Science.gov

Sample records for physiological society 9-10

  1. American Physiological Society Statements on Animal Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains three policy statements involving the use of animals for proper teaching of students, research, and the utilization of pound animals. Discusses the benefits to society of using animals in the biomedical sciences. (CW)

  2. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    PubMed

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 10-11, 1989, and November 9-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, David B., Ed.; Oliker, Michael A., Ed.

    Proceedings from two conferences of a society of specialists in the philosophy of education comprise this document. Fourteen papers are included from the 1989 conference program. They are: (1) "George S. Counts: Dare Educators Inspire World Vision?" (C. A. Ryan); (2) "Political Activities of George S. Counts and John L. Childs"…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 10-11, 1989, and November 9-10, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, David B., Ed.; Oliker, Michael A., Ed.

    Proceedings from two conferences of a society of specialists in the philosophy of education comprise this document. Fourteen papers are included from the 1989 conference program. They are: (1) "George S. Counts: Dare Educators Inspire World Vision?" (C. A. Ryan); (2) "Political Activities of George S. Counts and John L. Childs"…

  5. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  6. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  7. Monitoring Physiology Trainee Needs to Focus Professional Society Responses: The APS Trainee Needs Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matyas, Marsha L.; Lowy, Melinda E.; Sweazea, Karen L.; Alvarez, Diego F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest…

  8. American Physiological Society Fall Meeting, August 15-20, 1976, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Abstracts of Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presented are abstracts of papers arranged in alphabetical order by first-named author. The proceedings of the American Physiological Society were held jointly with the American Society of Zoologists (ASZ) and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES). (EB)

  9. American Physiological Society Fall Meeting, August 15-20, 1976, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Abstracts of Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presented are abstracts of papers arranged in alphabetical order by first-named author. The proceedings of the American Physiological Society were held jointly with the American Society of Zoologists (ASZ) and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES). (EB)

  10. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  11. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other....

  12. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.10 Other. This...

  13. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  14. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  15. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  16. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour....

  17. The role of a scientific society in physiology education: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Matyas, M L

    1998-12-01

    As a professional society of physiologists involved in research and teaching, the American Physiological Society (APS) is "...devoted to fostering education, scientific research, and the dissemination of information in the physiological sciences." Established long-range goals for education guide the development of current and future programs at all education levels. K-12 outreach programs develop working relationships between physiologists and K-12 teachers within local communities and improve the quality of precollege science education. At the undergraduate level, APS programs foster excellence in physiology education and promote student interest in physiology careers. At the graduate level, activities promote excellence in graduate training and the professional development of students, including a focus on underrepresented groups. At each of these levels, the Society includes activities for the continuing education of its members. Looking to the future, the Society plans to expand the programs and resources offered to researchers and educators at all levels. On-line programs, resources, and communications have been initiated and will play an even more important role in the future.

  18. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  19. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  20. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  1. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  2. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  3. 18 CFR 9.10 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing. 9.10 Section 9.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY...

  4. 18 CFR 9.10 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing. 9.10 Section 9.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY...

  5. 18 CFR 9.10 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing. 9.10 Section 9.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY...

  6. 18 CFR 9.10 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Filing. 9.10 Section 9.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY...

  7. 18 CFR 9.10 - Filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing. 9.10 Section 9.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT TRANSFER OF LICENSE OR LEASE OF PROJECT PROPERTY...

  8. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY... convenience only and shall not be used in construing the requirements of this part. Failure to meet a time...

  9. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY... convenience only and shall not be used in construing the requirements of this part. Failure to meet a time...

  10. 32 CFR 9.10 - Other.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other. 9.10 Section 9.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY... convenience only and shall not be used in construing the requirements of this part. Failure to meet a time...

  11. Atmospheric reactions of 9,10-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Miet, Killian; Albinet, Alexandre; Budzinski, Hélène; Villenave, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The probably carcinogenic compound 9,10-anthraquinone is mainly existing in the atmosphere in the particulate phase and is often detected and measured among other oxygenated PAHs in atmospheric samples. Its fate, once released or formed in the atmosphere, still remains unknown. In this work, heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes of 9,10-anthraquinone were investigated with ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The study of 9,10-anthraquinone adsorbed on silica particles showed no reactivity with O3 and NO2. On the other hand, the reaction with OH radicals was observed and led to the formation of 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, another oxidation product recognized as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This study showed that reactions with ozone and nitrogen dioxide are unlikely to contribute to atmospheric degradation of 9,10-anthraquinone, whereas reactions with OH radicals could be involved in 9,10-anthraquinone degradation processes, even if such reaction is probably very slow under ambient conditions.

  12. Monitoring physiology trainee needs to focus professional society responses: the APS Trainee Needs Surveys.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Marsha L; Lowy, Melinda E; Sweazea, Karen L; Alvarez, Diego F

    2011-06-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage. Survey findings guided the TAC and other APS committees and groups to focus their efforts toward the issues that were of the greatest interest to trainees. It also led to improved communication with trainees and increased involvement of trainees in APS governance.

  13. Lessons from comparative physiology: could uric acid represent a physiologic alarm signal gone awry in western society?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Sautin, Yuri Y; Oliver, William J; Roncal, Carlos; Mu, Wei; Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Benner, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid has historically been viewed as a purine metabolic waste product excreted by the kidney and gut that is relatively unimportant other than its penchant to crystallize in joints to cause the disease gout. In recent years, however, there has been the realization that uric acid is not biologically inert but may have a wide range of actions, including being both a pro- and anti-oxidant, a neurostimulant, and an inducer of inflammation and activator of the innate immune response. In this paper, we present the hypothesis that uric acid has a key role in the foraging response associated with starvation and fasting. We further suggest that there is a complex interplay between fructose, uric acid and vitamin C, with fructose and uric acid stimulating the foraging response and vitamin C countering this response. Finally, we suggest that the mutations in ascorbate synthesis and uricase that characterized early primate evolution were likely in response to the need to stimulate the foraging "survival" response and might have inadvertently had a role in accelerating the development of bipedal locomotion and intellectual development. Unfortunately, due to marked changes in the diet, resulting in dramatic increases in fructose- and purine-rich foods, these identical genotypic changes may be largely responsible for the epidemic of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in today's society.

  14. The 34th Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are abstracts of papers presented at the annual American Physiological Society meeting and International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia. Papers are grouped by such topic areas as lung fluid balance, renal cardiovascular integration, smooth muscle physiology, neuroendocrines (pituitary), exercise physiology, mechanics of…

  15. The 34th Annual Fall Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are abstracts of papers presented at the annual American Physiological Society meeting and International Conference on Hydrogen Ion Transport in Epithelia. Papers are grouped by such topic areas as lung fluid balance, renal cardiovascular integration, smooth muscle physiology, neuroendocrines (pituitary), exercise physiology, mechanics of…

  16. 22 CFR 9.10 - Mandatory declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory declassification review. 9.10 Section 9.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.10 Mandatory declassification review. All requests to the Department by a member of the public, a government employee, or an...

  17. 22 CFR 9.10 - Mandatory declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory declassification review. 9.10 Section 9.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.10 Mandatory declassification review. All requests to the Department by a member of the public, a government employee, or an agency to declassify and release...

  18. 22 CFR 9.10 - Mandatory declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory declassification review. 9.10 Section 9.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.10 Mandatory declassification review. All requests to the Department by a member of the public, a government employee, or an agency to declassify and release...

  19. 22 CFR 9.10 - Mandatory declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory declassification review. 9.10 Section 9.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.10 Mandatory declassification review. All requests to the Department by a member of the public, a government employee, or an agency to declassify and release...

  20. 22 CFR 9.10 - Mandatory declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory declassification review. 9.10 Section 9.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.10 Mandatory declassification review. All requests to the Department by a member of the public, a government employee, or an agency to declassify and release...

  1. APS at 125: A Look Back at the Founding of the American Physiological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Early efforts in physiological research in the United States were produced by lone investigators working in laboratories funded by their own medical practices. In Europe, however, Claude Bernard and Carl Ludwig produced a new model of scientific research laboratories funded by the state that sought to develop the pursuit of biomedical research as…

  2. APS at 125: A Look Back at the Founding of the American Physiological Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    scientists and merchants , Bowditch received his MD degree in 1868 from Harvard University and then pursued training in Europe. Al- though he heard...an original research in Physiology or Histology (including Pathology and experimental Therapeutics and ex- perimental research and Hygiene ), or who

  3. APS at 125: A Look Back at the Founding of the American Physiological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Early efforts in physiological research in the United States were produced by lone investigators working in laboratories funded by their own medical practices. In Europe, however, Claude Bernard and Carl Ludwig produced a new model of scientific research laboratories funded by the state that sought to develop the pursuit of biomedical research as…

  4. Physiology of man and animals in the Tenth Five-Year Plan: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the I. P. Pavlov All-Union Physiological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Research in the field of animal and human physiology is reviewed. The following topics on problems of physiological science and related fields of knowledge are discussed: neurophysiology and higher nervous activity, physiology of sensory systems, physiology of visceral systems, evolutionary and ecological physiology, physiological cybernetics, computer application in physiology, information support of physiological research, history and theory of development of physiology. Also discussed were: artificial intelligence, physiological problems of reflex therapy, correlation of structure and function of the brain, adaptation and activity, microcirculation, and physiological studies in nerve and mental diseases.

  5. 36 CFR 9.10 - Plan of operations approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan of operations approval. 9.10 Section 9.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... injure the ecological or cultural resources of the unit. No new surface mining will be permitted...

  6. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  7. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  8. Homer Wheelon, M.D., physiologist, artist, and poet: origins of the tailpieces in journals of the American Physiological Society.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Lawrence P; Schramm, Diana C; Jackson, F Wilson

    2006-12-01

    Since 1953, illustrations have been inserted as "tailpieces" at the ends of articles in The American Journal of Physiology and The Journal of Applied Physiology. The drawings were made by Homer Wheelon, a member of the American Physiological Society from 1919 until his death in 1960. Forty-five years after his death, Wheelon is unknown, but he contributed 32 publications to the medical literature and trained J. Earl Thomas, an important 20th century gastrointestinal physiologist. Wheelon was born into poverty in 1883 to itinerant Methodist preachers, circumstances that guided his education and career choices. Throughout his life, Wheelon exhibited a fondness and talent for art and photography and an unusual breadth of intellectual interests and knowledge. Wheelon received a bachelor's degree from the University of Washington, then studied at the University of Oregon, Northwestern University, and St. Louis University. Earning his M.D. from St. Louis University and assuming a faculty position there, Wheelon and his graduate student, Thomas, conducted widely recognized gastrointestinal research. Returning to Seattle in 1921, Wheelon became a highly respected physician and hospital administrator, but he also found time to indulge his interest in visual art and poetry. In 1933, inspired by observing a rabbit being used in a pregnancy test, Wheelon began to write and illustrate an epic, 322-page poem, Rabbit No. 202, illustrations from which became the journals' tailpieces. The present study traces Wheelon's personal life and scientific career in an attempt to understand this complex man and the origins of his unusual poem and its drawings.

  9. Tubiferic acid, a new 9,10-secocycloartane triterpenoid acid isolated from the myxomycete Tubulifera arachnoidea.

    PubMed

    Ippongi, Yukihito; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Ishibashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Tubiferic acid (1), a new triterpenoid acid having a 2,6-dimethyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-hexenoic acid moiety as a side chain, was isolated from field-collected fruit bodies of the myxomycete Tubulifera arachnoidea, and its structure was elucidated by spectral data. Tubiferic acid (1) had the same unique 9,10-secocycloartane carbon skeleton as tubiferal A (2). © 2011 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

  10. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from the...

  11. Career Exploration Curriculum Supplement for Grades 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The supplement to the Career Exploration Curriculum Guide: 9-10 presents concrete approaches that school districts in Ohio are utilizing to implement and integrate career exploration throughout the curriculum. The lessons and units in the supplement contain objectives, learning activities, suggested teaching procedures, and resource lists.…

  12. 6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 9, Between Piers 8 & 10, along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from the...

  14. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from the...

  15. 44 CFR 9.10 - Identify impacts of proposed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.10 Identify... adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from the...

  16. Substrate Specificity of Purified Recombinant Chicken β-Carotene 9',10'-Oxygenase (BCO2).

    PubMed

    Dela Seña, Carlo; Sun, Jian; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Riedl, Kenneth M; Yuan, Yan; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2016-07-08

    Provitamin A carotenoids are oxidatively cleaved by β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) at the central 15-15' double bond to form retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Another carotenoid oxygenase, β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at the 9'-10' bond to yield an ionone and an apo-10'-carotenoid. Previously published substrate specificity studies of BCO2 were conducted using crude lysates from bacteria or insect cells expressing recombinant BCO2. Our attempts to obtain active recombinant human BCO2 expressed in Escherichia coli were unsuccessful. We have expressed recombinant chicken BCO2 in the strain E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified the enzyme by cobalt ion affinity chromatography. Like BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. Its catalytic activity with β-carotene as substrate is at least 10-fold lower than that of BCO1. In further contrast to BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 also catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene and the non-provitamin A carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, and is inactive with all-trans-lycopene and β-apocarotenoids. Apo-10'-carotenoids were detected as enzymatic products by HPLC, and the identities were confirmed by LC-MS. Small amounts of 3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal were also consistently detected in BCO2-β-cryptoxanthin reaction mixtures. With the exception of this activity with β-cryptoxanthin, BCO2 cleaves specifically at the 9'-10' bond to produce apo-10'-carotenoids. BCO2 has been shown to function in preventing the excessive accumulation of carotenoids, and its broad substrate specificity is consistent with this. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. 9,10-Dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-3-methylcholanthrene-2-one: a principal metabolite of the potent carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene-2-one by rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Shou, M; Yang, S K

    1990-04-01

    A principal metabolite, formed in the metabolism of the potent carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene-2-one (3MC-2-one) by liver microsomes from either untreated, or phenobarbital-treated or 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)-treated rats, was isolated by reversed-phase HPLC. This metabolite has been identified as a 9,10-dihydrodiol with a (9R,10R):(9S,10S) enantiomer ratio of approximately 84:16 by all three rat liver microsomal preparations. The 9,10-dihydrodiol metabolite and its NaBH4 reduction products [a pair of diastereomeric 9,10-dihydroxy-9, 10-dihydro-2-OH-3MC (2-OH-3MC 9,10-dihydrodiols)] were characterized by UV-visible absorption, mass, and circular dichroic spectral, and chiral stationary phase HPLC analyses. Identification of 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-3MC-2-one (3MC-2-one 9,10-dihydrodiol) as the predominant metabolite of the potent carcinogen 3MC-2-one suggests that 3MC-2-one may be metabolically activated to a bay region 9,10-diol-7,8-epoxide, similar to the previously established metabolic activation pathways of 3MC and 1-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (1-OH-3MC).

  18. 21 CFR 73.3129 - Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM...-dioxoanthracene-2-sulfonate. (a) Identity. The color additive is disodium 1-amino-4- -2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulfonate (Reactive Blue 69) (CAS Reg. No. 70209-99-3, Colour...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3129 - Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium 1-amino-4- -2-sulfonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulfonate. 73.3129 Section 73.3129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3129 - Disodium 1-amino-4-[[4-[(2-bromo-1-oxoallyl)amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium 1-amino-4- -2-sulphonatophenyl]amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-sulphonate. 73.3129 Section 73.3129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use...

  1. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.10 Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (a) How...

  2. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N′-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this use shall not be construed as waiving...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3118 - N,N′-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false N,Nâ²-(9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-1,5-anthracenediyl) bisbenzamide. 73.3118 Section 73.3118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this use shall not be construed as waiving...

  4. One-electron reduction of 9, 10-anthraquinone, 1-amino-9, 10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent: A pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The semiquinone radicals produced by one-electron reduction of 9, 10-anthraquinone, 1-amino-9, 10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone have been characterized in aqueous-organic mixed solvent comprising of 30.2 mol dm -3 water, 5 mol dm -3 isopropanol and 1 mol dm -3 acetone, using the pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, the kinetic parameters of formation and decay and one acid dissociation constants of the semiquinones and one-electron reduction potentials of the quinones have been estimated. The characteristics of the present semiquinone systems have been compared with those of other similar systems. The observed differences in characteristics of the semiquinones due to different substitutions have been analysed.

  5. Key pathways regulated by HoxA9,10,11/HoxD9,10,11 during limb development.

    PubMed

    Raines, Anna M; Magella, Bliss; Adam, Mike; Potter, S Steven

    2015-07-19

    The 39 mammalian Hox genes show problematic patterns of functional overlap. In order to more fully define the developmental roles of Hox genes it is necessary to remove multiple combinations of paralogous and flanking genes. In addition, the downstream molecular pathways regulated by Hox genes during limb development remain incompletely delineated. In this report we examine limb development in mice with frameshift mutations in six Hox genes, Hoxa9,10,11 and Hoxd9,10,11. The mice were made with a novel recombineering method that allows the simultaneous targeting of frameshift mutations into multiple flanking genes. The Hoxa9,10,11 (-/-) /Hoxd9,10,11 (-/-) mutant mice show a reduced ulna and radius that is more severe than seen in Hoxa11 (-/-)/Hoxd11 (-/-) mice, indicating a minor role for the flanking Hox9,10 genes in zeugopod development, as well as their primary function in stylopod development. The mutant mice also show severe reduction of Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity, and decreased Fgf8 expression in the apical ectodermal ridge, thereby better defining the roles of these specific Hox genes in the regulation of critical signaling centers during limb development. Importantly, we also used laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA-Seq to characterize the gene expression programs in wild type and mutant limbs. Resting, proliferative and hypertrophic compartments of E15.5 forelimb zeugopods were examined. The results provide an RNA-Seq characterization of the progression of gene expression patterns during normal endochondral bone formation. In addition of the Hox mutants showed strongly altered expression of Pknox2, Zfp467, Gdf5, Bmpr1b, Dkk3, Igf1, Hand2, Shox2, Runx3, Bmp7 and Lef1, all of which have been previously shown to play important roles in bone formation. The recombineering based frameshift mutation of the six flanking and paralogous Hoxa9,10,11 and Hoxd9,10,11 genes provides a resource for the analysis of their overlapping

  6. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ.

