scientific research laboratories funded by the state that sought to develop the pursuit of biomedical research as…

  4. Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

  5. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  6. Homer Wheelon, M.D., physiologist, artist, and poet: origins of the tailpieces in journals of the American Physiological Society.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Lawrence P; Schramm, Diana C; Jackson, F Wilson

    2006-12-01

    Since 1953, illustrations have been inserted as "tailpieces" at the ends of articles in The American Journal of Physiology and The Journal of Applied Physiology. The drawings were made by Homer Wheelon, a member of the American Physiological Society from 1919 until his death in 1960. Forty-five years after his death, Wheelon is unknown, but he contributed 32 publications to the medical literature and trained J. Earl Thomas, an important 20th century gastrointestinal physiologist. Wheelon was born into poverty in 1883 to itinerant Methodist preachers, circumstances that guided his education and career choices. Throughout his life, Wheelon exhibited a fondness and talent for art and photography and an unusual breadth of intellectual interests and knowledge. Wheelon received a bachelor's degree from the University of Washington, then studied at the University of Oregon, Northwestern University, and St. Louis University. Earning his M.D. from St. Louis University and assuming a faculty position there, Wheelon and his graduate student, Thomas, conducted widely recognized gastrointestinal research. Returning to Seattle in 1921, Wheelon became a highly respected physician and hospital administrator, but he also found time to indulge his interest in visual art and poetry. In 1933, inspired by observing a rabbit being used in a pregnancy test, Wheelon began to write and illustrate an epic, 322-page poem, Rabbit No. 202, illustrations from which became the journals' tailpieces. The present study traces Wheelon's personal life and scientific career in an attempt to understand this complex man and the origins of his unusual poem and its drawings.

  7. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  8. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  9. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  10. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  11. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from...

  12. 6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 9, Between Piers 8 & 10, along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene from Dendrobium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ningdong; Yang, Guangyu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Yegao

    2016-01-01

    A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene,1,5-dihydroxy-3,4,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) was isolated and identified from the whole plants of Dendrobium moniliforme, as well as 24 known compounds including hircinol (2), (2R*,3S*)-3-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-phenanthro[4,3-b]furan-5,11-diol (3), diospyrosin (4), aloifol I (5), moscatilin (6), 3,4'-dihydroxy-3',4,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (7), gigantol (8), 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (9), longicornuol A (10), N-trans-cinnamoyltyramine (11), paprazine (12), N-trans-feruloyl 3'-O-methyldopamine (13), moupinamide (14), dihydroconiferyl dihydro-p-coumarate (15), dihydrosinapyl dihydro-p-coumarate (16), 3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (17), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (18), vanillin (19), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (20), vanillic acid (21), protocatechuic acid (22), (+)-syringaresinol (23), β-sitosterol (24) and daucosterol (25). Compounds 3, 4, 13, 16, 17 and 20 were isolated from the Dendrobium genus for the first time, and compounds 2, 5, 7, 9-12, 14, 15, 18, 21 and 22 were originally obtained from D. moniliforme.

  14. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  15. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N′-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3118...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N′-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3118...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N′-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3118...

  18. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ.

  19. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ. PMID:22281686

  20. 12 CFR 9.10 - Fiduciary funds awaiting investment or distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to 12 CFR part 1; (iii) Readily marketable securities of the classes in which state banks, trust... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiduciary funds awaiting investment or distribution. 9.10 Section 9.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 41 CFR 302-9.10 - For what transportation expenses will my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false For what transportation expenses will my agency pay? 302-9.10 Section 302-9.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES...

  2. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.L.; Chang, M.N.; Chabala, J.C.; Chiu, S.H.; Eline, D.; Hucker, H.B.; Sweeney, B.M.; White, S.D.; Arison, B.H.; Smith, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 9-10, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael C., Ed.; Dupuis, Adrian, Ed.

    Six papers presented by philosophy of education specialists are gathered in this volume. The first, "Implications in Dewey for Feminist Theory in Education" by Wilma R. Miranda, discusses the social thought of John Dewey and argues that domestic virtues are significant as modes of political action. In "Jim Teaches Fang to Sit," James F. Andris…

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Ayoub; Ajloo, Davood; Kiyani, Hamzeh; Vakili, Mohamad; Farahani, Mahnaz; Amiri, Majid

    2016-08-01

    4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been synthesized in an attempt to obtain a new photochromic compound. The optimized molecular structure, mole fractions of title compound in trans and ana forms have been investigated. UV-visible spectra of the compound were also recorded. Upon irradiation with 300 nm light, the camel solid turned orange, in which a visible absorption band was observed at 475 nm. The electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were obtained by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than those of urea. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  5. Nonanebis(peroxoic acid): a stable peracid for oxidative bromination of aminoanthracene-9,10-dione

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vilas Venunath

    2014-01-01

    Summary A new protocol for the oxidative bromination of aminoanthracene-9,10-dione, which is highly deactivated towards the electrophilic substitution is investigated. The peracid, nonanebis(peroxoic acid), possesses advantages such as better stability at room temperature, it is easy to prepare and non-shock sensitiv as compared to the conventional peracids. The present protocol has a broad scope for the bromination of various substituted and unsubstituted aminoanthracene-9,10-diones. PMID:24991241

  6. Piezoflurochromism and Aggregation Induced Emission Properties of 9, 10-bis (trisalkoxystyryl) Anthracene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Duraimurugan, Kumaraguru; Sivamani, Jayaraman; Sathiyaraj, Munusamy; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Siva, Ayyanar

    2016-07-01

    We report the synthesis of trisalkoxy substituted 9, 10-bis styrylanthracene derivatives (C8-ant and C12-ant) by Heck coupling with very good yield and their photophysical properties. Both C8-ant and C12-ant exhibit aggregation induced emission (AIE), mechnoflurochromism and thermochromism. Trisubstituted 9, 10-distyrylanthracene molecules having all the luminescent properties in a single molecule are first of its kind.

  7. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  8. C-Functionalized, air- and water-stable 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracenes: efficient blue to red emitting luminophores.

    PubMed

    Reus, Christian; Weidlich, Sabine; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2013-08-28

    9,10-Dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) provides a versatile scaffold for the development of boron-doped organic luminophores. Symmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are obtained through the condensation of 4-bromo-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene or 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene with BBr3 in hexane. Unsymmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are formed via an electrophilic solvent activation reaction if the synthesis is carried out in o-xylene. Mechanistic insight has been achieved by in situ NMR spectroscopy, which revealed C-halogenated 1,2-bis(dibromoboryl)benzenes to be the key intermediates. Treatment of the primary 9,10-dibromo-DBAs with MesMgBr yields air- and water-stable C-halogenated 9,10-dimesityl-DBAs (2-Br-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,6-Br2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3-Cl2-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3,6,7-Cl4-DBA(Mes)2). Subsequent Stille-type C-C-coupling reactions give access to corresponding phenyl, 2-thienyl, and p-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl derivatives, which act as highly emissive donor-acceptor dyads or donor-acceptor-donor triads both in solution and in the solid state. 2-Thienyl was chosen as a model substituent to show that already a variation of the number and/or the positional distribution of the donor groups suffices to tune the emission wavelength of the resulting benchtop stable compounds from 469 nm (blue) to 540 nm (green). A further shift of the fluorescence maximum to 594 nm (red) can be achieved by switching from 2-thienyl to p-aminophenyl groups. A comparison of the optoelectronic properties of selected C-substituted DBA(Mes)2 derivatives with those of the isostructural anthracene analogues unveiled the following: (i) The DBA core is a much better electron acceptor. (ii) The emission colors of DBAs fall in the visible range of the spectrum (blue to orange), while anthracenes emit exclusively in the near-ultraviolet to blue wavelength regime. (iii) DBAs show significantly higher solid-state quantum yields. PMID:23899377

  9. The metabolism of anthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene by bacteria isolated from waters.

    PubMed

    Traczewska, T M; Ochocka, R; Lamparczyk, H

    1991-01-01

    The metabolism of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons i.e. anthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene by Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus macerans was examined. The above compounds were used as a sole carbon source for their growth. Using the reversed-phase thin layer chromatography techniques a number of anthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene metabolites were isolated and their structures identified spectroscopically. These included anthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene cis-dihydrodiols, hydroxy-methyl-derivatives and various phenolic compounds. Bacteria metabolise hydrocarbons using the dioxygenase enzyme system, which differs from the mammalian cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase. Hence in addition rat liver microsomal metabolism of the above hydrocarbons was investigated using the same separation techniques.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, A.; Ajloo, D.; Kiyani, H.; Farahani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)benzaldehyde in “trans” and “ana” forms have been investigated by UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational analysis of the two forms of cited compound was performed by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simulations. The obtained geometrical parameters and wavenumbers of vibrational normal modes from the DFT method were in good consistency with the experimental values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method. Computed molecular orbital and time dependent DFT oscillator renderings agree closely with experimental observations. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. In order to predict the reactive sites, a molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) for the title compound was obtained. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  11. New 1,4-anthracene-9,10-dione derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Zagotto, G; Supino, R; Favini, E; Moro, S; Palumbo, M

    2000-01-01

    The amino-substituted anthracene-9,10-dione (9,10-anthraquinone) derivatives represent one of the most important classes of potential anticancer agents. To better understand the basic rules governing DNA sequence specificity, we have recently synthesized a new class of D- and L-aminoacyl-anthraquinone derivatives. We have tested these new compounds as cytotoxic agents, and we have correlated their activity with the configuration of the chiral aminoacyl moiety. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to compare the test drugs in terms of steric overlapping.

  12. 43 CFR 9.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the Secretary make efforts to... the Interior INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 9.10 How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state...

  13. 43 CFR 9.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the Secretary make efforts to... the Interior INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 9.10 How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state...

  14. 43 CFR 9.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Secretary make efforts to... the Interior INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 9.10 How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state...

  15. 43 CFR 9.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the Secretary make efforts to... the Interior INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 9.10 How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state...

  16. 43 CFR 9.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How does the Secretary make efforts to... the Interior INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 9.10 How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state...

  17. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  18. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  19. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  20. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  1. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How are employee Occupational Health and Safety Program risks and concerns addressed? The sanctuary...

  2. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Suchmore » cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.« less

  3. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic GenM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  4. In vitro inhibition of microbial methane production by 9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, P M; Kung, L; Odom, J M

    1996-09-01

    Monensin, 2,2-dichloroacetamide, and 9,10-anthraquinone were incubated for 24 h in ruminal fluid and buffer with 100:0, 50:50, and 10:90 forage-concentrate diets. Monensin (.5 ppm of the fluid) increased (P < .05) the molar proportion of propionate in the 50 and 100% forage diets but not in the high concentrate diet. At the same level of addition, 2,2-dichloroacetamide increased (P < .05) the molar proportion of propionate only in the 50:50 forage-concentrate diet. Relative to control cultures, monensin and 2,2-dichloroacetamide numerically decreased methane production in the 10 and 100% forage diets and decreased (P < .05) methane in the 50% forage diet. Hydrogen production was unaffected by treatment. Lack of an effect on fermentation end products in the high concentrate diet was probably a result of the low dose levels. In general, increasing levels of 9,10-anthraquinone (.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ppm) reduced total VFA concentration and the molar proportion of acetate, and increased propionate, butyrate and valerate. Increasing levels of 9,10-anthraquinone caused linear and quadratic decreases (P < .05) in methane production, and increases (P < .05) in hydrogen. There were no consistent effects on ammonia concentration in culture fluid from any of the compounds. In continuous culture of a 10:90 forage-concentrate diet, addition of 9,10-anthraquinone (10 ppm of the fluid/12 h) caused changes similar to those observed in batch culture with the exception of a decreased (P < .05) molar percentage of propionate, which may have been due to the high dose. The data are interpreted to indicate that 9,10-anthraquinone has the ability to alter in vitro microbial fermentation.

  5. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs.

  6. Subergorgiaols A-L, 9,10-secosteroids from the South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia rubra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Ping; Cao, Fei; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chen, Min; Liu, Hai-Juan; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Twelve new 9,10-secosteroids designated as subergorgiaols A-L (1-12), along with four known analogues (13-16), were isolated from the gorgonian Subergorgia rubra collected from the South China Sea. Their planar structures and the relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by a dimolybdenum tetraacetate [Mo2(AcO)4] induced circular dichroism (ICD) procedure and the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-12 represent the first series of 9,10-secosteroids characterized with a hydroxy group at C-8, which are 8-OH derivatives of astrogorgiadiols/calicoferols. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against the cervical carcinoma cell line (CaSki) with an IC50 value of 2.4 μM, and 6 showed toxicity toward brine shrimp Artemia salina with an LC50 value of 2.0 μM.

  7. Discovery of novel dihydro-9,10-ethano-anthracene carboxamides as glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingwei V; Vaccaro, Wayne; Doweyko, Arthur M; Doweyko, Lidia M; Huynh, Tram; Tortolani, David; Nadler, Steven G; McKay, Lorraine; Somerville, John; Holloway, Deborah A; Habte, Sium; Weinstein, David S; Barrish, Joel C

    2009-04-15

    A series of dihydro-9,10-ethano-anthracene-11-carboxamides as novel glucocorticoid receptor modulators is reported. SAR exploration identified compounds from this series displaying a promising dissociation profile in discriminating between transrepression and transactivation activities. 17a is a partial agonist of GR-mediated transactivation which elicits potent and efficacious transrepression in reporter gene assays. A hypothetical binding mode is provided which accounts for the induction of functional activity by a bridgehead methyl group. PMID:19321341

  8. Crystal structure of tetraaquabis(8-chloro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1-carboxyl-ato-κO (1))cobalt(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-Juan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Feng-Yi; Kou, Jun-Feng

    2014-10-01

    In the title complex, [Co(C15H6ClO4)2(H2O)4]·2H2O, the Co(II) ion is bound by two carboxylate O atoms of two 5-chloro-9,10-anthra-quinone-1-carboxyl-ate anions and four water O atoms in a trans conformation, forming an irregular octa-hedral coordination geometry. This arrangement is stabilized by intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between water and carboxyl-ate. Further O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between coordinating and non-coordinating water and carboxyl-ate produce layers of mol-ecules that extend parallel to (001). The organic ligands project above and below the plane. Those ligands of adjacent planes are inter-digitated and there are π-π inter-actions between them with centroid-centroid distances of 3.552 (2) and 3.767 (2) Å that generate a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. PMID:25484680

  9. 9,10-Diphenylanthracene as a matrix for MALDI-MS electron transfer secondary reactions.

    PubMed

    Boutaghou, M Nazim; Cole, Richard B

    2012-08-01

    The most common secondary-ionization mechanism in positive ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) involves a proton transfer reaction to ionize the analyte. Peptides and proteins are molecules that have basic (and acidic) sites that make them susceptible to proton transfer. However, non-polar, aprotic compounds that lack basic sites are more difficult to protonate, and creating charged forms of this type of analyte can pose a problem when conventional MALDI matrices are employed. In this case, forming a radical molecular ion through electron transfer is a viable alternative, and certain matrices may facilitate the process. In this work, we investigate the performance of a newly developed electron-transfer secondary reaction matrix: 9,10-diphenylanthracene (9,10-DPA). The use of 9,10-DPA as matrix for MALDI analysis has been tested using several model compounds. It appears to promote ionization through electron transfer in a highly efficient manner as compared to other potential matrices. Thermodynamic aspects of the observed electron transfers in secondary-ionization reactions were also considered, as was the possibility for kinetically controlled/endothermic, electron-transfer reactions in the MALDI plume.

  10. Substrate Specificity of Purified Recombinant Chicken β-Carotene 9',10'-Oxygenase (BCO2).

    PubMed

    Dela Seña, Carlo; Sun, Jian; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Kenneth M; Yuan, Yan; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2016-07-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids are oxidatively cleaved by β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) at the central 15-15' double bond to form retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Another carotenoid oxygenase, β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at the 9'-10' bond to yield an ionone and an apo-10'-carotenoid. Previously published substrate specificity studies of BCO2 were conducted using crude lysates from bacteria or insect cells expressing recombinant BCO2. Our attempts to obtain active recombinant human BCO2 expressed in Escherichia coli were unsuccessful. We have expressed recombinant chicken BCO2 in the strain E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified the enzyme by cobalt ion affinity chromatography. Like BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. Its catalytic activity with β-carotene as substrate is at least 10-fold lower than that of BCO1. In further contrast to BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 also catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene and the non-provitamin A carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, and is inactive with all-trans-lycopene and β-apocarotenoids. Apo-10'-carotenoids were detected as enzymatic products by HPLC, and the identities were confirmed by LC-MS. Small amounts of 3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal were also consistently detected in BCO2-β-cryptoxanthin reaction mixtures. With the exception of this activity with β-cryptoxanthin, BCO2 cleaves specifically at the 9'-10' bond to produce apo-10'-carotenoids. BCO2 has been shown to function in preventing the excessive accumulation of carotenoids, and its broad substrate specificity is consistent with this. PMID:27143479

  11. Na + concentration dependence of intermolecular distance in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    We have discussed the Na + concentration dependence of the intermolecular distance of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) dimers in aqueous solution of NaOH. We have particularly focused on the S10-S00 transition of the PTCDA dimers which is sensitive to the intermolecular distance and we have found that the S10 state is split for the higher lying sublevel and the lower lying sublevel with the increase of the Na + concentrations. From the energy shift of the lower lying sublevel, we have estimated the intermolecular distance of the PTCDA dimer, that changes from 7.5 to 4.9 Å by the Na + concentration.

  12. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yunxia; Niu, Lianbin

    2009-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Förster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  13. Spectrofluorometric study of complexation of some amino derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yari, Abdullah; Sharghi, Hashem

    2005-11-01

    Complexation reactions between 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone (AA1), 1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (AA2), 1-amino-2,4-dimethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (AA3) and 1-amino-2-ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (AA4) and beta-cyclodextrin were studied spectrofluorometrically, under optimized experimental conditions. The formation constants of the resulting 1:1 beta-cyclodextrin complexes were evaluated and found to decrease in the order AA4>AA1>AA3>AA2. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence are discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting inclusion complexes.

  14. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  15. Rearrangement of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) diketone: 9,10-diarylanthracenes with OLED applications.

    PubMed

    Sarsah, Samuel R S; Lutz, Marlon R; Zeller, Matthias; Crumrine, David S; Becker, Daniel P

    2013-03-01

    Electroluminescent 9,10-diaryl anthracenes have been shown to be promising host and hole-transporting materials in organic electroluminescence due to their high thermal stability, electrochemical reversibility, and wide band gap useful for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), especially blue OLEDs. Oxidation of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) to the corresponding diketone and subsequent bromination resulted in an unexpected rearrangement to a highly functionalized 9-aryl-10-bromoanthracene derivative, which was employed in Suzuki couplings to synthesize a series of 9,10-diaryl compounds that are structural analogues of anthracene derivatives used in the preparation of OLEDs but are more highly functionalized, including electron-donating methoxy groups in addition to substitution by a carboxylic acid moiety. The UV/fluorescence solution spectra show strong emissions at 446, 438, and 479 nm, respectively, for the anthracene 10-phenyl, 10-naphthyl, and 10-pyrenyl adducts containing a benzoic acid functional group, whereas the analogues bearing the hydroxymethylene moiety from reduction of the benzoic acid to the corresponding alcohols gave much shorter emission wavelengths of 408, 417, and 476 nm, respectively, and had somewhat higher quantum yields, suggesting they are better candidates for OLED applications. PMID:23190432

  16. Trinuclear nickel coordination complexes of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Owen M.; Cowley, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    A trinuclear nickel complex of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime (H2pqd), namely bis­[μ2-9,10-bis­(oxido­imino)­phenanthrene]­bis­[μ2-10-(oxido­imino)phenanthrene-9-one oxime](phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) toluene disolvate, [Ni3(C14H8N2O2)2(C14H9N2O2)2(C14H10N2O2)]·2C7H8, has been isolated and its crystal structure determined. This complex features three independent NiII atoms that are arranged in a triangular fashion along with five supporting ligands. There are two square-planar NiII atoms and a third pseudo-octa­hedral NiII atom. While the square-planar NiII atoms are stacked, there are no ligand bridges between them. Each square-planar NiII atom, however, bridges with the pseudo-octa­­hedral NiII atom through Ni—N—O—Ni and Ni—O—Ni bonds. A fluorido­bor­ation reaction of the proton-bridged species gave the analogous complex bis­(μ2-bis­{[10-(oxido­imino)-9,10-di­hydro­phenanthren-9-yl­idene]amino}di­fluorido­borato)(phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) dichloromethane trisolvate, [Ni3(C28H16BF2N4O2)4(C14H10N2O2)]·3CH2Cl2, which shows the same binding structure, but features a widened Ni—Ni inter­action between the square-planar NiII atoms. The proton-bridged complex completes the macrocyclic coordination around the square-planar NiII atoms by means of an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. Both compounds feature O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the oxime and the N atoms attached to square-planar nickel atom. The nickel units show no direct inter­action with their nearest neighbors in the extended lattice. Two π-stacking inter­actions between adjacent mol­ecules are found: one with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.886 (2) Å and the other with a centroid–centroid distance of 4.256 (3) Å. In the latter case, although not aromatic, the distance to the centroid of the central phenanthrene ring is shorter, with a distance of 3.528 (3) Å. Toluene mol­ecules occupy the solvent channels that are

  17. Trinuclear nickel coordination complexes of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime.

    PubMed

    Williams, Owen M; Cowley, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    A trinuclear nickel complex of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime (H2pqd), namely bis-[μ2-9,10-bis-(oxido-imino)-phenanthrene]-bis-[μ2-10-(oxido-imino)phenanthrene-9-one oxime](phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) toluene disolvate, [Ni3(C14H8N2O2)2(C14H9N2O2)2(C14H10N2O2)]·2C7H8, has been isolated and its crystal structure determined. This complex features three independent Ni(II) atoms that are arranged in a triangular fashion along with five supporting ligands. There are two square-planar Ni(II) atoms and a third pseudo-octa-hedral Ni(II) atom. While the square-planar Ni(II) atoms are stacked, there are no ligand bridges between them. Each square-planar Ni(II) atom, however, bridges with the pseudo-octa--hedral Ni(II) atom through Ni-N-O-Ni and Ni-O-Ni bonds. A fluorido-bor-ation reaction of the proton-bridged species gave the analogous complex bis-(μ2-bis-{[10-(oxido-imino)-9,10-di-hydro-phenanthren-9-yl-idene]amino}di-fluorido-borato)(phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) dichloromethane trisolvate, [Ni3(C28H16BF2N4O2)4(C14H10N2O2)]·3CH2Cl2, which shows the same binding structure, but features a widened Ni-Ni inter-action between the square-planar Ni(II) atoms. The proton-bridged complex completes the macrocyclic coordination around the square-planar Ni(II) atoms by means of an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. Both compounds feature O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the oxime and the N atoms attached to square-planar nickel atom. The nickel units show no direct inter-action with their nearest neighbors in the extended lattice. Two π-stacking inter-actions between adjacent mol-ecules are found: one with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.886 (2) Å and the other with a centroid-centroid distance of 4.256 (3) Å. In the latter case, although not aromatic, the distance to the centroid of the central phenanthrene ring is shorter, with a distance of 3.528 (3) Å. Toluene mol-ecules occupy the solvent channels that are oriented along the c axis. In

  18. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10... Act (the act). A person intending to introduce a device containing 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione... premarket notification in accordance with subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, if the device is...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis -9,10... Act (the act). A person intending to introduce a device containing 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione... premarket notification in accordance with subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, if the device is...

  1. Herbicidin Congeners, Undecose Nucleosides from an Organic Extract of Streptomyces sp. L-9-10

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Four new undecose nucleosides (herbicidin congeners), three known herbicidins, and 9-(β-d-arabinofuranosyl)hypoxanthine (Ara-H) were isolated from the organic extract of a fermentation culture of Streptomyces sp. L-9-10 using proton NMR-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. These structures included 2′-O-demethylherbicidin F (1), 9′-deoxy-8′,8′-dihydroxyherbicidin B (2), 9′-deoxy-8′-oxoherbicidin B (2a), and the 8′-epimer of herbicidin B (3). This is the first detailed assignment of proton and carbon chemical shifts for herbicidins A, B, and F. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cancer chemopreventive potential based on inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. PMID:24533857

  2. Investigations of preferential solvation on 1,4-dimethoxy-3-methyl anthracene-9,10-dione.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Kumari, M Vadana; Bharathi, M Suthandera; Vanelle, P; Terme, T

    2011-01-01

    Preferential solvation of 1,4-dimethoxy-3-methyl anthracene-9,10-dione (DMMAD) has been investigated using optical absorption technique. The preferential solvation parameters show that the DMMAD is preferentially solvated by acetone in acetone (AC)+propan-2-ol (PROH), AC+CH2Cl2 and AC+CCl4 mixtures. DMMAD prefers PROH in PROH+CCl4 mixture. In the case of benzene+CCl4 mixture DMMAD is preferentially solvated by benzene in benzene rich region and by CCl4 in CCl4 rich region. The results have been discussed in terms of hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole and induced dipole-dipole interactions between DMMAD and solvent molecules.

  3. Identifying Hail Signatures in Satellite Imagery from the 9-10 August 2011 Severe Weather Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Rachel L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Cole, Tony A.; Bell, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms can produce large hail that causes property damage, livestock fatalities, and crop failure. However, detailed storm surveys of hail damage conducted by the National Weather Service (NWS) are not required. Current gaps also exist between Storm Prediction Center (SPC) hail damage estimates and crop-insurance payouts. NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to support NWS damage assessments, particularly to crops during the growing season. The two-day severe weather event across western Nebraska and central Kansas during 9-10 August 2011 offers a case study for investigating hail damage signatures by examining changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery. By analyzing hail damage swaths in satellite imagery, potential economic losses due to crop damage can be quantified and further improve the estimation of weather impacts on agriculture without significantly increasing manpower requirements.

  4. Results of reanalysis of the "Venera-9, 10, and 15, 16" bistatic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelyev, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Insertion of the Venera-9,10 and -15,16 spacecraft into orbits around Venus affords the opportunity to make the bistatic and monostatic radar experiments. The main objective of these experiments is to study the topography and to measure the ground density of the planet. However, besides this objective, new data were obtained during the bistatic radar experiments on conditions of refraction of radio waves through the entire thickness of the atmosphere of Venus. The possibility of measuring refraction effects arose because the bistatic radar experiments were done immediately before the spacecraft passed into occultation by the planet. Therefore, the refraction effects were strongly evident. It should be noted also that the periodically repeated monostatic radar observations of Venus from Earth provided near the normal incidence direction give no information on refraction. The purpose of this contribution is to describe the method and the results of the experiments to measure the reflection properties of the surface and the refraction of radio waves in the atmosphere of Venus by means of bistatic radar. The author present measured values of the refractive angle and the coefficient of generalized spherical divergence of radio waves reflected from the surface of Venus. The measurements were made at wavelength 32 cm in the bistatic scheme using the Venera-9,10, and 15,16 spacecraft. Both the refraction angle and the reflection coefficient were determined in the experiment from the measured frequency difference between the direct and the reflected signals as a function of time, using the trajectory data on spacecraft positions. The reflection coefficient in the North Polar region varied considerably, which seems to correspond to significant variations in the conductivity of the soil. The results of the measurements agree with the theory of propagation of radio waves in the atmosphere of Venus. The work was partly supported by grant of Russian Fund of Basic Research No. 10

  5. Preliminary Hydrothermal Heat Flow Measurements at the 9-10º N East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramondenc, P.; Germanovich, L. N.; von Damm, K. L.; Lowell, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    The March 2004 expedition at 9-10° N East Pacific Rise, part of the RIDGE 2000 program, allowed amongst other things to pursue the monitoring and sampling of a number of vents after the volcanic eruptions that occurred in 1991/2. Earlier observations have shown that the chemical composition and the temperature have not yet stabilized at many of the vents. This expedition also gave us the opportunity to test an experimental device to estimate the velocity of diffuse flow and heat transport at a couple of vents. These experiments represent the first such attempts to measure these parameters for the 9-10° N hydrothermal system. The idea was to focus the fluid flow through an opening and videotape the motion of particles composing the fluid. Though crude, this method should provide an upper estimate of the fluid velocity and the mass flux of the underlying upflow zone. This operation was also done at the same vents just with a scale maintained close to the flow. This approach yields a lower estimate of the velocity. These tests were run on three dives achieved with the deep submergence vehicle Alvin (dives # 3987, 3990 and 3992, respectively at M-vent, TICA-vent, Bio9, Bio9' and Bio9''). Typical results obtained for the total heat flux ranged from Q = 10^5 W to Q = 10^7 W. This experience has provided insight into a new design based on the temperature measurement at different regions in the stream. We hope to develop this new device in the coming months and deploy it in 2005.

  6. Detailed Studies of the Axial Summit Trough of the East Pacific Rise 9-10N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Soule, S. A.; Escartin, J.; Perfit, M.; Tivey, M.; Schouten, H.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2005-12-01

    The axial summit trough is a nearly continuous feature along the East Pacific Rise from 9-10 deg. N. The AST marks the central spreading axis of the ridge, is the site of the bulk of the volcanic eruptions, and hosts the majority of hydrothermal vent sites. In the past, the AST has been interpreted to be a purely tectonic or purely volcanic feature. Detailed analysis of sidescan imagery and high-resolution microbathymetry are used to identify the morphology and structural variability of the axial summit trough (AST) along the EPR crest in the study area. We use these data to address questions related to the causes for variability in width and character of the AST and how those parameters relate to the morphology and volcanic history of adjacent seafloor, relationships between lava flows and faults and fissures developed within ~4 km of the AST, and the frequency and size of volcanic eruptions. With constraints from microbathymetry data and knowledge of the detailed volcanic contacts along the EPR 9-10N AST derived from Alvin and towed camera data, we explore models of AST formation in an effort to better understand relationships between dike intrusion and how extensional strain is accommodated across the EPR axis. Assuming purely tectonic origins for the AST, 3D boundary element modeling suggests that dike widths and the levels to which dikes rise beneath the EPR axis are variable along-axis. For well-mapped portions of the AST we are able to infer the number of dikes needed to produce its current geometry, and as a result, the timescale of formation. Where the ridge is most volcanically active, we find that modeled dike widths and depths are unreasonable, and suggest that volcanic overprinting has modified the character of the AST. We conclude that both volcanic and tectonic processes are responsible for the formation of the AST and that the balance between these parameters controls the physical characteristics of the AST observed on the seafloor today.