  7. 43 CFR 9.10 - How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 9.10 Section 9.10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of... does the Secretary make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state...

  8. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.L.; Chang, M.N.; Chabala, J.C.; Chiu, S.H.; Eline, D.; Hucker, H.B.; Sweeney, B.M.; White, S.D.; Arison, B.H.; Smith, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone.

  9. 41 CFR 302-9.10 - For what POV emergency storage expenses will my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what POV emergency storage expenses will my agency pay? 302-9.10 Section 302-9.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES...

  10. Synthesis and biological activity of new 1,8-diaza-2,9,10-anthracenetrione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gesto, C; de la Cuesta, E; Avendaño, C; Emling, F

    1992-08-01

    Diels-Alder heterocycloaddition reactions of 2,5,8-quinolinetriones and 1-azadienes afford 1,8-diaza-2,9,10-anthracenetriones, which are simple analogues of the antitumoral antibiotic diazaquinomicin A. Cytotoxicity in this series and antitumor activity of the lead compound, 6-methyl-1,8-diaza-2,9,10-anthracenetrione, are reported.

  11. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  12. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 9-10, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael C., Ed.; Dupuis, Adrian, Ed.

    Six papers presented by philosophy of education specialists are gathered in this volume. The first, "Implications in Dewey for Feminist Theory in Education" by Wilma R. Miranda, discusses the social thought of John Dewey and argues that domestic virtues are significant as modes of political action. In "Jim Teaches Fang to Sit,"…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society (Chicago, Illinois, November 9-10, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael C., Ed.; Dupuis, Adrian, Ed.

    Six papers presented by philosophy of education specialists are gathered in this volume. The first, "Implications in Dewey for Feminist Theory in Education" by Wilma R. Miranda, discusses the social thought of John Dewey and argues that domestic virtues are significant as modes of political action. In "Jim Teaches Fang to Sit,"…

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Ayoub; Ajloo, Davood; Kiyani, Hamzeh; Vakili, Mohamad; Farahani, Mahnaz; Amiri, Majid

    2016-08-01

    4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been synthesized in an attempt to obtain a new photochromic compound. The optimized molecular structure, mole fractions of title compound in trans and ana forms have been investigated. UV-visible spectra of the compound were also recorded. Upon irradiation with 300 nm light, the camel solid turned orange, in which a visible absorption band was observed at 475 nm. The electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were obtained by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than those of urea. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  16. Inhibition of sulfate reduction to sulfide by 9,10-anthraquinone in in vitro ruminal fermentations.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Hession, A O; Bracht, J P

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of sulfur and 9,10-anthraquinone on in vitro ruminal fermentation and production of hydrogen sulfide. A complete, pelleted diet containing 26.8% acid detergent fiber, 15.9% crude protein, and 0.25 to 0.29% sulfur was used as the basal substrate. Fermentations were conducted using the basal substrate and various sulfur additions (elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, calcium sulfate, and sodium sulfate) with or without varying amounts of 9,10-anthraquinone. An increase in the sulfur content of the substrate to > 1.0% with various sources of sulfur had minimal effects on concentrations of volatile fatty acids, but the production of hydrogen sulfide increased. High amounts of 9,10-anthraquinone (10 and 25 ppm of fluid) decreased the molar proportion of acetate and decreased the production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. However, 9,10-anthraquinone increased the molar proportions of propionate and butyrate. Approximately 70% of 9,10-anthraquinone was recovered after 24 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation. These findings suggest that 9,10-anthraquinone has the potential to reduce the production of methane and hydrogen sulfide in ruminal fermentations.

  17. C-Functionalized, air- and water-stable 9,10-dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracenes: efficient blue to red emitting luminophores.

    PubMed

    Reus, Christian; Weidlich, Sabine; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2013-08-28

    9,10-Dihydro-9,10-diboraanthracene (DBA) provides a versatile scaffold for the development of boron-doped organic luminophores. Symmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are obtained through the condensation of 4-bromo-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene or 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene with BBr3 in hexane. Unsymmetrically C-halogenated DBAs are formed via an electrophilic solvent activation reaction if the synthesis is carried out in o-xylene. Mechanistic insight has been achieved by in situ NMR spectroscopy, which revealed C-halogenated 1,2-bis(dibromoboryl)benzenes to be the key intermediates. Treatment of the primary 9,10-dibromo-DBAs with MesMgBr yields air- and water-stable C-halogenated 9,10-dimesityl-DBAs (2-Br-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,6-Br2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3-Cl2-6,7-Me2-DBA(Mes)2; 2,3,6,7-Cl4-DBA(Mes)2). Subsequent Stille-type C-C-coupling reactions give access to corresponding phenyl, 2-thienyl, and p-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl derivatives, which act as highly emissive donor-acceptor dyads or donor-acceptor-donor triads both in solution and in the solid state. 2-Thienyl was chosen as a model substituent to show that already a variation of the number and/or the positional distribution of the donor groups suffices to tune the emission wavelength of the resulting benchtop stable compounds from 469 nm (blue) to 540 nm (green). A further shift of the fluorescence maximum to 594 nm (red) can be achieved by switching from 2-thienyl to p-aminophenyl groups. A comparison of the optoelectronic properties of selected C-substituted DBA(Mes)2 derivatives with those of the isostructural anthracene analogues unveiled the following: (i) The DBA core is a much better electron acceptor. (ii) The emission colors of DBAs fall in the visible range of the spectrum (blue to orange), while anthracenes emit exclusively in the near-ultraviolet to blue wavelength regime. (iii) DBAs show significantly higher solid-state quantum yields.

  18. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS.

    PubMed

    Ryff, Carol D; Radler, Barry T; Friedman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society.

  19. Structure and properties of 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene and 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-octahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnovi, Michelle E.; Schildcrout, Steven M.; Masnovi, John

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds were prepared by 4πs + 4πs photochemical cycloaddition between anthracene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The results confirm the structure of the initial cycloadduct, 9,10,11,12,13,14-hexahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene (1), which in the crystal exhibits positional disorder about the cyclohexadiene-derived fragment that is only partially resolved. The origin of the disorder is considered in light of the crystallographic packing interactions and compared with intermolecular contacts in the hydrogenated derivative, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-octahydro-9,10[1‧,4‧]-benzenoanthracene (2), which is not disordered. The asymmetric unit of 2 contains one-half of a molecule situated about a two-fold symmetry axis. Both structures contain relatively long interannular bonds between the bridgehead carbons of the anthracene- and cyclohexadiene-derived fragments, in agreement with ab initio calculations and considered in terms of bond strain in the carbon framework of these compounds.

  20. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  1. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic GenM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  2. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  3. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  4. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  5. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 10-year restoration cost-share agreements. 625.9 Section 625.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.9 10-year...

  6. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; ...

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Suchmore » cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.« less

  7. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs.

  8. Rumpictuside A: Unusual 9,10-anthraquinone glucoside from Rumex pictus Forssk.

    PubMed

    El-Kashak, Walaa A; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; Mohamed, Tarik A; El Gendy, Abd El-Nasser G; Saleh, Ibrahim A; Umeyama, Akemi

    2017-08-07

    A new 8-ionized hydroxylated 9,10-anthraquinone namely, 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-8-olate (Rumpictuside A, 1) along with five known flavonoids, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), vitexin (3), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucouronide (4), orientin (5), and isorientin (6) were isolated from Rumex pictus. The structures of isolated compounds were identified by the extensive spectroscopic techniques such as, UV, FT-IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HR-FAB-ESI-MS. The ionized hydroxyl group in the new anthraquinone (1) was rarely found for anthraquinone glycosides isolated from natural sources. All the isolated compounds were found inactive against influenza A virus infection. Compounds 2-6 exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH and ABTS(+). The alcoholic extract exhibited moderate activity while the new anthraquinone 1 showed the lowest activity against both assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane triterpene from Salix caprea L. (goat willow).

    PubMed

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Shah, Saba; Dar, Mohammad Y; Mir, Mohammad M; Ghazanfar, Khalid; Sheikh, Faheem A; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Akbar, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of low polar solvent extract of Salix caprea through chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of new triterpene as 1α,3β,25-trihydroxy-9(11)-ene-16-one-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanostane (1) along with fatty alcohols. The structure of compound 1 was established by IR, HRESI/MS and NMR including 1D and 2D experiments. The compound 1 showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity.

  10. Photophysics of 9,10-anthracenediol and a bifunctional sacrificial template in solution and xerogels.

    PubMed

    Holthoff, Ellen L; Bright, Frank V

    2008-04-01

    Site selectively templated and tagged xerogels (SSTTX) represent a new sensing platform. Although this platform has several attractive features, the template formation process is not fully understood. To address this issue we have explored the photophysics of two model compounds (9,10-anthracenediol and a bifunctional sacrificial template (BST)) when dissolved in solution and when sequestered within a xerogel. The solution experiments show that the carbamate tethers on the BST (which are eventually cleaved to form the analyte responsive sites that make up the SSTTX) do not alter the anthracene residue's intrinsic photophysics. In contrast, 9,10-anthracenediol and BST molecules sequestered within a xerogel sense and report from a distribution of microenvironments. The distribution mean values are very similar, but the variance is statistically greater for the BST-doped xerogel in comparison to the 9,10-anthracenediol-doped xerogel. The most likely causes of this behavior are heterogeneity and electron and energy transfer processes that are controlled by differences in the position/orientation of the anthracene moiety at the pore surface in the Class I (9,10-anthracenediol) and Class II (BST) xerogels. These results also suggest that the initial template sites produced during the SSTTX formation process are not discrete; they are intrinsically more diverse (maybe 30%) in comparison to the types of template sites created by traditional molecular imprinting strategies. However, our previously reported SSTTX binding studies do not reveal any evidence for a distribution of analyte-to-SSTTX binding. This apparently anomalous behavior may result because the relative standard deviation of the binding process is intrinsically small and/or one or more of the steps that follow template site formation attenuate the final template site distribution within the SSTTX.

  11. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yunxia; Niu, Lianbin

    2009-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Förster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  12. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  13. Rearrangement of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) diketone: 9,10-diarylanthracenes with OLED applications.

    PubMed

    Sarsah, Samuel R S; Lutz, Marlon R; Zeller, Matthias; Crumrine, David S; Becker, Daniel P

    2013-03-01

    Electroluminescent 9,10-diaryl anthracenes have been shown to be promising host and hole-transporting materials in organic electroluminescence due to their high thermal stability, electrochemical reversibility, and wide band gap useful for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), especially blue OLEDs. Oxidation of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) to the corresponding diketone and subsequent bromination resulted in an unexpected rearrangement to a highly functionalized 9-aryl-10-bromoanthracene derivative, which was employed in Suzuki couplings to synthesize a series of 9,10-diaryl compounds that are structural analogues of anthracene derivatives used in the preparation of OLEDs but are more highly functionalized, including electron-donating methoxy groups in addition to substitution by a carboxylic acid moiety. The UV/fluorescence solution spectra show strong emissions at 446, 438, and 479 nm, respectively, for the anthracene 10-phenyl, 10-naphthyl, and 10-pyrenyl adducts containing a benzoic acid functional group, whereas the analogues bearing the hydroxymethylene moiety from reduction of the benzoic acid to the corresponding alcohols gave much shorter emission wavelengths of 408, 417, and 476 nm, respectively, and had somewhat higher quantum yields, suggesting they are better candidates for OLED applications.

  14. Threshold photoelectron study of naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 9,10-dihydroanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Paul M.; Blanchet, Valerie; Joblin, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Threshold photoelectron spectra (TPESs) were obtained for naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, and 9,10-dihydroanthracene using imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy, from threshold to a photon energy of ˜20 eV. Outer valence Green's function calculations at the OVGF/cc-pVTZ level of theory were used to assign molecular orbitals to the observed TPES features. There is generally good agreement between the predicted and observed bands. Threshold regions for each molecule exhibit vibrational structure which is readily assigned based on previous PES studies. While the measured adiabatic ionization energies (IEa) for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene are in good agreement with previous works, new values are reported for the two dihydro species (1,2-dihydronaphthalene, 8.010 ± 0.010 eV and 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 8.335 ± 0.010 eV). A comparison is also made with the G3//B3LYP composite method, which consistently overestimates the IE values by 0.06-0.09 eV. The double ionization energies for anthracene and pyrene have been measured to be 19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.8 ± 0.2 eV, respectively.

  15. Trinuclear nickel coordination complexes of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime.

    PubMed

    Williams, Owen M; Cowley, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    A trinuclear nickel complex of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime (H2pqd), namely bis-[μ2-9,10-bis-(oxido-imino)-phenanthrene]-bis-[μ2-10-(oxido-imino)phenanthrene-9-one oxime](phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) toluene disolvate, [Ni3(C14H8N2O2)2(C14H9N2O2)2(C14H10N2O2)]·2C7H8, has been isolated and its crystal structure determined. This complex features three independent Ni(II) atoms that are arranged in a triangular fashion along with five supporting ligands. There are two square-planar Ni(II) atoms and a third pseudo-octa-hedral Ni(II) atom. While the square-planar Ni(II) atoms are stacked, there are no ligand bridges between them. Each square-planar Ni(II) atom, however, bridges with the pseudo-octa--hedral Ni(II) atom through Ni-N-O-Ni and Ni-O-Ni bonds. A fluorido-bor-ation reaction of the proton-bridged species gave the analogous complex bis-(μ2-bis-{[10-(oxido-imino)-9,10-di-hydro-phenanthren-9-yl-idene]amino}di-fluorido-borato)(phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) dichloromethane trisolvate, [Ni3(C28H16BF2N4O2)4(C14H10N2O2)]·3CH2Cl2, which shows the same binding structure, but features a widened Ni-Ni inter-action between the square-planar Ni(II) atoms. The proton-bridged complex completes the macrocyclic coordination around the square-planar Ni(II) atoms by means of an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. Both compounds feature O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the oxime and the N atoms attached to square-planar nickel atom. The nickel units show no direct inter-action with their nearest neighbors in the extended lattice. Two π-stacking inter-actions between adjacent mol-ecules are found: one with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.886 (2) Å and the other with a centroid-centroid distance of 4.256 (3) Å. In the latter case, although not aromatic, the distance to the centroid of the central phenanthrene ring is shorter, with a distance of 3.528 (3) Å. Toluene mol-ecules occupy the solvent channels that are oriented along the c axis. In

  16. Trinuclear nickel coordination complexes of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Owen M.; Cowley, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    A trinuclear nickel complex of phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime (H2pqd), namely bis­[μ2-9,10-bis­(oxido­imino)­phenanthrene]­bis­[μ2-10-(oxido­imino)phenanthrene-9-one oxime](phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) toluene disolvate, [Ni3(C14H8N2O2)2(C14H9N2O2)2(C14H10N2O2)]·2C7H8, has been isolated and its crystal structure determined. This complex features three independent NiII atoms that are arranged in a triangular fashion along with five supporting ligands. There are two square-planar NiII atoms and a third pseudo-octa­hedral NiII atom. While the square-planar NiII atoms are stacked, there are no ligand bridges between them. Each square-planar NiII atom, however, bridges with the pseudo-octa­­hedral NiII atom through Ni—N—O—Ni and Ni—O—Ni bonds. A fluorido­bor­ation reaction of the proton-bridged species gave the analogous complex bis­(μ2-bis­{[10-(oxido­imino)-9,10-di­hydro­phenanthren-9-yl­idene]amino}di­fluorido­borato)(phenanthrene-9,10-dione dioxime)trinickel(II) dichloromethane trisolvate, [Ni3(C28H16BF2N4O2)4(C14H10N2O2)]·3CH2Cl2, which shows the same binding structure, but features a widened Ni—Ni inter­action between the square-planar NiII atoms. The proton-bridged complex completes the macrocyclic coordination around the square-planar NiII atoms by means of an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. Both compounds feature O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the oxime and the N atoms attached to square-planar nickel atom. The nickel units show no direct inter­action with their nearest neighbors in the extended lattice. Two π-stacking inter­actions between adjacent mol­ecules are found: one with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.886 (2) Å and the other with a centroid–centroid distance of 4.256 (3) Å. In the latter case, although not aromatic, the distance to the centroid of the central phenanthrene ring is shorter, with a distance of 3.528 (3) Å. Toluene mol­ecules occupy the solvent channels that are

  17. Spectrofluorometric study of complexation of some amino derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yari, Abdullah; Sharghi, Hashem

    2005-11-01

    Complexation reactions between 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone (AA1), 1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (AA2), 1-amino-2,4-dimethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (AA3) and 1-amino-2-ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (AA4) and beta-cyclodextrin were studied spectrofluorometrically, under optimized experimental conditions. The formation constants of the resulting 1:1 beta-cyclodextrin complexes were evaluated and found to decrease in the order AA4>AA1>AA3>AA2. Possible reasons for the observed stability sequence are discussed based on the structures proposed for the resulting inclusion complexes.

  18. Electroluminescent behaviors in multilayer thin-film electroluminescent devices using 9,10-bisstyrylanthracene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminaka, Ei-Ichiro; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Saito, Shogo

    1994-02-01

    Using nine 9,10-bisstyrylanthracene derivatives (BSA's) with different substituents as emission layer materials, multilayer electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated. Among nine BSA's, three BSA's were found to exhibit high EL performance. Four types of devices, a single-layer device with a BSA emission layer, two types of two-layer devices in which BSA emission layers were combined with a triphenylamine dimer as a hole transport layer or an oxadiazole derivative as an electron transport layer, and a three-layer device, were fabricated using the three BSA's. The relationships between the device structures and EL performances of these devices were studied. Ionization potential values in vacuum-deposited films of BSA's were measured. It was found that the introduction of an electron withdrawing group increased electron injection/transport capability, and that of electron donating groups increased hole injection/transport capability. The relative EL efficiencies of various devices were discussed in terms of the electronic nature of BSA's.