  7. Characterization of the Role of β-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase in Macular Pigment Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Babino, Darwin; Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M. Airanthi K.; Kiser, Philip D.; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation. PMID:26307071

  8. Paramagnetic complexes of 9,10-anthraquinone on zeolite surfaces and their thermal transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fionov, A. V.; Nekhaev, A. I.; Shchapin, I. Yu.; Maksimov, A. L.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of one-electron transfer sites on the surface of H-ZSM-5, H-Y, H-mordenite, and H-β zeolites was measured by EPR using 9,10-antrhraquinone as a probe. It has been found that the hyperfine structure from four protons typical for one-centered complexes of anthraquinone with one acidic site was observed in the EPR spectra after anthraquinone interaction with a zeolite surface in the temperature range of 373 to 423 K. It has been established that an elevated temperature of 473 K promoted the decomposition of the adsorbed anthraquinone and the disappearance of the hyperfine structure. It has been shown that the thermal instability of anthraquinone adsorbed on zeolites changed in the series H-β > H-Y > H-ZSM-5 ˜ H-mordenite; the coke-forming ability of zeolites with regard to n-decane at 443 K changed in a similar manner. It has been established that the presence of air promoted coke-forming processes upon interaction between n-decane and zeolites.

  9. Dual photochemistry of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide studied by femtosecond spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Alexandra; Dobryakov, Alexander L; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Fidder, Henk; Heyne, Karsten

    2011-05-21

    The dual photochemistry of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide (APO) was investigated in a fs UV pump-supercontinuum probe experiment, along with anthracene (AC) and anthraquinone (AQ) for comparison. Excitation of APO at 282 nm leads to 100% product formation by two competing photoreaction channels. Cycloreversion generates with a ∼25% quantum yield (QY) (1)O(2) and AC vibrationally excited in the singlet electronic ground state (hot AC). 1-2% of the AC is generated in the lowest triplet state, but no AC is generated in electronically excited singlet states. Generation and cooling of hot AC are modeled using solution phase and broadened gas-phase AC absorption spectra at various temperatures. Results indicate ultrafast generation of hot AC within 3 ps, much faster than reported before for derivatives of anthracene endoperoxide, and subsequent cooling with an 18 ps time constant. The homolytic O-O cleavage pathway generates a biradical, which converts into electronically excited diepoxide (DE). Our data indicate a 1.5 ps time constant that we tentatively assign to the biradical decay and DE formation. Cooling of DE in this electronically excited state takes place with a ∼21 ps time constant. Excitation of AQ at 266 nm is followed by an ultrafast population of the T(1)(nπ*) triplet state of AQ with a time constant of (160 ± 60) fs.

  10. Numerical Simulation of the 9-10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, U. S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big Thompson 1976 storm event, conceptual models have been developed to explain the unusually high precipitation efficiency. In this study, the Black Hills storm is simulated using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Simulations with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initializations and different grid structures are presented. The conceptual models of storm structure proposed by previous studies are examined in light of the present simulations. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous initialization results capture the intense nature of the storm, but the inhomogeneous simulation produced a precipitation pattern closer to the observed pattern. The simulations point to stationary tilted updrafts, with precipitation falling out to the rear as the preferred storm structure. Experiments with different grid structures point to the importance of removing the lateral boundaries far from the region of activity. Overall, simulation performance in capturing the observed behavior of the storm system was enhanced by use of inhomogeneous initialization.

  11. Polyether precursors of molecular recognition systems based on the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, Anna; Cirocka, Anna; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Nakonieczna, Sandra; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel polyether derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was synthesized and characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, acid-base titration and complexometric titration. The results were compared with 1-NEt2AQ and 1-NHEtAQ - model compounds of alkylaminoanthraquinones. Acetonitrile and methanol were used as solvents for determination of spectroscopic and acid-base properties. Complexometric titrations were carried out exclusively in acetonitrile. Spectral characteristic of these compounds strongly depends on pH. Addition of acid causes the decrease of absorption intensity and in some cases also a shift of the visible range band. The weakest base is the compound (2), and the strongest - compound (1), both in methanol and acetonitrile solution. The introduction of an additional substituent in the position 8 of the anthraquinone compound increases its basicity. The presence of metal ions causes changes in intensity of absorption (decrease for compounds (2) and (3) and increase with bathochromic shift for (1) and (4)). For the determination of the coordination properties aluminum (III) ions were chosen. The highest complex stability constant with Al (III) ions is observed for compound (1), and the weakest for compound (3). The elongation of the polyether chain decreases the stability of the complex formed.

  12. Infrasound observed in the Czech Republic during convective storms 9 - 10 July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindelarova, Tereza; Skripnikova, Katerina; Chum, Jaroslav; Lastovicka, Jan; Base, Jiri; Mosna, Zbysek

    2013-04-01

    An experimental array has been built at the observatory Panska Ves, Czech Republic (50°31' N 14°34' E). It is equipped with three differential microbarographs (type ISGM03). The sensors are arranged in an equilateral triangle; the distance between sensors is approximately 200 m. Using this array, we studied infrasound phenomena related with intense convective storms on 9-10 July 2011. In the studied frequency range 0.1-4 Hz, we observed phenomena of short duration related to lightning activity and also signals that persisted tens of seconds. The latter type of infrasound signals is the object of the current study. Azimuth of arrival of the signals corresponded well with position of convective storms towards the observatory and changed as convective storms were travelling across the Czech Republic from the south west to the north east. Apparent velocity often exceeded 340 m/s (considered as the local speed of sound); it means the signals arrived under some elevation angle (up to 40°). The azimuth of arrival showed higher variability at the beginning of the event; we repeatedly observed gradual variations in azimuth up to the change of 90°. The azimuth of arrival was more stable after 02 UT on 10 July 2011.

  13. Factors associated with breast milk intake among 9-10-month-old Malawian infants.

    PubMed

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first 6 months of life; thereafter, continued breastfeeding along with nutritious complementary foods is recommended. Continued breastfeeding contributes a substantial proportion of nutrient needs and promotes healthy growth and development, but the quantity of breast milk consumed may be highly variable and little is known about the factors associated with breast milk intake after 6 months of age. The present study was conducted to assess factors associated with breast milk intake of Malawian infants at 9-10 months of age. Breast milk intake was measured using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution method in a subsample of 358 Malawian infants who were participating in a randomized controlled trial of lipid-based nutrient supplements. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between breast milk intake and several maternal and infant variables. Mean (standard deviation) breast milk intake was 752 (244) g day(-1) . In multiple regression, breast milk intake was positively associated with infant weight (+62 g per kg body weight, P < 0.01) and maternal height (P < 0.01) and negatively associated with maternal education and age (P < 0.01). There was a non-significant (P = 0.063) inverse association between energy from non-breast milk sources and breast milk intake. In this rural Malawian population, infant weight is the main predictor of breast milk intake, even after the first 6 months of life.

  14. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  15. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  16. Factors associated with breast milk intake among 9-10-month-old Malawian infants.

    PubMed

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first 6 months of life; thereafter, continued breastfeeding along with nutritious complementary foods is recommended. Continued breastfeeding contributes a substantial proportion of nutrient needs and promotes healthy growth and development, but the quantity of breast milk consumed may be highly variable and little is known about the factors associated with breast milk intake after 6 months of age. The present study was conducted to assess factors associated with breast milk intake of Malawian infants at 9-10 months of age. Breast milk intake was measured using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution method in a subsample of 358 Malawian infants who were participating in a randomized controlled trial of lipid-based nutrient supplements. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between breast milk intake and several maternal and infant variables. Mean (standard deviation) breast milk intake was 752 (244) g day(-1) . In multiple regression, breast milk intake was positively associated with infant weight (+62 g per kg body weight, P < 0.01) and maternal height (P < 0.01) and negatively associated with maternal education and age (P < 0.01). There was a non-significant (P = 0.063) inverse association between energy from non-breast milk sources and breast milk intake. In this rural Malawian population, infant weight is the main predictor of breast milk intake, even after the first 6 months of life. PMID:26259833

  17. Polyether precursors of molecular recognition systems based on the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Anna; Cirocka, Anna; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Nakonieczna, Sandra; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2015-02-25

    A series of novel polyether derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was synthesized and characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, acid-base titration and complexometric titration. The results were compared with 1-NEt2AQ and 1-NHEtAQ--model compounds of alkylaminoanthraquinones. Acetonitrile and methanol were used as solvents for determination of spectroscopic and acid-base properties. Complexometric titrations were carried out exclusively in acetonitrile. Spectral characteristic of these compounds strongly depends on pH. Addition of acid causes the decrease of absorption intensity and in some cases also a shift of the visible range band. The weakest base is the compound (2), and the strongest--compound (1), both in methanol and acetonitrile solution. The introduction of an additional substituent in the position 8 of the anthraquinone compound increases its basicity. The presence of metal ions causes changes in intensity of absorption (decrease for compounds (2) and (3) and increase with bathochromic shift for (1) and (4)). For the determination of the coordination properties aluminum (III) ions were chosen. The highest complex stability constant with Al (III) ions is observed for compound (1), and the weakest for compound (3). The elongation of the polyether chain decreases the stability of the complex formed.

  18. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, and provide the latest information regarding treatment, education, research, and advocacy. Learn more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  19. Electronic structures of ruthenium and osmium complexes of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manas Kumar; Patra, Sarat Chandra; Maity, Amarendra Nath; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2012-06-18

    The reaction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) with [M(II)(H)(CO)(X)(PPh(3))(3)] in boiling toluene leads to the homolytic cleavage of the M(II)-H bond, affording the paramagnetic trans-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 1; M = Os, X = Br, 3) and cis-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 2; M = Os, X = Br, 4) complexes. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of 1, 2·toluene, and 4·CH(2)Cl(2), EPR spectra, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have substantiated that 1-4 are 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical (PQ(•-)) complexes of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) and are defined as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (1), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (2), trans-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO) Br] (3), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br] (4). Two comparatively longer C-O [average lengths: 1, 1.291(3) Å; 2·toluene, 1.281(5) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.300(8) Å] and shorter C-C lengths [1, 1.418(5) Å; 2·toluene, 1.439(6) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.434(9) Å] of the OO chelates are consistent with the presence of a reduced PQ(•-) ligand in 1-4. A minor contribution of the alternate resonance form, trans- or cis-[M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X], of 1-4 has been predicted by the anisotropic X- and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the frozen glasses of the complexes at 25 K and unrestricted DFT calculations on 1, trans-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (5), cis-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (6), and cis-[Os(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Br] (7). However, no thermodynamic equilibria between [M(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] and [M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] tautomers have been detected. 1-4 undergo one-electron oxidation at -0.06, -0.05, 0.03, and -0.03 V versus a ferrocenium/ferrocene, Fc(+)/Fc, couple because of the formation of PQ complexes as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (1(+)), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (2(+)), trans-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (3(+)), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (4(+)). The trans

  20. Electronic structures of ruthenium and osmium complexes of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manas Kumar; Patra, Sarat Chandra; Maity, Amarendra Nath; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2012-06-18

    The reaction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) with [M(II)(H)(CO)(X)(PPh(3))(3)] in boiling toluene leads to the homolytic cleavage of the M(II)-H bond, affording the paramagnetic trans-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 1; M = Os, X = Br, 3) and cis-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 2; M = Os, X = Br, 4) complexes. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of 1, 2·toluene, and 4·CH(2)Cl(2), EPR spectra, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have substantiated that 1-4 are 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical (PQ(•-)) complexes of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) and are defined as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (1), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (2), trans-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO) Br] (3), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br] (4). Two comparatively longer C-O [average lengths: 1, 1.291(3) Å; 2·toluene, 1.281(5) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.300(8) Å] and shorter C-C lengths [1, 1.418(5) Å; 2·toluene, 1.439(6) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.434(9) Å] of the OO chelates are consistent with the presence of a reduced PQ(•-) ligand in 1-4. A minor contribution of the alternate resonance form, trans- or cis-[M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X], of 1-4 has been predicted by the anisotropic X- and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the frozen glasses of the complexes at 25 K and unrestricted DFT calculations on 1, trans-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (5), cis-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (6), and cis-[Os(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Br] (7). However, no thermodynamic equilibria between [M(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] and [M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] tautomers have been detected. 1-4 undergo one-electron oxidation at -0.06, -0.05, 0.03, and -0.03 V versus a ferrocenium/ferrocene, Fc(+)/Fc, couple because of the formation of PQ complexes as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (1(+)), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (2(+)), trans-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (3(+)), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (4(+)). The trans

  1. The Physiology Teacher: Abstracts of Educational Materials in Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents the third annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society. Board members have submitted abstracts of review articles, papers, textbooks, books, manuals, handbooks and symposia which they have found valuable in teaching physiology. (Author/CP)

  2. Synthesis and calculated properties of some 1,4-bis(amino)anthracene-9,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Morley, John O; Furlong, Patrick J

    2006-11-01

    The synthesis of a number of 1,4-bis(amino)anthracene-9,10-diones containing chlorine or sulfur which are related to the anti-cancer drugs Ametantrone and Mitoxantrone are reported. 1,4-Dichloro-2,3-dihydro-5,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione reacts readily with a series of alkylamines to yield the corresponding 1,4-bis(alkylamino)-5,8-dichloroanthracene-9,10-dione after oxidation. The subsequent reaction of the products with ethanethiol or thiophenol gives the corresponding 1,4-bis(alkylamino)-5,8-bis(sulfanyl)anthracene-9,10-dione in good yield. Theoretical calculations at the RHF 6-31G** level indicate that the introduction of either chlorine or the phenylsulfanyl group into the 5- and 8-positions of 1,4-bis(alkylamino)anthracene-9,10-diones results in a lowering of the LUMO energies suggesting that related functionalised derivatives might have lower cardiotoxicities than Mitoxantrone.

  3. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  4. Vibrational and electronic spectra of 9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene: An experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchoke, Kefa K.; Dutta, Prabir K.; Parks, Matthew E.; Martinez, Mireya N.

    2011-10-01

    The molecular geometries, vibrational and UV-vis spectra of 9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene-7(8H)-one (9,10-H 2BaP) and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (7,8,9,10-H 4BaP) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP), with the triple-ζ 6-311 + G(d,p) and Dunning's cc-pVTZ basis sets. From the comparison of infrared experimental and calculated infrared, and Raman data comprehensive assignments are made. The calculated infrared frequencies below 1800 cm -1 are in good agreement with experimental data, with an average deviation of <4 cm -1. Using the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p)//TD-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory, transition energies, and oscillator strengths of the 30 lowest electronic absorption bands are assigned to π-π* transitions, with good qualitative agreement between experimental and simulated absorption data. In addition, the HOMO-LUMO gaps and their chemical hardness were analyzed.

  5. Comparative Methylation of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-Anthraquinone: Chemoselectivity in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereda, Grigori A.

    2005-01-01

    A study has shown that methylation of 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1) with methyl tosylate is highly dependent upon reaction conditions. When the reaction is carried out by a simple heating of the reaction mixture without solvent it yields dimethyl product in a nearly quantitative yield and refluxing the same mixture of reactants in…

  6. Study Of Reaction Mechanisms For {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn Systems Around The Coulomb Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Scuderi, V.; Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Rizzo, F.; Torresi, D.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Borge, M. J. G.; Sanchez, E. M. R.; Tengblad, O.; Vidal, A. M.; Fraile, L. M.; Jeppesen, H.

    2010-04-26

    The reactions {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn have been studied at energies around the Coulomb barrier in order to better understand the role played by the halo features on the reaction dynamics. Preliminary results on such studies will be reported in this paper.

  7. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3105 1,4-Bis...

  8. Supramolecular assembly-induced yellow emission of 9,10-distyrylanthracene bridged bis(pillar[5]arene)s.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xia, Meng-Chan; Qiu, Xi-Long; Ma, Ke; Xu, Bin; Tian, Wenjing; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-03-28

    9,10-Distyrylanthracene has been introduced to bridge two pillarenes to form a dimeric host, which can assemble into a linear supramolecular polymer upon cooperatively binding to a neutral guest linker, exhibiting yellow fluorescence emission in solution and solid states. PMID:25383943

  9. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  10. Correction: Large-size nanosheets of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene with high photoresponse and light emission anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan-Ye; Peng, Hong-Dan; Yang, Jia-Mei; Yan, Jing-Hui; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2016-04-28

    Correction for 'Large-size nanosheets of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene with high photoresponse and light emission anisotropy' by Juan-Ye Wang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp05507e. PMID:27057919

  11. Structures and stability of metal-doped Ge{sub n}M (n = 9, 10) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Wei Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Lu, Wen-Cai; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-15

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge{sub n}M (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge{sub 9} and Ge{sub 10} clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Ge{sub n} clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe{sub 9,10},MnGe{sub 9,10} and Ge{sub 10}Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Ge{sub n} clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge{sub 9,10}Fe and Ge{sub 9}Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  12. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  13. Synthesis and antitumor evaluations of symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]anthracene-9,10-diones and 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]-5,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Krapcho, A P; Getahun, Z; Avery, K L; Vargas, K J; Hacker, M P; Spinelli, S; Pezzoni, G; Manzotti, C

    1991-08-01

    The ipso bis displacements of fluoride from 1,4-difluoroanthracene-9,10-dione (3) and 1,4-difluoro-5,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (4) by excess of a diamine (or a monoamine) in pyridine at room temperature lead to the symmetrically substituted 1,4-bis-substituted analogues 5 and 6, respectively. The ipso monodisplacements of fluoride from 3 and 4 can be accomplished by treatment with less than 1 molar equiv of a diamine (or a monoamine) to yield 7 and 8, respectively. Treatment of 7 or 8 with a different diamine leads to the unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]anthracene-9,10-diones 9 and 10, respectively. Many of the synthetic unsymmetrical analogues have been evaluated for their antitumor activity against L1210 in vitro and in vivo. Cross resistance of analogue 10a with mitoxantrone (2) and doxorubicin was evaluated against MDR lines in vitro against human colon carcinoma LOVO and its subline resistant to DOXO (LOVO/DOXO). Potential mechanisms for the observed cytotoxicity are presented and discussed.

  14. The interactions of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a potential site for toxic actions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Chester E; Fukuto, Jon M; Taguchi, Keiko; Froines, John; Cho, Arthur K

    2005-06-30

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate, one of the precursors for glycolytic ATP biosynthesis. The enzyme contains an active site cysteine thiolate, which is critical for its catalytic function. As part of a continuing study of the interactions of quinones with biological systems, we have examined the susceptibility of GAPDH to inactivation by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ). In a previous study of quinone toxicity, this quinone, whose actions have been exclusively attributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused a reduction in the glycolytic activity of GAPDH under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating indirect and possible direct actions on this enzyme. In this study, the effects of 9,10-PQ on GAPDH were examined in detail under aerobic and anaerobic conditions so that the role of oxygen could be distinguished from the direct effects of the quinone. The results indicate that, in the presence of the reducing agent DTT, GAPDH inhibition by 9,10-PQ under aerobic conditions was mostly indirect and comparable to the direct actions of exogenously-added H2O2 on this enzyme. GAPDH was also inhibited by 9,10-PQ anaerobically, but in a somewhat more complex manner. This quinone, which is not considered an electrophile, inhibited GAPDH in a time-dependent manner, consistent with irreversible modification and comparable to the electrophilic actions of 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ). Analysis of the anaerobic inactivation kinetics for the two quinones revealed comparable inactivation rate constants (k(inac)), but a much lower inhibitor binding constant (K(i)) for 1,4-BQ. Protection and thiol titration studies suggest that these quinones bind to the NAD+ binding site and modify the catalytic thiol from this site. Thus, 9,10-PQ inhibits GAPDH by two distinct mechanisms: through ROS generation that results in the oxidization of GAPDH thiols, and by an

  15. Ca(2+) -Induced Oxygen Generation by FeO4(2-) at pH 9-10.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Lam, William W Y; Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2016-02-24

    Although FeO4(2-) (ferrate(IV)) is a very strong oxidant that readily oxidizes water in acidic medium, at pH 9-10 it is relatively stable (<2 % decomposition after 1 h at 298 K). However, FeO4(2-) is readily activated by Ca(2+) at pH 9-10 to generate O2. The reaction has the following rate law: d[O2]/dt=kCa [Ca(2+) ][FeO4(2-)](2). (18)O-labeling experiments show that both O atoms in O2 come from FeO4(2-). These results together with DFT calculations suggest that the function of Ca(2+) is to facilitate O-O coupling between two FeO4 (2-) ions by bridging them together. Similar activating effects are also observed with Mg(2+) and Sr(2+). PMID:26798981

  16. 1,4- and 2,6-disubstituted amidoanthracene-9,10-dione derivatives as inhibitors of human telomerase.

    PubMed

    Perry, P J; Gowan, S M; Reszka, A P; Polucci, P; Jenkins, T C; Kelland, L R; Neidle, S

    1998-08-13

    A number of 1,4- and 2,6-difunctionalized amidoanthracene-9, 10-diones have been prepared. We have examined their in vitro cytotoxicity in several tumor cell lines and their ability to inhibit the telomere-addition function of the human telomerase enzyme together with their inhibition of the Taq polymerase enzyme. Compounds with -(CH2)2- side chains terminating in basic groups such as piperidine show inhibition of telomerase at telIC50 levels of 4-11 microM. These are thus among the most potent nonnucleoside telomerase inhibitors reported to date. Cytotoxicity levels in human tumor cell lines were at comparable levels for several compounds. Implications for amidoanthracene-9,10-dione telomerase inhibitors as potential anticancer agents are discussed.

  17. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  18. Manufacturing Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8115 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The course materials included in this guide are intended to introduce students to the manufacturing industry and its relationships with society, individuals, and the environment. The following topics are covered in the nine learning modules: manufacturing and society and manufacturing systems; manufacturing materials and processes (types of…

  19. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  20. Kinetic selection between organogel fibers and nano-ribbons of 2,3-didecyloxy-9,10-bisphenylethynyl-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Kao, Min-Tzu; Schäfer, Christian; Raffy, Guillaume; Del Guerzo, André

    2012-11-01

    A novel organogelator, DDPEA (2,3-didecyloxy-9,10-bisphenylethynyl-anthracene), displays a very unusual polymorphism upon self-assembly. The fluorescence resulting from J-aggregates reveals that the readily formed DDPEA gel evolves into another more stable state within four hours. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows that this kinetic metastable gel-state is constituted of nanofibers, while the thermodynamically stable state is constituted of a dispersion of nano-ribbons or -crystals. Nano-fibers or nano-ribbons can be selected upon trapping the states by drying.

  1. A divergent route to 9, 10-oxygenated tetrahydroprotoberberine and 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids: synthesis of (±)-isocorypalmine and oxypalmatine

    PubMed Central

    Gadhiya, Satish; Ponnala, Shashikanth; Harding, Wayne W.

    2015-01-01

    A new route which is germane to the synthesis of 9,10-oxygenated tetrahydroprotoberberines and 8-oxoprotoberberines is described. The route features the use of a diester (14) generated from reaction of dimethylmalonate with an aryl halide in the presence of n-butyllithium. The amide 17 prepared in subsequent steps is a versatile precursor for the synthesis of tetrahydroprotoberberine and 8-oxoprotoberberine scaffolds using standard high-yielding reactions. In this manner, (±)-isocorypalmine and oxypalmatine have been synthesized in 23% and 22 % yields respectively. PMID:25691805

  2. Laser induced fluorescence and resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Haeng; Huh, Hyun; Kim, Hyung Min; Kim, Choong Ik; Kim, Nam Joon; Kim, Seong Keun

    2005-01-01

    We carried out laser induced fluorescence and resonance enhanced two-color two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1-HAQ). The 0-0 band transition to the lowest electronically excited state was found to be at 461.98 nm (21 646 cm-1). A well-resolved vibronic structure was observed up to 1100 cm-1 above the 0-0 band, followed by a rather broad absorption band in the higher frequency region. Dispersed fluorescence spectra were also obtained. Single vibronic level emissions from the 0-0 band showed Stokes-shifted emission spectra. The peak at 2940 cm-1 to the red of the origin in the emission spectra was assigned as the OH stretching vibration in the ground state, whose combination bands with the C=O bending and stretching vibrations were also seen in the emission spectra. In contrast to the excitation spectrum, no significant vibronic activity was found for low frequency fundamental vibrations of the ground state in the emission spectrum. The spectral features of the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra indicate that a significant change takes place in the intramolecular hydrogen bonding structure upon transition to the excited state, such as often seen in the excited state proton (or hydrogen) transfer. We suggest that the electronically excited state of interest has a double minimum potential of the 9,10-quinone and the 1,10-quinone forms, the latter of which, the proton-transferred form of 1-HAQ, is lower in energy. On the other hand, ab initio calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicted that the electronic ground state has a single minimum potential distorted along the reaction coordinate of tautomerization. The 9,10-quinone form of 1-HAQ is the lowest energy structure in the ground state, with the 1,10-quinone form lying ˜5000 cm-1 above it. The intramolecular hydrogen bond of the 9,10-quinone was found to be unusually strong, with an estimated bond energy of ˜13 kcal/mol (˜4500 cm-1), probably due to

  3. Potentiation of friend viral leukemogenesis by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene in two strains of mice (41619)

    SciTech Connect

    Raikow, R.B.; Okunewick, J.P.; Jones, D.L.; Buffo, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) produced malignancy involving the spleen in SJL/J and B10SJF1 mice when injected ip at 500 ..mu..g per mouse either alone or in combination with threshold doses of Friend leukemia virus (FLV). The mice that received both chemical and virus died significantly sooner than mice that received either chemical or virus alone, and a synergism between DMBA and FLV was demonstrated in both the virus-resistant B10SJF1 hybrids and virus-sensitive SJL/F mice. 23 references, 2 figures.

  4. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  5. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand. PMID:27164137

  6. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in 9-10 Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Pouya; Skeaff, Sheila A; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a non-quantitative 28-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Children aged 9-10 years (n = 50) from three schools in Dunedin, New Zealand, completed the FFQ twice and a four-day estimated food diary (4DEFD) over a two-week period. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to determine reproducibility and validity of the FFQ, respectively. Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 23 food items/groups. More than half of the food items/groups (52.2%) had an ICC ≥0.5. The median SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.66 (ranging from 0.40 for processed meat to 0.82 for sweets and non-dairy drinks). Cross-classification analysis between the first FFQ and 4DEFD for ranking participants into thirds showed that breakfast cereals had the highest agreement (54.0%) and pasta the lowest (34.0%). In validity analyses, 70% of food items/groups had a SCC ≥0.3. Results indicate that the FFQ is a useful tool for ranking children according to food items/groups intake. The low respondent burden and relative simplicity of the FFQ makes it suitable for use in large cohort studies of 9-10 year-old children in New Zealand.

  7. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  8. Metabolism of a Representative Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC–UV–fluorescence detection and LC–MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH. PMID:24646012

  9. Metabolism of a representative oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blaha, Michael A; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH.

  10. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 73.3100 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester (CAS Reg. No. 109561-07-1)...

  11. Production of 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methylanthracene-9,10-dione by submerged culture of Shiraia bambusicola.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yujie; Ding, Yanrui; Tao, Guanjun; Liao, Xiangru

    2008-02-01

    1,5-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methylanthracene-9,10- dione (shiraiarin) is a kind of antitumor and antibacterial anthraquinone, and was produced for the first time from the submerged fermentation of Shiraia bambusicola, as confirmed by ESI-MS and NMR. The production of shiraiarin was significantly influenced when varying the carbon source, and a high amount of shiraiarin was only achieved when using lactose. The production of shiraiarin was also stimulated when using NaNO3 as the nitrogen source, whereas other nitrogen sources inhibited its production. Shiraiarin was formed during the stationary phase with a pH value higher than 8. The production of shiraiarin was inhibited by sporulation.

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of a Series of Anthracene-9,10-dione Dioxime β-Catenin Pathway Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Soldi, Raffaella; Horrigan, Stephen K; Cholody, Marek W; Padia, Janak; Sorna, Venkataswamy; Bearss, Jared; Gilcrease, Glynn; Bhalla, Kapil; Verma, Anupam; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Sharma, Sunil

    2015-08-13

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a vital role in cell growth, the regulation, cell development, and the differentiation of normal stem cells. Constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is found in many human cancers, and thus, it is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Specific inhibitors of this pathway have been keenly researched and developed. Cell based screening of compounds library, hit-to-lead optimization, computational and structure-based design strategies resulted in the design and synthesis of a series of anthracene-9,10-dione dioxime series of compounds demonstrated potent inhibition of β-catenin in vitro (IC50 < 10 nM, 14) and the growth of several cancer cell lines. This article discusses the potential of inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as a therapeutic approach for cancer along with an overview of the development of specific inhibitors. PMID:26182238

  13. The influence of perchlorates on the fluorescence quenching of 9,10-dichloroanthracene by bromide salts in acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Marek; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence quenching of 9,10-dichloroanthracene by lithium bromide and tetra- n-butylammonium bromide in acetone has been investigated in the presence of perchlorate salts. In the presence of LiBr, the Stern-Volmer (S-V) plots exhibit downward curvatures indicating that two species are responsible for the quenching process, namely free bromide anions and lithium bromide ion pairs. The addition of a perchlorate salt modifies the S-V dependencies due to the influence of perchlorates on the degree of lithium bromide dissociation. The association constant of lithium bromide has been determined by conductivity measurements and it agrees well with the estimates made from the fluorescence quenching measurements. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching by lithium bromide is discussed on the basis of electron transfer and the heavy-atom effect.

  14. SERS investigations on orientation of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anuratha, M; Jawahar, A; Umadevi, M; Sathe, V G; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Meenakumari, V; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method with urea as fuel. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (BMDMAQ) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles was investigated. The orientation of BMDMAQ on silver nanoparticles was inferred from nRs and SERS spectral features. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation was also performed to study the theoretical performance. The observed spectral features such as the high intensity of C-H out-of-plane bending mode and ring C-C stretching mode revealed that BMDMAQ adsorbed on silver surface through 'stand-on' orientation. Anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives have wide biomedical application which includes laxatives, antimalarials and antineoplastics used in the treatment of cancer. This present study would help to identify the interaction of drug molecules with DNA. PMID:25983057

  15. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  16. Conformational effects in the absorption spectra and photochemistry of [2, n](9,10)anthracenophanes ( n = 2,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunand, Albert; Ferguson, James; Puza, Miroslav; Robertson, Glen B.

    1980-11-01

    The absorption spectra of [2.2](9,10)anthracenophane (1) and [2.3](9,10)anthracenophane (II), in condensed media, contain overlapping contributions from two conformational isomers with quite different spectra. The spectra of the two conformations of I and of one conformation of II have been separately determined by a solid state method. This involved the incorporation of the photoisomers of I (1,2,7,8,-tetrahydro-2a,6b[1',2']:8a, 12b[1″,2″] -dibenzenodibenzo [a,c] dicyclo- buta[e.g]cyclooctene) and II (1,2,8,9-tetrahydro-2a,6b[1',2']:9a,13b[1″,2″]-dibenzeno-7H-dibenzo[a,e]cyclobuta[c]-cyclopenta[g]cyclooctene) in host single crystals of the photoisomer of 1,3-di(9-anthryl)propane, I and II were then obtained by thermal dissociation and their spectra measured at 8 K. The two conformers of 1 were separated by photoselection, the rotated conformer being between 4 and 5 times more photoreactive than the translated conformer. A modified molecular force field program was used to simulate the environment around the guest molecule (I) and the resultant geometries and orientations in the (disordered) site of the host crystal are in excellent agreement with the polarization analysis of the absorption spectra. Two crystal orientations of the rotated conformer were found. For II, the rotated conformation, with two orientations, dominates the absorption spectrum and the translated conformer could not be obtained by photoselection. The force field program was used to calculate the molecular geometries (gas phase) of both conformations of I and II and their photoisomers, I was also obtained by ultraviolet photodissociation of its photoisomer at 8 K. Both conformers were obtained with the same ratio as for the thermally treated crystals. This result considered with the photoselection experiments, demonstrates that the reversible photoisomerization does not proceed via biradical intermediate.

  17. Substituent position dictates the intercalative DNA-binding mode for anthracene-9,10-dione antitumor drugs.

    PubMed

    Tanious, F A; Jenkins, T C; Neidle, S; Wilson, W D

    1992-11-24

    Molecular modeling studies [Islam, S.A., Neidle, S., Gandecha, B.M., Partridge, M., Patterson, L.H., & Brown, J.R. (1985) J. Med. Chem. 28, 857-864] have suggested that anthracene-9,10-dione (anthraquinone) derivatives substituted at the 1,4 and 1,8 positions with-NH(CH2)2NH(CH2CH3)2+ side chains intercalate with DNA with both substituents in the same groove (classical intercalation) while a similarly substituted 1,5 derivative intercalates in a threading mode with one side chain in each groove. Modeling studies also suggested that anthracene-9,10-dione (anthraquinone) derivatives substituted at the 2,6 positions with -NHCO(CH2)R (where R is a cationic group) should bind to DNA by the threading mode, and several such derivatives have been synthesized [Agbandjie, M., Jenkins, T.C., McKenna, R., Reszka, A., & Neidle, S. (1992) J. Med. Chem. 35, 1418-1429]. We have conducted stopped-flow kinetics association and dissociation experiments on the interaction of these anthraquinones with calf thymus DNA and with DNA polymers with alternating AT and GC base pairs to experimentally determine the binding mode and how the threading mode affects intercalation rates relative to similarly substituted classical intercalators. The binding modes, determined by analysis of relative rates, energies of activation, and effects of salt concentration on association and dissociation rate constants, agree completely with the modes predicted by molecular modeling methods. Association and dissociation rate constants for the threading mode are approximately a factor of 10 lower than constants for the classical intercalation mode, and the two modes, thus, have similar binding constants. Variations in rate constants for changes in cationic substituents at the 2 and 6 positions of the anthraquinone ring were surprisingly small.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Venera-9,-10 and Venera-15,-16 occultation data: proposals for updating a model of Venus ionosphere (VIRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrik, Anatoly; Kopnina, Tatiana; Bondarenko, Michael; Gavrik, Yury

    This work aims at obtaining useful properties of Venusian ionosphere by re-examining dual-frequency occultation data from Venera-9,-10,-15, and -16 missions. High precision analysis of Venusian ionosphere was ensured by both high stability and coherence of radio signals with 32 cm and 8 cm wavelengths, and the fact that the 32 cm radio signal is highly sensitive to refraction on layered ionospheric structures. Occultation experiments in Venera-9, -10, -15, and -16 missions covered solar zenith angles between 10 and 90 degrees in daytime, and between 90 and 166 degrees at night. 189 electron density profiles were obtained from the data. These results demonstrate that ionosphere is highly susceptible to changes in solar zenith angles and solar activity levels. Daytime ionosphere is highly variable above 170 km in altitude. Electron density profiles frequently vary from a fully developed ionosphere which has ionopause at 1000 km to a compressed ionosphere with ionopause at 250 km. The main electron profile maximum usually lies within a few kilometres of the 142 km altitude point. The lower maximum is usually located approximately 13 km below. The lower boundary of daytime ionosphere can exist in the 80-100 km interval. We also detected interdependent oscillations of the neutral and ionized medium between 60 and 115 km. Nighttime ionosphere also varies strongly. Electron density profiles may frequently have 2 peaks. The altitude of the main maximum (142 km) is close to that of the daytime ionosphere; the lower peak lies in the 120-130 km interval. No ionization below 110 km was observed. The obtained results can serve to improve our understanding of the properties of Venusian ionosphere and atmosphere. This work is partially supported by Program 22 of the Presidium of RAS.

  19. Novel Derivatives of 9,10-Anthraquinone Are Selective Algicides against the Musty-Odor Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Kevin K.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tucker, Craig S.; Rimando, Agnes M.; Ganzera, Markus; Schaneberg, Brian T.

    2003-01-01

    Musty “off-flavor” in pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) costs the catfish production industry in the United States at least $30 million annually. The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata (Skuja) is credited with being the major cause of musty off-flavor in farm-raised catfish in Mississippi. The herbicides diuron and copper sulfate, currently used by catfish producers as algicides to help mitigate musty off-flavor problems, have several drawbacks, including broad-spectrum toxicity towards the entire phytoplankton community that can lead to water quality deterioration and subsequent fish death. By use of microtiter plate bioassays, a novel group of compounds derived from the natural compound 9,10-anthraquinone have been found to be much more selectively toxic towards O. perornata than diuron and copper sulfate. In efficacy studies using limnocorrals placed in catfish production ponds, application rates of 0.3 μM (125 μg/liter) of the most promising anthraquinone derivative, 2-[methylamino-N-(1′-methylethyl)]-9,10-anthraquinone monophosphate (anthraquinone-59), dramatically reduced the abundance of O. perornata and levels of 2-methylisoborneol, the musty compound produced by O. perornata. The abundance of green algae and diatoms increased dramatically 2 days after application of a 0.3 μM concentration of anthraquinone-59 to pond water within the limnocorrals. The half-life of anthraquinone-59 in pond water was determined to be 19 h, making it much less persistent than diuron. Anthraquinone-59 appears to be promising for use as a selective algicide in catfish aquaculture. PMID:12957919

  20. TR-ESR Investigation on Reaction of Vitamin C with Excited Triplet of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in Reversed Micelle Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin-sheng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Ji, Xue-han; Cui, Zhi-feng

    2011-04-01

    Time-resolved electron spin resonance has been used to study quenching reactions between the antioxidant Vitamin C (VC) and the triplet excited states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PAQ) in ethylene glycol-water (EG-H2O) homogeneous and inhomogeneous reversed micelle solutions. Reversed micelle solutions were used to be the models of physiological environment of biological cell and tissue. In PAQ/EG-H2O homogeneous solution, the excited triplet of PAQ (3PAQ*) abstracts hydrogen atom from solvent EG. In PAQ/VC/EG-H2O solution, 3PAQ* abstracts hydrogen atom not only from solvent EG but also from VC. The quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is close to the diffusion-controlled value of 1.41 × 108 L/(mol ·s). In hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/EG-H2O and aerosol OT (AOT)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solutions, 3PAQ* and VC react around the water-oil interface of the reversed micelle. Exit of 3PAQ* from the lipid phase slows down the quenching reaction. For Triton X-100 (TX-100)/EG-H2O reversed micelle solution, PAQ and VC coexist inside the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol core, and the quenching rate constant of 3PAQ* by VC is larger than those in AOT/EG-H2O and CTAB/EG-H2O reversed micelle solutions, even a little larger than that in EG-H2O homogeneous solution. The strong emissive chemically induced dynamic electron polarization of As.- resulted from the effective TM spin polarization transfer in hydrogen abstraction of 3PAQ* from VC.

  1. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Receptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Judy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The syllabus for a refresher course on the physiology and biochemistry of receptors (presented at the 1983 American Physiological Society meeting) is provided. Topics considered include receptor regulation, structural/functional aspects of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors, calcium channel inhibitors, and role of lipoprotein…

  2. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone accelerates malignant progression of lung cancer cells through up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Haga, Mariko; Endo, Satoshi; Soda, Midori; Yamamura, Keiko; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Tajima, Kazuo; Ikari, Akira; Hara, Akira

    2014-07-15

    Inhalation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust, exerts fatal damage against a variety of cells involved in respiratory function. Here, we show that treatment with high concentrations of 9,10-PQ evokes apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, 9,10-PQ at its concentrations of 2 and 5 μM elevated the potentials for proliferation, invasion, metastasis and tumorigenesis, all of which were almost completely inhibited by addition of an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inferring a crucial role of ROS in the overgrowth and malignant progression of lung cancer cells. Comparison of mRNA expression levels of six aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells advocated up-regulation of AKR1B10 as a major cause contributing to the lung cancer malignancy. In support of this, the elevation of invasive, metastatic and tumorigenic activities in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells was significantly abolished by the addition of a selective AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid. Intriguingly, zymographic and real-time PCR analyses revealed remarkable increases in secretion and expression, respectively, of matrix metalloproteinase 2 during the 9,10-PQ treatment, and suggested that the AKR1B10 up-regulation and resultant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are predominant mechanisms underlying the metalloproteinase induction. In addition, HPLC analysis and cytochrome c reduction assay in in vitro 9,10-PQ reduction by AKR1B10 demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes redox-cycling of this quinone, by which ROS are produced. Collectively, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is a key regulator involved in overgrowth and malignant progression of the lung cancer cells through ROS production due to 9,10-PQ redox-cycling. - Highlights: • 9,10-PQ promotes invasion, metastasis and tumorigenicity in lung cancer cells. • The 9,10-PQ-elicited promotion is possibly due to AKR1B10 up

  5. Overcoming doxorubicin-resistance in the NCI/ADR-RES model cancer cell line by novel anthracene-9,10-dione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Supranee; Ha, Helen; Teerawattananon, Thapong; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Neamati, Nouri; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2013-11-15

    Overcoming drug resistance with remarkable cytotoxic activity by anthracene-9,10-dione derivatives would offer a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we report the synthesis and the cytotoxicity of a novel set of anthraquninones. (4-(4-Aminobenzylamino)-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl-4-methylbenzenesulfonate) (3) has excellent in vitro cytotoxicity against doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell line (IC50=0.8 μM), 20-fold higher than doxorubicin. The cytotoxic effect via G2/M arrest does not appear to be ROS.

  6. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  7. Photon-induced Formation of Molecular Hydrogen from a Neutral Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: 9,10-dihydroanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yi; Szczepanski, Jan; Polfer, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results from infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provide compelling evidence that UV irradiation of the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA), trapped in solid argon (12 K), results in efficient (i.e., 90% yield) conversion to anthracene and molecular hydrogen. A number of dissociation pathways involving single or double hydrogen loss are investigated computationally. Among these, two mechanisms are most credible for a one-photon dissociation process involving UV photons <5.5 eV. For the lowest-energy pathway (2.3 eV), a simultaneous lengthening of the C-H bonds of H9 and H10 gives rise to an anthracene-H2 complex. A higher-energy mechanism (3.4 eV) involves an initial lengthening of the H9 C-H bond, followed by this hydrogen "grabbing" H10, and forming H2. The high yield of this photolysis reaction suggests that similar reactions may take place for other neutral PAHs, with implications for the formation of molecular hydrogen in regions of low UV exposure, such as in dark clouds.

  8. Electrical conductivity, optical properties and mechanical stability of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride based organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mayank; Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Nambi Raj, N. Arunai

    2015-05-01

    The 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped polymer films were prepared with Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers by solution-casting. The change in structure and chemical composition of samples was identified by XRD and FTIR respectively. The UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates the optical characteristics and band gap properties of sample. The homogeneous morphology of sample for higher wt% of PTCDA was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate the decrease in melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (χc%) of polymeric organic semiconductor. The mechanical property demonstrates the high tensile strength and improved plasticity nature. Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated to determine the conductivity response of polymeric organic semiconductor. The highest DC conductivity (2.08×10-3 S/m) was obtained for 10 wt% of PTCDA at 140 °C. The decrease in activation energy (Ea) represents the non-Debye process and was evaluated from the slope of ln σdc vs. 103/T plot.

  9. Spin-lattice relaxation study of the methyl proton dynamics in solid 9,10-dimethyltriptycene (DMT).

    PubMed

    Piślewski, N; Tritt-Goc, J; Bielejewski, M; Rachocki, A; Ratajczyk, T; Szymański, S

    2009-06-01

    Proton spin-lattice relaxation studies are performed for powder samples of 9,10-dimethyltriptycene (DMT) and its isotopomer DMT-d(12) in which all the non-methyl protons in the molecule are replaced by deuterons. The relaxation data are interpreted in terms of the conventional relaxation theory based on the random jump model in which the Pauli correlations between the relevant spin and torsional states are discarded. The Arrhenius activation energies, obtained from the relaxation data, 25.3 and 24.8 kJ mol(-1) for DMT and DMT-d(12), respectively, are very high as for the methyl groups. The validity of the jump model in the present case is considered from the perspective of Haupt theory in which the Pauli principle is explicitly invoked. To this purpose, the dynamic quantities entering the Haupt model are reinterpreted in the spirit of the damped quantum rotation (DQR) approach introduced recently for the purpose of NMR lineshape studies of hindered molecular rotators. Theoretical modelling of the relevant methyl group dynamics, based on the DQR theory, was performed. From these calculations it is inferred that direct assessments of the torsional barrier heights, based on the Arrhenius activation energies extracted from relaxation data, should be treated with caution.

  10. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)32+, and 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Using Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru-(bpy)32+). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center of Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  11. PHOTON-INDUCED FORMATION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM A NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON: 9,10-DIHYDROANTHRACENE

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Yi; Szczepanski, Jan; Polfer, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results from infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provide compelling evidence that UV irradiation of the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA), trapped in solid argon (12 K), results in efficient (i.e., 90% yield) conversion to anthracene and molecular hydrogen. A number of dissociation pathways involving single or double hydrogen loss are investigated computationally. Among these, two mechanisms are most credible for a one-photon dissociation process involving UV photons <5.5 eV. For the lowest-energy pathway (2.3 eV), a simultaneous lengthening of the C-H bonds of H9 and H10 gives rise to an anthracene-H{sub 2} complex. A higher-energy mechanism (3.4 eV) involves an initial lengthening of the H9 C-H bond, followed by this hydrogen 'grabbing' H10, and forming H{sub 2}. The high yield of this photolysis reaction suggests that similar reactions may take place for other neutral PAHs, with implications for the formation of molecular hydrogen in regions of low UV exposure, such as in dark clouds.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione on plasmonic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Sridhar, B

    2014-12-10

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes from 7nm to 22nm have been prepared by simple Dirk and Charles chemical method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence quenching of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione (DMDMAD) by silver nanoparticles has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the role of quenching mechanism. Furthermore, the intensity of DMDMAD fluorescence emission peak decreases with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. The fluorescence quenching rate constant and association constant for above system were determined using Stern-Volmer and Benesi-Hildebrand plots. The mechanism of DMDMAD fluorescence quenched by Ag NPs was discussed according to the Stern-Volmer equation. It has been observed that the quenching due to Ag NPs proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The distance between DMDMAD (donor) to Ag NPs (acceptor) and the critical energy transfer distance were estimated based on the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) theory.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optical Properties of a Cyano-Functionalized 4,5,9,10-tetraaryl-l,6-dioxapyrene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, Daniel S.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Panzner, Matthew J.; Kinder, James D.; Buisson, Jean-Pierre; Christensen, Jorn B.; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    5,10-Di(4-cyanophenyl)-4,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-1,6-dioxapyrene ( CN-diox), a symmetrically substituted 4,5,9,10-tetraaryldioxapyrene, was synthesized in seven steps from 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene. The synthetic methodology incorporated a base-catalyzed ring-closure process followed by dehydration to introduce the first tetraaryl- 1,6-dioxapyrene. Crystal structure and electrochemical analysis were performed to directly compare the properties of CN-diox to previously reported dioxapyrene derivatives, specifically 1,6-dioxapyrene (Diox) and 4,9-diethyl-2,7-dimethyl- 1,6-dioxapyrene (Alkyl-diox). Optical spectroscopy studies were performed to evaluate the potential of the 1,6-dioxapyrenes as fluorescent probes. CN-diox revealed a broad absorption centered near 450 nm (epsilon = 31,900/M/cm) in THF with a corresponding fluorescence at 619 nm (Phi(sub f) = 0.011). This was in sharp contrast to both Diox and Alkyl-diox which displayed broad absorption bands near 400 nm (epsilon approx. 5,000-10,000/M/cm) in THF with corresponding fluorescence near 500 nm (Phi(sub f) = 0.059 and 0.082 for Diox and Alkyl-diox, respectively). The luminescence of CN-diox was found to be solvatochromic (lambda(sub max) = 619 nm-644 nm) with single exponential lifetimes of less than 1.3 ns. Neither Diox nor Alkyl-diox showed solvatochromic properties.

  14. Novel adhesin from Pasteurella multocida that binds to the integrin-binding fibronectin FnIII9-10 repeats.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Lisa M; Nair, Sean P; Ward, John M; Rycroft, Andrew N; Williams, Rachel J; Robertson, Giles; Mordan, Nicky J; Henderson, Brian

    2008-03-01

    Phage display screening with fragmented genomic DNA from the animal pathogen Pasteurella multocida has identified a gene encoding a putative fibronectin binding protein (19). Homologues of this gene (PM1665) are found in all other sequenced members of the Pasteurellaceae. Gene PM1665 has been cloned, and the protein has been expressed. Recombinant PM1665 protein binds to both soluble and immobilized fibronectin and is unique in that it interacts with the integrin-binding fibronectin type III (FnIII) repeats FnIII(9-10) and not, as is the case for almost all other fibronectin adhesins, to the N-terminal type I repeats. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a complex binding mechanism with a K(D) (equilibrium dissociation constant) of 150 nM +/- 70 nM. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the PM1665 protein contains two helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motifs, and truncation mutation studies have identified the binding site in the protein as a combination of these two HhH motifs in conjunction with a conserved amino acid motif, VNINTA. We have shown that the PM1665 protein is on the cell surface and that binding of P. multocida to fibronectin is almost completely inhibited by anti-PM1665 antiserum. These results support the hypothesis that the PM1665 protein is a member of a new family of fibronectin binding adhesins that are important in the adhesion of P. multocida to fibronectin. PMID:18160478

  15. Spectroscopic studies of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione on plasmonic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Sridhar, B

    2014-12-10

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes from 7nm to 22nm have been prepared by simple Dirk and Charles chemical method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence quenching of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylanthracene-9,10-dione (DMDMAD) by silver nanoparticles has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the role of quenching mechanism. Furthermore, the intensity of DMDMAD fluorescence emission peak decreases with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. The fluorescence quenching rate constant and association constant for above system were determined using Stern-Volmer and Benesi-Hildebrand plots. The mechanism of DMDMAD fluorescence quenched by Ag NPs was discussed according to the Stern-Volmer equation. It has been observed that the quenching due to Ag NPs proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The distance between DMDMAD (donor) to Ag NPs (acceptor) and the critical energy transfer distance were estimated based on the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) theory. PMID:24973788

  16. Photoinduced singlet charge transfer in a ruthenium(II) perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) complex.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Victoria L; Krieg, Elisha; Vagnini, Michael T; Iron, Mark A; Rybtchinski, Boris; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2011-06-16

    Elucidation of photoinduced charge transfer behavior in organic dye/metal hybrids is important for developing photocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion. We report the synthesis and photophysical characterization of a perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI)-ruthenium(II) complex, bis-PDI-2,2'-bipyridineRu(II)Cl(2)(CN(t)butyl)(2), which has favorable energetics, ΔG(CS) ≈ -1.0 eV, for singlet electron transfer from the Ru complex to PDI. Time-resolved optical spectroscopy reveals that upon selective photoexcitation of PDI, ultrafast charge transfer (<150 fs) from the Ru complex to (1*)PDI generates the Ru(III)-PDI(-•) ion pair. The resulting vibrationally hot Ru(III)-PDI(-•) ion pair exhibits fast relaxation (τ = 3.9 ps) and charge recombination (τ(CR) = 63 ps). Our experimental and computational (DFT and TDDFT) studies show that energy-preserving photodriven singlet electron transfer can dominate in properly designed organic dye/metal complexes, making them of particular interest for use in artificial photosynthetic systems for solar fuels formation. PMID:21598951

  17. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 390: AREAS 9, 10, AND 12 SPILL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 390 consists four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 9, 10, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure activities performed at the CASs include: (1) CAS 09-99-03, Wax, Paraffin: 2 cubic yards of drilling polymer was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (2) CAS 10-99-01, Epoxy Tar Spill: 2 cubic feet of asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 10-99-03, Tar Spills: 3 cubic yards of deteriorated asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 12-25-03, Oil Stains (2); Container: Approximately 16 ounces of used oil were removed from ventilation equipment on June 28,2005, and recycled. One CAS 10-22-19, Drums, Stains, was originally part of CAU 390 but was transferred out of CAU 390 and into CAU 550, Drums, Batteries, and Lead Materials. The transfer was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on August 19,2005, and a copy of the approval letter is included in Appendix D of this report.

  18. Effect of the orthoquinone moiety in 9,10-phenanthrenequinone on its ability to induce apoptosis in HCT-116 and HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Jun; Okujima, Tetsuo; Ishikura, Minoru; Abe, Takumi; Hibino, Satoshi; Choshi, Tominari; Okada, Chiaki; Yamada, Hiroko; Uno, Hidemitsu; Toyota, Eiko

    2013-08-15

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is one of the most abundant quinones among diesel exhaust particulates. Recent data have suggested that quinones induce apoptosis in immune, epithelial and tumor cells, leading to respirator illness; however, the mechanisms by which quinones induce apoptosis and the structure required for this remain unknown. We studied the antitumor activity of 9,10-PQ analogs against two human tumor cell lines, HCT-116 colon tumor cells and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. The loss of the cis-orthoquinone unit in 9,10-PQ abrogated its ability to induce apoptosis in the two tumor cell lines, and the LC50 values of these analogs were indicated over 10 μM. An analog of 9,10-PQ in which the biaryl unit had been deleted displayed a reduced ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis, while the analogs 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (9) and pyrene-4,5-dione (10), which also had modified biaryl units, exhibited increased tumor cell apoptotic activity. The cis-orthoquinone unit in 9,10-PQ was identified as essential for its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, and its biaryl unit is also considered to influence orthoquinone-mediated apoptotic activity.

  19. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, September 9-10, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal,

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 9-10, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, aboard a Cessna C-210 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes of the beach and nearshore area, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML file was created using the photographic navigation files. The KML file can be found in the kml folder.

  20. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  1. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Christian; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco; Verwüster, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Oliver T; Forker, Roman; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Zojer, Egbert; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-02-23

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content.

  2. Dual effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine dependent on NQO1 activity: Suppressive or promotive of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Shinmen, Takuya; Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Ibuki, Yuko

    2012-11-01

    A typical antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) generally protects cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, produces ROS in redox cycling following two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which has been considered as a cause of its cyto- and genotoxicity. In this study, we show that NAC unexpectedly augments the toxicity of 9,10-PQ in cells with low NQO1 activity. In four human skin cell lines, the expression and the activity of NQO1 were lower than in human adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and MCF7. In the skin cells, the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ was significantly enhanced by addition of NAC. The formation of DNA double strand breaks accompanying phosphorylation of histone H2AX, was also remarkably augmented. On the other hand, the cyto- and genotoxicity were suppressed by addition of NAC in the adenocarcinoma cells. Two contrasting experiments: overexpression of NQO1 in CHO-K1 cells which originally expressed low NQO1 levels, and knock‐down of NQO1 in the adenocarcinoma cell line A549 by transfection of RNAi, also showed that NAC suppressed 9,10-PQ-induced toxicity in cell lines expressing high NQO1 activity and enhanced it in cell lines with low NQO1 activity. The results suggested that dual effects of NAC on the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on tissue-specific NQO1 activity. -- Highlights: ► NAC augmented the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ in skin cell lines. ► 9,10-PQ-induced DSBs accompanying γ-H2AX were also augmented by NAC. ► NAC suppressed the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ in adenocarcinoma cell lines. ► The dual effects of NAC on toxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on NQO1 activity.

  3. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  4. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ... radiology case studies Developed by ACR Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair ...

  5. [Aviation physiology].

    PubMed

    Frank, P W

    1999-10-01

    Aviation physiology should be known at least in parts by the physicians advising air travellers. Due to reducing atmospheric pressure at altitude gas volume in body cavities expands (Boyle's law). This might not be a problem during ascend since air can disappear easily through natural ways. However, air must return to body cavities during descend and a person with a cold may suffer from painful barotitis. Hypoxia is mostly due to a reduced pO2 in high altitude (Daltons's Law). This may be prevented by an aircraft cabin or supplemented oxygen. Decompression sickness is very rare in aviation but divers should comply to a dive free interval before flying. PMID:10568247

  6. Professional Scientific Societies, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported are the findings of a study of scientific societies in the United States. Some 449 professional organizations were considered of which 284 conformed to the validation criteria for inclusion. Data gathering was most successful on membership, current dues, society history, and purpose and less successful on topics related to society income…

  7. It's Difficult to Change the Way We Teach: Lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology Curriculum Module Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Thorn, Patti M.; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2006-01-01

    The Integrative Themes in Physiology (ITIP) project was a National Science Foundation-funded collaboration between the American Physiological Society (APS) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms.…

  8. Molecular characterization of mutation and comparison of mutation profiles in the hprt gene of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide, 1-nitrobenzol[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide, and 3-nitrobenzol[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, D.J.; Heflich, R.H.; Fu, P.P.

    1996-12-31

    Both 1- and 3-nitrobenzol[a] pyrene (nitro-BaP) are environmental contaminants, potent mutagens in Salmonella, and moderate mutagens in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The mutagenicity of their oxidized metabolites, trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1-nitrobenzol[a]pyrene (1-nitro-BaP-DE) and trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-3-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (3-nitro-BaP-DE), together with trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzol[a]pyren (BaP-DE), was determined in CHO-K1 cells, and the resulting mutations at the hprt locus were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of reverse-transcribed hprt mRNA, followed by DNA sequence analysis. The mutant frequencies, in mutants/10{sup 6} clonable cells, at 30 and 100 ng/ml, were BaP-DE, 248 and 456; 1-nitro-BaP-DE, 68 and 260; 3-nitro-BaP-DE, 81 and 232, respectively. In general, the three diolepoxides exhibited similar mutational spectra: (1) 64% (23/36 sequenced mutants) of BaP-DE, 53% (19/36) of 1-nitro-BaP-DE, and 64% (23/36) of 3-nitro-BaP-DE mutants resulted from simple base pair substitution, with the predominant mutation being G{r_arrow}T transversion: (2) 90%, 100%, and 100% of mutations at G:C had the mutated dG on the nontranscribed DNA strand; and (3) about one quarter of the mutants produced by each mutagen had one or more PCR products with partial or complete exon deletions. 61 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  9. 9,10-Dihydrophenanthrene derivatives and one 1,4-anthraquinone firstly isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Zhang, Rui; Xing, Zhihua; Liang, Yuyan; Li, Shengfu; Jin, Tao; Xia, Qing; Long, Dan; Xin, Guang; Wang, Guangzhi; Huang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Two new phenanthrene derivatives, 2,5,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4-dione (1) and 2,5,6-trihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3), one new anthracenedione, 2,5,7-trimethoxyanthracene-1,4-dione (2), together with two known 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes (4-5) were isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of these new compounds were established based on extensive NMR spectroscopy. Several isolated compounds were evaluated for the inhibition against nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, DPPH radical scavenging, and inhibitory activity on Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) induced triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. Compound 2 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activity, compound 3 possessed comparable DPPH radical scavenging activity as Vitamin C, compounds 2 and 4 showed potent inhibitory activities on triglyceride accumulation.

  10. Physiological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  11. Swimming physiology.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1992-05-01

    Swimming takes place in a medium, that presents different gravitational and resistive forces, respiratory conditions and thermal stress compared to air. The energy cost of propulsion in swimming is high, but a considerable reduction occurs at a given velocity as result of regular swim training. In medley swimmers the energy cost is lowest for front crawl, followed by backstroke, butterfly and breast-stroke. Cardiac output is probably not limiting for performance since swimmers easily achieve higher values during running. Maximal heart rate, however, is lowered by approx. 10 beats/min during swimming compared to running. Most likely active muscle mass is smaller and rate of power production lesser in swimming. Local factors, such as peripheral circulation, capillary density, perfusion pressure and metabolic capacity of active muscles, are important determinants of the power production capacity and emphasize the role of swim specific training movements. Improved swimming technique and efficiency are likely to explain much of the continuous progress in performance. Rational principles based on improved understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of swimming should be guidelines for swimmers and coaches in their efforts to explore the limits of human performance. PMID:1642724

  12. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  13. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  14. Effectiveness of McGraw Hill's "Jamestown Reading Navigator" in Grades 9-10: A Study of Intensive Reading Classes in Miami-Dade High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Atienza, Sara; Lai, Garrett; Ma, Boya; Sterling, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study designed to provide evidence of the effectiveness of the "Jamestown Reading Navigator" ("JRN") program for students in grades 9-10 was conducted in the Miami Dade Public School District (MDCSD). "Jamestown Reading Navigator" is a reading intervention program developed by McGraw-Hill Education to raise reading…

  15. High-performance sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone/CMK-3 cathode and an ether-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunyang; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qing; Pei, Longkai; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-25

    We here report a much improved electrochemical performance of sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) cathode encapsulated in CMK-3, an ether-based electrolyte of high-concentration CF3SO3Na (NaTFS) as a sodium salt in triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) solvent, and the Na anode.