  19. Photophysical properties of 9,10-disubstituted anthracene derivatives in solution and films.

    PubMed

    Ribierre, J C; Ruseckas, A; Cavaye, H; Barcena, H S; Burn, P L; Samuel, I D W

    2011-07-07

    We have carried out absorption, time-resolved fluorescence, and fluorescence quantum yield measurements of four new soluble anthracene derivatives. They show natural radiative lifetimes in the range of 2.5-4.4 ns, which is 5-10 times shorter than those reported for unsubstituted anthracene. The 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) derivatives show the largest fluorescence transition dipoles, which is attributed to extended π-conjugation between anthracene and phenyls through acetylene linkages. Spin-cast films of the BPEA derivatives show strong fluorescence quenching by weakly emitting low energy excitations, which is attributed to excimer-like traps. Quenching is significantly reduced when bulky dendrons are attached so that they give maximum coverage of the emitting chromophore and prevent their aggregation. The results show that anthracene derivatives can be developed into efficient solution-processable fluorescent emitters for the blue and green spectral regions.

  20. Enhanced Translational Diffusion of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) in Polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Ying; Ediger, M. D.

    1997-03-01

    We have used a holographic fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) techanique to measure translational diffusion coefficients of tracer levels of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) in polystyrene. Values for the diffusion coefficient DT ranged from 10-8 to 10-14 cm^2/sec over the temperature range T_g+90K to Tg (Tg = 373K). DT has a considerably weaker temperature dependence than matrix viscosity η. In contrast, the rotational correlation time τ c for BPEA has the same temperature dependence as η. At T_g, translational diffusion of BPEA is enhanced over rotation by 2.4 decades. These results support the idea that spatially heterogeneous dynamics are responsible for enhanced translation and are an important feature of dynamics at T_g.

  1. Aleuritic (9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic) acid self-assembly on mica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; San-Miguel, Miguel Angel; Sansom, Mark S P; Heredia, Antonio; Benítez, José Jesús

    2010-09-21

    Aleuritic (9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic) acid self-assembly on mica from solution has been studied using AFM, ATR-FTIR and MD simulations. The goal of this study is to define the role of hydroxyl groups in the interaction between molecules as reference data to understand the mechanism of formation of synthetic and natural biopolyesters from polyhydroxylated long chain carboxylic acids. In a confined structure, such as the one imposed by a vertically self-assembled layer on mica, aleuritic acid has a tendency to adopt a monolayer configuration ruled by the lateral interactions between molecules via the two secondary hydroxyl groups. This (2D) growth competes with the multilayer formation (3D), which is conditioned by the terminal primary hydroxyl group. As the self-assembly spatial constraint is relaxed, MD has shown that the structure tends to become an amorphous and crosslinked phase that can be characterized by topographic and friction force AFM data.

  2. Identifying Hail Signatures in Satellite Imagery from the 9-10 August 2011 Severe Weather Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Rachel L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Cole, Tony A.; Bell, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms can produce large hail that causes property damage, livestock fatalities, and crop failure. However, detailed storm surveys of hail damage conducted by the National Weather Service (NWS) are not required. Current gaps also exist between Storm Prediction Center (SPC) hail damage estimates and crop-insurance payouts. NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to support NWS damage assessments, particularly to crops during the growing season. The two-day severe weather event across western Nebraska and central Kansas during 9-10 August 2011 offers a case study for investigating hail damage signatures by examining changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODIS imagery. By analyzing hail damage swaths in satellite imagery, potential economic losses due to crop damage can be quantified and further improve the estimation of weather impacts on agriculture without significantly increasing manpower requirements.

  3. Preliminary Hydrothermal Heat Flow Measurements at the 9-10º N East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramondenc, P.; Germanovich, L. N.; von Damm, K. L.; Lowell, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    The March 2004 expedition at 9-10° N East Pacific Rise, part of the RIDGE 2000 program, allowed amongst other things to pursue the monitoring and sampling of a number of vents after the volcanic eruptions that occurred in 1991/2. Earlier observations have shown that the chemical composition and the temperature have not yet stabilized at many of the vents. This expedition also gave us the opportunity to test an experimental device to estimate the velocity of diffuse flow and heat transport at a couple of vents. These experiments represent the first such attempts to measure these parameters for the 9-10° N hydrothermal system. The idea was to focus the fluid flow through an opening and videotape the motion of particles composing the fluid. Though crude, this method should provide an upper estimate of the fluid velocity and the mass flux of the underlying upflow zone. This operation was also done at the same vents just with a scale maintained close to the flow. This approach yields a lower estimate of the velocity. These tests were run on three dives achieved with the deep submergence vehicle Alvin (dives # 3987, 3990 and 3992, respectively at M-vent, TICA-vent, Bio9, Bio9' and Bio9''). Typical results obtained for the total heat flux ranged from Q = 10^5 W to Q = 10^7 W. This experience has provided insight into a new design based on the temperature measurement at different regions in the stream. We hope to develop this new device in the coming months and deploy it in 2005.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the 9-10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, U. S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big Thompson 1976 storm event, conceptual models have been developed to explain the unusually high precipitation efficiency. In this study, the Black Hills storm is simulated using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Simulations with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initializations and different grid structures are presented. The conceptual models of storm structure proposed by previous studies are examined in light of the present simulations. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous initialization results capture the intense nature of the storm, but the inhomogeneous simulation produced a precipitation pattern closer to the observed pattern. The simulations point to stationary tilted updrafts, with precipitation falling out to the rear as the preferred storm structure. Experiments with different grid structures point to the importance of removing the lateral boundaries far from the region of activity. Overall, simulation performance in capturing the observed behavior of the storm system was enhanced by use of inhomogeneous initialization.

  5. Polyether precursors of molecular recognition systems based on the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, Anna; Cirocka, Anna; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Nakonieczna, Sandra; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel polyether derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was synthesized and characterized by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, acid-base titration and complexometric titration. The results were compared with 1-NEt2AQ and 1-NHEtAQ - model compounds of alkylaminoanthraquinones. Acetonitrile and methanol were used as solvents for determination of spectroscopic and acid-base properties. Complexometric titrations were carried out exclusively in acetonitrile. Spectral characteristic of these compounds strongly depends on pH. Addition of acid causes the decrease of absorption intensity and in some cases also a shift of the visible range band. The weakest base is the compound (2), and the strongest - compound (1), both in methanol and acetonitrile solution. The introduction of an additional substituent in the position 8 of the anthraquinone compound increases its basicity. The presence of metal ions causes changes in intensity of absorption (decrease for compounds (2) and (3) and increase with bathochromic shift for (1) and (4)). For the determination of the coordination properties aluminum (III) ions were chosen. The highest complex stability constant with Al (III) ions is observed for compound (1), and the weakest for compound (3). The elongation of the polyether chain decreases the stability of the complex formed.

  6. School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    We examined the associations between the physical, social and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height(m)2) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity. PMID:21474361

  7. Dual photochemistry of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide studied by femtosecond spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Alexandra; Dobryakov, Alexander L; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Fidder, Henk; Heyne, Karsten

    2011-05-21

    The dual photochemistry of anthracene-9,10-endoperoxide (APO) was investigated in a fs UV pump-supercontinuum probe experiment, along with anthracene (AC) and anthraquinone (AQ) for comparison. Excitation of APO at 282 nm leads to 100% product formation by two competing photoreaction channels. Cycloreversion generates with a ∼25% quantum yield (QY) (1)O(2) and AC vibrationally excited in the singlet electronic ground state (hot AC). 1-2% of the AC is generated in the lowest triplet state, but no AC is generated in electronically excited singlet states. Generation and cooling of hot AC are modeled using solution phase and broadened gas-phase AC absorption spectra at various temperatures. Results indicate ultrafast generation of hot AC within 3 ps, much faster than reported before for derivatives of anthracene endoperoxide, and subsequent cooling with an 18 ps time constant. The homolytic O-O cleavage pathway generates a biradical, which converts into electronically excited diepoxide (DE). Our data indicate a 1.5 ps time constant that we tentatively assign to the biradical decay and DE formation. Cooling of DE in this electronically excited state takes place with a ∼21 ps time constant. Excitation of AQ at 266 nm is followed by an ultrafast population of the T(1)(nπ*) triplet state of AQ with a time constant of (160 ± 60) fs.

  8. Reexamination of the 9 10 November 1975 “Edmund Fitzgerald” Storm Using Today's Technology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultquist, Thomas R.; Dutter, Michael R.; Schwab, David J.

    2006-05-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past three decades concerning the specific cause of the loss of the ship the Edmund Fitzgerald on Lake Superior on 10 November 1975, but there is little question that weather played a role in the disaster. There were only a few surface observations available during the height of the storm, so it is difficult to assess the true severity and meteorological rarity of the event. In order to identify likely weather conditions that occurred during the storm of 9-10 November 1975, high-resolution numerical simulations were conducted in an attempt to assess wind and wave conditions throughout the storm. Comparisons are made between output from the model simulations and available observational data from the event to assess the accuracy of the simulations. Given a favorable comparison, more detailed output from the simulations is presented, with a focus on high-resolution output over Lake Superior between 1800 UTC 9 November 1975 and 0600 UTC 11 November 1975. A detailed analysis of low-level sustained wind and significant wave height output is presented, illustrating the severity of the conditions and speed with which they developed and later subsided during the event. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the model output helps provide a more detailed depiction of conditions on Lake Superior than has previously been available.

  9. Characterization of the Role of β-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase in Macular Pigment Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Babino, Darwin; Palczewski, Grzegorz; Widjaja-Adhi, M. Airanthi K.; Kiser, Philip D.; Golczak, Marcin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation. PMID:26307071

  10. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  11. School level correlates with adiposity in 9-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; Jones, Andrew P; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    We examined the associations between the physical, social, and policy environments of schools and adiposity in 9-10 year old children in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between 56 school-level variables and Fat Mass Index (FMI; fat mass (kg)/height (m(2))) were investigated among 1724 well characterised children from 92 schools in this cross-sectional study. After stepwise removal of variables from multilevel linear regression models stratified by gender, only three variables were significantly associated with FMI. Among girls, attending a school with more pupils in the year group was associated with lower FMI, and attending a school with better cycle provision was associated with higher FMI. In boys being allowed to eat any food at break-time was associated with higher FMI. There was some evidence of moderation of the relationship between cycle provision and FMI by urban-rural location. These data suggest that few school factors are associated with FMI, and provide limited pointers to inform potential future school-based interventions to reduce obesity.

  12. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  13. Electronic structures of ruthenium and osmium complexes of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manas Kumar; Patra, Sarat Chandra; Maity, Amarendra Nath; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2012-06-18

    The reaction of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) with [M(II)(H)(CO)(X)(PPh(3))(3)] in boiling toluene leads to the homolytic cleavage of the M(II)-H bond, affording the paramagnetic trans-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 1; M = Os, X = Br, 3) and cis-[M(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 2; M = Os, X = Br, 4) complexes. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of 1, 2·toluene, and 4·CH(2)Cl(2), EPR spectra, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have substantiated that 1-4 are 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical (PQ(•-)) complexes of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) and are defined as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (1), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (2), trans-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO) Br] (3), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br] (4). Two comparatively longer C-O [average lengths: 1, 1.291(3) Å; 2·toluene, 1.281(5) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.300(8) Å] and shorter C-C lengths [1, 1.418(5) Å; 2·toluene, 1.439(6) Å; 4·CH(2)Cl(2), 1.434(9) Å] of the OO chelates are consistent with the presence of a reduced PQ(•-) ligand in 1-4. A minor contribution of the alternate resonance form, trans- or cis-[M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X], of 1-4 has been predicted by the anisotropic X- and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the frozen glasses of the complexes at 25 K and unrestricted DFT calculations on 1, trans-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (5), cis-[Ru(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Cl] (6), and cis-[Os(PQ)(PMe(3))(2)(CO)Br] (7). However, no thermodynamic equilibria between [M(II)(PQ(•-))(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] and [M(I)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)X] tautomers have been detected. 1-4 undergo one-electron oxidation at -0.06, -0.05, 0.03, and -0.03 V versus a ferrocenium/ferrocene, Fc(+)/Fc, couple because of the formation of PQ complexes as trans-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (1(+)), cis-[Ru(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Cl](+) (2(+)), trans-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (3(+)), and cis-[Os(II)(PQ)(PPh(3))(2)(CO)Br](+) (4(+)). The trans

  14. Solvatochromism of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone: An electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-01-14

    Solvent effects play a vital role in various chemical, physical, and biological processes. To gain a fundamental understanding of the solute-solvent interactions and their implications on the energy level re-ordering and structure, UV-VIS absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory calculation studies on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in different solvents of diverse solvent polarity has been carried out. The solvatochromic analysis of the absorption spectra of PQ in protic dipolar solvents suggests that the longest (1n-π{sup 1}*; S{sub 1} state) and the shorter (1π-π{sup 1}*; S{sub 2} state) wavelength band undergoes a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively. It also indicates that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in the differential solvation of the S{sub 2} state relative to the ground state. Raman excitation profiles of PQ (400–1800 cm{sup −1}) in various solvents followed their corresponding absorption spectra therefore the enhancements on resonant excitation are from single-state rather than mixed states. The hyperchromism of the longer wavelength band is attributed to intensity borrowing from the nearby allowed electronic transition through vibronic coupling. Computational calculation with C{sub 2ν} symmetry constraint on the S{sub 2} state resulted in an imaginary frequency along the low-frequency out-of-plane torsional modes involving the C=O site and therefore, we hypothesize that this mode could be involved in the vibronic coupling.

  15. Factors associated with breast milk intake among 9-10-month-old Malawian infants.

    PubMed

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first 6 months of life; thereafter, continued breastfeeding along with nutritious complementary foods is recommended. Continued breastfeeding contributes a substantial proportion of nutrient needs and promotes healthy growth and development, but the quantity of breast milk consumed may be highly variable and little is known about the factors associated with breast milk intake after 6 months of age. The present study was conducted to assess factors associated with breast milk intake of Malawian infants at 9-10 months of age. Breast milk intake was measured using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution method in a subsample of 358 Malawian infants who were participating in a randomized controlled trial of lipid-based nutrient supplements. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between breast milk intake and several maternal and infant variables. Mean (standard deviation) breast milk intake was 752 (244) g day(-1) . In multiple regression, breast milk intake was positively associated with infant weight (+62 g per kg body weight, P < 0.01) and maternal height (P < 0.01) and negatively associated with maternal education and age (P < 0.01). There was a non-significant (P = 0.063) inverse association between energy from non-breast milk sources and breast milk intake. In this rural Malawian population, infant weight is the main predictor of breast milk intake, even after the first 6 months of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 2,5,6,9,10-Pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDOHs): a new class of HBCD transformation products.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Zindel, Daniel; Schweizer, W Bernd; Lienemann, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDOHs) are potential environmental transformation products of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). They are also potential stage one metabolites of biological HBCD transformations. Herein, we present analytical evidence that PBCDOHs are also constituents of technical HBCDs and flame-proofed polystyrenes (FP-PSs). PBCDOHs are possibly formed during the synthesis of technical HBCD, presumably during the bromination of cyclododecatrienes in aqueous isobutanol together with isobutoxypentabromocyclododecanes (iBPBCDs), which have been identified in these materials recently. Of the 64 stereoisomers possible, eight pairs of enantiomers, named α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ε-, ζ-, η-, and θ-PBCDOHs were separated with a combination of normal-, reversed- and chiral-phase LC. Crystal structure analysis revealed the stereochemistry of the α-PBCDOH pair of enantiomers, which was assigned to (1S,2S,5R,6S,9S,10R)-2,5,6,9,10-pentabromocyclododecanol and its enantiomer. Mass spectrometric data are in accordance with the expected isotope patterns. On a C(18)-RP-column, the polar PBCDOHs eluted before the HBCD and iBPBCD classes of compounds. PBCDOHs were also found in FP-PS materials. The stereoisomer patterns varied considerably in these materials like those of HBCDs and iBPBCDs. Expanded polystyrenes were rich in late-eluting stereoisomers, similar to technical HBCD mixtures. Extruded polystyrenes contained more of the polar, faster-eluting isomers. The presented chromatographic and analytical methods allow a stereoisomer-specific search for PBCDOHs in biota samples, which might have experienced metabolic HBCD transformation reactions. Besides this potential source, it has to be recognized that PBCDOHs are by-products in technical HBCDs and in flame-proofed polystyrenes. Therefore, it is likely that PBCDOHs and iBPBCDs are released to the environment together with HBCD-containing plastic materials.

  17. Generation and analysis of the improved human HAL9/10 antibody phage display libraries.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Jonas; Wilke, Sonja; Meier, Doris; Tomszak, Florian; Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Dübel, Stefan; Garritsen, Henk; Hock, Björn; Toleikis, Lars; Schütte, Mark; Hust, Michael

    2015-02-19

    Antibody phage display is a proven key technology that allows the generation of human antibodies for diagnostics and therapy. From naive antibody gene libraries - in theory - antibodies against any target can be selected. Here we describe the design, construction and characterization of an optimized antibody phage display library. The naive antibody gene libraries HAL9 and HAL10, with a combined theoretical diversity of 1.5×10(10) independent clones, were constructed from 98 healthy donors using improved phage display vectors. In detail, most common phagemids employed for antibody phage display are using a combined His/Myc tag for detection and purification. We show that changing the tag order to Myc/His improved the production of soluble antibodies, but did not affect antibody phage display. For several published antibody libraries, the selected number of kappa scFvs were lower compared to lambda scFvs, probably due to a lower kappa scFv or Fab expression rate. Deletion of a phenylalanine at the end of the CL linker sequence in our new phagemid design increased scFv production rate and frequency of selected kappa antibodies significantly. The HAL libraries and 834 antibodies selected against 121 targets were analyzed regarding the used germline V-genes, used V-gene combinations and CDR-H3/-L3 length and composition. The amino acid diversity and distribution in the CDR-H3 of the initial library was retrieved in the CDR-H3 of selected antibodies showing that all CDR-H3 amino acids occurring in the human antibody repertoire can be functionally used and is not biased by E. coli expression or phage selection. Further, the data underline the importance of CDR length variations. The highly diverse universal antibody gene libraries HAL9/10 were constructed using an optimized scFv phagemid vector design. Analysis of selected antibodies revealed that the complete amino acid diversity in the CDR-H3 was also found in selected scFvs showing the functionality of the naive CDR

  18. Local food outlets, weight status, and dietary intake: associations in children aged 9-10 years.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; Jones, Andy P; Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

    2011-04-01

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Limited evidence suggests that there may be interactions between environmental factors at a neighborhood level and the development of obesity, with the availability and accessibility of food outlets being potentially important. To examine how the weight status and dietary intake of 1669 children aged 9-10 years was associated with neighborhood food outlets in a cross-sectional study. Availability of food outlets was computed from GIS data for each child's unique neighborhood. Outlets were grouped into BMI-healthy, BMI-unhealthy, or BMI-intermediate categories according to food type sold. Weight status measurements were objectively collected, and food intake was recorded using 4-day food diaries. Data were collected in 2007 and analyzed in 2009. Availability of BMI-healthy outlets in neighborhoods was associated with lower body weight (1.3 kg, p=0.03); BMI (0.5 kg/m(2), p=0.02); BMI z-score (0.20, p=0.02); waist circumference (1.3 cm, p=0.02); and percentage body fat (1.1%, p=0.03) compared to no availability. In contrast, neighborhood availability of BMI-unhealthy outlets was inversely associated with body weight (1.3 kg, p=0.02); BMI (0.4 kg/m(2), p=0.05); BMI z-score (0.15, p=0.05); waist circumference (1.1 cm, p=0.04); and percentage body fat (1.0%, p=0.03). Unhealthy food intake (fizzy drinks 15.3%, p=0.04, and noncarbonated "fruit" drinks 11.8%, p=0.03) was also associated with availability of BMI-unhealthy food outlets. Features of the built environment relating to food purchasing opportunities are correlated with weight status in children. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  20. 9,10-Phenanthrenedione biodegradation by a soil bacterium and identification of transformation products by LC/ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kanaly, Robert A; Hamamura, Natsuko

    2013-09-01

    Transformation of 9,10-phenanthrenedione, a cytotoxic derivative of phenanthrene, was shown to occur by a soil bacterium belonging to the genus Sphingobium. Phenanthrene-grown cells of this strain were exposed to 50mgL(-1) 9,10-phenanthrenedione in liquid cultures, extracted, and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Full scan analyses of exposed cells over the range from m/z 50 to m/z 500 were compared to abiotic and biotic controls. Product and precursor ion scan mode analyses indicated that at least three aromatic ring-cleavage transformation products of 9,10-phenanthrenedione were present and structures for these products, corresponding to [M-H](-)=271, [M-H](-)=241, and [M-H](-)=339 were proposed to be 4-(1-hydroxy-3,4-dioxo-2-naphthyl)-2-oxo-but-3-enoic acid, 2,2'-diphenic acid and 2-[(6-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxy-phenyl)-hydroxy-methyl]-5-oxo-hex-3-enedioic acid. The identity of 2,2'-diphenic acid was confirmed by comparison to an authentic standard and when the strain was exposed to 50mgL(-1) 2,2'-diphenic acid in separate assays, a transformation product with a similar mass spectrum as 9,10-phenanthrenedione-derived [M-H](-)=339 was revealed. Based upon these results, pathways for the transformation of 9,10-phenanthrenedione by strain KK22 were proposed. Strain KK22 appeared unable to use 9,10-phenanthrenedione as a growth substrate under these conditions. This is the first report of potential biotransformation pathways of 9,10-phenanthrenedione by a bacterium.

  1. 9,10-Dioxoanthracene-1,4-diyl bis­(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Teerawatananond, Thapong; Kerdsamut, Chiaranan; Kokpol, Sirirat; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2012-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C28H20O8S2, has a T-shaped conformation. The central 9,10-anthraquinone moiety is bow-shaped with the two outer aromatic rings being inclined to one another by 13.99 (11)°. The benzenesulfonate rings are inclined to one another by 47.35 (12)°, and by 34.51 (11) and 17.88 (11)° to the bridging aromatic ring of the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety. In the crystal, C—H⋯O interactions link the mol­ecules into ribbons in [100]. PMID:22590307

  2. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  3. Space physiology within an exercise physiology curriculum.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason R; West, John B

    2013-09-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of chronic terrestrial exercise (TEx) and microgravity (μG). We used a series of peer-reviewed publications to demonstrate that many of the physiological adaptations to TEx and μG are opposite. For example, TEx typically improves cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance, whereas μG can lead to declines in both. TEx leads to muscle hypertrophy, and μG elicits muscle atrophy. TEx increases bone mineral density and red blood cell mass, whereas μG decreases bone mineral density and red blood cell mass. Importantly, exercise during spaceflight remains a crucial countermeasure to limit some of these adverse physiological adaptations to μG. This curriculum develops critical thinking skills by dissecting peer-reviewed articles and discussing the strengths and weaknesses associated with simulated and actual μG studies. Moreover, the curriculum includes studies on both animals and humans, providing a strong translational component to the curriculum. In summary, we have developed a novel space physiology curriculum delivered during the final weeks of an exercise physiology course in which students gain critical new knowledge that reinforces key concepts presented throughout the semester.

  4. Dechlorination and chlorine rearrangement of 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-heptachlorodecane mediated by the whole pumpkin seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlin; Hou, Xingwang; Yu, Miao; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-05-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are ubiquitously present as persistent organic pollutants in the environment. However, little information on the interaction of SCCPs with plants is currently available. In this work, young pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima × C. Moschata) were hydroponically exposed to the congener of chlorinated decane, 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-heptachlorodecane (1,2,5,5,6,9,10-HepCD), to investigate the uptake, translocation and transformation of chlorinated decanes in the intact plants. It was found that parent HepCD was taken up by the pumpkin roots, translocated from root to shoots, and phytovolatilized from pumpkin plants to air via the plant transpiration flux. Our data suggested that dechlorination of 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-HepCD to lower chlorinated decanes and rearrangement of chlorine atoms in the molecule were all mediated by the whole pumpkin seedlings. Chlorinated decanes were found in the shoots and roots of blank controls, indicating that chlorinated decanes in the air could be absorbed by leaves and translocated from shoots to roots. Lower chlorinated congeners (C10H17Cl5) tended to detain in air compared to higher chlorinated congeners (C10H16Cl6 and other C10H15Cl7). Potential transformation pathway and behavior of 1,2,5,5,6,9,10-HepCD in pumpkin were proposed based on these experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structures and stability of metal-doped GenM (n = 9, 10) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-26

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge nM (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge9 and Ge10 clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Gen clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe9,10,MnGe9,10 and Ge10Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Gen clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge9,10Fe and Ge9Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  6. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as waiving... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as waiving... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as waiving... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as...

  10. 21 CFR 73.3105 - 1,4-Bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione. 73.3105 Section 73.3105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as...

  11. Study Of Reaction Mechanisms For {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn Systems Around The Coulomb Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Scuderi, V.; Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Rizzo, F.; Torresi, D.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Borge, M. J. G.; Sanchez, E. M. R.; Tengblad, O.; Vidal, A. M.; Fraile, L. M.; Jeppesen, H.

    2010-04-26

    The reactions {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 64}Zn have been studied at energies around the Coulomb barrier in order to better understand the role played by the halo features on the reaction dynamics. Preliminary results on such studies will be reported in this paper.

  12. National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU), Seventh Meeting (Arlington, Virginia, June 9-10, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    Presentations at the June 9-10, 1976, meeting of the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) concentrated on computer software protection. There were a panel discussion, a briefing from a General Services Administration spokesman, and a presentation by representatives of the educational community. The testimony…

  13. Structures and stability of metal-doped Ge{sub n}M (n = 9, 10) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Wei Xia, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Zang, Qing-Jun; Lu, Wen-Cai; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-06-15

    The lowest-energy structures of neutral and cationic Ge{sub n}M (n = 9, 10; M = Si, Li, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Au, Ag, Yb, Pm and Dy) clusters were studied by genetic algorithm (GA) and first-principles calculations. The calculation results show that doping of the metal atoms and Si into Ge{sub 9} and Ge{sub 10} clusters is energetically favorable. Most of the metal-doped Ge cluster structures can be viewed as adding or substituting metal atom on the surface of the corresponding ground-state Ge{sub n} clusters. However, the neutral and cationic FeGe{sub 9,10},MnGe{sub 9,10} and Ge{sub 10}Al are cage-like with the metal atom encapsulated inside. Such cage-like transition metal doped Ge{sub n} clusters are shown to have higher adsorption energy and thermal stability. Our calculation results suggest that Ge{sub 9,10}Fe and Ge{sub 9}Si would be used as building blocks in cluster-assembled nanomaterials because of their high stabilities.

  14. A Teacher's Guide to Folksinging: A Mini-Elective for Students in Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    To help meet the needs of nonmusic-major students in grade 9, 10, 11, and 12, this teacher's guide offers guidelines for a course to stimulate students' interest and involvement in folksinging. Guidelines are provided on the role of the teacher, methods of instruction, and suggested time allotments. Brief descriptions and comments on some typical…

  15. Tissue-specific regulation of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines in keratinocytes: Implications for oral inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alison; Celentano, Antonio; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael; Porter, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 play a key role in many inflammatory conditions, particularly those mediated by T cells. Therefore, the production of these chemokines in peripheral tissues could be instrumental in the pathophysiology of tissue-specific immunological diseases such as oral lichen planus (OLP). In the present study, we assessed the production of keratinocyte-derived CXCL9/10/11 under basal and inflammatory conditions and investigated whether these chemokines were involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. We used semi-quantitative PCR, ELISA, chemotaxis assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to assess the expression and functional role of CXCL9/10/11 in oral keratinocytes (three strains of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK), and the H357 oral cancer cell line) in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. CXCL9/10/11 were also assessed in tissues from normal patients and those with oral lichen planus (OLP). The time course study in oral keratinocytes treated with IFN-γ showed that expression of CXCL9/10/11 chemokines was significantly enhanced by IFN-γ in a time-dependent manner. In particular, CXCL10, a prominent chemokine that was overexpressed by IFN-γ-stimulated NHOK, was able to effectively recruit CD4 lymphocytes, mainly CD4+CD45RA- cells. Significantly higher levels of CXCL9/10/11 were found in tissues from patients with OLP compared to normal oral mucosa. Taken together, the results demonstrate that normal oral keratinocytes produce chemotactic molecules that mediate T cell recruitment. This study furthers understanding of chemokine production in oral keratinocytes and their role in the pathophysiology of oral mucosa, with particular relevance to OLP. PMID:28253295

  16. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of (1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl) amino-9-(10H)-acridinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Florence; Avellaneda, Antonio; Di Giorgio, Carole; Robin, Maxime; De Clercq, Erik; Timon-David, Pierre; Galy, Jean-Pierre

    2004-08-01

    (1,3-Benzothiazol-2-yl) amino-9-(10H)-acridinone derivatives were synthesized via a procedure based on the Ullman reaction and were assessed for their in vitro antileishmanial and anti-HIV activities. Two derivatives, 4-(6-nitro-benzothiazol-2-ylamino)-10H-acridin-9-one and 1-(6-amino-benzothiazol-2-ylamino)-10H-acridin-9-one, revealed a selective antileishmanial activity, mainly due to amastigote-specific toxicity. Results suggested that:the addition of a benzothiazole group on a parent amino-9-(10H)-acridinone ring could enhance antileishmanial abilities, the presence of a 6-amino-benzothiazole group on position 2 amino chain or a 6-nitro-benzothiazole group on position 4 amino chain was essential for specific anti-amastigote properties.

  17. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  18. Solubilities of some recently synthesized 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone derivatives in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Fat'hi, M R; Yamini, Y; Sharghi, H; Shamsipur, M

    1999-04-01

    The solubility of four recently synthesized 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone derivatives, as potential complexing agents in some extraction and membrane transport experiments, have been measured in supercritical carbon dioxide. The measurements were carried out in the pressure range 120-400 atm at temperatures 35, 45, 55, 65, and 75 degrees C. The measured solubilities were correlated using the model proposed by Chrastil. The calculated results show good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Manufacturing Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8115 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The course materials included in this guide are intended to introduce students to the manufacturing industry and its relationships with society, individuals, and the environment. The following topics are covered in the nine learning modules: manufacturing and society and manufacturing systems; manufacturing materials and processes (types of…

  20. A halochromic stimuli-responsive reversible fluorescence switching 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid dye for fabricating rewritable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, P. S.; Pitchaimani, J.; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2017-02-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA), a strongly fluorescent water soluble dye with halochromic functionality showed pH dependent reversible fluorescence switching. The strong fluorescence of PTCA (Φf = 0.67) in basic medium was completely quenched upon acidification. The fluorescent PTCA has been transferred on to a solid substrate (filter paper and glass plate) that also showed reversible off-on fluorescence switching by acid/base and drying/water vapor exposure. The reversible fluorescence switching of PTCA could be of potential interest for fabricating rewritable fluorescent medium.

  1. Electronic states of the fluorophore 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA). A synchrotron radiation linear dichroism investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thulstrup, Peter W.; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2013-02-01

    The electronic transitions of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) were investigated by synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 20 000-58 000 cm-1 (500-170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variable temperature spectroscopy and by quantum chemical calculations in the LCOAO and TD-DFT models. The combined experimental and theoretical evidence leads to characterization of several previously unobserved transitions and provides a revised polarization analysis of the visible absorption band of BPEA.

  2. Targeting triple negative breast cancer cells by N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrasiabi, Zahra; Stovall, Preston; Finley, Kristen; Choudhury, Amitava; Barnes, Charles; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash

    2013-10-01

    Novel N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their copper, nickel and palladium complexes are structurally characterized and reported along with the single crystal X-ray structures of three ligands and one nickel complex. All compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative potential against Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells which have poor prognosis and no effective drugs to treat with. All compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity against these cells. Among the metal complexes evaluated, redox active copper complexes were found to be more potent. The possible mechanism for such enhanced activity can be attributed to the generation of oxidative stress, which was amenable for targeting through metal complexation.

  3. VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 & 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. JADICK

    2010-05-26

    FINAL INTERIM REPORT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FINAL STATUS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 AND 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT, Niskayuna, New York 0496-SR-03-0. The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) facilities were constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction/oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes that were subsequently used by the Hanford and the Savannah River sites.

  4. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  5. Rice Physiology

    Treesearch

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  6. The 14th International Conference on Alzheimer's Drug Discovery, 9 - 10 September 2013, in Jersey City, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Glicksman, Marcie A

    2014-02-01

    The following conference was the 14th International Conference on Alzheimer's Drug Discovery held 9 - 10 September 2013, in Jersey City, NJ. The conference attracted about 140 attendees with 49% from academia, 36% from industry and private practice, 10% from nonprofit organizations and 2% from the government. The meeting had two plenary speakers that kicked off each morning of the conference and then two sessions each day to cover different aspects of Alzheimer's disease drug discovery. There were sessions on neuroprotection, mitochondrial function, biomarkers, ApoE, tau and protein clearance. The conference was organized by the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF) with all of the presenters supported by grants awarded by the ADDF. The conference had financial support from the pharmaceutical companies Merck & Co., Eli Lilly & Co. and Pfizer, Inc. Friends, exhibitors and media partners also helped financially support the conference.

  7. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)3(2+), and 9,10-diphenylanthracene using interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B; Kolesov, G; Parkinson, B A

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area.

  8. Reduction of the 3,4,9,10-perylenediimides and the formation of eletrodeposited films based on their radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Gu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-09-01

    The reduction of the two 3,4,9,10-perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives in the mixture of hydrazine hydrate and N,N-dimethylformamide was investigated by the UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra (FL) and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The time dependence of the PDI content, as well as the structure of PDI aggregates were also investigated and discussed. Combining the electro-migration behavior of PDI-· with the molecular self-assembly properties, the films of two PDI derivatives (PDI-32 and PDI-123) were successfully fabricated via anode electro-deposition (AED). The difference of aggregation state between the two PDI films was studied by UV-vis absorption spectra, XRD and SEM. Based on these, the formation mechanism of PDI films was also deduced.

  9. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  10. Systematic analysis of above-barrier fusion of {sup 9,10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.

    2010-06-15

    Measurements of fusion for {sup 9,10,11}Be allow testing of the relative importance to fusion and breakup of the alpha-cluster structure found in all these Be isotopes, compared with the neutron-halo structure only present for {sup 11}Be. However, disagreements exist among different published experimental data sets for the reactions of {sup 9,10,11}Be with {sup 209}Bi. Accurate measurements of above-barrier cross sections for the products of complete fusion (fission and evaporation residues) in the reaction of {sup 9}Be with {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb provide the basis for a reanalysis of above-barrier fusion for {sup 10,11}Be+{sup 209}Bi. This includes procedures making full use of the higher precision stable beam data and resolves many of the disagreements. The improved self-consistency of the analysis allows investigation of the experimental average fusion barriers. Although showing some scatter, these suggest a higher barrier for the neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be. Comparison of published cross sections for fusion associated with capture of all the charge of the projectile suggest that all these Be isotopes show significant suppression of complete fusion, a surprising result given that the alpha-breakup threshold energies are 1.57 MeV for {sup 9}Be but over 7 MeV for {sup 10,11}Be. Further experimental studies to investigate in more detail the division between complete and incomplete fusion for reactions of {sup 10,11}Be are needed.

  11. Novel Derivatives of 9,10-Anthraquinone Are Selective Algicides against the Musty-Odor Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Kevin K.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tucker, Craig S.; Rimando, Agnes M.; Ganzera, Markus; Schaneberg, Brian T.