  16. Youth Speaks ... P.E.I. Listens! Young Leaders' Forum 2007. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, March 9-10, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the Young Leaders' Forum held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (PEI), on March 9-10, 2007. The event was part of the Rural Dialogue, an on-going, two-way discussion between the Government of Canada and Canadians from rural, remote and northern regions. Launched in 1998, the Rural…

  17. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical...

  18. Fluorine-containing terpene analogs. IV. 9,9,9,10,10,10-Hexafluoro-p-menthane-1,8-diol (hexafluoroterpine)

    SciTech Connect

    Zalesskaya, I.M.; Fialkov, Yu.A.; Parakhnenko, A.I.; Yagupol'skii, I.M.

    1988-03-10

    The oxidation of trans-e,e-4-(2-hydroxyperfluoroisopropyl)cyclohexanol with pyridinium chlorochromate gave the corresponding cyclohexanone. The reaction of this product with methylmagnesium iodide gave cis- and trans-9,9,9,10,10,10-hexafluoro-p-menthane-1,8-diol, which is fluorinated analog of natural terpine.

  19. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... waiving any of the requirements of sections 510(k), 515, and 520(g) of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-methyl-2-propenoic)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT.... The color additives are the copolymers formed as the reaction product of 1,4-bis...

  1. High-performance sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone/CMK-3 cathode and an ether-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunyang; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qing; Pei, Longkai; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-25

    We here report a much improved electrochemical performance of sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) cathode encapsulated in CMK-3, an ether-based electrolyte of high-concentration CF3SO3Na (NaTFS) as a sodium salt in triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) solvent, and the Na anode. PMID:26022356

  2. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  3. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  4. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  5. Navigating the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Joyce

    This paper explores the idea of an information society from different perspectives, raises issues that are relevant to university libraries, and offers a way forward to some future developments. The first section provides a sketch of the information society in Australia and presents statistics on readiness, intensity, and impacts from reports…

  6. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  7. History of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society.

    PubMed

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G

    2015-10-01

    The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society is a group of over 100 pediatric heart surgeons representing 72 institutions that specialize in the treatment of patients with congenital heart defects. The Society began in 1972 and incorporated as a not-for-profit charitable organization in 2004. It has become the face and voice of congenital heart surgery in North America. In 1985, the Society established a data center for multicenter clinical research studies to encourage congenital heart professionals to participate in improving outcomes for our patients. The goals of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society are to stimulate the study of congenital cardiac physiology, pathology, and management options which are instantiated in data collection, multi-institutional studies, and scientific meetings. Honest and open discussion of problems with possible solutions to the challenges facing congenital heart professionals have been the strength of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society. It is imperative for the growth of an organization to know from where it came in order to know to where it is going. The purpose of this article is to review the history of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society.

  8. Anthracene-9, 10-dione derivatives induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (CaSki) by interfering with HPV E6 expression.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Supranee; Sangphech, Naunpun; Palaga, Tanapat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Puthong, Songchan; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2014-04-22

    A new series of anthracene-9, 10-dione derivatives have been synthesized to increase cytotoxic activity against human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cancer cell line, CaSki. The highest cytotoxicity was achieved by 4-(benzylamino)-9,10-dioxo-4a,9,9a,10-tetrahydroanthracen-1-yl 4-ethylbenzenesulfonate (5) with the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of 0.3 μM which is 20 times lower than that of cisplatin (CDDP; IC50 = 8.0 μM). The toxicity against non-cancerous cell line, WI-38, was low with the IC50 > 10 μM. Treatment with this compound resulted in decreasing HPV E6 expression. Furthermore, increasing p53 and decreasing Bcl-2 expression were noted. Cell cycle profiles revealed an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase.

  9. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. [Tetrahydropyrene and hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H[sub 2] hydrogenation reaction network.

  10. Highly Efficient Blue Organic-Light Emitting Diodes Based on 9,10-Diphenylanthracene End-Capped 5H-Pyrido[3,2-b]lndole Groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul Bee; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two blue emitters based on 9,10-diphenylanthracene and 5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole were designed and synthesized for OLEDs. Among those, a device using 5-(9,10-diphenyl-2-(5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indol-5-yl)anthracen-6-yl)-5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole (2) exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 5.99 cd/A, 2.70 lm/W and 3.94% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device were (x = 0.15, y = 0.21) at 6.0 V.

  11. Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering study of the orientation of cruciform 9,10-anthracene thiophene and furan derivatives deposited on a gold colloidal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Pérez, J.; Leyton, P.; Paipa, C.; Soto, J. P.; Brunet, J.; Gómez-Jeria, J. S.; Campos-Vallette, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The 9,10-di(thiophen-2-yl)anthracene (TAT), 9,10-di(furan-2-yl)anthracene (FAF) and 2-[(10-(thiophen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)]furan (TAF) cruciform molecular systems were synthesized using one-step coupling reactions and structurally characterized via Raman, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The orientation of the analytes on a gold colloidal surface was inferred from a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study. The metal surface interaction was driven by the S and O atoms of the thiophene and furan α-substituents, and the plane of the anthracene fragment remained parallel to the surface. Theoretical calculations based on a simplified molecular model for the analyte-surface interaction provide a good representation of the experimental data.

  12. Exploring the relationship between binding modes of 9-(aminomethyl)-9,10-dihydroanthracene and cyproheptadine analogues at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor.

    PubMed

    Westkaemper, R B; Runyon, S P; Savage, J E; Roth, B L; Glennon, R A

    2001-02-26

    Comparison of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor affinities of a parallel series of structural analogues of the novel ligand 9-aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) and a structurally similar prototypical tricyclic amine cyproheptadine suggests that the two agents bind to the receptor in different fashions. Examination of ligand-receptor model complexes supports the experimental data and suggests a potential origin for the differences in binding modes.

  13. Bright Galaxies at Hubble’s Redshift Detection Frontier: Preliminary Results and Design from the Redshift z ~ 9-10 BoRG Pure-Parallel HST Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvi, V.; Trenti, M.; Stiavelli, M.; Oesch, P.; Bradley, L. D.; Schmidt, K. B.; Coe, D.; Brammer, G.; Bernard, S.; Bouwens, R. J.; Carrasco, D.; Carollo, C. M.; Holwerda, B. W.; MacKenty, J. W.; Mason, C. A.; Shull, J. M.; Treu, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first results and design from the redshift z ˜ 9-10 Brightest of the Reionizing Galaxies Hubble Space Telescope survey BoRG[z9-10], aimed at searching for intrinsically luminous unlensed galaxies during the first 700 Myr after the Big Bang. BoRG[z9-10] is the continuation of a multi-year pure-parallel near-IR and optical imaging campaign with the Wide Field Camera 3. The ongoing survey uses five filters, optimized for detecting the most distant objects and offering continuous wavelength coverage from λ = 0.35 μm to λ = 1.7 μm. We analyze the initial ˜130 arcmin2 of area over 28 independent lines of sight (˜25% of the total planned) to search for z\\gt 7 galaxies using a combination of Lyman-break and photometric redshift selections. From an effective comoving volume of (5-25) × 105 Mpc3 for magnitudes brighter than {m}{AB}=26.5{{{--}}}24.0 in the {H}{{160}}-band respectively, we find five galaxy candidates at z\\quad ˜ 8.3-10 detected at high confidence ({{S}}/{{N}}\\gt 8), including a source at z\\quad ˜ 8.4 with {m}{AB}=24.5 ({{S}}/{{N}} ˜ 22), which, if confirmed, would be the brightest galaxy identified at such early times (z\\gt 8). In addition, BoRG[z9-10] data yield four galaxies with 7.3≲ z≲ 8. These new Lyman-break galaxies with m≲ 26.5 are ideal targets for follow-up observations from ground and space-based observatories to help investigate the complex interplay between dark matter growth, galaxy assembly, and reionization.

  14. Myths and Truths from Exercise Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…

  15. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  16. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical and Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History Close Ehlers-Danlos Info What is EDS? EDS Diagnostics EDS Types ...

  17. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  18. Changing anthropology, changing society.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.

  19. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 National MPS Society board of directors. The election will run through Nov. 1, and all voting ... Survey Results Board of Directors Board of Directors Election 2016 Financial Information 2014 – 2015 Financial Report Annual ...

  20. National Rosacea Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... opinion counts! Help us learn more about social perceptions of rosacea. How to Donate to the Society ... Your Opinion Count Take the survey on social perceptions of rosacea. arrow Your initial visit to the ...

  1. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  2. High-Resolution Match Rate of 7/8 and 9/10 or Better for the Be The Match Unrelated Donor Registry.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kelly; Wadsworth, Kim; Setterholm, Michelle; Maiers, Martin; Confer, Dennis; Hartzman, Robert; Schmidt, Alexander; Yang, Soo Young; Dehn, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of the National Marrow Donor Program's Be The Match Registry 8/8 (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) high-resolution (HR) unrelated donor (URD) match rate was determined in a prior study for each of the 4 most frequent patient race/ethnic groups in the United States: white (WH), Hispanic (HIS), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and African American (AFA). For patients without an 8/8 HLA-matched URD, a 7/8 match, with a single allele or antigen mismatch, is often accepted by many transplant centers. A follow-up study was designed to determine the 7/8 or better match rate among the 4 major race/ethnic groups, using the same study cohort. Of previously HR tested URDs in the Be The Match Registry, 1344 were randomly selected and treated as pseudo-patients where HR testing was performed to identify a 7/8-matched URD; 98% of WH and over 80% of non-WH race/ethnic groups (HIS, API, and AFA) had at least a 7/8 match identified. In most cases after first testing to identify an 8/8-matched URD, a 7/8-matched URD was identified after typing just 1 URD. Extending criteria to identify a 9/10 match (included HLA-DQB1) showed the 9/10 absolute match rate decreased between 14% and 21% from the 7/8 match rate for the non-WH groups. This study provides a baseline 7/8 and 9/10 or better HLA match rate that can be further supplemented using the additional worldwide URD inventory. URD match rate information can equip centers in clinical planning and the education of patients seeking a life-saving therapy.

  3. The open society.

    PubMed

    Opel, J R

    1984-07-27

    The open society, unlike the closed society, requires constant citizen thought and action to ensure that it will continue to survive and prosper. Today in the United States we should give particular attention to three immediate problems. We should reinvigorate our national economic health and international competitiveness, particularly by reducing our unprecedented budget deficits and reforming our tax system. We must strengthen our scientific and engineering vitality, particularly in graduate engineering education and in secondary school instruction in science and mathematics. And we should work with our allies in the free industrialized world to keep our international open society as open as possible, encouraging a flow of people and information and ideas across national boundaries while instituting sensible and efficient safeguards against leakage of critical military technology to the Soviet Union. PMID:17813240

  4. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  5. Tsunami Science for Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    As the decade of mega-tsunamis has unfolded with new data, the science of tsunami has advanced at an unprecedented pace. Our responsibility to society should guide the use of these new scientific discoveries to better prepare society for the next tsunami. This presentation will focus on the impacts of the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis and new societal expectations accompanying enhanced funding for tsunami research. A list of scientific products, including tsunami hazard maps, tsunami energy scale, real-time tsunami flooding estimates, and real-time current velocities in harbors will be presented to illustrate society's need for relevant, easy to understand tsunami information. Appropriate use of these tsunami scientific products will be presented to demonstrate greater tsunami resilience for tsunami threatened coastlines. Finally, a scientific infrastructure is proposed to ensure that these products are both scientifically sound and represent today's best practices to protect the scientific integrity of the products as well as the safety of coastal residents.

  6. Ground and excited state preferential solvation behaviour of 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methylanthracene-9,10-dione in DMF+CCl4 binary system.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Vanelle, P; Terme, T

    2012-02-01

    Preferential solvation of 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (DHMAD) has been investigated using optical absorption and fluorescence emission techniques. Optical absorption spectra of DHMAD in different solvents show the intra molecular charge transfer band in the region 400-550 nm. The preferential solvation parameter shows that in dimethyl formamide (DMF)+carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) mixture, the DHMAD is preferentially solvated by DMF in the ground state and in the excited state DHMAD is preferentially solvated by CCl(4) in DMF rich region and by DMF in CCl(4) rich region.

  7. Improved efficiency for green and red emitting electroluminescent devices using the same cohost composed of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Li, Wenlian; Chu, Bei; Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Yiren; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Shuanghong

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient green and red fluorescence dyes-doped electroluminescent devices using cohost strategy. The cohost system is composed of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq) and 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). The maximum current efficiencies are increased by 54% and 104% for green and red devices by optimizing the ratio between ADN and Alq in the cohost compared to the conventional Alq single-host devices, respectively. We attribute the improvement of efficiencies to balanced hole and electron injection into the emitting layer, the enlarged width of recombination region and the multiple emission processes.

  8. Synthesis of novel 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-thiones and evaluation of their biocidal effects.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Jitender M; Magoo, Devanshi; Aggarwal, Komal; Aggarwal, Nisha; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Chitra

    2012-12-01

    Novel 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-thiones have been synthesized in high yields by treatment of the corresponding oxo analogs with Lawesson's reagent. The structure has been confirmed by X-ray analysis. The compounds were tested for in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia bataticola, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria porii. The compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all pathogens. Insecticidal activity of these compounds against Spodoptera litura was observed to be comparable to commercial pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin. The urease inhibitory activity has also been studied. PMID:23153816

  9. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  10. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  11. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  12. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  13. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc. (42nd, Raleigh, North Carolina, July 9-10, 1963). Our Concern for the Disadvantaged in Town and Country Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The future of the disadvantaged is discussed in these proceedings of a 1963 conference of the American Country Life Association. Papers presented at 3 panel discussions give detailed information on the disadvantaged. The panel discussion on the types of disadvantaged people covered American Indians, Appalachian whites, migrants, and Negroes. The…

  14. Action mechanism for 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid and 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione on Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Leonora; Ribera, Alejandra; Saavedra, Alejandra; Silva, Evelyn; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro; Cotoras, Milena

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the diterpenoid 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid and the anthraquinone 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione on the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea was studied. The effect of both compounds on the respiratory process and on the membrane integrity of B. cinerea was evaluated. The results showed that 3β-hydroxykaurenoic acid inhibited the growth of this fungus by disrupting the plasmatic membrane. This compound also partially affected oxygen consumption of B. cinerea germinating conidia. Conversely, 4,4-dimethylanthracene-1,9,10(4H)-trione did not produce membrane disruption of B. cinerea. The effect of this compound on mycelial growth was notably increased by the presence of an inhibitor of the cyanide-resistant respiration pathway. It also was shown that the anthraquinone inhibited oxygen consumption by about 80%; therefore this compound would act as a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway of the respiratory chain to exert its antifungal effect. PMID:25977212

  15. Effect of copper on the cytotoxicity of phenanthrene and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone to the human placental cell line, JEG-3.

    PubMed

    Peters, Zachary J; Nykamp, Julie A; Passaperuma, Kavitha; Carlson, John C; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J; Greenberg, Bruce M; Bols, Niels C

    2007-06-01

    The trophoblast cell line, JEG-3, was used to study the cytotoxicity of phenanthrene, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PHEQ), anthracene, and 9,10-anthracenedione alone and with copper. The endpoints were the capacity of cultures to reduce alamar Blue (AB), a measure of energy metabolism, and to convert carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA AM) to carboxyfluorescein, an indication of membrane integrity. Only PHEQ elicited a cytotoxic response. PHEQ caused a concentration-dependent decline in AB but not in CFDA AM readings, suggesting an impairment to energy metabolism. In the presence of copper, PHEQ concentration-response curves were shifted to the left for AB and were obtained with CFDA AM. The Cu/PHEQ synergy is attributed to an increase in redox cycling and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which overwhelm antioxidant defenses, damaging energy metabolism first and then membrane integrity. The impermeable copper chelator, bathocuproine, reduced the PHEQ/copper interaction, but the permeable chelator, neocuproine, and copper together were cytotoxic.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,6-di(furan-3-yl)anthracene-9, 10-dione as an inhibitor of human protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Haidar, S; Meyers, A; Bollacke, A; Jose, J

    2015-12-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is an emerging target for the therapeutic intervention in human diseases, in particular in cancer. Inhibitors of this enzyme are at current in clinical trials indicating its drug ability. Here we report on the synthesis of two derivatives of 2,6-diaryl-anthracene-9,10-dione, one of them, 2,6-di(furan-3-yl)anthracene-9,10-dione (3), turned out to be active towards CK2, and ATP competitive with an IC50 value of 2.35 μM and a K(i) value of 1.26 μM. Molecular modeling studies were performed to explain the binding affinity of compound 3 in comparison to emodin. These indicated that unlike emodin, compound 3 was not able to perform a hydrogen bond with Lys68, although the compound fits well in the active site of human CK2α, which explains the difference in the measured affinity between those two compounds.

  17. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Perfit, M.R.; Batiza, R.; Fornari, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

  18. American Society of Echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow ... 2016 · Executive Theme · Genesis Framework by StudioPress · WordPress · Log in Membership ▼ Member Portal Log In Join ASE ...

  19. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  20. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is necessary to have a…

  1. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  2. Mind, Society, and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Uses example of racism to compare Vygotsky's and Piaget's perspectives on the development of mind within the framework of questions regarding the mutual influence of societies and individuals. Notes that Vygotsky emphasizes knowledge transmission from older to younger, whereas Piaget emphasizes construction of new knowledge with potential for…

  3. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  4. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  5. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  6. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  7. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  8. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  9. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  10. A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1909, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) held its first annual meeting. The founding members based this new society on a revolutionary approach to research that emphasized newer physiological methods. In 1924 the ASCI started a new journal, the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The ASCI has also held an annual meeting almost every year. The society has long debated who could be a member, with discussions about whether members must be physicians, what sorts of research they could do, and the role of women within the society. The ASCI has also grappled with what else the society should do, especially whether it ought to take a stand on policy issues. ASCI history has reflected changing social, political, and economic contexts, including several wars, concerns about the ethics of biomedical research, massive increases in federal research funding, and an increasingly large and specialized medical environment. PMID:19348041

  11. The Most Luminous z ~ 9-10 Galaxy Candidates Yet Found: The Luminosity Function, Cosmic Star-formation Rate, and the First Mass Density Estimate at 500 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Smit, R.; Franx, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Momcheva, I.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Willner, S. P.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D.; Trenti, M.; Brammer, G. B.; Skelton, R. E.; Spitler, L. R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the discovery of four surprisingly bright (H 160 ~ 26-27 mag AB) galaxy candidates at z ~ 9-10 in the complete HST CANDELS WFC3/IR GOODS-N imaging data, doubling the number of z ~ 10 galaxy candidates that are known, just ~500 Myr after the big bang. Two similarly bright sources are also detected in a reanalysis of the GOODS-S data set. Three of the four galaxies in GOODS-N are significantly detected at 4.5σ-6.2σ in the very deep Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm data, as is one of the GOODS-S candidates. Furthermore, the brightest of our candidates (at z = 10.2 ± 0.4) is robustly detected also at 3.6 μm (6.9σ), revealing a flat UV spectral energy distribution with a slope β = -2.0 ± 0.2, consistent with demonstrated trends with luminosity at high redshift. Thorough testing and use of grism data excludes known low-redshift contamination at high significance, including single emission-line sources, but as-yet unknown low redshift sources could provide an alternative solution given the surprising luminosity of these candidates. Finding such bright galaxies at z ~ 9-10 suggests that the luminosity function for luminous galaxies might evolve in a complex way at z > 8. The cosmic star formation rate density still shows, however, an order-of-magnitude increase from z ~ 10 to z ~ 8 since the dominant contribution comes from low-luminosity sources. Based on the IRAC detections, we derive galaxy stellar masses at z ~ 10, finding that these luminous objects are typically 109 M ⊙. This allows for a first estimate of the cosmic stellar mass density at z ~ 10 resulting in log _{10}\\rho _{*} = 4.7^{+0.5}_{-0.8} M ⊙ Mpc-3 for galaxies brighter than M UV ~ -18. The remarkable brightness, and hence luminosity, of these z ~ 9-10 candidates will enable deep spectroscopy to determine their redshift and nature, and highlights the opportunity for the James Webb Space Telescope to map the buildup of galaxies at redshifts much earlier than z ~ 10. Based on data obtained with the

  12. Shrinking societies favor procreation.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M

    1999-12-01

    Low birth rates and unprecedented improvements in life expectancy had brought a shrinking society to a rapidly expanding retirement-age population. In 1999, people aged 65 and older make up 15% or more of the populations in 19 countries. Furthermore, 14 country populations are already experiencing natural decrease, and a lot more will start to decline early in the 21st century. Due to this predicament, concerned countries have created policies that may encourage more childbearing by easing the opportunity costs of raising children. Among the policies are: 1) paid maternity and paternity leaves until a child is 2-3 years; 2) free child care; 3) tax breaks for large families; 4) family housing allowance; 5) cash paid to parents for raising a child. Governments of the shrinking societies believed that these policies could influence fertility because it affects the socioeconomic setting in which childbearing decisions are made. This paper also discusses Hungary, Japan, and Sweden fertility policies. PMID:12295635

  13. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  14. Activation and metabolism of benz[j]aceanthrylene-9,10-dihydrodiol, the precursor to bay-region metabolism of the genotoxic cyclopenta-PAH benz[j]aceanthrylene.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, K O; Sangaiah, R; Gold, A; Ball, L M

    1993-06-01

    Benz[j]aceanthrylene, a cyclopentafused polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon produced in combustion emissions, possesses a bay region and an etheno bridge which may both contribute to the overall genotoxicity of the compound. In order to assess the role of activation at the bay region, the precursor epoxide benz[j]aceanthrylene 9,10-oxide, its dehydration product 10-hydroxybenz[j]aceanthrylene, the key dihydrodiol 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenz[j]aceanthrylene and the bay-region diol-epoxide 7,8-epoxy-9,10-dihydroxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenz[j]aceanthrylene were evaluated in the bacterial histidine-reversion plate incorporation assay (Ames assay) with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. The diol-epoxide alone showed direct-acting mutagenicity (10 revertants per nmole), which was decreased by addition of exogenous metabolic activation (Aroclor 1254-treated rat-liver S9), whereas all the other compounds tested were activated by increasing concentrations of S9. The potency of the diol-epoxide was not sufficient to account for the activity of the parent compound. Identification by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry of the major products of further metabolism by Aroclor 1254-treated rat-liver S9 of the bay region precursor dihydrodiol 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenz[j]aceanthrylene indicated that oxidation occurred predominantly at the etheno bridge, to give 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenz[j]aceanthrylene-2(1H)-one, arising by (non-enzymic) rearrangement of the etheno bridge epoxide and the tetrol 1,2,9,10-tetrahydroxy-1,2,9,10- tetrahydrobenz[j]aceanthrylene. The bay region tetrol 7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenz[j] aceanthrylene was observed, implying further bay-region metabolism; re-aromatization of the benzo ring to benz[j]aceanthrylene-9,10-diol also occurred. Thus oxidation at the etheno bridge accounts for the majority of the activity of benz[j]aceanthrylene and its derivatives when Aroclor 1254-treated rat-liver S9 is used for

  15. Quality and human society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  16. Evolution, museums and society.

    PubMed

    MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-11-01

    Visitors to natural history museums have an incomplete understanding of evolution. Although they are relatively knowledgeable about fossils and geological time, they have a poor understanding of natural selection. Museums in the 21st century can effectively increase public understanding of evolution through interactive displays, novel content (e.g. genomics), engaging videos and cyberexhibits that communicate to a broad spectrum of society, both within the exhibit halls as well as outside the museum.

  17. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  18. Experimental and computer graphics simulation analyses of the DNA interaction of 1,8-bis-(2-diethylaminoethylamino)-anthracene-9,10-dione, a compound modelled on doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Islam, S A; Neidle, S; Gandecha, B M; Brown, J R

    1983-09-15

    The crystal structure of the anthraquinone derivative 1,8-bis-(2-diethylaminoethylamino)-anthracene-9,10-dione has been established. This compound was prepared as a potential DNA-intercalating agent based on the proven intercalators doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. Its DNA-binding properties have been examined experimentally by spectroscopic, thermal denaturation and ccc-DNA unwinding techniques: the results are consistent with an intercalative mode of binding to DNA. Computer graphics stimulation of the intercalative docking of this compound into the self-complementary dimer of d(CpG) has provided a minimum energy geometrical arrangement for the bound drug in the intercalation site comparable to that for proflavine when intercalated into the same d(CpG) model system. Entry of the compound into the site can only occur via the major groove.

  19. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  20. Unusual effects in variable temperature powder NMR spectra of the methyl group protons in 9,10-dimethyltriptycene-d₁₂.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, P; Ratajczyk, T; Kalicki, P; Szymanski, S

    2014-01-01

    Variable temperature (1)H wide line NMR spectra of polycrystalline 9,10-dimethyltriptycene-d12 deuterated in the aromatic positions were studied. The spectra show different patterns in an unrepeatable dependence on the way of preparation of the powdered samples. Simultaneously, no anomalies were seen in the MAS and CPMAS proton-decoupled room-temperature (13)C spectra as well as in powder X-ray diffraction patterns. The effects observed in the (1)H spectra are tentatively explained in terms of a phenomenological model. For one of the examined samples it afforded a consistent interpretation of the entire series of temperature dependent spectra in terms of structural non uniformity of the solid material studied. Quantum character of the stochastic dynamics of the methyl groups in the investigated compound was confirmed, although these dynamics are close to the classical limit where the familiar random jump model applies. PMID:24656571

  1. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  2. Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

  3. The role of charge-transfer integral in determining and engineering the carrier mobilities of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, S. C.; So, S. K.; Yeung, M. Y.; Lo, C. F.; Wen, S. W.; Chen, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    The charge transporting properties of t-butylated 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) compounds have been investigated experimentally and computationally in relation to their molecular structures. The ADN compounds are found to be ambipolar with both electron and hole mobilities in the range of 1-4 × 10 -7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (electric field 0.5-0.8 MV/cm). As the degree of t-butylation increases, the carrier mobility decreases progressively. The mobility reduction was examined by Marcus theory of reorganization energies. All ADN compounds possess similar reorganization energies of ˜0.3 eV. The reduction of carrier mobilities with increasing t-butylation can be attributed to a decrease in the charge-transfer integral or the wavefunction overlap.

  4. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-28

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  5. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Omar F; Xiao, Dequan; Batista, Victor S; Nibbering, Erik T J

    2014-05-01

    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. PMID:24684387

  6. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  7. Sex-Based Differences in Physiology: What Should We Teach in the Medical Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Martha L.

    2007-01-01

    An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of disease. The Refresher Course on Gender Differences in Physiology, sponsored by the American Physiological Society Education Committee at the 2006 Experimental Biology Meeting in San…

  8. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  9. A census of star-forming galaxies in the z ∼ 9-10 universe based on HST+Spitzer observations over 19 clash clusters: three candidate z ∼ 9-10 galaxies and improved constraints on the star formation rate density at z ∼ 9.2

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Labbé, I.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Carrasco, M.; Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Host, O.; Moustakas, L.; Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Donahue, M.; Kelson, D.D.; Meneghetti, M.; Umetsu, K.; Broadhurst, T.; and others

    2014-11-10

    We utilize a two-color Lyman-break selection criterion to search for z ∼ 9-10 galaxies over the first 19 clusters in the CLASH program. A systematic search yields three z ∼ 9-10 candidates. While we have already reported the most robust of these candidates, MACS1149-JD, two additional z ∼ 9 candidates are also found and have H {sub 160}-band magnitudes of ∼26.2-26.9. A careful assessment of various sources of contamination suggests ≲1 contaminants for our z ∼ 9-10 selection. To determine the implications of these search results for the luminosity function (LF) and star formation rate density at z ∼ 9, we introduce a new differential approach to deriving these quantities in lensing fields. Our procedure is to derive the evolution by comparing the number of z ∼ 9-10 galaxy candidates found in CLASH with the number of galaxies in a slightly lower-redshift sample (after correcting for the differences in selection volumes), here taken to be z ∼ 8. This procedure takes advantage of the fact that the relative volumes available for the z ∼ 8 and z ∼ 9-10 selections behind lensing clusters are not greatly dependent on the details of the lensing models. We find that the normalization of the UV LF at z ∼ 9 is just 0.28{sub −0.20}{sup +0.39}× that at z ∼ 8, which is ∼1.4{sub −0.8}{sup +3.0}× lower than extrapolating z ∼ 4-8 LF results. While consistent with the evolution in the UV LF seen at z ∼ 4-8, these results marginally favor a more rapid evolution at z > 8. Compared to similar evolutionary findings from the HUDF, our result is less insensitive to large-scale structure uncertainties, given our many independent sightlines on the high-redshift universe.

  10. [Evolution of evolutionary physiology].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2008-09-01

    In 19th century and at the beginning 20th century, reports appeared in the field of comparative and ontogenetic physiology and the value of these methods for understanding of evolution of functions. The term "evolutionary physiology" was suggested by A. N. Severtsov in 1914. In the beginning of 30s, in the USSR, laboratories for researches in problems of evolutionary physiology were created, the results of these researches having been published. In 1956 in Leningrad, the Institute of Evolutionary Physiology was founded by L. A. Orbeli. He formulates the goals and methods of evolutionary physiology. In the following half a century, the evolutionary physiology was actively developed. The evolutionary physiology solves problems of evolution of function of functions evolution, often involving methods of adjacent sciences, including biochemistry, morphology, molecular biology.

  11. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is ...