    2003-01-01

    Musty “off-flavor” in pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) costs the catfish production industry in the United States at least $30 million annually. The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata (Skuja) is credited with being the major cause of musty off-flavor in farm-raised catfish in Mississippi. The herbicides diuron and copper sulfate, currently used by catfish producers as algicides to help mitigate musty off-flavor problems, have several drawbacks, including broad-spectrum toxicity towards the entire phytoplankton community that can lead to water quality deterioration and subsequent fish death. By use of microtiter plate bioassays, a novel group of compounds derived from the natural compound 9,10-anthraquinone have been found to be much more selectively toxic towards O. perornata than diuron and copper sulfate. In efficacy studies using limnocorrals placed in catfish production ponds, application rates of 0.3 μM (125 μg/liter) of the most promising anthraquinone derivative, 2-[methylamino-N-(1′-methylethyl)]-9,10-anthraquinone monophosphate (anthraquinone-59), dramatically reduced the abundance of O. perornata and levels of 2-methylisoborneol, the musty compound produced by O. perornata. The abundance of green algae and diatoms increased dramatically 2 days after application of a 0.3 μM concentration of anthraquinone-59 to pond water within the limnocorrals. The half-life of anthraquinone-59 in pond water was determined to be 19 h, making it much less persistent than diuron. Anthraquinone-59 appears to be promising for use as a selective algicide in catfish aquaculture. PMID:12957919

  12. Bright Galaxies at Hubble's Detection Frontier: The redshift z~9-10 BoRG pure-parallel survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenti, Michele

    2014-10-01

    Hubble/WFC3 observations transformed our view of early galaxy formation by building reliable samples of galaxies out to redshift z 8, 700 Myr after the Big Bang and hinting at a dramatic evolution in properties at yet earlier times. From z 8 to z 10 { 200Myr} the luminosity density seems to decrease by a factor ten, but bright galaxies may remain relatively common, based on the four z>9 objects detected so far with m_AB<27. To investigate this apparent conundrum, and study the formation of the most massive and luminous galaxies at 500 Myr without being affected by cosmic variance, we propose a random-pointing survey to detect 20+/-5 galaxies at z 9-10 as faint as m_AB=27.1 {5-sigma} at zero prime orbit cost. This request builds on our successful Cycle 17 & 19 Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies {BoRG} Survey, which found the largest sample of L>L* galaxies at z 8. BoRG[z8] demonstrated, by adding constraints from the Ultra Deep Field {UDF}, that the luminosity function follows a Schechter form, as at lower z, but with a steeper faint-end slope, leading to a photon production sufficient to complete reionization. BoRG[z9-10] will similarly complement the UDF and Frontier Fields datasets by imaging 550 arcmin^2 over 120 sightlines in five WFC3 bands {F350LP, F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W}. Besides twenty new catches at z>9, we will double {from 60 to 120} the number of bright z 8 galaxies within reach of spectroscopy, to tighten constraints on Ly-alpha emission and reionization obtained by our BoRG@Keck follow-up. This new public dataset will reveal the connection between massive dark matter halos and formation of first galaxies, and create a legacy of rare targets for JWST

  13. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 73.3100 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester (CAS Reg. No. 109561-07-1) copolymerized...

  14. Metabolism of a representative oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blaha, Michael A; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH.

  15. Metabolism of a Representative Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC–UV–fluorescence detection and LC–MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH. PMID:24646012

  16. Syntheses of Anthracenones. 2. Preparation of 1,8-Dimethoxy- (Dimethylanthralin) and 4,5-Dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (Isoanthralin): A Revision.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Helge; Burgemeister, Thomas; Wiegrebe, Wolfgang; Müller, Klaus

    1996-04-19

    The reduction of 1,8-dimethoxyanthracenedione with zinc dust and aqueous ammonia gives a mixture of 1,8-dimethoxyanthracene and 4,5-dimethoxy-9(10H)-anthracenone, rather than the isomeric 1,8-dimethoxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (dimethylanthralin). This isomer was obtained exclusively using SnCl(2) in HCl and acetic acid as reducing agent at room temperature. The structure was confirmed to exist as the tautomeric 1,8-dimethoxy-9-hydroxyanthracene. Furthermore, the reduction of 1,8-diacetoxyanthracenedione with SnCl(2) in HCl and acetic acid leads to 1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (anthralin) rather than 4,5-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (isoanthralin), which was prepared by ether cleavage of 4,5-dimethoxy-9(10H)-anthracenone. In light of these findings some biological studies on antipsoriatic anthracenones have to be reconsidered.

  17. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  18. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  19. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  20. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  1. Electro-catalytic Oxidation of Catechol at Poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone)-SDS Composite Film.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, Hossein; Solbi, Malihe

    2016-12-01

    An electro-chemically active composite film containing the environmentally friendly surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAAQ) is used as an electron transfer mediator in the electro-chemical oxidation of catechol. Compared with the bare platinum (Pt) electrode, the Pt/PAAQ-SDS modified electrode remarkably lowers the anodic peak potential of catechol, and increases the peak currents. The results obtained indicate that the activation energy for the electro-chemical oxidation of catechol at the polymer film is low (7.05 kJ mol-1). The influence of the operational conditions on the response current of the catechol sensor is also investigated. Studying the surface morphology of the modified electrode reveals a more porous structure for it due to the incorporation of the anionic surfactant on the PAAQ film. The modified electrode displays a linear response in the concentration range of 0.01-8.0 mM for catechol. A lower detection limit was obtained to be 2.60 μM. The ability of the modified electrode is also examined for the electro-chemical detection of hydroquinone (HQ) with simplicity.

  2. Spin-lattice relaxation study of the methyl proton dynamics in solid 9,10-dimethyltriptycene (DMT).

    PubMed

    Piślewski, N; Tritt-Goc, J; Bielejewski, M; Rachocki, A; Ratajczyk, T; Szymański, S

    2009-06-01

    Proton spin-lattice relaxation studies are performed for powder samples of 9,10-dimethyltriptycene (DMT) and its isotopomer DMT-d(12) in which all the non-methyl protons in the molecule are replaced by deuterons. The relaxation data are interpreted in terms of the conventional relaxation theory based on the random jump model in which the Pauli correlations between the relevant spin and torsional states are discarded. The Arrhenius activation energies, obtained from the relaxation data, 25.3 and 24.8 kJ mol(-1) for DMT and DMT-d(12), respectively, are very high as for the methyl groups. The validity of the jump model in the present case is considered from the perspective of Haupt theory in which the Pauli principle is explicitly invoked. To this purpose, the dynamic quantities entering the Haupt model are reinterpreted in the spirit of the damped quantum rotation (DQR) approach introduced recently for the purpose of NMR lineshape studies of hindered molecular rotators. Theoretical modelling of the relevant methyl group dynamics, based on the DQR theory, was performed. From these calculations it is inferred that direct assessments of the torsional barrier heights, based on the Arrhenius activation energies extracted from relaxation data, should be treated with caution.

  3. Characterization of alkali halides doped 1-(2-methoxy benzyloxy)-8- hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Aman; Singh, Mandeep; Gupta, Himani; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, S.; Aswal, D. K.

    2012-06-01

    Thin films of 1-(2-methoxy benzyloxy)-8-hydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone (AQ) have been prepared by hot wall technique onto glass substrates kept at 348 K in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr. Chemical modifications of films have been performed by their treatment with different alkali halides. The films so obtained are systematically studied for their electrical and optical properties. The electrical conductivities of the resulting films exhibited semiconductor-like temperature dependence in the experimental range studied. LiCl and LiBr doped films exhibit almost three orders of magnitude higher conductivity, than untreated films, whereas NaCl, NaBr and KBr do not show any remarkable change in the conductivity. Analysis of optical absorption measurements indicate that the interband transition energies of films lie in the range of 2.57-2.66 eV. Keeping in view the electrical and optical properties of films, ITO/AQ/Al solar cells have been fabricated and characterized. The J-V characteristics of these devices are found to be in good agreement with standard diode equation. Power conversion efficiency of Li doped AQ based devices are found to increase by an order of two as compared to undoped AQ based devices.

  4. A new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and cell proliferative 3,4-δ-dehydrotocopherols from Stemona tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Park, Jiyoung; Han, Ah-Reum; Woo, Hyun Ae; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-04-03

    A new compound, 9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-8-methyl-2,7-phenanthrenediol (1), was isolated from the roots of Stemona tuberosa Lour. (Stemonaceae) together with two new optically active compounds, (2S,4'R,8'R)-3,4-δ-dehydrotocopherol (2) and (2R,4'R,8'R)-3,4-δ-dehydrotocopherol (3). The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 were each purified from a stereoisomeric mixture of 2 and 3 by preparative HPLC using a chiral column for the first time. The absolute configurations at C-2 of 2 and 3 were determined by Circular Dichroism (CD) experiments. As a part of the research to find natural wound healing agents, all isolates and the mixture of 2 and 3 were evaluated for their cell proliferative effects using a mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 and a HeLa human cervical cancer cell line. As a result, 1, 2, 3, or the mixture of 2 and 3 showed 41.6%, 78.4%, 118.6%, 38.2% increases of cell proliferation in the mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 respectively, compared to 28.4% increase of δ-tocopherol. Moreover, none of them induced cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, 3,4-δ-dehydrotocopherols, especially pure isomers 2 and 3 can be suggested as potential wound healing agents.

  5. Electrical conductivity, optical properties and mechanical stability of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride based organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mayank; Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Nambi Raj, N. Arunai

    2015-05-01

    The 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped polymer films were prepared with Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers by solution-casting. The change in structure and chemical composition of samples was identified by XRD and FTIR respectively. The UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates the optical characteristics and band gap properties of sample. The homogeneous morphology of sample for higher wt% of PTCDA was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate the decrease in melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (χc%) of polymeric organic semiconductor. The mechanical property demonstrates the high tensile strength and improved plasticity nature. Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated to determine the conductivity response of polymeric organic semiconductor. The highest DC conductivity (2.08×10-3 S/m) was obtained for 10 wt% of PTCDA at 140 °C. The decrease in activation energy (Ea) represents the non-Debye process and was evaluated from the slope of ln σdc vs. 103/T plot.

  6. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)32+, and 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Using Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru-(bpy)32+). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center of Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  7. H2 Ejection from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Study of Protonated Acenaphthene and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Vala, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of protonated acenaphthene ([ACN+H]+) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene ([DHP+H]+) have been recorded using an infrared free electron laser after the compounds were protonated by electrospray ionization and trapped in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. In both compounds, the loss of two mass units is predominant. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) of the infrared spectra of all possible protonated isomers of each species showed that the observed IRMPD spectra are best fit to the isomer with the largest proton affinity and lowest relative electronic energy. Potential energy surfaces of the most stable isomers of [ACN+H]+ and [DHP+H]+ have been calculated for H and H2 loss. The lowest energy barriers are for loss of H2, with predicted energies 4.28 and 4.15 eV, respectively. After H2 ejection, the adjacent aliphatic hydrogens migrate to the bare ejection site and stabilize the remaining fragment. Single H loss may occur from [ACN+H]+ but the energy required is higher. No single H loss is predicted from [DHP+H]+, only H migration around the carbon skeleton. The vibrational bands in the parent closed-shell protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are compared to bands observed from the interstellar medium.

  8. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 390: AREAS 9, 10, AND 12 SPILL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 390 consists four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 9, 10, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure activities performed at the CASs include: (1) CAS 09-99-03, Wax, Paraffin: 2 cubic yards of drilling polymer was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (2) CAS 10-99-01, Epoxy Tar Spill: 2 cubic feet of asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 10-99-03, Tar Spills: 3 cubic yards of deteriorated asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 12-25-03, Oil Stains (2); Container: Approximately 16 ounces of used oil were removed from ventilation equipment on June 28,2005, and recycled. One CAS 10-22-19, Drums, Stains, was originally part of CAU 390 but was transferred out of CAU 390 and into CAU 550, Drums, Batteries, and Lead Materials. The transfer was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on August 19,2005, and a copy of the approval letter is included in Appendix D of this report.

  9. SERS investigations on orientation of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anuratha, M; Jawahar, A; Umadevi, M; Sathe, V G; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Khoumeri, O; Meenakumari, V; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method with urea as fuel. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 2-bromo-3-methyl-1,4-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (BMDMAQ) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles was investigated. The orientation of BMDMAQ on silver nanoparticles was inferred from nRs and SERS spectral features. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation was also performed to study the theoretical performance. The observed spectral features such as the high intensity of C-H out-of-plane bending mode and ring C-C stretching mode revealed that BMDMAQ adsorbed on silver surface through 'stand-on' orientation. Anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives have wide biomedical application which includes laxatives, antimalarials and antineoplastics used in the treatment of cancer. This present study would help to identify the interaction of drug molecules with DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial communities predominant in the degradation of 13C(4)-4,5,9,10-pyrene during composting.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Jianqiang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Jia, Zhongjun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-09-01

    An in-vessel composting bioremediation of (13)C4-4,5,9,10-pyrene and unlabeled pyrene spiked soil amended with fresh wastes was investigated by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) of active bacteria involved. Highest dissipation of (13)C4-pyrene was detected at 55 °C after 42 days composting. The active bacterial communities in the composting changed over time, showing a distinct difference among different stages. α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were detected mainly involving in pyrene degradation at 38 °C over 14 days composting. Streptomyces appeared to dominate the pyrene degradation at 55 °C. β- and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant pyrene degraders at 70 °C after 42 days composting and at 38 °C after 60 days composting. The results of this study suggest the pyrene degradation was performed by phylogenetically distinct bacterial guilds from the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria during in-vessel composition processes.

  11. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2015-08-01

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future.

  12. Photon-induced Formation of Molecular Hydrogen from a Neutral Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: 9,10-dihydroanthracene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yi; Szczepanski, Jan; Polfer, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results from infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provide compelling evidence that UV irradiation of the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA), trapped in solid argon (12 K), results in efficient (i.e., 90% yield) conversion to anthracene and molecular hydrogen. A number of dissociation pathways involving single or double hydrogen loss are investigated computationally. Among these, two mechanisms are most credible for a one-photon dissociation process involving UV photons <5.5 eV. For the lowest-energy pathway (2.3 eV), a simultaneous lengthening of the C-H bonds of H9 and H10 gives rise to an anthracene-H2 complex. A higher-energy mechanism (3.4 eV) involves an initial lengthening of the H9 C-H bond, followed by this hydrogen "grabbing" H10, and forming H2. The high yield of this photolysis reaction suggests that similar reactions may take place for other neutral PAHs, with implications for the formation of molecular hydrogen in regions of low UV exposure, such as in dark clouds.

  13. PHOTON-INDUCED FORMATION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM A NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON: 9,10-DIHYDROANTHRACENE

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Yi; Szczepanski, Jan; Polfer, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results from infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provide compelling evidence that UV irradiation of the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA), trapped in solid argon (12 K), results in efficient (i.e., 90% yield) conversion to anthracene and molecular hydrogen. A number of dissociation pathways involving single or double hydrogen loss are investigated computationally. Among these, two mechanisms are most credible for a one-photon dissociation process involving UV photons <5.5 eV. For the lowest-energy pathway (2.3 eV), a simultaneous lengthening of the C-H bonds of H9 and H10 gives rise to an anthracene-H{sub 2} complex. A higher-energy mechanism (3.4 eV) involves an initial lengthening of the H9 C-H bond, followed by this hydrogen 'grabbing' H10, and forming H{sub 2}. The high yield of this photolysis reaction suggests that similar reactions may take place for other neutral PAHs, with implications for the formation of molecular hydrogen in regions of low UV exposure, such as in dark clouds.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optical Properties of a Cyano-Functionalized 4,5,9,10-tetraaryl-l,6-dioxapyrene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, Daniel S.; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Panzner, Matthew J.; Kinder, James D.; Buisson, Jean-Pierre; Christensen, Jorn B.; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    5,10-Di(4-cyanophenyl)-4,9-di(4-methylphenyl)-1,6-dioxapyrene ( CN-diox), a symmetrically substituted 4,5,9,10-tetraaryldioxapyrene, was synthesized in seven steps from 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene. The synthetic methodology incorporated a base-catalyzed ring-closure process followed by dehydration to introduce the first tetraaryl- 1,6-dioxapyrene. Crystal structure and electrochemical analysis were performed to directly compare the properties of CN-diox to previously reported dioxapyrene derivatives, specifically 1,6-dioxapyrene (Diox) and 4,9-diethyl-2,7-dimethyl- 1,6-dioxapyrene (Alkyl-diox). Optical spectroscopy studies were performed to evaluate the potential of the 1,6-dioxapyrenes as fluorescent probes. CN-diox revealed a broad absorption centered near 450 nm (epsilon = 31,900/M/cm) in THF with a corresponding fluorescence at 619 nm (Phi(sub f) = 0.011). This was in sharp contrast to both Diox and Alkyl-diox which displayed broad absorption bands near 400 nm (epsilon approx. 5,000-10,000/M/cm) in THF with corresponding fluorescence near 500 nm (Phi(sub f) = 0.059 and 0.082 for Diox and Alkyl-diox, respectively). The luminescence of CN-diox was found to be solvatochromic (lambda(sub max) = 619 nm-644 nm) with single exponential lifetimes of less than 1.3 ns. Neither Diox nor Alkyl-diox showed solvatochromic properties.

  15. Exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone accelerates malignant progression of lung cancer cells through up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Haga, Mariko; Endo, Satoshi; Soda, Midori; Yamamura, Keiko; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Tajima, Kazuo; Ikari, Akira; Hara, Akira

    2014-07-15

    Inhalation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust, exerts fatal damage against a variety of cells involved in respiratory function. Here, we show that treatment with high concentrations of 9,10-PQ evokes apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, 9,10-PQ at its concentrations of 2 and 5 μM elevated the potentials for proliferation, invasion, metastasis and tumorigenesis, all of which were almost completely inhibited by addition of an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inferring a crucial role of ROS in the overgrowth and malignant progression of lung cancer cells. Comparison of mRNA expression levels of six aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells advocated up-regulation of AKR1B10 as a major cause contributing to the lung cancer malignancy. In support of this, the elevation of invasive, metastatic and tumorigenic activities in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells was significantly abolished by the addition of a selective AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid. Intriguingly, zymographic and real-time PCR analyses revealed remarkable increases in secretion and expression, respectively, of matrix metalloproteinase 2 during the 9,10-PQ treatment, and suggested that the AKR1B10 up-regulation and resultant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are predominant mechanisms underlying the metalloproteinase induction. In addition, HPLC analysis and cytochrome c reduction assay in in vitro 9,10-PQ reduction by AKR1B10 demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes redox-cycling of this quinone, by which ROS are produced. Collectively, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is a key regulator involved in overgrowth and malignant progression of the lung cancer cells through ROS production due to 9,10-PQ redox-cycling. - Highlights: • 9,10-PQ promotes invasion, metastasis and tumorigenicity in lung cancer cells. • The 9,10-PQ-elicited promotion is possibly due to AKR1B10 up

  16. Reducing depression in 9-10 year old children in low SES schools: a longitudinal universal randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare M; Nesa, Monique

    2013-12-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOP-PTS) is an innovative curriculum-based mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. The program is aimed at preventing depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in middle primary school children aged 9-10 years. Students from 22 low SES primary schools (N = 910) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and assessed at baseline, post-test, 6 months and 18 months. The intervention group received the program implemented by teachers and the control group received their regular Health Education curriculum. Students completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, and attribution style. At risk students were further assessed with the computerised Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Parents reported on their children's externalising and internalising problems at home. Children in the intervention condition reported a significant pre-post reduction in depressive symptoms, and there was a significant pre-post reduction in parent-reported emotional difficulties which was maintained at 6 month follow-up; no changes were evident in the control group. Both groups showed significant improvements in child-reported anxiety and attribution style, and significant improvements in parent-reported pro-social behaviours. For both groups, there were no significant post-baseline changes in incidence and recovery rates for depression, anxiety, or internalising symptoms. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has the potential to treat depressive symptomatology in the immediate term but the effects were not sustained. There is also evidence of improved emotional resilience up to 6 months following the program. Further follow-up to investigate longer term effects is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environment and morphology of mesoscale convective systems associated with the Changma front during 9-10 July 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J.-H.; Lee, D.-I.; Wang, C.-C.; Jang, S.-M.; You, C.-H.; Jang, M.

    2012-08-01

    To understand the different environment and morphology for heavy rainfall during 9-10 July 2007, over the Korean Peninsula, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that accompanied the Changma front in two different regions were investigated. The sub-synoptic conditions were analysed using mesoscale analysis data (MANAL), reanalysis data, weather charts and Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-IR) data. Dual-Doppler radar observations were used to analyse the wind fields within the precipitation systems. During both the case periods, the surface low-pressure field intensified and moved northeastward along the Changma front. A low-level warm front gradually formed with an east-west orientation, and the cold front near the low pressure was aligned from northeast to southwest. The northern convective systems (meso-α-scale) were embedded within an area of stratiform cloud north of the warm front. The development of low-level pressure resulted in horizontal and vertical wind shear due to cyclonic circulation. The wind direction was apparently different across the warm front. In addition, the southeasterly flow (below 4 km) played an important role in generating new convective cells behind the prevailing convective cell. Each isolated southern convective cell (meso-β-scale) moved along the line ahead of the cold front within the prefrontal warm sector. These convective cells developed when a strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ) intensified and moisture was deeply advected into the sloping frontal zone. A high equivalent potential temperature region transported warm moist air in a strong southwesterly flow, where the convectively unstable air led to updraft and downdraft with a strong reflectivity core.

  18. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, September 9-10, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal,

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 9-10, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, aboard a Cessna C-210 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes of the beach and nearshore area, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML file was created using the photographic navigation files. The KML file can be found in the kml folder.

  19. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Christian; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco; Verwüster, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Oliver T; Forker, Roman; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Zojer, Egbert; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-02-23

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content.

  20. Contribution of hydrophobic effect to the sorption of phenanthrene, 9-phenanthrol and 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hongbo; Zhang, Di; Pan, Bo; Peng, Jinhui

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with diverse sources and acute toxicity, are categorized as priority pollutants. Previous studies have stated that the hydrophobic effect controls PAH sorption, but no study has been conducted to quantify the exact contribution of the hydrophobic effect. Considering the well-defined structure of carbon nanotubes and their stable chemical composition in organic solvents, three multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were selected as a model adsorbent. Phenanthrene (PHE) and its degradation intermediates 9-phenanthrol (PTR) and 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone (PQN) were used as model adsorbates. To quantify the contribution of the hydrophobic effect for these three chemicals, the effect of organic solvent (methanol and hexadecane) was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for PHE, PTR and PQN were well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. A positive relationship between adsorption affinities of these three chemicals and specific surface area (SSA) was observed in hexadecane but not in water or methanol. Other factors should be included other than SSA. Adsorption of PQN on MWCNTs with oxygen functional groups was higher than that on pristine MWCNTs due to π-π EDA interactions. The contribution of hydrophobic effect was 50%-85% for PHE, suggesting that hydrophobic effect was the predominant mechanism. This contribution was lower than 30% for PTR/PQN on functionalized MWCNTs. Hydrogen bonds control the adsorption of PTR, and π-π bonding interactions control PQN sorption after screening out the hydrophobic effect in hexadecane. Hydrophobic effect is the control mechanism for nonpolar chemicals, while functional groups of CNTs and solvent types control the adsorption of polar compounds. Extended work on quantifying the relationship between chemical structure and the contribution of the hydrophobic effect will provide a useful technique for PAH fate modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  2. Metabolism of 1-nitro(U-4,5,9,10-14C)pyrene in the F344 rat

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bayoumy, K.; Hecht, S.S.

    1984-10-01

    1-Nitro(U-4,5,9,10-14C)pyrene was synthesized and administered to male F344 rats by intragastric gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. During the first 48 hr, 41% of the dose was eliminated in the feces, and 16% was eliminated in the urine. The corresponding figures after 120 hr were 51 and 19%. In rats with bile cannulae, 37% of the dose was excreted in the bile after 72 hr, and 6% was excreted in the urine. Fecal metabolites included 1-aminopyrene (isolated amount, 11.7% of the dose), 1-amino-6-hydroxypyrene and 1-amino-8-hydroxypyrene (4.6%), and unchanged 1-nitropyrene (6.6%). 1-Aminopyrene and the 1-aminohydroxypyrenes were identified as their acetyl-derivatives by comparison of their chromatographic retention times, mass spectra, and UV spectra to those of synthetic standards. Biliary metabolites included 1-aminopyrene, 1-amino-6-hydroxypyrene, 1-amino-8-hydroxypyrene, 1-nitro-6(8)-hydroxypyrene, and 1-nitro-3-hydroxypyrene, as well as their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. The isolated amounts of these metabolites accounted for approximately 5% of the dose. 1-Amino-6-hydroxypyrene and 1-amino-8-hydroxypyrene and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were also tentatively identified in the urine and accounted for about 3% of the dose. Significant quantities of unidentified water soluble metabolites were present in the urine and bile. The results of this study indicate that metabolic reduction of the highly mutagenic 1-nitrohydroxypyrenes occurs in vivo in the rat and suggest that this is a possible activation pathway in 1-nitropyrene carcinogenesis.

  3. Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Cassidy, Aedín; Bentham, Graham; Griffin, Simon J

    2011-05-01

    The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between Fat Mass Index (FMI, calculated as fat mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and objectively computed environmental indicators describing access to food outlets and physical activity facilities, the safety and connectivity of the road network, and the mix of land uses present were investigated. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were fitted with log-transformed FMI as the outcome, and stratification by gender and mode of travel to school. Among girls, better access to healthy food outlets (supermarkets and greengrocers) in the home environment was associated with lower FMI while better access to unhealthy outlets (takeaways and convenience stores) around homes and schools was associated with higher FMI. Also in girls, a higher proportion of accessible open land and a lower mix of land uses around the school were associated with higher FMI. Among boys the presence of major roads in the home neighbourhood was associated with higher FMI among non-active travellers, while major roads in the school neighbourhood were associated with lower FMI among active travellers. No significant associations were seen between FMI and any of the route characteristics. While the relative paucity of associations provides few indicators for the design of effective interventions, there was some evidence that environmental characteristics may be more important among active travellers than non-active travellers, and among girls than boys, suggesting that future interventions should be sensitive to such differences.

  4. Formation of molecular hydrogen from protonated 9,10-dihydroanthracene: Is the ejected H2 rotationally and vibrationally excited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vala, Margin; Szczepanski, Jan; Oomens, Jos

    2011-12-01

    The infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of protonated 9,10-dihydroanthracene ([DHA+H]+, m/z 181) has been recorded using an infrared free electron laser. Protonation was accomplished by electrospray ionization with subsequent mass-selection and trapping in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. IR-induced fragment ions were observed at m/z 179, 166, and 165. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) of the infrared spectra of the two possible protonated isomers of DHA showed that the observed IRMPD spectrum is best fit to a mixture of the two isomers. Potential energy surfaces for the loss of atomic and molecular hydrogen from the aliphatic carbons of [DHA+H]+ have been calculated. The lowest energy barriers are for loss of H2. After H2 ejection, stabilization of the remaining fragment occurs by hydrogen migration from one of the aliphatic carbons to the bare ejection site. In all cases the stabilized fragment is computed to be 9-hydroanthracene. The IRMPD spectrum of the m/z 179 fragment has been recorded and is shown to correspond closely both to the calculated and previously recorded IRMPD spectrum of ionic 9-hydroanthracene. The highly asymmetric transition state conformation of the to-be-formed H2 and the remaining fragment is highly suggestive of rotational, vibrational, and, possibly, translational excitation of the ejected H2. Evidence for such excitation from astronomical observations that show the close proximity of PAHs and H2 in certain interstellar objects and that show H2 rotational excitation, which has been difficult to explain via either collisional activation or UV pumping, is reviewed.

  5. Effect of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and solvent on the rate of the Diels-Alder reaction between 9,10-anthracenedimethanol and maleic anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Kornilov, D. A.; Anikin, O. V.; Latypova, L. I.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    The rate of the reaction between 9,10-anthracenedimethanol and maleic anhydride in 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, trichloromethane, and toluene is studied at 25, 35, 45°C in the pressure range of 1-1772 bar. The rate constants, enthalpies, entropies and activation volumes are determined. It is shown that the rate of reaction with 9,10-anthracenedimethanol is approximately one order of magnitude higher than with 9-anthracenemethanol.

  6. 75 FR 47199 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-10 Series Airplanes, DC-9-30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Douglas Corporation Model DC- 9-10 Series Airplanes, DC-9-30 Series Airplanes, DC-9-81 (MD-81) Airplanes, DC-9-82 (MD-82) Airplanes, DC-9-83 (MD-83) Airplanes, DC-9- 87 (MD-87) Airplanes, MD-88 Airplanes... directive (AD), which applies to all McDonnell Douglas Model DC-9-10 series airplanes, DC-9-30 series...

  7. Effect of the orthoquinone moiety in 9,10-phenanthrenequinone on its ability to induce apoptosis in HCT-116 and HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Jun; Okujima, Tetsuo; Ishikura, Minoru; Abe, Takumi; Hibino, Satoshi; Choshi, Tominari; Okada, Chiaki; Yamada, Hiroko; Uno, Hidemitsu; Toyota, Eiko

    2013-08-15

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is one of the most abundant quinones among diesel exhaust particulates. Recent data have suggested that quinones induce apoptosis in immune, epithelial and tumor cells, leading to respirator illness; however, the mechanisms by which quinones induce apoptosis and the structure required for this remain unknown. We studied the antitumor activity of 9,10-PQ analogs against two human tumor cell lines, HCT-116 colon tumor cells and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. The loss of the cis-orthoquinone unit in 9,10-PQ abrogated its ability to induce apoptosis in the two tumor cell lines, and the LC50 values of these analogs were indicated over 10 μM. An analog of 9,10-PQ in which the biaryl unit had been deleted displayed a reduced ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis, while the analogs 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (9) and pyrene-4,5-dione (10), which also had modified biaryl units, exhibited increased tumor cell apoptotic activity. The cis-orthoquinone unit in 9,10-PQ was identified as essential for its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, and its biaryl unit is also considered to influence orthoquinone-mediated apoptotic activity.

  8. Chemistry of 1,1,2,2,9,9,10,10-octafluoro-[2,2]-paracyclophane: Its synthesis and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jian-Xin

    This dissertation describes the first example of the synthesis of 1,1,2,2,9,9,10,10-octafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane (AF4) under non-high-dilution conditions. Under very mild reaction conditions, bis-p-(chlorodifluoromethyl)benzene (TFPX dichloride) and its derivatives reacted with Zn dust in N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) (Zinc method) affording the corresponding AF4 and its derivatives in moderate to good yields. Purification of products was also studied and an efficient purification process was developed. A new and very cheap method for preparation of TFPX dichloride is also disclosed. Using the very cheap fluorinating reagent, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF), 1,4-bis(trichloromethyl)benezene or its derivatives were converted to TFPX and its derivatives in high yields (F/Cl exchange reaction). With the success of the Zinc method and F/Cl exchange reaction, highly pure AF4 thus can be provided to the semiconductor industry and academy research scientists in large quantity and at a very low price. Starting from AF4, numerous AF4 derivatives were synthesized using convenient reaction conditions. Reaction of AF4 with fuming nitric acid at room temperature gave mono-nitroAF4 in almost quantitative yield. Reduction of the mono-nitroAF4 with iron powder in the presence of HCl in alcoholic solvent gave the aminoAF4 in 90% yield. Via the diazonium salt intermediate, iodoAF4 was also obtained in good yield. Under similar reaction conditions, disubstituted AF4 derivatives were also prepared in good yields. Heating a mixture of AF4, trifluoroacetyl peroxide and dichloromethane gave the trifluoromethylated dimeric AF4 as a mixture of diastereomers. When these products were heated to 170--180°C in the presence of I 2, 4-trifluoromethyl-AF4 was obtained in almost 87% yield. X-ray structural analysis showed that the C-C bond connecting the two cyclophane moieties to be longer than the normal C-C bond. Kinetic studies, conducted in the presence of excess amount of hydrogen donor

  9. Availability of local food outlets is associated with weight status and dietary intake in 9-10 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; Jones, Andy P; Harrison, Flo; Bentham, Graham; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-01-01

    Background The rising rate of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Limited evidence suggests that there may be interactions between environmental factors at a neighbourhood level and the development of obesity, with the availability and accessibility of foods outlets being potentially important. Purpose To examine how the weight status and dietary intake of 1669 9-10 year-olds was associated with neighbourhood food-outlets in a cross-sectional study. Methods Availability of food outlets was computed from GIS data for each child’s unique neighbourhood. Outlets were grouped into BMI-healthy, BMI-unhealthy or BMI-intermediate categories according to food-type sold. Weight status measurements were objectively collected and food intake was recorded using four-day food-diaries. Data was collected in 2007 and analysed in 2009. Results Availability of BMI-healthy outlets in neighbourhoods was associated with lower body weight (1.3kg; p=0.03), BMI (0.5kg/m2; p=0.02), BMI z-score (0.20; p=0.02), waist circumference (1.3cm; p=0.02), and percentage body fat (1.1%; p=0.03) compared to no availability. In contrast, neighbourhood availability of BMI-unhealthy outlets was inversely associated with body weight (1.3kg; p=0.02), BMI (0.4kg/m2; p=0.05), BMI z-score (0.15; p=0.05), waist circumference (1.1cm; p=0.04), and percentage body fat (1.0%; p=0.03). Unhealthy food intake (fizzy drinks 15.3%; p=0.04, and non-carbonated ‘fruit’ drinks 11.8%; p=0.03) was also associated with availability of BMI-unhealthy food outlets. Conclusions This study suggests that features of the built environment relating to food purchasing opportunities are independent significant correlates of weight status in children. PMID:21406273

  10. Hydride abstraction from 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 5,12-dihydronaphthacene in an aprotic molten salt medium

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Dworkin, A.S.; Smith, G.P.

    1981-01-16

    The dissolution of 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA) in high purity aprotic molten SbCl/sub 3/-10 mol % AlCl/sub 3/ at temperatures from 100 to 130/sup 0/C results in prompt formation of anthracenium ion (1). In this case, 1 is generated by a formal hydride abstraction from some of the molecules of DHA while the hydrogen abstracted is transferred to unreacted molecules of DHA to form a mixture of THA, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,-octahydroanthracene (OHA), and other hydroanthracenes and/or hydroarenes. The role of the Sb/sup 3 +/ as an oxidant is evident in the recovery of stoichiometric amounts of Sb metal in the product mixtures. A similar reaction occurs for 5,12-dihydronaphthacene (DHN), producing the naphthacenium ion (2). The formation of 1 and 2 was followed by /sup 1/H NMR measurements on the melts both with and without a (CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/N/sup +/ internal standard. Their identities were confirmed by comparison of their respective integrated /sup 1/H NMR spectra with those obtained from authentic samples measured in various molten salt solvents. After quench and separation procedures, the organic reaction products were identified by GC, GC-MS, and high-performance LC. With DHA as the starting material, 20 to 25% of the product was found to be a mixture of hydroarenes about equally divided between those with mass 182 and those with mass 186. Of this 20 to 25%, the main products were THA (mass 182) and OHA (mass 186) with the rest made up of other isomeric hydroanthracenes and/or hydroarenes. The yield of anthracene found after hydrolysis of the reacted melt agreed with the yield of 1 in the melt determined from the NMR integration. With DHN as the starting material, essentially all of the hydrogenated product was found to be two tetrahydronaphthacenes, mass 232, and very little octahydronaphthacene or other mass 236 hydroarenes were detected.

  11. Dual effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine dependent on NQO1 activity: Suppressive or promotive of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Shinmen, Takuya; Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Ibuki, Yuko

    2012-11-01

    A typical antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) generally protects cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, produces ROS in redox cycling following two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which has been considered as a cause of its cyto- and genotoxicity. In this study, we show that NAC unexpectedly augments the toxicity of 9,10-PQ in cells with low NQO1 activity. In four human skin cell lines, the expression and the activity of NQO1 were lower than in human adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and MCF7. In the skin cells, the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ was significantly enhanced by addition of NAC. The formation of DNA double strand breaks accompanying phosphorylation of histone H2AX, was also remarkably augmented. On the other hand, the cyto- and genotoxicity were suppressed by addition of NAC in the adenocarcinoma cells. Two contrasting experiments: overexpression of NQO1 in CHO-K1 cells which originally expressed low NQO1 levels, and knock‐down of NQO1 in the adenocarcinoma cell line A549 by transfection of RNAi, also showed that NAC suppressed 9,10-PQ-induced toxicity in cell lines expressing high NQO1 activity and enhanced it in cell lines with low NQO1 activity. The results suggested that dual effects of NAC on the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on tissue-specific NQO1 activity. -- Highlights: ► NAC augmented the cytotoxicity of 9,10-PQ in skin cell lines. ► 9,10-PQ-induced DSBs accompanying γ-H2AX were also augmented by NAC. ► NAC suppressed the cyto- and genotoxicity of 9,10-PQ in adenocarcinoma cell lines. ► The dual effects of NAC on toxicity of 9,10-PQ were dependent on NQO1 activity.

  12. Lycopene and apo-10'-lycopenoic acid have differential mechanisms of protection against hepatic steatosis in β-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase knockout male mice.