  12. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  13. Rethinking Cells to Society

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting time to be a developmental scientist. We have advanced theoretical frameworks and developed ground-breaking methods for addressing questions of interest, ranging literally from cells to society. We know more now than we have ever known about human development and the base of acquired knowledge is increasing exponentially. In this paper we share some thoughts about where we are in the science of human development, how we got there, what may be going wrong and what may be going right. Finally, we offer some thoughts about where we go from here to assure that in the future we achieve the best developmental science possible. PMID:25642155

  14. Measurement and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terence J.; Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In modern society, metrology is a hidden infrastructure, that affects most human activities. Several domains in which measurements, and therefore metrology, play a crucial role are presented and illustrated with examples: manufacturing industries, navigation, telecommunications, medicine, environment, and scientific research. The BIPM and the national metrology institutes are at the top of traceability chains, which guarantee that all measurements are performed in conformity with the International System of Units (SI) and are therefore comparable. Finally, some indications of the economic benefits of metrology are given. To cite this article: T.J. Quinn, J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  15. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  16. [Division and specialization of the Western European physiology].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I; Kim, O J

    1992-01-01

    The 19th century has been thought to be the turning point that the experimental method began to take strong root as the core to solve many physiological subjects, and the discipline of physiology got firmly fixed as the specialized one in the western Europe. Authors found the following characteristics in the process of the division and specialization of the 19th century western physiology. 1) It was the process of its separation from the discipline of anatomy that was necessary in the development of physiology as the independent, specialized division. Newly grown ideas, that there were working functions specialized study, were the important background and basis of the development of physiology as the specialized discipline. 2) It was not until the force and influence of the metaphysical concept on the living things (vitalism) grew weak that physiology could become the specialized discipline. The new materialistic concept about living things made it possible for the researchers of that time to apply the physico-chemical method in the study of physiological problems. 3) Institutionalization of the physiological research and education accelerated its development and specialization. The followings appeared in the mid-19th century: specialized professorship, division as the separated subject in the undergraduated medical school curriculum, laboratory settings for the purpose of physiological study, establishment of independent academic societies and publication of their own journals. Two main factors, namely, both the settlement of the new physiological thought and method of the very scientific nature and the institutionalization within the academic and medical societies, exerted influences on each other in the ground of the 19th century western Europe. Through that process, the discipline of physiology took root deep as the independent specialized division in the societies of science and medicine.

  17. Education in a Technological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W., Ed.; Smith, Wil J., Ed.

    Technological change places increased responsibility on the educational system of a democratic society to prepare citizens for intelligent participation in government. This conference was held to analyze the nature of the technological society and the role of education in preparing the individual for membership in that society. The papers…

  18. Prospects for a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John

    1975-01-01

    The author raises six serious doubts about the directions adult education is taking toward a society mistakenly termed "learning society," which is in fact an "instructional society." An ominous vision of "womb-to-tomb" schooling is evoked by the author's quotations from prominent adult educators who criticize this trend. (Author/AJ)

  19. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  20. The impact of hydrothermally-sourced Fe on ocean biogeochemistry: new investigations from the East Pacific Rise, 9-10°N.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Manganini, S. J.; Rouxel, O. J.; Edwards, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    We have initiated a new study as part of NSF's Ridge 2000 program to investigate the fate of dissolved Fe(II) released from high-temperature hydrothermal venting on the East Pacific Rise and its potential impact on local deep-ocean biogeochemical budgets. Our principal focus is on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe and the role of microbial activity in that cycle: Fe is released in abundance from high-temperature vents, it plays a major role in modifying the gross flux of other elements from hydrothermal vents to the oceans and hydrothermal sources have the potential to dominate the global deep ocean budget of dissolved Fe: an essential micronutrient. To achieve our goals we have collected samples from close to vent-sites at 9-10°N on the East Pacific Rise over a period extending from late 2004 to late 2007 that brackets an episode of recent volcanism (Winter 2005-2006). Thus, we are in a position to investigate both the "steady state" input from a deep-ocean vent-system and also how that system has been perturbed following volcanic activity out to a period of 1-2 years post-eruption. Sampling has been conducted using time-series sediment traps deployed on long-term moorings that have sampled particles settling from buoyant and non-buoyant plumes at 9°50`N and at a contrasting (sulfide- free) vent-site at 9°30`N. Our project is nested within a larger study (LADDER) that spans across disciplines from segment-scale ocean circulation in the 9-10°N area to larval transport between adjacent vent sites. Our specific on-going work includes: i) analyses for major and trace element flux variations; ii) investigation for Fe isotope fractionation within our hydrothermal plume samples; and iii) a study of the role of Fe- oxidising bacteria in catalysing Fe oxidation and/or Fe isotope fractionation within these hydrothermal plumes. For example, the mineralogical structure and character of Fe oxyhydroxide minerals may, themselves, result from the microbial catalysis of Fe

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 548: Areas 9, 10, 18, 19, and 20 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-27

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 548, Areas 9, 10, 18, 19, and 20 Housekeeping Sites, and complies with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 548 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 9, 10, 12, 18, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 09-99-02, Material Piles (2) · CAS 09-99-04, Wax, Paraffin · CAS 09-99-05, Asbestos, Vermiculite · CAS 09-99-07, Tar Spill · CAS 10-22-02, Drums · CAS 10-22-05, Gas Block · CAS 10-22-07, Gas Block · CAS 10-22-34, Drum · CAS 10-22-38, Drum; Cable · CAS 12-99-04, Epoxy Tar Spill · CAS 12-99-08, Cement Spill · CAS 18-14-01, Transformers (3) · CAS 19-22-01, Drums · CAS 19-22-11, Gas Block (2) · CAS 19-44-01, Fuel Spill · CAS 20-22-07, Drums (2) · CAS 20-22-09, Drums (3) · CAS 20-22-14, Drums (2) · CAS 20-22-16, Drums (2) · CAS 20-24-09, Battery Closure activities began in July 2011 and were completed in December 2011 and included removal and disposal of material piles, spills, sanitary debris, a lead acid battery, lead and steel shot, and stained soil. Activities were conducted according to the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003). Closure activities generated sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, low-level waste, hazardous waste, and mixed waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for

  2. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion.

  3. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  4. Influence of different amino substituents in position 1 and 4 on spectroscopic and acid base properties of 9,10-anthraquinone moiety.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Anna; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Wnuk, Elżbieta; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel 1-amino and 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinones, substituted with different alkyl groups, were synthesized as the result of alkylation with amino substituents. All the obtained aminoanthraquinone derivatives were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were determined by using UV-Vis spectroscopy in acetonitrile, and in the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol at different pH ranges. The effects of various substituents present in the newly developed anthraquinone derivatives and their ability to form hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone moiety and nitrogen atom of N-H group in 1-aminoanthraquinone (1-AAQ) and 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAAQ) were studied. Additionally, the effects of hydrogen bond formation between O-H group in hydroxyethylamino substituent and the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone were investigated. The spectroscopic behavior of the studied derivatives strongly depended on the solvent-solute interactions and the nature of solvent. The values of pKa for the new anthraquinones were determined by the combined potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration methods.

  5. High-precision Penning trap mass measurements of 9,10Be and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringle, R.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Smith, M.; Lapierre, A.; Ryjkov, V. L.; Delheij, P.; Drake, G. W. F.; Lassen, J.; Lunney, D.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of 9Be, 10Be (t1 / 2 = 1.51 My), and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be (t1 / 2 = 13.8 s) have been performed using TITAN at TRIUMF. The resulting 11Be mass excess (ME = 20 177.60 (58) keV) is in agreement with the current Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME03) [G. Audi, et al., Nucl. Phys. A 729 (2003) 337] value, but is over an order of magnitude more precise. The precision of the mass values of 9,10Be have been improved by about a factor of four and reveal a ≈ 2 σ deviation from the AME mass values. Results of new atomic physics calculations are presented for the isotope shift of 11Be relative to 9Be, and it is shown that the new mass values essentially remove atomic mass uncertainties as a contributing factor in determining the relative nuclear charge radius from the isotope shift. The new mass values of 10,11Be also allow for a more precise determination of the single-neutron binding energy of the halo neutron in 11Be.

  6. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness.

  7. Encapsulation with the protrusion of cruciform 9,10-bis(arylethynyl)anthracene derivatives in a self-assembled boronic ester cavitand capsule: photochemical and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Hirumi, Yohei; Tamaki, Kento; Namikawa, Tomotaka; Kamada, Kenji; Mitsui, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kengo; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    The self-assembled boronic ester cavitand capsule 3 quantitatively and tightly encapsulates 2,6-diacetoxy-9,10-bis(arylethynyl)anthracene derivatives 4 a-4 c as highly fluorescent cruciform guests to form complexes 4 a@3, 4 b@3, and 4 c@(3)2. The structural features of capsule 3, which possesses two polar bowl-shaped aromatic cavity ends and four large equatorial windows connected by dynamic boronic ester bonds, made it possible to encapsulate cruciform 4 with protection of the reactive anthracene core inside the capsule and with two protruding arylethynyl groups, the π-conjugated arms of compound 4, through two of the equatorial windows of the capsule. Thus, complexes 4 a@3, 4 b@3, and 4 c@(3)2 show greater resistance to photochemical reactions in solution and fluorescence quenching in the powder state compared to free guests 4. In addition to the improved photostability, restriction of the free rotation of the arylethynyl groups of guests 4 upon encapsulation results in sharpening of the UV/Vis absorption peaks with a red-shift and a significant increase in some of the two-photon-absorption peaks of complexes 4 a@3, 4 b@3, and 4 c@(3)2 compared with free guests 4. PMID:24616396

  8. Preparation of new fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite nanohybrids using the tricationic Pr(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) complexes with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Dinari, Mohammad; Hadadzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-25

    New fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite (LCs-C) nanohybrids have been prepared by the intercalation reaction of Cloisite Na(+) with the tricationic lanthanide complexes (1-3), [M(PQ)3(DMF)2(H2O)2](3+) (M=Pr(III) (1), Gd(III) (2), and Dy(III) (3); PQ=9,10-phenanthrenequinone), in aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the modified clays (LCs-C) showed an increase in the interlayer distance (d) as compared to the pure Cloisite Na(+). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology of the modified clays and the results were demonstrated a homogeneous morphology for the nanohybrids. The thermal behavior of the LCs-C nanohybrids was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Solid-state fluorescence properties of the LCs-C nanohybrids were also investigated. The results show that all tricationic complexes have a significant fluorescence at room temperature when the complexes are adsorbed onto Cloisite.

  9. Pulse shape discrimination properties of plastic scintillators incorporating a rationally designed highly soluble and polymerizable derivative of 9,10-diphenylanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-07-01

    A highly soluble and polymerizable derivative of 9,10-diphenylanthracene was designed and synthesized specifically to be capable of achieving very high loadings (at least 50 wt.%) when copolymerized with a polyvinyltoluene (PVT) matrix. The resulting heavily crosslinked plastics are mechanically hard and robust, and were found to have exceptional clarity with no sign of dye precipitation. Samples of these plastics both with and without added wavelength shifter were characterized for light yield, scintillation decay, and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) performance for α / γ discrimination, and the results were compared to that of a commercially available PSD plastic, EJ-299-34. The best performing formulation, with a primary dye loading of 50 wt.%, had a measured light yield of 9950 photons/MeV, and achieved a PSD figure-of-merit (FOM) of 1.05, the latter indicating that while the present material is not suited for practical applications, the overall approach demonstrates a proof-of-concept of PSD in highly loaded plastics stabilized through copolymerization of the primary dye, and suggests that further improvements through better dye choice/design may yet be achievable.

  10. Reaction of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide with human hemoglobin and chromatographic resolution of the covalent adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts has been proposed as a measure of human exposure to carcinogens. Hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts have been detected in carcinogen-treated animals and in human populations. Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous in the human environment and DNA-PAH adducts have been detected in human tissues, the occurrent of hemoglobin-PAH adducts in humans has not been described. In this study we examined the effects of reaction conditions on the extent of in vitro reaction of human hemoglobin and (+)(anti)-({sup 3}H)benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), a metabolite largely responsible for the carcinogenic effect of benzo(a)pyrene. The chromatographic properties of the resulting hemoglobin-BPDE adducts were examined by conventional DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange liquid chromatography and by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Several adducts were chromatographically resolved from hemoglobin and from the individual globins.

  11. Highly Efficient and Stable Red Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using 9,10-Di(2-naphthyl)anthracene as the Host Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Wengen; Sun, Runguang

    2007-04-01

    We present red organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with high efficiency and stability based on a wide band gap host material 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN). In these devices, N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq) were used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. Coumarin 6 (C6) and 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were co-doped into the ADN emitting layer. Utilizing the two-step energy transfer from ADN to C6 and then from C6 to DCJTB, we achieved pure red organic light-emitting devices, which showed improved optical and electrical characteristics. Compared with devices where the emitting layer is composed of Alq and DCJTB, the emission efficiency and stability of the co-doped ADN-based devices are greatly improved and the turn-on voltage is also decreased. The co-doping technique provides a promising way to utilize wide band gap materials as the host to make red OLEDs, which will be useful in improving the EL performance of devices and simplifying the process of fabricating full-color OLEDs.

  12. N-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine for blue organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Song Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized two blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives with electron-donating diphenylamine moieties by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. To explore their electroluminescent properties as blue emitting materials, multilayer devices were fabricated in following sequence: indium–tin-oxide (180 nm)/4,4‧-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (50 nm)/blue emitters (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). Among them, a device using N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 3.11 cd/A, 2.39 lm/W, and 1.82% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The Commission International de L’Eclairage coordinates of this device were (x,y) = (0.14,0.15) at 6.0 V.

  13. Influence of different amino substituents in position 1 and 4 on spectroscopic and acid base properties of 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, Anna; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Wnuk, Elżbieta; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel 1-amino and 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinones, substituted with different alkyl groups, were synthesized as the result of alkylation with amino substituents. All the obtained aminoanthraquinone derivatives were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were determined by using UV-Vis spectroscopy in acetonitrile, and in the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol at different pH ranges. The effects of various substituents present in the newly developed anthraquinone derivatives and their ability to form hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone moiety and nitrogen atom of N-H group in 1-aminoanthraquinone (1-AAQ) and 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAAQ) were studied. Additionally, the effects of hydrogen bond formation between O-H group in hydroxyethylamino substituent and the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone were investigated. The spectroscopic behavior of the studied derivatives strongly depended on the solvent-solute interactions and the nature of solvent. The values of pKa for the new anthraquinones were determined by the combined potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration methods.

  14. Increased Cellular Distribution of Vimentin and Ret in the Cingulum of Rat Offspring After Developmental Exposure to Decabromodiphenyl Ether or 1,2,5,6,9,10-Hexabromocyclododecane

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Morita, Reiko; Itahashi, Megu; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To determine effects of developmental exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), weak thyroid hormone disruptors, on white matter development, white matter-specific global gene expression analysis was performed using microdissection techniques and microarrays in male rats exposed maternally to decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), one of the representative BFRs, at 10, 100 or 1000 ppm. Based on previous gene expression profiles of developmental hypothyroidism and DBDE-exposed cases, vimentin+ immature astrocytes and ret proto-oncogene (Ret)+ oligodendrocytes were immunohistochemically examined after developmental exposure to representative BFRs, i.e., DBDE, 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD; 100, 1000 or 10,000 ppm) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA; 100, 1000 or 10,000 ppm). Vimentin+ and Ret+ cell populations increased at ≥ 100 ppm and ≥ 10 ppm DBDE, respectively. Vimentin+ and Ret+ cells increased at ≥ 1000 ppm HBCD, with no effect of TBBPA. The highest dose of DBDE and HBCD revealed subtle fluctuations in serum thyroid-related hormone concentrations. Thus, DBDE and HBCD may exert direct effects on glial cell development at ≥ middle doses. At high doses, hypothyroidism may additionally be an inducing mechanism, although its contribution is rather minor. PMID:23914054

  15. Preparation of new fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite nanohybrids using the tricationic Pr(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) complexes with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Dinari, Mohammad; Hadadzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-25

    New fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite (LCs-C) nanohybrids have been prepared by the intercalation reaction of Cloisite Na(+) with the tricationic lanthanide complexes (1-3), [M(PQ)3(DMF)2(H2O)2](3+) (M=Pr(III) (1), Gd(III) (2), and Dy(III) (3); PQ=9,10-phenanthrenequinone), in aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the modified clays (LCs-C) showed an increase in the interlayer distance (d) as compared to the pure Cloisite Na(+). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology of the modified clays and the results were demonstrated a homogeneous morphology for the nanohybrids. The thermal behavior of the LCs-C nanohybrids was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Solid-state fluorescence properties of the LCs-C nanohybrids were also investigated. The results show that all tricationic complexes have a significant fluorescence at room temperature when the complexes are adsorbed onto Cloisite. PMID:25305612

  16. Relationship between molecular stacking and optical properties of 9,10-bis((4-N,N-dialkylamino)styryl) anthracene crystals: the cooperation of excitonic and dipolar coupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Gao, Na; Xu, Hai; Liu, Wei; Shang, Hui; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Ming

    2014-08-01

    Five 9,10-bis((4-N,N-dialkylamino)styryl) anthracene derivatives (DSA-C1-DSA-C7) with different length alkyl chains were synthesized. They showed the same color in dilute solutions but different colors in crystals. The absorption, photoluminescence, and fluorescence decay indicate that there exist both excitonic and dipolar coupling in crystals of DSA-C1-DSA-C7. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that all the crystals belong to the triclinic space group P1 with one molecule per unit cell and that the molecules in every crystal have the identical orientation. This offers ideal samples to investigate the impact of the molecular stacking on the optical properties of the crystals. For the first time, the cooperation of excitonic and dipolar coupling has been comprehensively studied, and the contribution to the spectral shift from the excitonic and dipolar couplings quantitatively obtained. The experiments of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) together with measurements of the quantum efficiency further confirmed this interpretation. The results suggest that the excitonic and dipolar couplings between the adjacent molecules are both important and jointly induce the spectral shifts of the crystals.

  17. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-24

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26135069

  18. Communicating Science to Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  19. Physiologic tremor and microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Harwell, R C; Ferguson, R L

    1983-01-01

    Physiologic tremor hampers the ability of students to learn microsurgical technique. An understanding of normal tremor both as to origin and methods of control would be of help. Physiological tremor arises from both mechanical and neuromuscular sources and is made worse by a number of factors. The "size principle of motoneuron recruitment" is an important physiologic consideration, and the use of biofeedback techniques enables the student to confirm his understanding of the principle. Knowledge of the factors which aggravate physiological tremor allows the microsurgeon to control his own tremor both in the laboratory and in the operating room.

  20. Medical education and society.

    PubMed

    Murray, T J

    1995-11-15

    As health care changes under the pressures of restraint and constraint our vision of the future of medical education should be based on the medical school's responsibility to the community. The medical school is "an academy in the community": as an academy, it fosters the highest standards in education and research; as an institution in the community, it seeks to improve public health and alleviate suffering. The author argues that to better achieve these goals medical schools need to become more responsible and responsive to the population they serve. Medical schools have been slow to accept fully the social contract by which, in return for their service to society, they enjoy special rights and benefits. This contract requires that medical educators listen to the public, talk honestly and constructively with government representatives and assess the needs and expectations of the community.

  1. Behaviorism and Society.

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191

  2. Building a sustainable society

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Brown feels the world needs a land ethic to guide resource planning and an ecological theology to serve as custodian over the thinning topsoil, spreading desert, and growing population. In a sustainable society, durability and recycling replace obsolescence as the economy's organizing principle, and virgin materials are seen not as a primary source of material but as a supplement to the existing stock. The key to national security is sustainability. If the biological underpinnings of the global economic system cannot be secured, and if new energy sources and systems are not in place as the oil wells go dry, then economic disruptions and breakdowns are inevitable. In effect, the traditional military concept of national security grows less adequate in the face of growing non-military threats. 154 notes and references, 6 figures, 41 tables.

  3. Science, Technology and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  4. Looking at physiological anthropology from a historical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2005-05-01

    As one way of thinking about physiological anthropology, let us survey it from a historical viewpoint. At the beginning of the 19th century, Blumenbach, considered the father of Physical Anthropology, wrote his "Handbook of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology." The subsequent research conducted and papers written by researchers such as Broca and Martin pointed in the direction of physiological anthropology; furthermore, the research carried out by the American researchers Demon and Baker had a physiological anthropology "feel." The courses in Physiological Anthropology taught by Tokizane exerted a major influence on physiological anthropology in Japan. The precursor of the Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology, organized by Sato in 1978, was extremely significant in the effect that it had on the subsequent development of physiological anthropology. The holding of the biennial International Congress of Physiological Anthropology, along with the allocation of the Research sub-field of Physiological Anthropology in the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, would seem to suggest that the field of physiological anthropology is set to increasingly grow and evolve.

  5. Physiology in conservation translocations.

    PubMed

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R; Munn, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining 'success' as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall under a

  6. Radical and Non-Radical States of the [Os(PIQ)] Core (PIQ = 9,10-Phenanthreneiminoquinone): Iminosemiquinone to Iminoquinone Conversion Promoted o-Metalation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bera, Sachinath; Mondal, Sandip; Maity, Suvendu; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2016-05-16

    The coordination and redox chemistry of 9,10-phenanthreneiminoquinone (PIQ) with osmium ion authenticating the [Os(II)(PIQ(•-))], [Os(III)(PIQ(•-))], [Os(III)(C,N-PIQ)], [Os(III)(PIQ)], and [Os(III)(PIQ(2-)) ] states of the [Os(PIQ)] core in the complexes of types trans-[Os(II)(PIQ(•-))(PPh3)2(CO)Br] (1), trans-[Os(III)(PIQ(•-))(PPh3)2Br2] (2), trans-[Os(III)(C,N-PIQ)(PPh3)2Br2]·2CH2Cl2 (3·2CH2Cl2), trans-[Os(III)(C,N-PIQ(Br))(PPh3)2Br2]·2CH2Cl2 (4·2CH2Cl2), trans-[Os(III)(C,N-PIQ(Cl2))(PPh3)2Br2] (6), trans-[Os(III)(PIQ(•-))(PPh3)2Br2](+)1/2I3(-)1/2Br(-) (1(+)1/2I3(-)1/2Br(-)), [Os(III)(PIQ)(PPh3)2Br2](+) (2(+)), and [Os(III)(PIQ(2-))(PPh3)2Br2](-) (2(-)) are reported (PIQ(•-) = 9,10-phenanthreneiminosemiquinonate anion radical; C,N-PIQ = ortho-metalated PIQ, C,N-PIQ(Br) = ortho-metalated 4-bromo PIQ, and C,N-PIQ(Cl2) = ortho-metalated 3,4-dichloro PIQ). Reduction of PIQ by [Os(II)(PPh3)3(H)(CO)Br] affords 1, while the reaction of PIQ with [Os(II)(PPh3)3Br2] furnishes 2. Oxidation of 1 with I2 affords 1(+)1/2I3(-)1/2Br(-), while the similar reactions of 2 with X2 (X = I, Br, Cl) produce the ortho-metalated derivatives 3·2CH2Cl2, 4·2CH2Cl2, and 6. PIQ and PIQ(2-) complexes of osmium(III), 2(+) and 2(-), are generated by constant-potential electrolysis. However, 2(+) ion is unstable in solution and slowly converts to 3 and partially hydrolyzes to trans-[Os(III)(PQ(•-))(PPh3)2Br2] (2PQ), a PQ(•-) analogue of 2. Conversion of 2(+) → 3 in solution excludes the formation of aryl halide as an intermediate for this unique ortho-metalation reaction at 295 K, where PIQ acts as a redox-noninnocent ambidentate ligand. In the complexes, the PIQ(•-) state where the atomic spin is more localized on the nitrogen atom is stable and is more abundant. The reaction of 2PQ, with I2 does not promote any ortho-metalation reaction and yields a PQ complex of type trans-[Os(III)(PQ)(PPh3)2Br2](+)I5(-)·2CH2Cl2 (5(+)I5(-)·2CH2Cl2). The molecular and electronic

  7. 9D nonadiabatic quantum dynamics through a four-state conical intersection: Investigating the homolysis of the O-O bond in anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Mariana; Worth, Graham A.; González, Leticia

    2012-12-01

    The excited state dynamics of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide is investigated using quantum wavepacket dynamics. APO is an aromatic endoperoxide which, upon excitation to S1, shows a cleavage of the oxygen-oxygen bond, leading to rearrangement products. It was shown that the dynamics of the O-O cleavage is modulated by a four-state degeneracy [D. Mollenhauer, I. Corral, and L. González, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 1036 (2010)], 10.1021/jz100196q. The most important mode to describe the O-O cleavage is the opening of the O-O bond. Excitation to higher excited states Sn (n ⩾ 2) leads to the release of singlet molecular oxygen. For this release, the twist of the oxygen atoms around the molecular axis is an important mode. These two degrees of freedom were employed to calculate two-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the four singlet states which become degenerate. Further modes were included in terms of harmonic oscillators. Using the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method, quantum dynamic simulations were performed in up to nine degrees of freedom. Moreover, the nine branching space vectors, which prove the degeneracy to be a four-state conical intersection (4CI), were calculated and included in the wavepacket propagations. The resulting dynamics show that the 4CI is reached very fast (in less than 30 fs after excitation) and the wavepacket distributes over all states. The degree of distribution into the states is very much dependent on which modes are included in the simulation.

  8. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  9. Genetic linkage mapping for a susceptibility locus to bipolar illness: Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and Xpter

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Hseih, W.T.; Goldin, L.R.

    1994-09-15

    We are conducting a genome search for a predisposing locus to bipolar (manic-depressive) illness by genotyping 21 moderate-sized pedigrees. We report linkage data derived from screening marker loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and the pseudoautosomal region at Xpter. To analyze for linkage, two-point marker to illness lod scores were calculated under a dominant model with either 85% or 50% maximum penetrance and a recessive model with 85% maximum penetrance, and two affection status models. Under the dominant high penetrance model the cumulative lod scores in the pedigree series were less than -2 at {theta} = 0.01 in 134 of 142 loci examined, indicating that if the disease is genetically homogeneous, linkage could be excluded in these marker regions. Similar results were obtained using the other genetic models. Heterogeneity analysis was conducted when indicated, but no evidence for linkage was found. In the course of mapping we found a positive total lod score greater than +3 at the D7S78 locus at {theta} = 0.01 under a dominant, 50% penetrance model. The lod scores for additional markers within the D7S78 region failed to support the initial finding, implying that this was a spurious positive. Analysis with affected pedigree member method for COL1A2 and D7S78 showed no significance for linkage, but for PLANH1, at the weighting functions f(p)=1 and f(p)=1/sqrt(p), borderline P values of 0.036 and 0.047 were obtained. We also detected new polymorphisms at the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MLR) and calmodulin II (CALMII) genes. These genes were genetically mapped and under affection status model 2 and a dominant, high penetrance mode of transmission the lod scores of {le}2 at {theta} = 0.01 were found. 39 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties, of a Cu(II) solid state compound derived from the 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylate anion and diethylenetriammine (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Martinez, Jesus; Cervantes-Lee, Francisco; ter Haar, Leonard W.

    1993-05-01

    Several strategies have been used to develop novel magnetic materials. One of these is the simultaneous use of at least two different ligands, one an oxygen donor and the other a nitrogen donor. With this approach, using the optically interesting oxygen donor, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylate anion (petca), and the tridentate nitrogen donor ligand, diethylenetriamine (dien), we recently reported1 the synthesis of the solid state Cu(II) compound, [Cu5(dien)5(petca)2H2O4] (ClO4)2ṡ2H2O (1). This compound contains three different copper species, a chain [Cu2 (dien)2(petca)n, a dimer [Cu2(dien)2(petca)(H2O)2] and a monomer [Cu(dien)(H2O)2] and several exchange pathways. We wish to report, that the dimeric units in 1 have been isolated. The structure of the compound [Cu2(dien)2(petca)H2O)2]ṡ13H2O (2), has been determined by an x-ray single-crystal diffraction study. Two different dimers are present in the unit cell: isolated dimer units, surrounded by water molecules; and dimers connected through hydrogen bonds in a way that resembles the chains in 1. In both cases, the Cu(II) ion is coordinated to one oxygen from the petca anion, the three nitrogen atoms of the dien, and a water molecule, in a nearly square planar geometry. The magnetic properties of this compound relate to these structural features.

  11. Associations between eating frequency, adiposity, diet, and activity in 9-10 year old healthy-weight and centrally obese children.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Welch, Ailsa A

    2012-07-01

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Increased eating frequency (EF) is one aspect of diet that has been beneficially associated with obesity, although the mechanisms are unclear. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increased EF was associated with improved adiposity in children, and if this was due to differences in dietary and activity behaviors. Cross-sectional data from 1,700 children aged 9-10 year were analyzed to examine the associations between EF, as estimated from diet diaries, measures of adiposity, and activity measured by accelerometer. Analyses were stratified by obesity status using waist-to-height ratio to define obesity as it has been shown to be a good predictor of adverse health outcomes. Mean EF was 4.3 occasions/day and after adjustment for underreporting, energy intake (EI), and activity significant relative mean differences of -2.4% for body weight (P = 0.001), -1.0% for BMI (P = 0.020), -33% for BMI z-score (P = 0.014), and -0.6% for waist circumference (P = 0.031) per increase in eating occasion were found in healthy-weight but not centrally obese children. Differences between the extreme quartiles of EF were observed for total fat intake at breakfast (-18%, P < 0.001), fruit and vegetables from snacks (201% healthy-weight and 209% centrally obese children, P < 0.01), and for healthy-weight children, vigorous activity (4%, P = 0.003). Increased EF was favorably associated with adiposity, diet quality, and activity behaviors in healthy-weight but not centrally obese children. Future obesity interventions should consider the mediating role of diet quality and activity in the relationship between EF and adiposity in children.

  12. Microbial physiology vol. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.H. ); Tempest, D.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Hydrogen metabolism in Rhizobium: energetics, regulation, enzymology and genetics; The physiology and biochemistry of pili; Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; Archaebacteria: the comparative enzymology of their central metabolic pathways; and Physiology of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.