    PubMed

    Ip, Blanche C; Liu, Chun; Lichtenstein, Alice H; von Lintig, Johannes; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is positively associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid (APO10LA), a potential oxidation product of apo-10'-lycopenal that is generated endogenously by β-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) cleavage of lycopene, inhibited hepatic steatosis in BCO2-expressing mice. The present study evaluated lycopene and APO10LA effects on hepatic steatosis in mice without BCO2 expression. Male and female BCO2-knockout (BCO2-KO) mice were fed a high saturated fat diet (HSFD) with or without APO10LA (10 mg/kg diet) or lycopene (100 mg/kg diet) for 12 wk. Lycopene or APO10LA supplementation reduced hepatic steatosis incidence (78% and 72%, respectively) and severity in BCO2-KO male mice. Female mice did not develop steatosis, had greater hepatic total cholesterol (3.06 vs. 2.31 mg/g tissue) and cholesteryl ester (1.58 vs. 0.86 mg/g tissue), but had lower plasma triglyceride (TG) (229 vs. 282 mg/dL) and cholesterol (97.1 vs. 119 mg/dL) than male mice. APO10LA-mitigated steatosis in males was associated with reduced hepatic total cholesterol (18%) and activated sirtuin 1 signaling, which resulted in reduced fatty acids (FAs) and TG synthesis markers [stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase protein, 71%; acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, 79%; AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, 67%], and elevated cholesterol efflux genes (cytochrome P450 family 7A1, 65%; ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/8, 11%). These APO10LA-mediated effects were not mimicked by lycopene supplementation. Intriguingly, steatosis inhibition by lycopene induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α- and PPARγ-related genes in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) that increases mitochondrial uncoupling [cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, α subunit-like effector a, 55%; PR domain-containing 16, 47%; uncoupling protein 3 (Ucp3), 55%], FA β-oxidation (PPARα, 53%; very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 38%), and

  13. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  14. Molecular characterization of mutation and comparison of mutation profiles in the hprt gene of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide, 1-nitrobenzol[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide, and 3-nitrobenzol[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, D.J.; Heflich, R.H.; Fu, P.P.

    1996-12-31

    Both 1- and 3-nitrobenzol[a] pyrene (nitro-BaP) are environmental contaminants, potent mutagens in Salmonella, and moderate mutagens in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The mutagenicity of their oxidized metabolites, trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1-nitrobenzol[a]pyrene (1-nitro-BaP-DE) and trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-3-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (3-nitro-BaP-DE), together with trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzol[a]pyren (BaP-DE), was determined in CHO-K1 cells, and the resulting mutations at the hprt locus were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of reverse-transcribed hprt mRNA, followed by DNA sequence analysis. The mutant frequencies, in mutants/10{sup 6} clonable cells, at 30 and 100 ng/ml, were BaP-DE, 248 and 456; 1-nitro-BaP-DE, 68 and 260; 3-nitro-BaP-DE, 81 and 232, respectively. In general, the three diolepoxides exhibited similar mutational spectra: (1) 64% (23/36 sequenced mutants) of BaP-DE, 53% (19/36) of 1-nitro-BaP-DE, and 64% (23/36) of 3-nitro-BaP-DE mutants resulted from simple base pair substitution, with the predominant mutation being G{r_arrow}T transversion: (2) 90%, 100%, and 100% of mutations at G:C had the mutated dG on the nontranscribed DNA strand; and (3) about one quarter of the mutants produced by each mutagen had one or more PCR products with partial or complete exon deletions. 61 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  16. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  17. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  18. 9,10-Dihydrophenanthrene derivatives and one 1,4-anthraquinone firstly isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Zhang, Rui; Xing, Zhihua; Liang, Yuyan; Li, Shengfu; Jin, Tao; Xia, Qing; Long, Dan; Xin, Guang; Wang, Guangzhi; Huang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Two new phenanthrene derivatives, 2,5,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4-dione (1) and 2,5,6-trihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3), one new anthracenedione, 2,5,7-trimethoxyanthracene-1,4-dione (2), together with two known 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes (4-5) were isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of these new compounds were established based on extensive NMR spectroscopy. Several isolated compounds were evaluated for the inhibition against nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, DPPH radical scavenging, and inhibitory activity on Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) induced triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells. Compound 2 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activity, compound 3 possessed comparable DPPH radical scavenging activity as Vitamin C, compounds 2 and 4 showed potent inhibitory activities on triglyceride accumulation.

  19. The Sizes of Candidate z˜9-10 Galaxies: Confirmation of the Bright CANDELS Sample and Relation with Luminosity and Mass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bouwens, R.; Oesch, P.; Smit, R.; Illingworth, G.; Labbe, I.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a small sample of six z ˜ 9-10 candidates was discovered in CANDELS that are ˜ 10-20× more luminous than any of the previous z ˜ 9-10 galaxies identified over the HUDF/XDF and CLASH fields. We measure the sizes of these candidates to map out the size evolution of galaxies from the earliest observable times. Their sizes are also used to provide a valuable constraint on whether these unusual galaxy candidates are at high redshift. Using galfit to derive sizes from the CANDELS F160W images of these candidates, we find a mean size of 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 13+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (or 0.5 ± 0.1 kpc at z ˜ 9-10). This handsomely matches the 0.6 kpc size expected extrapolating lower-redshift measurements to z ˜ 9-10, while being much smaller than the 0.″59 mean size for lower-redshift interlopers to z ˜ 9-10 photometric selections lacking the blue IRAC color criterion. This suggests that source size may be an effective constraint on contaminants from z ˜ 9-10 selections lacking IRAC data. Assuming on the basis of the strong photometric evidence that the Oesch et al. sample is entirely at z ˜ 9-10, we can use this sample to extend current constraints on the size-luminosity, size-mass relation, and size evolution of galaxies to z˜ 10. We find that the z ˜ 9-10 candidate galaxies have broadly similar sizes and luminosities as z˜ 6-8 counterparts with star formation rate surface densities in the range of {{{Σ }}}{SFR}=1-20 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. The stellar mass-size relation is uncertain, but shallower than those inferred for lower-redshift galaxies. In combination with previous size measurements at z = 4-7, we find a size evolution of {(1+z)}-m with m=1.0+/- 0.1 for \\gt 0.3L{*}z=3 galaxies, consistent with the evolution previously derived from 2\\lt z\\lt 8 galaxies.

  20. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Receptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Judy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The syllabus for a refresher course on the physiology and biochemistry of receptors (presented at the 1983 American Physiological Society meeting) is provided. Topics considered include receptor regulation, structural/functional aspects of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors, calcium channel inhibitors, and role of lipoprotein…

  1. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Receptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Judy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The syllabus for a refresher course on the physiology and biochemistry of receptors (presented at the 1983 American Physiological Society meeting) is provided. Topics considered include receptor regulation, structural/functional aspects of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors, calcium channel inhibitors, and role of lipoprotein…

  2. Youth Speaks ... P.E.I. Listens! Young Leaders' Forum 2007. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, March 9-10, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the Young Leaders' Forum held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (PEI), on March 9-10, 2007. The event was part of the Rural Dialogue, an on-going, two-way discussion between the Government of Canada and Canadians from rural, remote and northern regions. Launched in 1998, the Rural…

  3. Proceedings of the Special Demonstration Workshop for Integrating Blind Children with Sighted Children into Ongoing Physical Education and Recreation Programs (Cleveland, Ohio, October 9-10, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boninger, Walter B., Ed.

    A special education workshop (Cleveland, Ohio, October 9-10, 1969) for integrating blind children with sighted children into ongoing physical education and recreation programs is described. Physical education and blind children from the viewpoint of opthalmology, social and psychological aspects of blindness as they relate to participation in…

  4. Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB): Alternate Forms Reliability (Forms 8, 9, 10, and 11). Technical Paper for Period October 1980-April 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Pamla; And Others

    A study investigated the alternate forms reliability of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Forms 8, 9, 10, and 11. Usable data were obtained from 62,938 armed services applicants who took the ASVAB in January and February 1983. Results showed that the parallel forms reliability coefficients between ASVAB Form 8a and the…

  5. 21 CFR 73.3100 - 1,4-Bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,4-Bis -9,10-anthracenedione bis(2-propenoic)ester copolymers. 73.3100 Section 73.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with these uses shall not be construed...

  6. Effectiveness of McGraw Hill's "Jamestown Reading Navigator" in Grades 9-10: A Study of Intensive Reading Classes in Miami-Dade High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Atienza, Sara; Lai, Garrett; Ma, Boya; Sterling, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study designed to provide evidence of the effectiveness of the "Jamestown Reading Navigator" ("JRN") program for students in grades 9-10 was conducted in the Miami Dade Public School District (MDCSD). "Jamestown Reading Navigator" is a reading intervention program developed by McGraw-Hill…

  7. Final Closure Letter for Administrative Complaint Numbers 03R-07-R9, 10R-07-R9 and 01R-11R9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On 6-7-2017, ECRCO issued a closure letter for Admin Complaint Numbers 03r-07-r9, 10r-07-r9 and 01r-11-r9 involving the Maricopa County Air Quality Department regarding alleged complaints that MCAQD violated Title 6 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

  8. High-performance sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone/CMK-3 cathode and an ether-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunyang; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qing; Pei, Longkai; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-25

    We here report a much improved electrochemical performance of sodium batteries with the 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) cathode encapsulated in CMK-3, an ether-based electrolyte of high-concentration CF3SO3Na (NaTFS) as a sodium salt in triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) solvent, and the Na anode.

  9. Effectiveness of McGraw Hill's "Jamestown Reading Navigator" in Grades 9-10: A Study of Intensive Reading Classes in Miami-Dade High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Atienza, Sara; Lai, Garrett; Ma, Boya; Sterling, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study designed to provide evidence of the effectiveness of the "Jamestown Reading Navigator" ("JRN") program for students in grades 9-10 was conducted in the Miami Dade Public School District (MDCSD). "Jamestown Reading Navigator" is a reading intervention program developed by McGraw-Hill…

  10. Synthesis of Water-soluble 9,10-Anthraquinone Analogues with Potent Cyanobactericidal Activity Toward the Musty-Odor Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of water-soluble 9,10-anthraquinone analogs were prepared and evaluated for their selective toxicity towards Oscillatoria perornata which grows in catfish production ponds and causes “musty” off-flavor in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Water-soluble mono- and dicationic salts were pre...

  11. Acupuncture in modern society.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Kristin; Yi, Xiaobin

    2009-03-01

    For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health, acupuncture focuses on restoring qi by manipulation of the complementary and opposing elements of yin and yang. However, in the modern medical community we struggle to with the concept of qi, given a lack of anatomic and histological evidence supporting its existence. However, with the surge in public interest in acupuncture, the scientific community begun heavy investigation of acupuncture's efficacy, as well as the physiologic basis behind it. Thus far, evidence supports the use of acupuncture in post-operative nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, chronic pain conditions such as lower back pain, and possibly also such psychologic conditions as addiction. It is possible that by affecting afferent nerve signaling, acupuncture may influence the release of endogenous opioids to promote pain relief. This effect may be augmented by release of ACTH and cortisol, as well as through down-regulation of signaling through pain fibers. When treating patients who may utilize alternative forms of medicine, it is important that medical practitioners be educated in regards to the basic fundamental beliefs behind acupuncture, as well as the scientific evidence supporting its use and revealing its efficacy. The purpose of this review is to give western trained physicians exposure to history, basic knowledge and its clinical applications of acupuncture to accommodate accelerating interests in acupuncture in modern society.

  12. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Expert Panel Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Online Communities Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  13. Society of Gynecologic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myers, MD SGS Mission The mission of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons is to promote excellence in ... research, and professional and public education. Research The Society prides itself in mentoring young gynecologic surgeons and ...

  14. American Urogynecologic Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2017 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Scoliosis Research Society

    MedlinePlus

    Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate Patients and Families Professionals ... Find a Specialist Calendar Contact Donate Scoliosis Research Society Dedicated to the optimal care of patients with ...

  16. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... SRS is a professional group of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies and groups. Reproductive Facts Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  17. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  18. American Cancer Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... your friends, your family, and the American Cancer Society help you take a step closer toward a ... DNA Offers Lung Cancer Clues An American Cancer Society grantee discovers a non-coding gene that may ...

  19. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  20. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  1. Physiological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  2. Highly Efficient Blue Organic-Light Emitting Diodes Based on 9,10-Diphenylanthracene End-Capped 5H-Pyrido[3,2-b]lndole Groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul Bee; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two blue emitters based on 9,10-diphenylanthracene and 5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole were designed and synthesized for OLEDs. Among those, a device using 5-(9,10-diphenyl-2-(5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indol-5-yl)anthracen-6-yl)-5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole (2) exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 5.99 cd/A, 2.70 lm/W and 3.94% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device were (x = 0.15, y = 0.21) at 6.0 V.

  3. Anthracene-9, 10-dione derivatives induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (CaSki) by interfering with HPV E6 expression.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Supranee; Sangphech, Naunpun; Palaga, Tanapat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Puthong, Songchan; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2014-04-22

    A new series of anthracene-9, 10-dione derivatives have been synthesized to increase cytotoxic activity against human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cancer cell line, CaSki. The highest cytotoxicity was achieved by 4-(benzylamino)-9,10-dioxo-4a,9,9a,10-tetrahydroanthracen-1-yl 4-ethylbenzenesulfonate (5) with the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of 0.3 μM which is 20 times lower than that of cisplatin (CDDP; IC50 = 8.0 μM). The toxicity against non-cancerous cell line, WI-38, was low with the IC50 > 10 μM. Treatment with this compound resulted in decreasing HPV E6 expression. Furthermore, increasing p53 and decreasing Bcl-2 expression were noted. Cell cycle profiles revealed an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase.

  4. Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering study of the orientation of cruciform 9,10-anthracene thiophene and furan derivatives deposited on a gold colloidal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Pérez, J.; Leyton, P.; Paipa, C.; Soto, J. P.; Brunet, J.; Gómez-Jeria, J. S.; Campos-Vallette, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The 9,10-di(thiophen-2-yl)anthracene (TAT), 9,10-di(furan-2-yl)anthracene (FAF) and 2-[(10-(thiophen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)]furan (TAF) cruciform molecular systems were synthesized using one-step coupling reactions and structurally characterized via Raman, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The orientation of the analytes on a gold colloidal surface was inferred from a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study. The metal surface interaction was driven by the S and O atoms of the thiophene and furan α-substituents, and the plane of the anthracene fragment remained parallel to the surface. Theoretical calculations based on a simplified molecular model for the analyte-surface interaction provide a good representation of the experimental data.

  5. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. [Tetrahydropyrene and hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H[sub 2] hydrogenation reaction network.

  6. Molecular characterization of mutation and comparison of mutation profiles in the hprt gene of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide, 1-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-7,8-diol-anti-9,10-epoxide, and 3-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene trans-7,8- diol-anti-9,10-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Zhan, D J; Heflich, R H; Fu, P P

    1996-01-01

    Both 1- and 3-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (nitro-BaP) are environmental contaminants, potent mutagens in Salmonella, and moderate mutagens in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The mutagenicity of their oxidized metabolites,trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-epoxy -7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (1-nitro-BaP-DE) and trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-3-nitrobenzo[a]- pyrene (3-nitro-BaPDE), together with trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9, 10-ep- oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BaP-DE), was determined in CHO-K1 cells, and the resulting mutations at the hprt locus were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of reverse-transcribed hprt mRNA, followed by DNA sequence analysis. The mutant frequencies, in mutants/10(6) clonable cells, at 30 and 100 ng/ml, were BaP-DE, 248 and 456; 1-nitro-BaP-DE, 68 and 260; 3-nitro-BaP-DE, 81 and 232, respectively. In general, the three diolepoxides exhibited similar mutational spectra: 1) 64% (23/36 sequenced mutants) of BaP-DE, 53% (19/36) of 1-nitro-BaP-DE, and 64% (23/36) of 3-nitro-BaP-DE mutants resulted from simple base pair substitution, with the predominant mutation being G-->T transversion; 2) 90%, 100%, and 100% of mutations at G:C had the mutated dG on the nontranscribed DNA strand; and 3) about one quarter of the mutants produced by each mutagen had one or more PCR products with partial or complete exon deletions. The mutagens induced few frameshifts or complex mutations. Among the differences in mutational specificity for the three diolepoxides, the proportion of substituted dGs with 3' purines was significant (P < 0.05) for BaP-DE (16/19, 84%) and 3-nitro-BaP-DE (17/20, 85%), but not significant for 1-nitro-BaP-DE-induced mutants (11/17, 65%, P > 0.05). Also, high proportions of BaP-DE and 3-nitro-BaP-DE base pair substitutions at G:C occurred in DNA sequence contexts of 5'-GG-3', 5'-GGA-3', and 5'-TGGA-3', while the proportions of 1-nitro-BaP-DE mutants in these

  7. 75 FR 38017 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-10 Series Airplanes, DC-9-30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Corporation Model DC- 9-10 Series Airplanes, DC-9-30 Series Airplanes, DC-9-81 (MD-81) Airplanes, DC-9-82 (MD-82) Airplanes, DC-9-83 (MD-83) Airplanes, DC-9- 87 (MD-87) Airplanes, MD-88 Airplanes, and MD-90-30..., Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of...

  8. Emission enhancing characteristics in electrochemiluminescence devices by 9,10-diphenylanthracene dye-highly scattering TiO2 solid-nanoparticle mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Yagyu, K.; Taniguchi, H.

    2010-02-01

    Emission enhancing effects in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) device of 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) dye-solution containing a mixture of highly scattering TiO2 nanoparticles were observed. We confirmed experimentally that there exists an optimum quantity of the highly scattering TiO2 nanoparticles assisting the emission enhancement in the ECL device of DPA solution. An agreement, between experiment and theory, of the optimum quantity depending on particle size of nanoparticles is discussed and confirmed.