  13. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  14. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  15. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  16. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  17. The Significance of the Youth Society Movement in Finnish Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Youth Society movement on Finnish cultural life is widespread. Three main areas can be observed in all Youth Society activities: moral education of Finnish youth, extending ideas of national awakening to everyone, and a tendency to bring different social circles closer together. (JOW)

  18. Knowledge, Society, Higher Education and the Society of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostaker, Roar; Vabo, Agnete

    2008-01-01

    Research and higher education are, to a greater extent, being governed and evaluated by other than fellow scholars. These changes are discussed in relation to Gilles Deleuze's notion of a transition from "societies of discipline" to what he called "societies of control". This involves a shift from pyramid-shaped organisations, built upon…

  19. 1,5-Diamido-9,10-anthraquinone, a Centrosymmetric Redox-Active Bridge with Two Coupled β-Ketiminato Chelate Functions: Symmetric and Asymmetric Diruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd Asif; Mandal, Abhishek; Paretzki, Alexa; Beyer, Katharina; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The dinuclear complexes {(μ-H2L)[Ru(bpy)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([3](ClO4)2), {(μ-H2L)[Ru(pap)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([4](ClO4)2), and the asymmetric [(bpy)2Ru(μ-H2L)Ru(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([5](ClO4)2) were synthesized via the mononuclear species [Ru(H3L)(bpy)2]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) and [Ru(H3L)(pap)2]ClO4 ([2]ClO4), where H4L is the centrosymmetric 1,5-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and pap is 2-phenylazopyridine. Electrochemistry of the structurally characterized [1]ClO4, [2]ClO4, [3](ClO4)2, [4](ClO4)2, and [5](ClO4)2 reveals multistep oxidation and reduction processes, which were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of paramagnetic intermediates and by UV-vis-NIR spectro-electrochemistry. With support by time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations the redox processes could be assigned. Significant results include the dimetal/bridging ligand mixed spin distribution in 3(3+) versus largely bridge-centered spin in 4(3+)-a result of the presence of Ru(II)-stabilizig pap coligands. In addition to the metal/ligand alternative for electron transfer and spin location, the dinuclear systems allow for the observation of ligand/ligand and metal/metal site differentiation within the multistep redox series. DFT-supported EPR and NIR absorption spectroscopy of the latter case revealed class II mixed-valence behavior of the oxidized asymmetric system 5(3+) with about equal contributions from a radical bridge formulation. In comparison to the analogues with the deprotonated 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone isomer the centrosymmetric H2L(2-) bridge shows anodically shifted redox potentials and weaker electronic coupling between the chelate sites. PMID:27171539

  20. 1,5-Diamido-9,10-anthraquinone, a Centrosymmetric Redox-Active Bridge with Two Coupled β-Ketiminato Chelate Functions: Symmetric and Asymmetric Diruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd Asif; Mandal, Abhishek; Paretzki, Alexa; Beyer, Katharina; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The dinuclear complexes {(μ-H2L)[Ru(bpy)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([3](ClO4)2), {(μ-H2L)[Ru(pap)2]2}(ClO4)2 ([4](ClO4)2), and the asymmetric [(bpy)2Ru(μ-H2L)Ru(pap)2](ClO4)2 ([5](ClO4)2) were synthesized via the mononuclear species [Ru(H3L)(bpy)2]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) and [Ru(H3L)(pap)2]ClO4 ([2]ClO4), where H4L is the centrosymmetric 1,5-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and pap is 2-phenylazopyridine. Electrochemistry of the structurally characterized [1]ClO4, [2]ClO4, [3](ClO4)2, [4](ClO4)2, and [5](ClO4)2 reveals multistep oxidation and reduction processes, which were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of paramagnetic intermediates and by UV-vis-NIR spectro-electrochemistry. With support by time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) calculations the redox processes could be assigned. Significant results include the dimetal/bridging ligand mixed spin distribution in 3(3+) versus largely bridge-centered spin in 4(3+)-a result of the presence of Ru(II)-stabilizig pap coligands. In addition to the metal/ligand alternative for electron transfer and spin location, the dinuclear systems allow for the observation of ligand/ligand and metal/metal site differentiation within the multistep redox series. DFT-supported EPR and NIR absorption spectroscopy of the latter case revealed class II mixed-valence behavior of the oxidized asymmetric system 5(3+) with about equal contributions from a radical bridge formulation. In comparison to the analogues with the deprotonated 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone isomer the centrosymmetric H2L(2-) bridge shows anodically shifted redox potentials and weaker electronic coupling between the chelate sites.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC EXPOSURE TO TRENBOLONE, AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive and Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exposure to Trenbolone, an Environmental Androgen (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientific...

  2. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  3. Numeracy in Society and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cath; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that focuses on how a Society and Environment unit could develop required numeracy. This is more of an integrated unit organised around a theme rather than a Society and Environment unit that required specific aspects of numeracy. Suggested data sources for examining students numeracy development included (1) a…

  4. Education for a Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempero, Howard E., Ed.

    The essays contained in this booklet are 1) "Education for a 'Learning Society': The Challenge" by Ernest Bayles in which he calls for focus on learning to live, developing skills of reflection and judgment applicable to vital issues, and reflective teaching; 2) "Teacher Education in a Learning Society" in which David Turney demands teacher…

  5. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the debate…

  6. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  7. [Living in a Temporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren G.

    Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going…

  8. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  9. Multicultural Education in Western Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A., Ed.; Lynch, James, Ed.

    Western democratic societies share an egalitarian ideology which maintains that a major goal of the state is to protect human rights and promote equality and the structural inclusion of all racial, ethnic, and cultural groups into the fabric of society. Educational initiatives taken to implement reforms that reflect ethnic diversity and promote…

  10. Translation of satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA modified by (not equal to)-r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene is inhibited in a wheat germ cell-free system

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, R.; Pulkrabek, P.; Takanami, Y.; Grunberger, D.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that (not equal to)-r-7-,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) modification of rabbit globin mRNA results in inhibition of translational initiation. In order to explore the possibility that modification of the 5' cap structure was responsible for this inhibition, the naturally non-capped mRNA from satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) was reacted with BPDE and translated in a wheat germ cell-free system. The extent of modification was 1.3 and 2.9 BPDE residues/molecule. High performance liquid chromatography of the modified nucleosides from enzymatically hydrolyzed STNV RNA revealed that greater than 90% of the nucleoside adducts were substituted at the exocyclic amino group of guanosine. The translational ability of the lower and higher modified STNV, measured by incorporation of (/sup 14/C)amino acids into acid-precipitable polypeptides is inhibited by 55% and 63%, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analyses of the translation products indicate that predominantly full-length coat proteins are synthesized but with the carcinogen-modified STNV the amount is reduced. On the other hand, 80S initiation complex formation is not inhibited as measured by binding of the BPDE-modified STNV to ribosomes and followed by glycerol gradient centrifugation. Under these conditions, aurintricarboxylic acid completely inhibits 80S initiation complex formation in the presence of either modified or native STNV. These results suggest that inhibition of in vitro translation of BPDE-modified STNV, in contrast to that of globin mRNA, is not at the level of initiation complex formation but possibly by premature termination of growing polypeptides.

  11. Curriculum Guidelines for Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Physiology of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are presented. Primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, and specific behavioral objectives are discussed. (MLW)

  12. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  13. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  14. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  15. Physiology and applied sciences in Nepal: 1st annual conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of medical schools in Nepal, there is an expected increase in the number of Nepalese physiologists. The first medical school was established in the 1970s. We report here about the first annual conference of Nepalese physiologists on 27-28 September 2013 organized by the Department of Clinical Physiology of the Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences (NAIHS) and Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUMS). Nepalese physiologists are trying to form their own physiological society. In this regard, NAIHS and KUMS have played an important role to bring physiologists from different parts of Nepal involved in teaching, learning, and research activities in medical schools. There were a number of foreign invitees (India, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Sweden). There were plenary presentations on the topics that are relevant in Nepal, e.g., high-altitude physiology and wilderness medicine. The final session of the conference was an open session meeting of Nepalese physiologists. There was an open interaction about establishing Nepalese Physiological Society. After much deliberation, there was an agreement to register the society in Kathmandu with the current ad hoc committee which will elect the first executive body of the society. PMID:24580838

  16. Metabolic Physiology in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassain, Asim

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation. However, late gestational period is better named as a catabolic phase with reduced insulin sensitivity. The placenta plays a role as a sensor between mother and foetus physiology and acclimatizes the needs of the foetus to adequate growth and development. During pregnancy the female body changes its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms to meet the physiological needs of the foetus. However, if the maternal metabolic physiology during pregnancy is disturbed, it can cause hormonal imbalance, fat accumulation, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance and even gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27582161

  17. Metabolic Physiology in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassain, Asim

    2016-09-01

    The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation. However, late gestational period is better named as a catabolic phase with reduced insulin sensitivity. The placenta plays a role as a sensor between mother and foetus physiology and acclimatizes the needs of the foetus to adequate growth and development. During pregnancy the female body changes its physiological and homeostatic mechanisms to meet the physiological needs of the foetus. However, if the maternal metabolic physiology during pregnancy is disturbed, it can cause hormonal imbalance, fat accumulation, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance and even gestational diabetes mellitus.

  18. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  19. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  20. Challenges and opportunities in developmental integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C A; Eme, J; Burggren, W W; Roghair, R D; Rundle, S D

    2015-06-01

    This review explores challenges and opportunities in developmental physiology outlined by a symposium at the 2014 American Physiological Society Intersociety Meeting: Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology. Across animal taxa, adverse embryonic/fetal environmental conditions can alter morphological and physiological phenotypes in juveniles or adults, and capacities for developmental plasticity are common phenomena. Human neonates with body sizes at the extremes of perinatal growth are at an increased risk of adult disease, particularly hypertension and cardiovascular disease. There are many rewarding areas of current and future research in comparative developmental physiology. We present key mechanisms, models, and experimental designs that can be used across taxa to investigate patterns in, and implications of, the development of animal phenotypes. Intraspecific variation in the timing of developmental events can be increased through developmental plasticity (heterokairy), and could provide the raw material for selection to produce heterochrony--an evolutionary change in the timing of developmental events. Epigenetics and critical windows research recognizes that in ovo or fetal development represent a vulnerable period in the life history of an animal, when the developing organism may be unable to actively mitigate environmental perturbations. 'Critical windows' are periods of susceptibility or vulnerability to environmental or maternal challenges, periods when recovery from challenge is possible, and periods when the phenotype or epigenome has been altered. Developmental plasticity may allow survival in an altered environment, but it also has possible long-term consequences for the animal. "Catch-up growth" in humans after the critical perinatal window has closed elicits adult obesity and exacerbates a programmed hypertensive phenotype (one of many examples of "fetal programing"). Grand challenges for developmental physiology include

  1. Among substituted 9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetraones, the lead antitumor triptycene bisquinone TT24 blocks nucleoside transport, induces apoptotic DNA fragmentation and decreases the viability of L1210 leukemic cells in the nanomolar range of daunorubicin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Perchellet, Elisabeth M; Sperfslage, Bonnie J; Wang, Yang; Huang, Xiaodong; Tamura, Masafumi; Hua, Duy H; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-07-01

    In contrast to their inactive parent compound triptycene (code name TT0), several new synthetic analogs (TT code number) have antileukemic activities and remain effective in daunorubicin (DAU)-resistant tumor sublines in vitro. Among variously substituted 9,10-dihydro-9,10-[1,2]benzenoanthracene-1,4,5,8-tetraones, a total of six lead antitumor compounds have been identified, and their code names are TT2, TT13, TT16, TT19, TT21 and TT24. These active antitumor triptych structures have bisquinone functionality, and various bromo, methoxy, methylamino and/or dimethylamino substitutions with or without longer alkyl chains on the amino function. Like the anthracycline quinone antibiotic DAU, these triptycene (TT) bisquinones also inhibit DNA synthesis and induce DNA cleavage in relation with their cytotoxic activities, but have the additional advantage of blocking the cellular transport of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, an effect which DAU cannot do. As demonstrated by intact chromatin precipitation and agarose gel electrophoresis, the ability of TT bisquinones and DAU to induce DNA fragmentation is biphasic with a peak that shifts to lower concentrations with increasing times of drug exposure. The most effective lead antitumor compound, TT24, induces DNA cleavage in the same concentration-dependent manner as DAU at 24 h (similar peak in response to 1.6 microM) and is nearly equipotent to DAU against L1210 tumor cell viability at day 4 (IC50 values of TT24 and DAU: 48 and 25 nM, respectively). The mechanism by which TT24 induces DNA fragmentation is inhibited by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone and ZnSO4, suggesting that TT bisquinones trigger apoptosis by caspase and endonuclease activation. Since TT24 is cytotoxic in the nanomolar range of DAU, but might have a more versatile mechanism of action than DAU in wild

  2. American Society of Human Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Researchers Say October 20, 2016 Researchers Explore How Zika Infection Causes Microcephaly October 19, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, Maryland 20814 ...

  3. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  4. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review Course in Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology is now available OnDemand! Monday, August 29, 2016! ... than expected, and the FDA... European Society of Cardiology – Heart Failure 2017 October 11, 2016 ESC: Heart ...

  5. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things I Learned at Phoenix UBelong This Week! 22 Oct 2016 Phoenix UBelong participants share the top 5 things they learned this week at Phoenix UBelong: Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, ...

  6. ISS Update: American Physical Society

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Becky Thompson, head of Public Outreach for the American Physical Society, a professional organization for physicists whose web site hosts astronaut ...

  7. The Physiology Undergraduate Major in the University of Arizona College of Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Atwater, Anne E.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Dantzler, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The American Physiological Society (APS) and APS Council encourage the teaching of physiology at the undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels to support the continued prominence of this area of science. One area identified by the APS Council that is of particular importance for the development of future physiologists (the "physiology…

  8. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  9. Human physiology in space.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J

    1996-12-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  10. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 13, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At the outset, the Journal published one issue in 1994. The first number comprised the Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Barcelona, Spain in October 1993. The Proceedings of the previous 14 Annual Meetings appeared as supplements to The Physiologist from 1979 to 1993. Each year, one issue of the Journal is devoted to the Annual Meeting Proceedings, and up to four more issues are comprised of full-length research papers. Additionally, Supplement Issues are considered by the Editorial Board as they are submitted. The Journal is published for the International Society for Gravitational Physiology by the Galileo Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation. This issue, the first number of 2006, comprises the Proceedings of the joint meeting of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology s 27th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Osaka, Japan 23- 28 April, 2006. The Journal of Gravitational Physiology invites the submission of original experimental or observational papers on subjects in the field of gravitational physiology. Review articles, theoretical papers and historical or biographical articles will also be solicited by the Editor for publication. The wide scientific span of the Journal rests on physiology as its keystone. Gravitational physiology is considered to include the effects of changes in the magnitude and directions of the gravitational force environment on cells and physiological systems and behavior of humans, animals and plants. The effects of weightlessness during space flight, high sustained G forces and chronic acceleration, vibration, impact and the various forms of simulated weightlessness are also included, as well as is consideration of the evolutionary consequences of gravity and the role of gravity in the manifestation of scale effects in animals and plants.

  11. Repression of Tropolone Production and Induction of a Burkholderia plantarii Pseudo-Biofilm by Carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a Cell-to-Cell Signaling Disrupter Produced by Trichoderma virens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengcen; Hashimoto, Makoto; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropolone-tolerant Trichoderma virens PS1-7 is a biocontrol agent against Burkholderia plantarii, causative of rice seedling blight. When exposed to catechol, this fungus dose-dependently produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a sesquiterpene-type autoregulatory signal molecule that promotes self-conidiation of T. virens PS1-7 mycelia. It was, however, uncertain why T. virens PS1-7 attenuates the symptom development of the rice seedlings infested with B. plantarii. Methodology/Principal Findings To reveal the antagonism by T. virens PS1-7 against B. plantarii leading to repression of tropolone production in a coculture system, bioassay-guided screening for active compounds from a 3-d culture of T. virens PS1-7 was conducted. As a result, carot-4-en-9,10-diol was identified and found to repress tropolone production of B. plantarii from 10 to 200 µM in a dose-dependent manner as well as attenuate virulence of B. plantarii on rice seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcriptional suppression of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase plaI in B. plantarii was the main mode of action by which carot-4-en-9,10-diol mediated the quorum quenching responsible for repression of tropolone production. In addition, the unique response of B. plantarii to carot-4-en-9,10-diol in the biofilm formed in the static culture system was also found. Although the initial stage of B. plantarii biofilm formation was induced by both tropolone and carot-4-en-9,10-diol, it was induced in different states. Moreover, the B. plantarii biofilm that was induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol at the late stage showed defects not only in matrix structure but also cell viability. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that carot-4-en-9,10-diol released by T. virens PS1-7 acts as an interkingdom cell-to-cell signaling molecule against B. plantarii to repress tropolone production and induces pseudo-biofilm to the cells. This observation also led to another discovery that

  12. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  13. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  14. Research on gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

  15. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  16. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  17. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  18. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  19. The Physiology of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the physiology of motivation is presented. The basic assumption is that the amount of motivated behavior is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centers of the hypothalamus. Activities of these centers are determined by factors in four general classes. (SLD)

  20. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  1. Carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a conidiation-inducing sesquiterpene diol produced by Trichoderma virens PS1-7 upon exposure to chemical stress from highly active iron chelators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcen; Hashimoto, Makoto; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2013-03-01

    To screen biocontrol agents against Burkholderia plantarii, the causative agent of rice seedling blight, we employed catechol, an analog of the virulence factor tropolone, to obtain chemical stress-resistant microorganisms. The fungal isolate PS1-7, identified as a strain of Trichoderma virens, showed the highest resistance to catechol (20 mM) and exhibited efficacy as a biocontrol agent for rice seedling blight. During investigation of metabolic traits of T. virens PS1-7 exposed to catechol, we found a secondary metabolite that was released extracellularly and uniquely accumulated in the culture. The compound induced by chemical stress due to catechol was subsequently isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene diol, carot-4-en-9,10-diol, based on spectroscopic analyses. T. virens PS1-7 produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol as a metabolic response to tropolone at concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mM, and the response was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, similar to its response to catechol at concentrations from 0.1 to 1 mM. Some iron chelators, such as pyrogallol, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and citric acid, at 0.5 mM also showed activation of T. virens PS1-7 production of carot-4-en-9,10-diol. This sesquiterpene diol, formed in response to chemical stress, promoted conidiation of T. virens PS1-7, suggesting that it is involved in an autoregulatory signaling system. In a bioassay of the metabolic and morphological responses of T. virens PS1-7, conidiation in hyphae grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was either promoted or induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol. Carot-4-en-9,10-diol can thus be regarded as an autoregulatory signal in T. virens, and our findings demonstrate that intrinsic intracellular signaling regulates conidiation of T. virens. PMID:23315728

  2. Carot-4-en-9,10-Diol, a Conidiation-Inducing Sesquiterpene Diol Produced by Trichoderma virens PS1-7 upon Exposure to Chemical Stress from Highly Active Iron Chelators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengcen; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    To screen biocontrol agents against Burkholderia plantarii, the causative agent of rice seedling blight, we employed catechol, an analog of the virulence factor tropolone, to obtain chemical stress-resistant microorganisms. The fungal isolate PS1-7, identified as a strain of Trichoderma virens, showed the highest resistance to catechol (20 mM) and exhibited efficacy as a biocontrol agent for rice seedling blight. During investigation of metabolic traits of T. virens PS1-7 exposed to catechol, we found a secondary metabolite that was released extracellularly and uniquely accumulated in the culture. The compound induced by chemical stress due to catechol was subsequently isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene diol, carot-4-en-9,10-diol, based on spectroscopic analyses. T. virens PS1-7 produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol as a metabolic response to tropolone at concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mM, and the response was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, similar to its response to catechol at concentrations from 0.1 to 1 mM. Some iron chelators, such as pyrogallol, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and citric acid, at 0.5 mM also showed activation of T. virens PS1-7 production of carot-4-en-9,10-diol. This sesquiterpene diol, formed in response to chemical stress, promoted conidiation of T. virens PS1-7, suggesting that it is involved in an autoregulatory signaling system. In a bioassay of the metabolic and morphological responses of T. virens PS1-7, conidiation in hyphae grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was either promoted or induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol. Carot-4-en-9,10-diol can thus be regarded as an autoregulatory signal in T. virens, and our findings demonstrate that intrinsic intracellular signaling regulates conidiation of T. virens. PMID:23315728

  3. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  4. Applied physiology of diving.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C

    1988-01-01

    Recreational diving is a popular sport, although human ability to stay in and under water is severely limited physiologically. An understanding of these limitations enhances safety and enjoyment of sports diving. Breath-hold diving involves head-out water immersion, apnoea and submersion, exercise, cold stress, and pressure exposure. Each of these components, by itself, elicits prominent and specific physiological effects. Combination of these factors produces a unique and interesting physiological response generally known as diving reflex. Humans display weak diving responses, but exhibit no oxygen conservation function. Nevertheless, application of diving-induced physiological changes is now finding its way into clinical practice. Apnoea, face immersion, and head-out water immersion all show promise of clinical application. There are several spin-offs from diving research worth noting. Diuresis, enhancement of cardiac performance, and redistribution of blood flow, all produced by head-out water immersion, have been shown to be clinically useful, besides providing physiological data useful to space travel. Results from investigations on apnoea have been shown to be relevant to the following: treating some forms of cardiac arrhythmias; understanding drowning, sudden infant death syndrome and sleep apnoea; and confirming hyperventilation as the major cause of drowning. In comparison to marine mammals, humans are poor divers because of severe physiological constraints which limit their breath-hold time, diving depth, and ability to conserve body heat. Although under special circumstances humans can achieve unusually long breath-hold time and reach exceptional depth with a single breath, the sustainable working time and depth are only about 1 minute and 5 metres, respectively. Hypothermia inevitably results in divers working in the ocean. Without thermal protection, the intolerable limit of 35 degrees C is reached within 30 minutes in winter (10 degrees C) water and

  5. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  6. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  7. [Society, medicine and caregiver stress].

    PubMed

    Mallet, D; Herbaut, A; Soyez, S; Delerue, M; Chekroud, H; Jacquemin, D

    2002-08-10

    CARING STAFF DISTRESS: Is a theme regularly discussed among those who care for patients. The current approach is in favor of the psychological interpretation of this distress. This approach is obviously pertinent, but could be widened to a more sociological vision: is the demand that society places on medicine excessive? THE SEARCH FOR AUTONOMY: The demand of the society emerges in a social universe that privileges the autonomy of the individual. Medicine serves this research for autonomy. Techniques, instrumentalization of the body, and the search for mastery engender the collective utopia of the perfect body; medicine has become a new faith, keeper of potential redemption measures. THE MEDIATOR FUNCTION OF CARING STAFF: Part of the caring staff distress is generated by the encounter between the utopia of health and the reality of suffering patients. In the present context of our society, one of the caring staff's missions is to act as mediator between the patient and the experience of the disease, the patient and the representation that he/she has of his/her body and health, and society and the expectations society projects on medicine.

  8. Work tolerance and the elderly in a post-industrial society.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1984-10-01

    The place of the elderly is reviewed in a society where automation is eliminating the demand for physical work. Physiological and social consequences are examined, drawing upon the experience of populations undergoing particularly rapid cultural change. It is argued that an increase of voluntary physical activity can correct many of the health problems arising in a post-industrial society, increasing both the quality and quantity of a worker's remaining years of life.

  9. The Big Society Must Be a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The UK coalition government has stated its ambition to create a "Big Society". This represents an attempt to alter the relationship between citizen and state, loosening the vertical ties that exist between government and the individual while strengthening the informal bonds of neighbourhoods and communities. This agenda runs through the…

  10. Intellectual Freedom and the National Laboratories : 2000 Sigma Xi Forum New Ethical Challenges in Science and Technology, November 9-10, 2000, Albuquerque, New Mexico"

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, John C.

    2001-01-01

    As we move toward the 21st century, I believe the importance of the ethical system on which the scientific establishment, including the national laboratories, can build its contributions to society is becoming increasingly more important. Issues include the impact of the research we do, the trust we have between ourselves and the general public and the federal government, and the complexity of the problems that we work on. One of the most important roles that I see for research management in large institutions, like the national laboratories, is to create the appropriate environment for ethical behavior for all of its employees. Ethics and modern science demands that we create and live a set of shared values. As Bob Dynes pointed out this morning, we're not just talking about rules. We really must have values upon which we build and create the kind of behaviors we want to see. The major issue that I see in developing these shared values is that management and employees must jointly develop, socialize and live those shared values. In this session today, as I said, we want to explore the issues of intellectual freedom and ethical environment in government and the contracts under which the national laboratories operate. One of the laboratories is run by a nonprofit, the University of California, and the other is a paid-for-profit corporation. I don't know if there are any differences, depending on who the overseeing contractor is. I don't think there are, but it would be interesting to explore any differences we might see between the two. We have chosen the title 'Intellectual Freedom.' It's not academic freedom. Although, clearly, there are a lot of shared attributes between academic freedom and intellectual freedom. In our case, intellectual freedom allows our researchers to challenge technical decisions that are made by the laboratory, by the government or by their peers in their area of expertise, not in policy making, but in the scientific realm. It really does

  11. [Antiscientific attitudes in open society].

    PubMed

    Pérez Iglesias, Juan Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The social controversy created in regard to the use and experiments with transgenic seeds and organisms serves as an example to illustrate the effects and consequences that can lead to antiscientific attitudes, which have gained great force in contemporary society. It has been suggested that the same functional relationship, from which the Enlightenment, science, and liberalism were born, is currently being applied in the opposite direction, so that the current antiscientific attitudes, along with the support they receive from post-modern thought, can end up undermining the bases of an open and democratic society. The consequences of this phenomenon are already manifested by the approval of certain regulations that lack scientific basis.

  12. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  13. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth.

  14. Pavlov and integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    2000-09-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine.

  15. Pavlov and integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, G P

    2000-09-01

    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was the first physiologist to win the Nobel Prize. The Prize was given in 1904 for his research on the neural control of salivary, gastric, and pancreatic secretion. A major reason for the success and novelty of his research was the use of unanesthetized dogs surgically prepared with chronic fistulas or gastric pouches that permitted repeated experiments in the same animal for months. Pavlov invented this chronic method because of the limitations he perceived in the use of acute anesthetized animals for investigating physiological systems. By introducing the chronic method and by showing its experimental advantages, Pavlov founded modern integrative physiology. This paper reviews Pavlov's journey from his birthplace in a provincial village in Russia to Stockholm to receive the Prize. It begins with childhood influences, describes his training and mentors, summarizes the major points of his research by reviewing his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands, and discusses his views on the relationship between physiology and medicine. PMID:10956230

  16. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  17. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology.

    PubMed

    Proença, A R G; Sertié, R A L; Oliveira, A C; Campaña, A B; Caminhotto, R O; Chimin, P; Lima, F B

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  18. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  19. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    PubMed

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  20. An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Aryeh; Antoniou, Katerina M; Brown, Kevin K; Cadranel, Jacques; Corte, Tamera J; du Bois, Roland M; Lee, Joyce S; Leslie, Kevin O; Lynch, David A; Matteson, Eric L; Mosca, Marta; Noth, Imre; Richeldi, Luca; Strek, Mary E; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Wells, Athol U; West, Sterling G; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) have clinical features that suggest an underlying autoimmune process but do not meet established criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Researchers have proposed differing criteria and terms to describe these patients, and lack of consensus over nomenclature and classification limits the ability to conduct prospective studies of a uniform cohort.The "European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease" was formed to create consensus regarding the nomenclature and classification criteria for patients with IIP and features of autoimmunity.The task force proposes the term "interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features" (IPAF) and offers classification criteria organised around the presence of a combination of features from three domains: a clinical domain consisting of specific extra-thoracic features, a serologic domain consisting of specific autoantibodies, and a morphologic domain consisting of specific chest imaging, histopathologic or pulmonary physiologic features.A designation of IPAF should be used to identify individuals with IIP and features suggestive of, but not definitive for, a CTD. With IPAF, a sound platform has been provided from which to launch the requisite future research investigations of a more uniform cohort.

  1. Socialization for the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to give an overview and present special features of socialization of the research type that prepares young people for life in the knowledge society. Methods of cultural and historical epistemology, of hermeneutic and structural-functional analysis of social action have been used in the study, as well as elements of the…

  2. Society Membership Survey: 1986 Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, W. Keith; And Others

    The fourth in a series of reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics division of the American Insititute of Physics (AIP) is presented. Data are based on a stratified random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP member societies. In the spring of 1986, every individual in the sample received a…

  3. Science in Society, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    This teacher's guide was designed for use in a course developed by The Science in Society Project. The aims of the project, course description and content, and suggestions for introducing the course are included in a general introduction. Objectives, content, commentary on supplementary reading materials developed specifically for the course,…

  4. Advertising: Art as Society's Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Catherine E. B.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of U.S. print advertising from the 1890s to the 1990s. Demonstrates how advertisers adapt their messages and target audiences to the changes each era brings. Conveys that advertising reflects society by giving an image of an era as it aims to persuade. Offers six teaching activities. (CMK)

  5. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  6. The Society and the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Gilbert M.

    1985-01-01

    In this speech delivered at the 1984 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, the president of the National Geographic Society (NGS) discusses what geography needs to stay on its feet as an independent and useful discipline and what the NGS is doing to support geography. (RM)

  7. Credentialism in Our Ignorant Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Michael

    All societies have procedures for selecting who will occupy important positions. The use of credentials characterizes our system of social selection, and our worship of them has created the following problems: an artificial demand for education, artificial restraints to learning, the overlooking of obsolescence, generational inversion (wherein the…

  8. Education for the Good Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Neal; Spours, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The Left is facing a crisis of its approach to education highlighted by the "education revolution" of the Coalition Government. The authors argue that it is important to step back and present a positive vision of education based on the key pillars of the Good Society--fairness, democracy, sustainability and well-being. This values-led agenda,…

  9. Adult Education in Croatian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongrac, Silvije, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult education in Croatian society. "Basic Characteristics of Croatian Adult Education up to These Days" (Silvije Pongrac, Ilija Lavrnja) highlights key trends in the development of Croatian adult education. "Adult Education in Croatia Based on Social Changes" (Anita Klapan) discusses Croatian adult…

  10. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... modifying drug for HD 09.19.16 New technology enables researchers to find ultra-rare mutations in the HD gene, distinct from the one causing HD 08.30.16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD Support Groups ...

  11. Educating in a Postconventional Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2006-01-01

    Today many people experience more frustration and confusion about many moral issues and norms than their ancestors. Traditional values and norms do not seem to serve Christian adults in today's situation. Christians are therefore challenged to develop Christian moral norms and values relevant to contemporary society and culture. In this article,…

  12. Marketing and Society. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

  13. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  14. White Resentment in Settler Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  15. Psychology and homosexuality: the British Sexological Society.

    PubMed

    Weigle, D C

    1995-04-01

    The British Sexological Society was a largely unknown society composed of influential people of the early twentieth century in Great Britain. The present research is an archival study of the Society and its work concerning homosexuality. Issues addressed by the British Sexological Society are relevant to the early development of sexual emancipation movements as well as to issues of sexuality today.

  16. Participation of women in neurochemistry societies.

    PubMed

    Lees, Marjorie B

    2002-11-01

    Women have made important scientific contributions to the field of neurochemistry, and they have also been leaders in neurochemical societies throughout the world. Here I discuss women's involvement and leadership in six neurochemistry societies: American Society for Neurochemistry, Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, International Society for Neurochemistry, European Society for Neurochemistry, Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry. The number of women who have been active in these societies and the level of their activity vary considerably. Neurochemical societies in the Western hemisphere, i.e., the American and the Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, have much greater numbers of women who have held office, been on council, or engaged in other leadership activities than in the rest of the world. The limited participation of women in the Japanese Neurochemistry Society relates to Japanese cultural views and was not unexpected. However, the relatively few women leaders in the International Society for Neurochemistry was a surprise. The European Society had a somewhat better record of female participation than did the International Society. The reasons for these differences are partly cultural, but factors related to when each society was formed, how it is organized, and how elections are structured undoubtedly play a role. Further analysis of these observations would be of interest from a sociological and a women's studies point of view.

  17. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  18. Asthma Outcomes: Pulmonary Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert S.; Covar, Ronina; Irvin, Charles G.; Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Kraft, Monica; Liu, Mark C.; O’Connor, George T.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald; Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    Background Outcomes of pulmonary physiology have a central place in asthma clinical research. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to provide recommendations on the use of pulmonary function measures as asthma outcomes that should be assessed in a standardized fashion in future asthma clinical trials and studies to allow for cross-study comparisons. Methods Our subcommittee conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed to identify studies that focused on the validation of various airway response tests used in asthma clinical research. The subcommittee classified the instruments as core (to be required in future studies), supplemental (to be used according to study aims and in a standardized fashion), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results A list of pulmonary physiology outcomes that applies to both adults and children older than 6 years was created. These outcomes were then categorized into core, supplemental, and emerging. Spirometric outcomes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1/FVC) are proposed as core outcomes for study population characterization, for observational studies, and for prospective clinical trials. Bronchodilator reversibility and pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 also are core outcomes for study population characterization and observational studies. Conclusions The subcommittee considers pulmonary physiology outcomes of central importance in asthma and proposes spirometric outcomes as core outcomes for all future NIH-initiated asthma clinical research. PMID:22386510

  19. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  20. Physiologic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic monitoring systems monitor vital physiologic parameters so that clinicians can be informed of changes in a patient's condition. For this study, we evaluated systems from six monitoring suppliers--Dräger Medical, GE Healthcare, Nihon Kohden, Philips Medical Systems, Spacelabs Medical, and Welch Allyn. The intent of this study is to help facilities choose not just the most appropriate system, but also the most appropriate version of that system--the combination of components that will best suit the facility's needs. Our testing focused primarily on adaptability, alarm implementation, and human factors design. We rated the systems based on their capabilities and performance for each of seven care settings: critical care unit, emergency department, intermediate care unit and general medical/surgical floor, operating room (with separate ratings for use during conscious sedation and general anesthesia), postanesthesia care unit, and transport. The systems performed well against the majority of our criteria. Nevertheless, we found notable differences in specific features and performance areas. These differences will have varying levels of significance for different hospitals. PMID:15794523

  1. Photrodes for physiological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Stuart A.; Sriram, Sriram; Pollick, Andrea; Marsh, John

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a paradigm shift in the technology for sensing electro-physiological signals. In recent years, SRICO has been developing small lithium niobate photonic electrodes, otherwise called "Photrodes" for measuring EEG and ECG signals. These extrinsic fiber-optic sensing devices exploit the extremely high electrical input impedance of Mach-Zehnder Intensity (MZI) electro-optic modulators to detect microvolt and millivolt physiological signals. Voltage levels associated with electrocardiograms are typically on the order of several millivolts, and such signals can be detected by capacitive pickup through clothing, i.e., the Photrode may be used in a non-contact mode. Electroencephalogram signals, which typically have an amplitude of several microvolts, require direct contact with the skin. However, this contact may be dry, eliminating the need for conductive gels. The electrical bandwidth of this photonic electrode system stretches from below 0.1 Hz to many tens of kHz and is constrained mainly by the signal processing electronics, not by the Photrode itself. The paper will describe the design and performance of Photrode systems and the challenging aspects of this new technology.

  2. Leadership in an Egalitarian Society

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393

  3. Floods and Societies: Dynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Bloeschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that future flood losses and fatalities might increase significantly in many regions of the world because of rapid urbanization in deltas and floodplains, in addition to sea level rise and climate change. To better anticipate long-term trajectories of future flood risk, there is a need to treat floodplains and deltas as fully coupled human-physical systems. Here we propose a novel approach to explore the long-term behavior emerging from the mutual interactions and feedbacks between physical and social systems. The implementation of our modeling framework shows that green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of floodplains, are more resilient to increasing flood frequency than technological societies, which deal with flooding by building levees. Also, we show that when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods could (paradoxically) be more dangerous than flood-rich periods.

  4. Conflict resolution in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Ratnieks, Francis L W; Foster, Kevin R; Wenseleers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.

  5. Risk, society and system failure.

    PubMed

    Scalliet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Modern societies are risk societies. Together with the formidable development of complex technologies (chemical industry, energy production, mass transportation, etc), new hazards have emerged. Sharing danger is the hallmark of modernity, as large industrial accidents can now have countrywide, or even, worldwide consequences. The Chernobyl explosion for example, has smeared large European surfaces with radioactive materials, across borders and nations, without any regard for who was responsible and who was the victim. Complex technologies should therefore be managed with great foresightness, particularly focusing on preventive management. A sound understanding of the (minor) role of human errors of operators and the (major) role of process design is a pre-requisite for appropriate management. This also applies to the complex business of radiotherapy, as the same organisational principles apply than in the heavy industry: restrict the role of operators, expect their mistakes, design in a mistake-proof way, accept the burden of preventive maintenances, supervise maintenance carefully and, above all, invest in safety.

  6. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  7. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning. PMID:16007753

  8. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  9. Physiology of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gregory M.; Berney, Michael; Gebhard, Susanne; Heinemann, Matthias; Cox, Robert A.; Danilchanka, Olga; Niederweis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a prototrophic, metabolically flexible bacterium that has achieved a spread in the human population that is unmatched by any other bacterial pathogen. The success of M. tuberculosis as a pathogen can be attributed to its extraordinary stealth and capacity to adapt to environmental changes throughout the course of infection. These changes include: nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, various exogenous stress conditions and, in the case of the pathogenic species, the intraphagosomal environment. Knowledge of the physiology of M. tuberculosis during this process has been limited by the slow growth of the bacterium in the laboratory and other technical problems such as cell aggregation. Advances in genomics and molecular methods to analyse the M. tuberculosis genome have revealed that adaptive changes are mediated by complex regulatory networks and signals, resulting in temporal gene expression coupled to metabolic and energetic changes. An important goal for bacterial physiologists will be to elucidate the physiology of M. tuberculosis during the transition between the diverse conditions encountered by M. tuberculosis. This review covers the growth of the mycobacterial cell and how environmental stimuli are sensed by this bacterium. Adaptation to different environments is described from the viewpoint of nutrient acquisition, energy generation and regulation. To gain quantitative understanding of mycobacterial physiology will require a systems biology approach and recent efforts in this area are discussed. “It is now 100 years since the first mycobacterium was isolated by Hansen (1874). Somewhat ironically, this was the leprosy bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae, which even today is still resisting all attempts to cultivate it in the laboratory. The tubercle bacillus, M. tuberculosis was not discovered until eight years later (Koch, 1882) and this has remained an object of intensive investigation ever since. The widespread interest in the

  10. In vitro metabolism of 10-(3-chlorophenyl)-6,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-5(7H)- one, a topical antipsoriatic agent. Use of precision-cut rat, dog, monkey and human liver slices, and chemical synthesis of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zbaida, S; Du, Y; Shannon, D; Laudicina, D; Thonoor, C M; Ng, K; Blumenkrantz, N; Patrick, J E; Cayen, M N; Friary, R; Seidl, V; Chan, T M; Pramanik, B; Spangler, M; McPhail, A T

    1998-07-01

    The metabolism of SCH 40120, which is the clinically effective antipsoriatic drug 10-(3-chlorophenyl)-6,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzol[b][1,8]naphthyrid in-5(7H)-one, was determined in vitro. Rat, dog, cynomolgus monkey, and human liver slices hydroxylated the aliphatic, cyclohexenyl ring of the drug and conjugated the resulting carbinol. The identified metabolites comprised the corresponding 6-, 7-, and 9-carbinols, the glucuronide of the 6-carbinol, and the 6-ketone derived from the parent drug. Although the three carbinols appeared in the liver isolates of all species studied, the relative amounts of these metabolites varied across species. With a high, non-physiological ratio of substrate to liver, the 6-carbinol and its glucuronide were the major metabolites in human and monkey, whereas the 6-ketone was a minor metabolite in dog. Containing a stereogenic axis and center, the 6-carbinol existed as diastereomeric atropisomers. Its structure was established by 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and comparison to an authentic sample. PMID:9673784

  11. 9,10-Dibromo­phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Ruri; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C14H8Br2, is almost planar [maximum deviation 0.0355 (7) Å] and possesses crystallographic twofold (C2) symmetry. In the crystal, the mol­ecules form face-to-face slipped anti­parallel π–π stacking inter­actions along the c axis with an inter­planar distance 3.471 (7) Å, centroid–centroid distances of 3.617 (5)–3.803 (6) Å. PMID:23284487

  12. [Physiological behavior of Cantilever].

    PubMed

    Feeldman, I; Frugone, R; Vládilo, N T

    1990-11-01

    The prosthetic rehabilitation is common of the integral treatment of patients that integral treatment of patients that have lost one or several dental pieces as a consequence of periodontal diseases. It has been demonstrated that plural fixed prothesis to extention, plovide a distribution pattern and magnitude of favourable forces to the periodontal during the different functions of the stomathologic apparatus, that justify rehabilitation based to it patients periodontically affected. The physiological behaviour of cantilever was basically analized on report on different investigation studies performed on patients periodontically diminis hed treated with plural fixed prothesis of crossed are with two unit or bilateral vear cantilever units, dento supported or fixed in place on implants. It is important to emphasize that favourable results previously analized in base to this type of rehabilitation in its different varieties have been obtained through record done on patients in which considerations of indications, design and occlusion stability have been optimized. PMID:2075270

  13. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  14. Physiological training in Jordan.

    PubMed

    al-Wedyan, I A; Shahin, B H; Abu Ghosh, H M; al-Aqqad, S S; al-Qura'an, M S

    1996-09-01

    The hypobaric chamber is designed as a teaching aid in providing orientation for some of the physiological stresses in flight. Reactions during chamber training vary from mild ear block to neurocirculatory collapse. This is a retrospective study on reactions from 1986-94 in the hypobaric chamber training unit at King Hussien Medical Centre in Jordan; 39 cases were reported among 705 trainees in a 12-person rectangular hypobaric chamber. We analyzed the various reactions according to type, severity and altitude of occurrence. The most common reactions were found to be ear block (65%) and sinus block (25%). These were treated on the spot and followed for 48 h without sequelae. We did not have any moderate or severe reaction; we found that all reactions were minor, which reflects the efficacy of safety measures taken prior to and during training.

  15. [Physiological function of osteocytes].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kyoji

    2007-10-01

    Osteocytes produce DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1), FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) and sclerostin. FGF23 is a phosphate-regulating hormone that links bone to kidney. DMP1 is a matrix protein that is involved in mineralization. Patients with DMP1 mutations exhibit increased FGF23 and hypophosphatemia, suggesting that DMP1 negatively regulates FGF23 in osteocytes. Sclerostin is secreted by osteocytes and negatively regulates osteoblastic function, and its neutralizing antibody is being developed as a new treatment for osteoporosis. A mouse model that enables targeted ablation of osteocytes tells us about the physiologic and pathologic functions of osteocytes in regulating bone remodeling in response to mechanical environment. PMID:17906408

  16. Single Cell Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  17. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  18. Roots of the Pavlovian Society's missions of the past and present: the Pavlov dimension.

    PubMed

    Furedy, John J

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of the relation between Pavlov's life and work and the missions of the Pavlovian Society, both past ("observation and observation") and present ("interdisciplinary research on the integrated organism"). I begin with an account of Pavlov's life and his influence on contemporary thought. I then indicate the relation of some of Pavlov's attitudes (e.g., his motto, his epistemological stance) to the Society's past mission. In the concluding and most controversial section, I argue for six guiding principles derived from Pavlov, to be applied to the Society's mission. These are: (a) a confident methodological behaviorism; (b) a significant role assigned to both physiological and psychological factors in the prediction and control of the integrated organism; (c) approximately equal taxonomic precision of physiological and psychological explanatory concepts; (d) distrust of teleological explanatory concepts; (e) rejection of psychology's instrumentalist "cognitive paradigm shift"; and (f) rejection of the representational theory of knowledge. PMID:12814193

  19. Roots of the Pavlovian Society's missions of the past and present: the Pavlov dimension.

    PubMed

    Furedy, John J

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of the relation between Pavlov's life and work and the missions of the Pavlovian Society, both past ("observation and observation") and present ("interdisciplinary research on the integrated organism"). I begin with an account of Pavlov's life and his influence on contemporary thought. I then indicate the relation of some of Pavlov's attitudes (e.g., his motto, his epistemological stance) to the Society's past mission. In the concluding and most controversial section, I argue for six guiding principles derived from Pavlov, to be applied to the Society's mission. These are: (a) a confident methodological behaviorism; (b) a significant role assigned to both physiological and psychological factors in the prediction and control of the integrated organism; (c) approximately equal taxonomic precision of physiological and psychological explanatory concepts; (d) distrust of teleological explanatory concepts; (e) rejection of psychology's instrumentalist "cognitive paradigm shift"; and (f) rejection of the representational theory of knowledge.

  20. Everest Physiology Pre-2008.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-01-01

    When Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Mt. Everest in 1953, it was the culmination of many attempts beginning in 1921. Alexander Kellas had actually predicted as early as 1920 that the mountain could be climbed, but the extreme altitude of 8848 m with the consequent oxygen deprivation had foiled previous attempts. One reason for the success of the 1953 expedition was the work done by the British physiologist Griffith Pugh in 1952 when he studied many of the physiological factors at high altitude including the oxygen requirements. Seven years later, Pugh and Hillary teamed up again for the Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 that elucidated many of the problems of very high altitude. A group of physiologists spent several months at an altitude of 5800 m in a prefabricated hut and studied many aspects of exercise, pulmonary gas exchange, control of ventilation, and blood changes. Maximal exercise was measured as high as 7440 m and raised anew the question of whether Everest could ever be climbed without supplementary oxygen. The answer was shown to be yes in 1978 by Messner and Habeler, and 3 years later the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest clarified the physiological adaptations that allow humans to reach the highest point on earth. Five people reached the summit, the barometric pressure there was measured for the first time, and alveolar gas samples from the summit showed the critical importance of the extreme hyperventilation. However, the maximal oxygen consumption for the summit inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg was shown to be only about 1 l min(-1). In other words, the highest point on earth is very close to the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. As we celebrate the anniversary of Charles Darwin, it would be nice to have an evolutionary explanation for this, but in fact it is a cosmic coincidence.

  1. Everest Physiology Pre-2008.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2016-01-01

    When Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Mt. Everest in 1953, it was the culmination of many attempts beginning in 1921. Alexander Kellas had actually predicted as early as 1920 that the mountain could be climbed, but the extreme altitude of 8848 m with the consequent oxygen deprivation had foiled previous attempts. One reason for the success of the 1953 expedition was the work done by the British physiologist Griffith Pugh in 1952 when he studied many of the physiological factors at high altitude including the oxygen requirements. Seven years later, Pugh and Hillary teamed up again for the Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 that elucidated many of the problems of very high altitude. A group of physiologists spent several months at an altitude of 5800 m in a prefabricated hut and studied many aspects of exercise, pulmonary gas exchange, control of ventilation, and blood changes. Maximal exercise was measured as high as 7440 m and raised anew the question of whether Everest could ever be climbed without supplementary oxygen. The answer was shown to be yes in 1978 by Messner and Habeler, and 3 years later the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest clarified the physiological adaptations that allow humans to reach the highest point on earth. Five people reached the summit, the barometric pressure there was measured for the first time, and alveolar gas samples from the summit showed the critical importance of the extreme hyperventilation. However, the maximal oxygen consumption for the summit inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg was shown to be only about 1 l min(-1). In other words, the highest point on earth is very close to the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. As we celebrate the anniversary of Charles Darwin, it would be nice to have an evolutionary explanation for this, but in fact it is a cosmic coincidence. PMID:27343114

  2. High Expression of Rabl3 is Associated with Poor Survival of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer via Repression of MAPK8/9/10-Mediated Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihua; Sun, Jian; Luo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Background Rab-like 3 (Rabl3) is a member of the Rab subfamily of small GTPases which are involved in controlling proliferation and vesicular trafficking. Recent studies suggest that Rab proteins might play a critical role in regulating cancer cell survival, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Material/Methods We performed a bioinformatics analysis to examine the correlation between the expression level of Rabl3 and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in three independent cohorts containing 484 patients. The function of Rabl3 was examined in NSCLC cell line A549 in vitro. Following Rabl3 knockdown, cells were stained with propidium iodine (PI) and Annexin V, followed by flow cytometry analysis (FACS) for cell death and autophagy induction. The activity of the MAPK signaling pathway was assessed by Western blotting of different MAPK phosphorylations, and modulated with different chemical inhibitors. Results High expression of Rabl3 was significantly correlated with poor survival in all three independent NSCLC cohorts. In line with this result, Rabl3 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cell lines as compared with normal lung fibroblast cell lines. Knockdown of Rabl3 in lung cancer cells significantly enhanced cell death accompanied with autophagy induction, as evidenced by an increased level of autophagy marker LC3-II. Interestingly, Rabl3 knockdown was associated with enhanced activation of MAPK8/9/10 but not MAPK11/12/13/14. Treatment of MAPK8/9/10-specific inhibitor SP600125, but not MAPK11/12/13/14-specific inhibitor SB203580, largely abolished Rabl3 knockdown-induced LC3-I/LC3-II conversion and autophagic cell death. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that high expression of Rabl3 might inhibit cell death in NSCLCs via repression of MAPK8/9/10-mediated autophagy. PMID:27164297

  3. Physiological processes underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Lang, Charles H; Nagy, Laura E; Bailey, Shannon M; Parsons, Loren H; Murray, Gary J

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes the American Physiological Society (APS) Presidential Symposium 1 entitled "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse" at the 2016 Experimental Biology meeting. The symposium was organized by Dr. Patricia Molina, past president of the APS, was held on April 3 at the Convention Center in San Diego, CA, and was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse Symposium" assembled experts and leaders in the field and served as a platform to discuss and share knowledge on the latest developments and scientific advances on the mechanisms underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse. This symposium provided unique, interdisciplinary alcohol research, including several organs, liver, muscle, adipose, and brain, affected by excessive alcohol use. PMID:27436613

  4. American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention of Cervical Cancer ASCCP has endorsed American Society of Clinical Oncology's Guidelines for Secondary Prevention of ... 7227 Toll-Free (240) 575-9880 Fax © American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology * Required * First Name: * ...

  5. Joseph Henry and the American Philosophical Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the extent to which Henry was affiliated with the Society and its influence on his work including his evolving relationship with the Society in the scope of the changing nature of American scientific institutions. (DF)

  6. The Impact of Science on Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J.; Bergman, J.; Asimov, I.

    1985-01-01

    Four speeches delivered as part of a public lecture series to assess the impact of science on society are presented. The computerization of society, space exploration and habitation, the mechanisms of technological change, and cultural responses are addressed.

  7. Science in Its Confrontation with Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvora, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the issue of society-controlled science. Analyzes the present state of science with respect to society, including moral issues, attitude differences between nineteenth century scientists and contemporary ones, risk management, and reductionism. (YP)

  8. The evolution of insect societies.

    PubMed

    Page, R E

    1997-01-01

    The organization and evolution of insect societies has amazed natural historians since Aristotle. Charles Darwin considered social insects to be a major difficulty for his theory of evolution by natural selection because they demonstrate a rich diversity of adaptation among sterile workers leading to a complex division of labour, something that should not occur if variation in individual reproductive success is the grist for the mill of natural selection. This article shows how division of labour can self-organize from groups of cohabiting individuals without the necessity of a past history of natural selection for co-operative behaviour. It then explores how more complex social systems may evolve.

  9. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  10. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    PubMed

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  11. A Troubled Society: Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Vincent J.

    America's children and their families are in trouble, trouble so deep as to constitute a serious threat to the future of our society. The major source of that threat is bureaucratic "benign neglect." We have failed to recognize that the problems of the multitroubled family in a changing society are the problems of the entire society in the midst…

  12. Allgemeinbildung: Readiness for Living in Risk Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmose, Steffen; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    Sociologists increasingly note that one lives in a risk society, characterized by the unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovation and production and by increasing complexity. Life in risk society, particularly in truly democratic societies, increasingly requires competencies not only to understand and change one's own circumstances…

  13. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  14. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  15. Brain Physiology: Research and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Indicates how research about the physiology and chemistry of the brain verifies the educational applications of Piaget's theory. Discusses maturation, experience, social transmission, and equilibration. (Author/DC)

  16. Physiology Considerations in Geriatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Alvis, Bret D; Hughes, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Physiology changes at the structural, functional, and molecular levels as people age, and every major organ system experiences physiologic change with time. The changes to the nervous system result mostly in cognitive impairments, the cardiovascular system develops higher blood pressures with lower cardiac output, the respiratory system undergoes a reduction of arterial oxyhemoglobin levels, the gastrointestinal system experiences delayed gastric emptying and reduction of hepatic metabolism, and the renal system experiences a diminished glomerular filtration rate. Combined, these changes create a complex physiologic condition. This unique physiology must be taken into consideration for geriatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:26315630

  17. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  18. Establishing common course objectives for undergraduate exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Shawn R

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate exercise physiology is a ubiquitous course in undergraduate kinesiology/exercise science programs with a broad scope and depth of topics. It is valuable to explore what is taught within this course. The purpose of the present study was to facilitate an understanding of what instructors teach in undergraduate exercise physiology, how it compares with various guidelines, and to continue the conversation regarding what should be taught. A survey was created using course outcomes from the American Society of Exercise Physiologists, National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Ivy's 2007 Quest article, the National Athletic Training Association, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, and 36 undergraduate exercise physiology course syllabi. The 134-item survey was disseminated to individuals who use exercise physiology: university faculty members, clinical exercise physiologists, researchers, and other practitioners on various exercise physiology lists; 2,009 surveys were sent, and 322 surveys were completed (16% rate of return). There was a high degree of agreement about a lot of important content in undergraduate exercise physiology. Instructors of exercise physiology should focus their curriculum on regulation and homeostasis (including adaptation, fatigue, and recovery), aerobic systems, bioenergetics, muscle physiology, and fitness principles. In addition, attention should be paid to performance and technical skills. In conclusion, it is up to exercise physiologists to ensure quality of knowledge and practice. Doing so will improve the uniformity and quality of practitioners within the various kinesiology/exercise science fields and increase the value of a Kinesiology/Exercise Science degree and set it apart from other healthcare providers and fitness professionals.

  19. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    Germination, ethylene production, and carbon dioxide production by dormant Virginia-type peanuts were determined during treatments with plant growth regulators. Kinetin, benzylaminopurine, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid induced extensive germination above the water controls. Benzylaminopurine and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the germination of the more dormant basal seeds to a larger extent above the controls than the less dormant apical seeds. Coumarin induced a slight stimulation of germination while abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide did not stimulate germination above the controls. In addition to stimulating germination, the cytokinins also stimulated ethylene production by the seeds. In the case of benzylaminopurine, where the more dormant basal seeds were stimulated to germinate above the control to a larger extent than the less dormant apical seeds, correspondingly more ethylene production was induced in the basal seeds. However, the opposite was true of kinetin for both germination and ethylene production. When germination was extensively stimulated by the cytokinins, maximal ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution occurred at 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Abscisic acid inhibited ethylene production and germinaton of the seeds while carbon dioxide evolution was comparatively high. The crucial physiological event for germination of dormant peanut seeds was enhancement of ethylene production by the seeds. PMID:16657647

  20. Polyamines in plant physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  1. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  2. Physiology of circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2010-07-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous biological oscillators, including a master clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Since the period of this oscillation is of approximately 24 h, to keep synchrony with the environment, circadian rhythms need to be entrained daily by means of Zeitgeber ("time giver") signals, such as the light-dark cycle. Recent advances in the neurophysiology and molecular biology of circadian rhythmicity allow a better understanding of synchronization. In this review we cover several aspects of the mechanisms for photic entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms, including retinal sensitivity to light by means of novel photopigments as well as circadian variations in the retina that contribute to the regulation of retinal physiology. Downstream from the retina, we examine retinohypothalamic communication through neurotransmitter (glutamate, aspartate, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) interaction with SCN receptors and the resulting signal transduction pathways in suprachiasmatic neurons, as well as putative neuron-glia interactions. Finally, we describe and analyze clock gene expression and its importance in entrainment mechanisms, as well as circadian disorders or retinal diseases related to entrainment deficits, including experimental and clinical treatments. PMID:20664079

  3. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  4. Physiology of Volition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  5. Polyamines in plant physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Galston, A W; Sawhney, R K

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing. PMID:11537482

  6. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. PMID:26628666

  7. Causality in physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  8. Physiological differentiation of viridans streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, R R

    1977-01-01

    Twelve hundred and twenty-seven clinical isolates and eighty stock strains of viridans streptococci were tested for serological and physiological characteristics. Because the serological reactions of these strains varied, a differentiation scheme could not be based on these reactions. For the same reason, there could be no correlation of serological characteristics with physiological characteristics. Nearly 97% of the clinical isolates were speciated by differences in physiological characteristics. Ten different physiological species were recognized. The physiological speciation scheme was based on stable enzymatic reactions rather than on results of tolerance tests. The study included air-tolerant anaerobic streptococcal strains as well as viridans streptococcal strains not normally found in humans. The differentiation scheme and nomenclature of the author are related to those of other investigators. Differences in the distribution of species isolated from different clinical sources and human infections were also noted. A key for the differentiation of human isolates of viridans streptococci is proposed. PMID:845245

  9. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  10. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    PubMed

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  11. Costly punishment across human societies.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph; McElreath, Richard; Barr, Abigail; Ensminger, Jean; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Marlowe, Frank; Tracer, David; Ziker, John

    2006-06-23

    Recent behavioral experiments aimed at understanding the evolutionary foundations of human cooperation have suggested that a willingness to engage in costly punishment, even in one-shot situations, may be part of human psychology and a key element in understanding our sociality. However, because most experiments have been confined to students in industrialized societies, generalizations of these insights to the species have necessarily been tentative. Here, experimental results from 15 diverse populations show that (i) all populations demonstrate some willingness to administer costly punishment as unequal behavior increases, (ii) the magnitude of this punishment varies substantially across populations, and (iii) costly punishment positively covaries with altruistic behavior across populations. These findings are consistent with models of the gene-culture coevolution of human altruism and further sharpen what any theory of human cooperation needs to explain.

  12. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  13. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position paper: resistance training in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Falk, Baraket; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2008-06-01

    Many position stands and review papers have refuted the myths associated with resistance training (RT) in children and adolescents. With proper training methods, RT for children and adolescents can be relatively safe and improve overall health. The objective of this position paper and review is to highlight research and provide recommendations in aspects of RT that have not been extensively reported in the pediatric literature. In addition to the well-documented increases in muscular strength and endurance, RT has been used to improve function in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis and cerebral palsy, as well as pediatric burn victims. Increases in children's muscular strength have been attributed primarily to neurological adaptations due to the disproportionately higher increase in muscle strength than in muscle size. Although most studies using anthropometric measures have not shown significant muscle hypertrophy in children, more sensitive measures such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have suggested hypertrophy may occur. There is no minimum age for RT for children. However, the training and instruction must be appropriate for children and adolescents, involving a proper warm-up, cool-down, and appropriate choice of exercises. It is recommended that low- to moderate-intensity resistance exercise should be done 2-3 times/week on non-consecutive days, with 1-2 sets initially, progressing to 4 sets of 8-15 repetitions for 8-12 exercises. These exercises can include more advanced movements such as Olympic-style lifting, plyometrics, and balance training, which can enhance strength, power, co-ordination, and balance. However, specific guidelines for these more advanced techniques need to be established for youth. In conclusion, an RT program that is within a child's or adolescent's capacity and involves gradual progression under qualified instruction and supervision with appropriately sized equipment can involve more advanced or intense RT exercises, which can lead to functional (i.e., muscular strength, endurance, power, balance, and co-ordination) and health benefits. PMID:18461111

  14. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  15. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  16. Cassava biology and physiology.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  17. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives as potential cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gulcan, Hayrettin Ozan; Unlu, Serdar; Esiringu, Ilker; Ercetin, Tugba; Sahin, Yasemin; Oz, Demet; Sahin, Mustafa Fethi

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxylated 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives (i.e., urolithins) are the main bioavailable metabolites, and biomarkers of ellagitannins present in various nutrition. Although these dietaries, the sources of urolithins, are employed in folk medicine as cognitive enhancer in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease, urolithins have negligible potential to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes, the validated targets of Alzheimer's Disease. Therefore, within this research, a series of 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives has been designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated as potential acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors. The compounds synthesized exerted comparable activity in comparison to rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil both in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  19. Spectroscopic studies on photoelectron transfer from 2-(furan-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole to ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO and Ag-doped ZnO.

    PubMed

    Thanikachalam, V; Arunpandiyan, A; Jayabharathi, J; Karunakaran, C; Ramanathan, P

    2014-09-01

    The 2-(furan-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole [FPI] has been designed and synthesized as fluorescent sensor for nanoparticulate ZnO. The present work investigates the photoelectron transfer (PET) from FPI to ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO and Ag- doped ZnO nanoparticles using electronic and life time spectral measurements. Broad absorption along with red shift indicates the formation of charge-transfer complex [FPI-Nanoparticles]. The photophysical studies indicate lowering of HOMO and LUMO energy levels of FPI on adsorption on ZnO due to FPI- ZnO interaction. The obtained binding constant implies that the binding of FPI with nanoparticles was influenced by the surface modification of ZnO nanoparticles with Cu and Ag.

  20. Conjugation of a 3-(1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-indole intercalator to a triplex oligonucleotide and to a three-way junction.

    PubMed

    Fatthalla, Maha I; Elkholy, Yehya M; Abbas, Nermeen S; Mandour, Adel H; Jørgensen, Per T; Bomholt, Niels; Pedersen, Erik B

    2012-01-01

    A new intercalating nucleic acid monomer M comprising a 4-(1-indole)-butane-1,2-diol moiety was synthesized via a classical alkylation reaction of indole-3-carboxaldehyde followed by a condensation reaction with phenanthrene-9,10-dione in the presence of ammonium acetate to form a phenanthroimidazole moiety linked to the indole ring. Insertion of the new intercalator as a bulge into a Triplex Forming Oligonucleotide resulted in good thermal stability of the corresponding Hoogsteen-type triplexes. Molecular modeling supports the possible intercalating ability of M. Hybridisation properties of DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA three-way junctions (TWJ) with M in the branching point were also evaluated by their thermal stability at pH 7. DNA/DNA TWJ showed increase in thermal stability compared to wild type oligonucleotides whereas this was not the case for RNA/DNA TWJ.

  1. Iptycene synthesis: A new method for attaching a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of another anthracene moiety - Exceptional conditions for a Lewis acid catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yong-Shing; Hart, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An efficient three-step method for appending a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of an existing anthracene moiety is described. The first step uses excess 1,4-anthraquinone (3 equiv) and aluminum chloride (6 equiv) to obtain the anthracene-quinone cycloadduct (omission of the AlCl3 resulted in no adduct). The resulting diketone was reduced to the corresponding diol (excess LiAlH4), which was dehydrated to the arene with phosphorus oxychloride and pyridine. Specific examples include the preparation of heptipycene 8 from pentiptycene 6 (66 percent overall yield) and a similar conversion of 8 to the noniptycene 13 (75 percent overall yield). The methodology led to a markedly improved synthesis of tritriptycene 9 and the first synthesis of undecaiptycene 14.

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives as potential cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gulcan, Hayrettin Ozan; Unlu, Serdar; Esiringu, Ilker; Ercetin, Tugba; Sahin, Yasemin; Oz, Demet; Sahin, Mustafa Fethi

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxylated 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives (i.e., urolithins) are the main bioavailable metabolites, and biomarkers of ellagitannins present in various nutrition. Although these dietaries, the sources of urolithins, are employed in folk medicine as cognitive enhancer in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease, urolithins have negligible potential to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes, the validated targets of Alzheimer's Disease. Therefore, within this research, a series of 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives has been designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated as potential acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors. The compounds synthesized exerted comparable activity in comparison to rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil both in in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:25189690

  3. Sir Michael Foster MD FRS (1836-1907): the rise of the British school of physiology.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2008-11-01

    In 1867 William Sharpey (1802-80), Professor of General Anatomy and Physiology at University College, London, appointed Michael Foster to the unique post of Teacher of Practical Physiology; in Britain the study of experimental physiology was dormant. In 1870 Foster accepted a Praelectorship in Physiology at Trinity College, Cambridge, and soon established a school of physiology. He was the first Cambridge Professor of Physiology (1883-1903). Foster, a great teacher, had a remarkable ability to attract talented students and to inspire them to undertake research. He himself took inspiration from the scientific philosophy of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95) and of Claude Bernard (1813-78). Foster was active in the foundation of the Physiological Society (1876), and founded and edited the Journal of Physiology (1878). He was interested in the scientific training of medical students and wrote a highly lauded Text Book of Physiology (1877). Physiology became a profession in its own right and British physiologists were in the vanguard of research.

  4. Quantitation of enantiomers of r-7,t-8,9,c-10-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]-pyrene in human urine: evidence supporting metabolic activation of benzo[a]pyrene via the bay region diol epoxide

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Hochalter, Jon Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen, is widely distributed in the human environment. All humans are exposed to BaP through the diet and contact with the general environment; cigarette smokers have higher exposure. An important pathway of BaP metabolism proceeds through formation of diol epoxides including the ‘bay region diol epoxide’ 7R,8S-dihydroxy-9S,10R-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene [BaP-(7R,8S)-diol-(9S,10R)-epoxide] and the ‘reverse diol epoxide’ 9S,10R-dihydroxy-7R,8S-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo [a]pyrene [BaP-(9S,10R)-diol-(7R,8S)-epoxide]. The bay region diol epoxide is considered a major ultimate carcinogen of BaP based on studies in cell culture and laboratory animals, but the available data in humans are less convincing. The bay region diol epoxide and the reverse diol epoxide react with H2O to produce enantiomeric BaP-tetraols that are excreted in the urine. We used chiral stationary-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–negative ion chemical ionisation–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify these enantiomeric BaP-tetraols in the urine of 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. The results demonstrated that the BaP-tetraol enantiomer representing the carcinogenic bay region diol epoxide pathway accounted for 68±6% (range 56–81%) of total BaP-tetraol in smokers and 64±6% (range 46–78%) in non-smokers. Levels of the major BaP-tetraol enantiomer decreased by 75% in smokers who quit smoking. These data provide convincing evidence in support of the bay region diol epoxide mechanism of BaP carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:25053834

  5. The history of three scientific societies: the Society for the Study of Fertility (now the Society for Reproduction and Fertility) (Britain), the Société Française pour l'Etude de la Fertilité, and the Society for the Study of Reproduction (USA).

    PubMed

    Clarke, John

    2007-06-01

    Three scientific societies devoted to the study of reproduction were established in Britain, France and USA in the middle of the twentieth century by clinical, veterinary and agricultural scientists. The principal motivation for their establishment had been the study of sterility and fertility of people and livestock. There was also a wider perspective embracing other biologists interested in reproduction more generally. Knowledge disseminated through the societies' scientific meetings and publications would bear upon human and animal population problems as well as basic reproductive physiology and its applications. New journals dealing with reproductive physiology, having worldwide appeal, were established in Britain and USA. The financial resources of at least one of the societies and its journal are directed towards charitable functions, including financial support for travel to scientific meetings, for visits to particular laboratories, and for research in the short term, including that of undergraduates. Perhaps the example of the British society has given rise to others having a more specialised focus, as well as to the formation of the European Society for the Study of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  6. Stable ion study of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) derivatives: 7,8-dihydro-BaP, 9,10-dihydro-BaP and its 6-halo derivatives, 1- and 3-methoxy-9,10-dihydro-BaP-7(8H)-one, as well as the proximate carcinogen BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol and its dibenzoate, combined with a comparative DNA binding study of regioisomeric (1-, 4-, 2-) pyrenylcarbinols.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Takao; Laali, Kenneth K; Zajc, Barbara; Lakshman, Mahesh K; Kumar, Subodh; Baird, William M; Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza

    2003-05-01

    A stable ion study of a series of BaP derivatives is reported. 7,8-Dihydro-BaP 1 gives a persistent bay-region benzyliclike carbocation which shows extensive charge delocalization into the pyrene moiety. In contrast, a "benzylic" carbocation can not be generated from 9,10-dihydro-BaP 2. Introduction of bulky substituents at peri C-6 of 9,10-dihydro-BaP (as in 4 and 5) prevents side reactions (dimerization) to the extent that the initially formed carbocation undergoes rearrangement to generate the corresponding bay-region "benzylic" carbocation as a persistent species. Introduction of methoxy substituents into the 1- or 3-positions of 9,10-dihydro-BaP-7(8H)-one (6,7) increases its electrophilic reactivity to the extent that stable carboxonium-arenium dications are produced in FSO3H-SO2ClF. A detailed NMR study (at 500 MHz) of the resulting mono- and dications is reported, and charge delocalization mode (as well as conformational aspects) are addressed. Other oxidized derivatives of BaP such as the 7,8-dihydrodiol 9 and the 7,8-dihydrodibenzoate 8 are not suitable models for stable ion study because of competing O-protonation (and elimination). Energies for various possible arenium ions and regioisomeric "benzylic" cations were computed by the DFT method at the B3LYP/6-31G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level or by AM1 for comparison with the experimental results. These findings provide further evidence in support of the stability sequence: 1-pyrenyl > 4-pyrenyl > 2-pyrenyl in alpha-pyrene-substituted carbocations as models for the intermediates arising from BaP-epoxide ring opening. In an effort to provide a parallel, a series of alpha-pyrenylcarbinols were subjected to a DNA binding study using human MCF-7 cells. The results/trends are discussed and compared with the stable ion data.

  7. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, S M

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  8. Physiologic regulation in electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit thermoregulatory responses, neuroendocrine, neurochemical modulations, and behavioral reactions. These physiologic regulatory processes are exquisitely tuned, interrelated functions that constitute sensitive indicators of organismic responses to radiofrequency energy absorption (the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes as one part microwaves). Assessment of the integration and correlation of these functions relative to the thermal inputs and homeokinetic reactions of the individual subjected to radiofrequency energy should permit differentiation between potential hazards that might compromise the individual's ability to maintain normal physiologic function and effects that are compensated by physiologic redundancy.

  9. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  10. Mobilising Data in a Knowledge Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Finn, Rachel; Wadhwa, Kush; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Noorman, Merel

    2016-04-01

    We address how the open data movement is fostering change in institutions, in data, and in social participation in the mobilisation of knowledge society. The idea of a knowledge society has been raised over the last two decades but the transition to such as society has not been realised. Up to the present time, discussion about a knowledge society have largely focused on a knowledge economy and information society rather than a mobilisation to a knowledge society. These debates have, however, taken place before the rise of open data and big data and the development of an open data movement. We consider the role of the open data movement in fostering transformation to a knowledge society. The characteristics of the open data movement that include the strong conviction of the value of open data for society, the attention to the institutional aspects of making data open in an inclusive way, the practical focus on the technological infrastructure are key in mobilising a knowledge society. At the heart of any mobilisation is an emerging open data ecosystem and new ways of producing and using data - whether 'born digital' data, digitised data or big data - and how that data, when made openly available, can be used in a knowledgeable way by societal actors.

  11. Children's rights, parents' prerogatives, and society's obligations.

    PubMed

    Westman, J C

    1999-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that parents do not need specifically defined rights. They have prerogatives that flow from the right of their children to nurturing and protective parenting. The idea of individual rights springs from the vulnerability of human beings in the face of stronger forces. The most vulnerable individuals are children. For this reason, human rights ought to begin with the rights of children in our society and in their families. This article discusses individual rights, society's expectations of parents and children, parental prerogatives and liabilities, parenthood as a developmental stage in the life cycle, parenthood as the foundation of society, and society's obligation to support parenthood. PMID:10422355

  12. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them. PMID:9951133

  13. A continuous physiological data collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    COP-DAC system utilizes oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers, gas-flow meter, gas breathe-through system, analog computer, and data storage system to provide actual rather than average measurements of physiological and metabolic functions.

  14. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  15. Physiological anthropology and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Karelović, D; Ognjenović, M; Cekić-Arambasin, A; Tadin, I

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is the greatest computer network with many services like Web, FTP, Gopher, E-mail Discussion Groups, and Usenet Discussion Groups, that provides a rapid and the cheapest exchange of information. The benefits to anthropologists of using the Internet are growing rapidly, as the Internet becomes easier to use and ever more anthropological resources become available on line. Physiological anthropology is concerned with the evolution and biological features of human population and it's sources on the Internet are growing continuously. However, in that enormous number of data, is not easy to find a needed information. Currently, number of indexed physiological anthropology related sites on Web only is 233990 (October 98). This paper provides informations about Internet and needed hardware and software for using it. It also describes and lists the most important physiological anthropology addresses, together with physiological anthropology-related journals on the Internet, as well as the ways of searching them.

  16. Physiological Feedback Method and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and system provide physiological feedback for a patient and/or physician. At least one physiological effect experienced by a body part of a patient is measured noninvasively. A three-dimensional graphics model serving as an analogous representation of the body part is altered in accordance with the measurements. A binocular image signal representative of the three-dimensional graphics model so-altered is displayed for the patient and/or physician in a virtual reality environment.

  17. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

  18. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  19. The physiologic climate of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  20. COMPARISON OF PBPK MODELING SOFTWARE FEATURES AND APPROACHES TO MODELING IMPORTNAT PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, March 25-29, 2001

    COMPARISON OF PBPK MODELING SOFTWARE FEATURES AND APPROACHES TO MODELING IMPORTANT PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIORS. R S DeWoskin and R W Setzer. USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  1. Perspectives of Physiology as a Discipline from Senior-Level Millennial-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steury, Michael D.; Poteracki, James M.; Kelly, Kevin L.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last several decades, there has been a shift in the mindset of research structure from classical "systems or integrative biology" to more molecular focused "-omics" study. A recent topic of debate in physiological societies has been whether or not the "-omic" revolution has delivered in its promises in both…

  2. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  3. Natural selection and glucocorticoid physiology.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S H; Hahn, T P; Cornelius, J M; Breuner, C W

    2014-02-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are considered potent modulators of trade-offs between reproduction and survival. As such, selection should affect glucocorticoid physiology, although relatively little is known about how selection may act on glucocorticoid profiles. In general, the evolution of physiology is less studied and less well understood than morphological or life history traits. Here, we used a long-term data set from a population of mountain white-crowned sparrows to estimate natural selection on glucocorticoid profiles. Our study suggests that survival selection favours higher hormone concentrations for multiple components of glucocorticoid physiology (both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid levels). Fecundity selection varies depending on the component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal physiology; greater reproductive output was associated with higher baseline glucocorticoid levels, but lower stress-induced glucocorticoid levels. Additionally, the selection gradient was greater for glucocorticoids than for a morphological trait (wing length). These results support the hypothesis that stress-induced glucocorticoids increase survival over reproduction within a wild population (the CORT-trade-off hypothesis). Taken together, these results add to our knowledge of how selection operates on physiological traits and also provide an evolutionary and ecological perspective on several key open issues in the field of glucocorticoid physiology.

  4. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    PubMed

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  5. GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

  6. State and society in Asia.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S P

    1986-03-01

    India and China are the 2 most populous countries of the world; in the 1950s, both countries initiated a centrally planned program for rapid development within vastly differing political systems. China embarked India's policy encouraged only voluntary acceptance of family planning. In both cases, however, government involvement in population forms a part of comprehensive national planning. Both countries rely on a limited resource base and technological sophistication in order to alleviate mass poverty and misery. The political implications of population growth cannot be neatly isolated from those that are generated by social and economic forces of change in a society that is in a transitional stage of modernization and development. Development has not been an unmixed bleesing; population growth is one of its counterproductive outcomes. The development process has begun to draw increasing attention to hitherto neglected correlates of fertility decline, such as a reduction in infant mortality, universal education, improvement in women's status, and women's participation in economic activity outside the home, all of which eventually result in greater demand for family planning services. Both the Indian and Chinese models highlight the importance of taking the people into one's confidence; the response of the common people to official initiatives is critical in securing a reduction in fertility levels. China has adopted a 1 child family policy, yet it is unreasonable to expect that the Indian people would agree to a nationally prescribed family size norm below 2 children. The principal determinant of future population trends in both these countries is the course of their politics. The success of developing countries will be assured if the developed nations support their progress without being worried about their population growth, which is the result of their unavoidable failure to modernize their social and economic structures.

  7. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    PubMed

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general. PMID:12467273

  8. Paul Ehrlich: the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1908.

    PubMed

    Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Antonio; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    We wish to commemorate Paul Ehrlich on the centennial of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. His studies are now considered as milestones in immunology: the morphology of leukocytes; his side-chain theory where he defined the cellular receptor for first time; and his clarification of the difference between serum therapy and chemotherapy. Ehrlich also invented the first chemotherapeutic drug: compound 606, or Salvarsan. We have used some original documents from the Royal Society of London, where Ehrlich was a fellow, and from Leipzig University, where he took a degree in medicine.

  9. Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society

    PubMed Central

    Klug, A.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society, the proceedings of a Discussion held at The Royal Society on 7 and 8 May 1997. Organized and edited by J. Grimley Evans, R. Holliday, T. B. L. Kirkwood, P. Laslett and L. Tyler.

  10. Behind the Banner: Whither the Learning Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Substantially different meanings are ascribed to the "learning society": (1) an educated society committed to citizenship and democracy; (2) a learning market preparing individuals for the competitive economy; and (3) a learning network supporting a lifelong approach. The learning market currently predominates, but it does not produce a learning…

  11. Autonomy and Liberalism in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    That children should be educated to be ideal citizens, capable of making rational and informed decisions, has been proposed in cultures ranging from Ancient Greece to current societies. In particular, societies that favour liberalism preach the primacy of the individual autonomous citizen and a concomitant tolerance for others. In modern…

  12. State or Society? We Need Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jane; Appleton, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Big Society provides inspiration--working "bottom up" to promote "collective action, reciprocity and a new, more engaged relationship between local people and public services". With so much written about the theory of the Big Society, this seems like an ideal time to put a little more practical detail into the mix. The authors argue…

  13. America's Scholarly Societies Raise Their Flags Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Reports that greater numbers of scholarly societies, though American in name, are increasingly international in membership and outlook. Suggests that this trend has been driven by the expanding global outlook of scholars, the collapse of communism, and growth of the Internet. Efforts to encourage local professional societies, fears of American…

  14. Recent Developments in Japan's Lifelong Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makino, Atsushi

    In the wake of economic and social change in Japan, several lifelong learning initiatives have been implemented. Structural changes such as internationalization, the coming of the information age, and the maturation of Japanese society caused the formerly homogeneous society to become more flexible, paving the way for lifelong learning. Additional…

  15. The Impact of Science on Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, James; And Others

    The impact of science on society is examined in this publication's coverage of a series of public lectures that commemorated the 25th anniversary of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Edited versions of four speeches are presented which address the impact of science on society from the time of humanity's first significant…

  16. Asia Society's Ongoing Chinese Language Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris; Wang, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Asia Society remains committed to promoting the teaching and learning of Chinese in American schools as an integral part of the broader agenda of building students' global competency, the key goal of its Partnership for Global Learning. Under the leadership of Asia Society's new Vice President for Education Tony Jackson and with continuing…

  17. Tolerance and Education in Multicultural Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiater, Werner, Ed.; Manschke, Doris, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the concepts of tolerance and education in multicultural societies. It focuses on different aspects of multiculturalism in these societies and considers possible conflicts and tensions as well as best-practice examples of co-existence among different cultural groups. Special emphasis is placed on educational issues and schools.…

  18. Knowledge Society Discourse and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Jussi; Hoffman, David

    2008-01-01

    The growing importance of knowledge, research and innovation are changing the social role of universities in the globalized world. One of the most popular concepts used to approach these changes in post-industrial and post-modern societies is the concept of "Knowledge Society". In this paper, we will analyse the roles higher education is expected…

  19. The Knowledge Society and Educational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunker, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This article examines diverse approaches claiming to analyse new modes of connecting knowledge and society: to depict the rise of the knowledge society or dealing with the social analysis of a new type of capitalism in the shape of informational capitalism. Against these backgrounds it highlights the possible role of education in overcoming the…

  20. Just Say Know? Schooling the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John

    2005-01-01

    This review essay challenges the practice of rooting educational theory in the economic assumptions that underlie the current championing of a knowledge society. It examines the approaches of three recent works: one book, Andy Hargreaves's Teaching in a Knowledge Society, and two edited collections, Barry Smith's Liberal Education in a Knowledge…

  1. ISAE- The International Society for Applied Ethology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was created in 1966 as the Society for Veterinary Ethology, with a primary membership of U.K.-based veterinarians. It quickly expanded to encompass researchers and clinicians working in all areas of applied animal behavior and all over the world....

  2. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  3. Lessons from the United Kingdom's Royal Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Henry Lee

    2010-01-01

    Celebrating its 350th anniversary as a scholarly association devoted to scientific pursuits, the Royal Society (UK), in March 2010, published "The Scientific Century: Securing Our Future Prosperity." In its report, the Royal Society argues against both the notion of withdrawing public investment from its world-class universities and the haphazard,…

  4. Teacher Education in a Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2008-01-01

    These are strange times for teacher education in a democratic society because globalization dominates economic, political, and technological interfaces among social institutions, nation-states, and the world. These are also dangerous times for teacher education in a democratic society because the expansion of neoliberalism as form of contemporary…

  5. The Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    The text is provided of a policy statement on discrimination drawn up by members of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa at their annual meeting on 31 January 1985. The statement "recognizes and deplores the potentially harmful psychological effects" of discrimination, declares opposition to disparities in psychiatric services, and insists that Society members practice in compliance with internationally accepted ethical codes.

  6. Are Teachers Teaching for a Knowledge Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Boce, Elona

    2010-01-01

    Many countries whose economies are in transition have initiated ambitious education reforms intended to modernize their education systems to better respond to the needs of new social and economic realities. Albania is a good example of a society that is emerging from a closed planned socialist system and moving fast to an open society and…

  7. The z = 9-10 galaxy population in the Hubble Frontier Fields and CLASH surveys: the z = 9 luminosity function and further evidence for a smooth decline in ultraviolet luminosity density at z≥ 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, D. J.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a search for z = 9-10 galaxies within the first eight pointings of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) survey and 20 cluster fields from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) survey. Combined with our previous analysis of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, we have now completed a search for z = 9-10 galaxies over ≃ 130 arcmin2, spread across 29 Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/IR pointings. We confine our primary search for high-redshift candidates in this imaging to the uniformly deep, relatively low magnification regions (i.e. σ160 > 30 AB mag for HFF and σ160 > 28.8 AB mag for CLASH in 0.5-arcsec apertures). We unveil a sample of 33 galaxy candidates at zphot ≥ 8.4, five of which have primary photometric redshift solutions in the range 9.6 < zphot < 11.2. The improved statistics and reduced cosmic variance provided by our new sample allows a more accurate determination of the ultraviolet (UV)-selected galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z ≃ 9. Our new results strengthen our previous conclusion that the LF appears to evolve smoothly from z = 8 to 9, an evolution which can be equally well modelled by a factor of ≃ 2 drop in density, or a dimming of ≃ 0.5 mag in M⋆. Moreover, we are able to place initial constraints on the z = 10 LF, finding that the number density at M1500 ≃ -19.7 is log (φ ) = -4.1^{+0.2}_{-0.3}, a factor of ≃ 2 lower than at z = 9. Finally, we use our new results to revisit the issue of the decline in UV luminosity density (ρUV) at z ≥ 8. We conclude that the data continue to support a smooth decline in ρUV over the redshift interval 6 < z < 10, in agreement with simple models of early galaxy evolution driven by the growth in the underlying dark matter halo mass function.

  8. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  9. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  10. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  11. [Physiological processes in organism: nanomechanism].

    PubMed

    Chekman, I S

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances by nanosizes are divided into 4 groups. The first group includes substances up to 100 nm: leukocytes, erythrocytes, cell components (nucleus, mitochondria), cancer cells, bacteria and bacteriophages. The second group consists of nanoparticles with size from 10 to 100 nm. These are antibody, ribosomes, glycogen granules, liposomes, and others. The third group of substances has sizes from 10 to 1 nm. This group includes: albumin, hemoglobin, membrane cells, fibrixogen, receptors (serotonin, beta-adrenergic receptor and others), insulin, fat soluble vitamins (ergocalciferol, retinol), folic acid, drugs (digoxin, quetcitin), chlorophyll plants, fullerenes. The fourth group consists of matter smaller than 1 nm, in particular: ATP, fructose, mediators (acetyl-choline, adrenaline, noradrenaline), phenylephrine, amino acids, water molecules, CO2, NO, oxygen atoms, hydrogen. The existence in the body of physiological processes based on natural nanotechnology may be proved by the following facts. 1. Physiologically active substances have nanosizes. 2. Cell membranes, the capillary wall have also nanosizes, promoting effective physiological processes involving biologically active substances with nanosizes. 3. Due to the small size of nanoparticles can penetrate through cell membranes and be distributed in the body. 4. From the position of modern nanoscience functioning organs, cells, subcellular structures, calcium channels, sodium-potassium pump is under the laws of natural nanomechanisms. 5. Summarising the literature data and own research, we can argue that the body's physiological processes based on natural nanomechanisms require more detailed, in-depth research. Nanophysiology studies peculiarities of the physiological processes in the body from the position of nanoscience and the impact of nanoparticles on the function of cells and organs. The author accepts the fact that not all ideas reported in this article have experimental

  12. Tools for Physiology Labs: Inexpensive Equipment for Physiological Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Land, Bruce R.; Johnson, Bruce R.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design of inexpensive equipment and software for physiological stimulation in the neurobiology teaching laboratory. The core component is a stimulus isolation unit (SIU) that uses DC-DC converters, rather than expensive high-voltage batteries, to generate isolated power at high voltage. The SIU has no offset when inactive and produces pulses up to 100 V with moderately fast (50 μs) rise times. We also describe two methods of stimulus timing control. The first is a simplified conventional, stand-alone analog pulse generator. The second uses a digital microcontroller interfaced with a personal computer. The SIU has performed well and withstood intensive use in our undergraduate physiology laboratory. This project is part of our ongoing effort to make reliable low-cost physiology equipment available for both student teaching and faculty research laboratories. PMID:23493817

  13. The Knowledge Society: Refounding the Socius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, Carel S.

    The theme 'knowledge society' can have many meanings depending on who defines it. But can knowledge really define society since there are many other qualifying adjectives for society as well. What one should be preferred? Is knowledge a better qualifying term than risk, information, technology, or any other one? These questions need answers. There are many dreams and counter dreams regarding the ideal society. Some dreams, like Unesco's dream, focus on the self-evident issues in the knowledge society, or what people consider to be self-evident, or what is taken for granted, as if no exploration is required: issues like access to knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, etc. These dreams contain a threat despite promises of a future that cannot be achieved. Other dreams, like those of Ars Industrialis, dig deeper and look for founding possibilities, take nothing for granted, search for the original, the defining principles. These dreams bring hope and light, a future to live for.

  14. More Participation, Happier Society? A Comparative Study of Civil Society and the Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Claire; Pichler, Florian

    2009-01-01

    A "good society" has recently been portrayed as one in which citizens engage in voluntary associations to foster democratic processes. Arguably, such a good society is considered as one where people are content with their own lives as well as public life. We consider whether participation in civil society leads to more satisfied individuals on the…

  15. Education in an Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  16. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 2,4-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylanthracene-9,10-dione by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tomy; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C Yohannan; Thiemann, Thies; Viswanathan, K; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Manojkumar, T K

    2014-01-01

    Anthraquinone derivatives are most important class of a system that absorb in the visible region. In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 2,4-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylanthracene-9,10-dione. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio HF and DFT methods using 6-31G(*) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated geometrical parameters (DFT) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 4.69×10(-30) esu, which is 36.08 times that of urea and the title compound and the series of compounds it represents are attractive candidates for further studies in non linear optical applications.

  17. Synthesis of 1,4-anthracene-9,10-dione derivatives and their regulation of nitric oxide, IL-1β and TNF-α in activated RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Taís Arthur; Alves, Caio C S; Castro, Sandra B R; Oliveira, Erick E; Franco, Lucas S; Ferreira, Ana P; de Almeida, Mauro V

    2013-10-01

    Mitoxantrone is an anthracenedione antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent approved for multiple sclerosis treatment. Novel mono- and disubstituted anthraquinone derivatives, analogues of mitoxantrone, were synthesized through the addition of lipophilic amino alcohols and evaluated for their effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and nitric oxide production by LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The disubstituted 1,4-anthracene-9,10-dione 10 showed significant inhibition of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β production at the concentration of 5 μg/mL, with a much lower cytotoxicity than mitoxantrone. The monosubstituted 3, 4, 11, 12 and 13 also displayed a moderate to good inhibitory capacity on IL-1β production. However, the methylated compounds 11, 12 and 13 failed to inhibit the TNF-α production, and compound 13 was the only one to decrease the production of nitric oxide. None of these derivatives was toxic at the tested concentrations. Compounds 10 and 13 had better inhibitory capacity of the inflammatory mediators analyzed, with reliable viability of the cells.

  18. 2-Amino-4-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-benzo[h]quinoline-3-carbonitrile-3-amino-1-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-phenanthrene-2,4-dicarbonitrile (5/3).

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Faidallah, Hassan M; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-11-01

    The asymmetric unit of the 5:3 title co-crystal of 2-amino-4-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-benzo[h]quinoline-3-carbonitrile and 3-amino-1-phenyl-9,10-dihydro-phenanthrene-2,4-dicarbonitrile, 0.625C(20)H(15)N(3).0.375C(22)H(15)N(3), has the atoms of the fused-ring system and those of the amino, cyano and phenyl substitutents overlapped. The fused-ring system is buckled owing to the ethyl-ene linkage in the central ring, the two flanking aromatic rings being twisted by 20.1 (1)°. This ethyl-ene portion is disordered over two positions in a 1:1 ratio. The phenyl ring is twisted by 69.5 (1)° relative to the amino- and cyano-bearing aromatic ring. In the crystal, two mol-ecules are linked by an N-H⋯N hydrogen bond, generating a a helical chain along [010]. PMID:22219912

  19. Potential Modes of Interaction of 9-Aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) Derivatives with the 5-HT2A Receptor: A Ligand Structure-Affinity Relationship, Receptor Mutagenesis and Receptor Modeling Investigation⊕

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Scott P.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Glennon, Richard A.; Westkaemper, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 3-position substitution of 9-aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) on 5-HT2A receptor affinity were determined and compared to a parallel series of DOB-like 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropanes substituted at the 4-position. The results were interpreted within the context of 5-HT2A receptor models that suggest that members of the DOB-like series can bind to the receptor in two distinct modes that correlate with the compounds’ functional activity. Automated ligand docking and molecular dynamics suggest that all of the AMDA derivatives, the parent of which is a 5-HT2A antagonist, bind in a fashion analogous to that for the sterically demanding antagonist DOB-like compounds. The failure of the F3406.52L mutation to adversely affect the affinity of AMDA and the 3-bromo derivative is consistent with the proposed modes of orientation. Evaluation of ligand-receptor complex models suggest that a valine/threonine exchange between the 5-HT2A and D2 receptors may be the origin of selectivity for AMDA and two substituted derivatives. PMID:18847250

  20. Induction of Cell Death, DNA Strand Breaks, and Cell Cycle Arrest in DU145 Human Prostate Carcinoma Cell Line by Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide

    PubMed Central

    Nwagbara, Onyinye; Darling-Reed, Selina F.; Tucker, Alicia; Harris, Cynthia; Abazinge, Michael; Thomas, Ronald D.; Gragg, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a major environmental pollutant. In this study, the effects of this carcinogen/mutagen and one of its metabolites, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), on human prostate carcinoma cell line DU145, were examined. Cell viability, DNA damage, and cell cycle progression were evaluated as toxic end-points. We have shown that B[a]P and BPDE inhibited cell viability following 48 hr of exposure. Furthermore, comet assay analyses revealed that both B[a]P and BPDE induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration -dependent fashion. Flow cytometric analyses showed that about 70 % of DU145 cells were arrested by B[a]P at the G1 phase, while about 76% were arrested at G1 phase by BPDE. These data reveal that B[a]P and BPDE are cytotoxic and genotoxic to DU145 prostate cancer cells. PMID:17431309