  9. Inheritance is where physiology meets evolution.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Etienne; Pocheville, Arnaud

    2014-06-01

    Physiology and evolutionary biology have developed as two separated disciplines, a separation that mirrored the hypothesis that the physiological and evolutionary processes could be decoupled. We argue that non-genetic inheritance shatters the frontier between physiology and evolution, and leads to the coupling of physiological and evolutionary processes to a point where there exists a continuum between accommodation by phenotypic plasticity and adaptation by natural selection. This approach is also profoundly affecting the definition of the concept of phenotypic plasticity, which should now be envisaged as a multi-scale concept. We further suggest that inclusive inheritance provides a quantitative way to help bridging infra-individual (i.e. physiology) with supra-individual (i.e. evolution) approaches, in a way that should help building the long sough inclusive evolutionary synthesis. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. Skin-tumor-initiating ability of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti) when applied topically in tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Slaga, T J; Viaje, A; Bracken, W M; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Leclerc, S M

    1977-07-01

    The skin-tumor-initiating abilities of various metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) were determined in mice by using a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. We previously reported that BP-7,8-dihydrodiol (+/- trans) was approximately as potent as BP, suggesting that it may be a proximate carcinogen, but the alleged ultimate carcinogen of BP [BP-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (anti)] was a weak tumor initiator (Cancer Lett.2: 115, 1976). Because of its high reactivity, the tumor-initiating ability of the BP-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (anti) was determined by using acetone, benzene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the solvent vehicles. The 'diol-epoxide' of BP was found to be an effective tumor initiator when applied topically in THF. The effectiveness of the various vehicles for the 'diol-epoxide' was as follows: THF greater than benzene greater than acetone; however, acetone was the best solvent for BP tumor initiation. The BP-9,10-dihydrodiol and BP-3-hydroxy were found to be weak tumor initiators. BP-3-hydroxy was also tested for tumor-promoting ability and was found to be inactive in this capacity.

  11. Potassium physiology.

    PubMed

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  12. Developing a Nationwide K-12 Outreach Model: Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieben, Margaret; Halpin, Patricia A.; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2017-01-01

    Since 2005, nearly 600 Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn Week) events have taken place across the U.S., involving American Physiological Society (APS) members in K-12 outreach. The program seeks to build student understanding of physiology and physiology careers, assist teachers in recognizing physiology in their standards-based curriculum, and…

  13. Hypertension: physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hall, John E; Granger, Joey P; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Dubinion, John; George, Eric; Hamza, Shereen; Speed, Joshua; Hall, Michael E

    2012-10-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is still the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and is globally responsible for more than 7 million deaths annually. Short-term and long-term BP regulation involve the integrated actions of multiple cardiovascular, renal, neural, endocrine, and local tissue control systems. Clinical and experimental observations strongly support a central role for the kidneys in the long-term regulation of BP, and abnormal renal-pressure natriuresis is present in all forms of chronic hypertension. Impaired renal-pressure natriuresis and chronic hypertension can be caused by intrarenal or extrarenal factors that reduce glomerular filtration rate or increase renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water; these factors include excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, and inflammatory cytokines, or decreased synthesis of nitric oxide and various natriuretic factors. In human primary (essential) hypertension, the precise causes of impaired renal function are not completely understood, although excessive weight gain and dietary factors appear to play a major role since hypertension is rare in nonobese hunter-gathers living in nonindustrialized societies. Recent advances in genetics offer opportunities to discover gene-environment interactions that may also contribute to hypertension, although success thus far has been limited mainly to identification of rare monogenic forms of hypertension. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  14. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) characteristics of some 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives using binary acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Hemmateenejad, B; Shamsipur, M; Safavi, A; Sharghi, H; Amiri, A A

    2008-10-19

    The retention behavior of 28 synthesized 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives in a reversed-phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system has been studied on a C18-RP column using acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phase. The influences of the composition of mobile phase and the solute structure on the retention times of 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives were investigated by linear solvation free energy relationship (LSFER) and quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analyses. Among different solvatochromic parameters of solvent systems, their polarity/polarizability parameter (pi*) was identified as the controlling factor affecting retention behavior of these compounds. A four-parametric QSRR model was obtained between solute structures and retention indices. Finally, a unified model containing both the molecular structure parameters and mobile phase properties was developed to describe the chromatographic behavior of the systems studied. The resulted QSRR models could explain and predict higher than 90% of variances in the retention indices. Among the solvent properties, polarity/polarizability parameter (pi*), and among the solute properties, HATS5v (leverage-weighted autocorrelation of lag 5/weighted by atomic van der Waals volumes, GETAWAY descriptors), Mor14p (3D-MoRSE-signal 14/weighted by atomic polarizabilities, 3D-MoRSE descriptors), GATS5p (Geary autocorrelation-lag 5/weighted by atomic polarizabilities, 2D autocorrelations) and R6u+(R maximal autocorrelation of lag 6/unweighted, GETAWAY descriptors) were identified as controlling factors in the RP-HPLC behavior of 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives in actonitrile-water binary solvents.

  15. Quantitative assessment of glial cells in the human and guinea pig enteric nervous system with an anti-Sox8/9/10 antibody.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Sebastian; Zeller, Florian; von Weyhern, Claus Werner Hann; Wegner, Michael; Schemann, Michael; Michel, Klaus; Rühl, Anne

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative changes of enteric glia (EGC) have been implicated in gastrointestinal disorders. To facilitate future studies of EGC in human pathology, we aimed to characterize thoroughly glial markers in the human enteric nervous system (ENS) and to compare EGC in man and guinea pig. Whole-mount preparations of the enteric nerve plexuses from human and guinea pig ileum and colon were labeled with antibodies against S100b, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and p75NGFR and the transcription factors Sox8/9/10 and neuronally counterstained. Abundant immunoreactivity (IR) for S100b, GFAP, p75NGFR, and Sox8/9/10 was detected in EGC of all studied regions. Although the cytoplasmatic staining pattern of most markers did not permit glial quantification, the nuclear localization of Sox8/9/10-IR allowed to identify and count all EGC individually. In both man and guinea pig, myenteric ganglia were larger and contained more EGC and neurons than submucous ganglia. Furthermore, there were more EGC in the human than in the guinea pig myenteric plexus (MP), glial density was consistently higher in the human ENS, and the glia index (glia:neuron ratio) ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 and from 5.9 to 7.0 in the human submucous plexus (SMP) and MP, respectively, whereas, in guinea pig, the glia index was 0.8-1.0 in the SMP and 1.7 in the MP. The glia index was the most robust quantitative descriptor within one species. This is a comprehensive set of quantitative EGC measures in man and guinea pig that provides a basis for pathological assessment of glial proliferation and/or degeneration in the diseased gut.

  16. Two New 3,4;9,10-seco-Cycloartane Type Triterpenoids from Illicium difengpi and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuntong; Xi, Fengmin; Mi, Junling; Chen, Wansheng

    2013-01-01

    A pair of new 3,4;9,10-seco-cycloartane type triterpenoid stereoisomerides: 24R,25-dihydroxy-3,4;9,10-seco-4(28)-cycloarten-10,3-olide (1) named Illiciumolide A and 24S,25-dihydroxy-3,4;9,10-seco-4(28)-cycloarten-10,3-olide (2) named Illiciumolide B were isolated from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi, as well as five known biogenetically related triterpenoids, including sootepin E (3), betulinic acid (4), lupeol (5), (all-Z)-1,5,9,13,17,21-hexamethyl-1,5,9,13,17,21-cyclotertracosahexaene (6), and (all-E)-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (7). The structures of two new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS techniques. Two assays were conducted: inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in RAW264. 7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was observed that compounds 1, 2 and 7 showed significant inhibition of TNF-α production and NF-κB release. The molecule docking results showed that compounds 1 and 2 got high fitness scores with dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MPKK1), whose activation plays a pivotal role between TNF-α and activation of NF-κB. The anti-HIV-1 potency of compounds 1–5 was also discussed, in addition to the results of computer-aided screening for targets. PMID:23762173

  17. Features of the Diels-Alder reaction between 9,10-diphenylanthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Kornilov, D. A.; Kashaeva, E. A.; Potapova, L. N.; Krivolapov, D. B.; Litvinov, I. A.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction between substituted anthracenes 1a-1j and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5 ( 2) is studied. In all cases except one, the reaction proceeds on the most active 9,10-atoms of substituted anthracenes. The orthogonality of the two phenyl groups at the 9,10-position of diene 1a is found to shield 9,10-reactive centers. No dienophiles with C=C bonds are shown to participate in the Diels-Alder reaction with 1a; however, the reaction 1a + 2 proceeds with the very active dienophile 2,4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione. It is shown that attachment occurs on the less active but sterically accessible 1,4-reactive center of diene 1a. The structure of adduct 3a is proved by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The following parameters are obtained for reaction 1a + 2 ⇆ 3a in toluene at 25°C: K eq = 2120 M-1, Δ Hf ≠ = 58.6 kJ/mol, Δ Sf ≠ = -97 J/(mol K), Δ Vf ≠ = -17.2 cm3/mol, Δ Hb ≠ = 108.8 kJ/mol, Δ Sb ≠ = 7.3 J/(mol K), Δ Vb ≠ = -0.8 cm3/mol, Δ H r-n = -50.2 kJ/mol, Δ S r-n = -104.3 J/(mol K), Δ V r-n = -15.6 cm3/mol. It is concluded that the values of equilibrium constants of the reactions 1a-1j + 2 ⇆ 3a-3j vary within 4 × 101-1011 M-1.

  18. Identification of mutagenic electrophiles in chlorinated water and characterization of nucleoside adducts formed in DNA by phenanthrene-9,10-oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, W.

    1992-01-01

    This research has been directed towards identifying mutagens that are present in chlorinated drinking water and investigating the addition reactions of two mutagens that may be present, 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-(5H)-furanone (MX) and phenanthrene-9,10-oxide (PhO), with nucleophiles such as thiols and DNA. An immobilized nucleophile, 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNB) attached by an ester linkage to a polysaccharide coating of controlled pore glass, was used to trap the unknown mutagenic electrophiles present in chlorinated drinking water, permitting the removal of the bulk of noncovalently bound matrix by washing. This was followed by the release, isolation and identification of the trapped unknowns. Overall recovery of model electrophiles from this process was up to 67%. MX was reacted with the nucleophile 4-nitrothiophenol (NTP) in order to investigate the types of addition products that might be formed. Attempts were made to determine the stability of MX in solution, optimize MX-NTP reaction conditions and isolate the addition products using HPLC. Characterization of the DNA adducts formed by a second mutagenic electrophile, phenanthrene-9,10-oxide (PhO), was performed. The reaction of PhO with DNA formed covalent nucleoside adducts at the exocyclic amino groups of 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA, 42.9%) and 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG, 52.2%), in addition to a minor 2'-deoxycytidine (dC, 4.9%) adduct. In order to determine unequivocally the structures of the chiral pairs of cis and trans dA adducts formed from PhO, the adducts were chemically synthesized from chiral cis and trans 9-amino-10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene of known configuration. Assignment of absolute configurations of the four PhO-dA adducts formed in DNA was accomplished by comparison of their HPLC retention times and circular dichroism spectra with those of synthesized adducts.

  19. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  20. Quantitative structure-property relationship study of acidity constants of some 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives using multiple linear regression and partial least-squares procedures.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, M; Hemmateenejad, B; Akhond, M; Sharghi, H

    2001-07-06

    A quantitative structure-property relationship study is suggested for the prediction of acidity constants of some recently synthesized 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives in binary methanol-water mixtures. Modeling of the acidity constant of the anthraquinones as a function of physicochemical parameters and mole fraction of methanol was established by means of the partial least-squares algorithm based on singular value decomposition (PLS-SVD) and multiple linear regression. The PLS-SVD procedure resulted in a better prediction ability and was found to be insensitive to noneffective descriptors. The classification of anthraquinones by the calculated descriptors was established.

  1. Improved efficiency for green and red emitting electroluminescent devices using the same cohost composed of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene and tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianzhuo; Li, Wenlian; Chu, Bei; Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Yiren; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Shuanghong

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient green and red fluorescence dyes-doped electroluminescent devices using cohost strategy. The cohost system is composed of tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq) and 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN). The maximum current efficiencies are increased by 54% and 104% for green and red devices by optimizing the ratio between ADN and Alq in the cohost compared to the conventional Alq single-host devices, respectively. We attribute the improvement of efficiencies to balanced hole and electron injection into the emitting layer, the enlarged width of recombination region and the multiple emission processes.

  2. Solution-processed high-performance flexible 9, 10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene organic single-crystal transistor and ring oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaozhou; Ji, Deyang; Jiang, Lang; Zhao, Guangyao; Tan, Jiahui; Tian, Guofeng; Li, Jingze; Hu, Wenping

    2014-02-01

    Organic semiconductor of 9, 10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) single crystal ribbon with ultra-long length has been prepared by solution drop casting method, where the growth direction was controlled with the seed crystal. The BPEA single crystal ribbon based field-effect transistors show high hole mobility up to 3.2 cm2/V.s, and the inverters exhibited the highest gain of 92. The complex device such as 5-stage ring oscillator consisting of 10 transistors was also constructed on a single crystal ribbon. This straightforward methodology was applied to fabricate plastic transistors on the flexible substrate, showing high performance even after repeatedly bending of 300 times.

  3. Mutagenic activity of the 4,5- and 9,10-dihydrodiols of benzo[i]fluoranthene and their syn- and anti-dihydrodiol epoxides in Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, M.V. ); He, Z.M.; Weyand, E.H.; Rice, J.E.; LaVoie, E.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative mutagenic activities of the major dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo[i]fluoranthene (B[i]F) and their corresponding syn- and anti-dihydrodiol epoxides. Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97a, TA98, and TA100 were used to evaluate the mutagenic potencies of the parent hydrocarbon and these suspect proximate and ultimate mutagenic metabolites. B[i]F and the trans-dihydrodiol metabolites were active only in the presence of an external metabolic activation system (S9) with the exception of the B[i]F-4,5-diol, which was weakly active in TA98 and TA100 in the absence of S9. The B[i]F-4,5-diol was more mutagenic than the B[i]F-9,10-diol in tester strains TA98 and TA100, whereas the opposite effect was observed in TA97a. In the absence of S9, the anti-B[i]F-4,5-diol epoxide was more mutagenic than the syn-B[i]F-4,5-diol epoxide and the syn- and anti-B[i]F-9,10-diol epoxides in tester strains TA97a and TA100. The exceptional mutagenic potency of the anti-B[i]F-4,5-diol epoxide in TA100 resembles that observed by epoxides located within a fjord, or by the anti-diol epoxides of bay region methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the mutagenicity of the pseudo bay region dihydrodiol epoxides arising from the B[i]F-9,10-diol more closely resembles that observed with the classical bay region dihydrodiol epoxides of chrysene. In summary, both dihydrodiol metabolites of B[i]F are mutagenic in S. typhimurium, and the relative potency varies among the tester strains. The highest mutagenic response was achieved in tester strain TA100, which detects base-pair substitutions. The most potent direct-acting dihydrodiol epoxide in this tester strain was the anti-B[i]F-4,5-diol epoxide, which agrees with the results of mouse skin painting studies that indicate that the B[i]F-4,5-diol is more tumorigenic than the parent hydrocarbon or the B[i]F-9,10-diol. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  5. It's Difficult to Change the Way We Teach: Lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology Curriculum Module Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Thorn, Patti M.; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2006-01-01

    The Integrative Themes in Physiology (ITIP) project was a National Science Foundation-funded collaboration between the American Physiological Society (APS) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms.…

  6. It's Difficult to Change the Way We Teach: Lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology Curriculum Module Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Thorn, Patti M.; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2006-01-01

    The Integrative Themes in Physiology (ITIP) project was a National Science Foundation-funded collaboration between the American Physiological Society (APS) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms.…

  7. Highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on β-cyclodextrin-gold@3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns for simultaneous determination of myricetin and rutin.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Yang, Long; Zhang, Jianqiang; Deng, Guogang; Li, Yucong; Xie, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Hui; Li, Can-Peng

    2015-09-10

    The application of macrocyclic hosts for construction of different electrochemical devices and separation matrices has attracted much attentions due to their benign biocompatibility and simplicity of synthesis. Myricetin and rutin are considered two of the most bioactive flavonoids, which have been proved to exhibit various physiological functions. This work reports a simple and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-gold@3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanohorns (β-CD-Au@PTCA-SWCNHs) nanohybrids. The simultaneous electrochemical determination of myricetin and rutin using a β-CD-Au@PTCA-SWCNHs-modified glassy carbon electrode was established. The results show that the β-CD-Au@PTCA-SWCNHs-modified electrode displayed electrochemical signal superior to those of Au@PTCA-;SWCNHs and SWCNHs towards myricetin and rutin. The proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 0.01-10.00 μM both for myricetin and rutin with relatively low detection limits of 0.0038 μM for myricetin and 0.0044 μM (S/N = 3) for rutin, respectively. The excellent performance of the sensing platform is considered to be the synergic effects of the SWCNHs (e.g. their good electrochemical properties and large surface area) and β-CD (e.g. a hydrophilic external surface, a high supramolecular recognition, and a good enrichment capability).

  8. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  9. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  10. THE LEARNING SOCIETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMAS, ALAN

    THE HUMAN CAPACITY FOR CONTINUOUS LEARNING AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE TO LEARNING ARE THE FOUNDATIONS OF A LEARNING SOCIETY IN WHICH PART OF THE POPULATION WOULD AT ALL TIMES BE ENGAGED IN FULL-TIME STUDY. CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA AS A LEARNING SOCIETY WOULD INCLUDE (1) A NATIONAL PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE, INCLUDING INCOME TAX DEDUCTIONS FOR TUITION…

  11. Towards the Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Britain's education system is a beleaguered service accused of failing young people who leave school early without developing their potential. Education will always fail if youngsters' capacities are sectioned off to match a pyramidal, hierarchical society. The conditions for a learning society are basically political, requiring creation of a…

  12. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  13. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  14. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  15. Design, synthesis, in vitro cytotoxic activity evaluation, and apoptosis-induction study of new 9(10H)-acridinone-1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam; Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Pordeli, Mahboobeh; Saeedi, Mina; Ardestani, Sussan Kabudanian; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh

    2015-11-01

    A new series of 9(10H)-acridinone-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell lines. The acridone skeleton was prepared through the Ullman condensation of 2-bromobenzoic acid and anilines. Subsequently, it was functionalized with propargyl bromide. Then, a click reaction of the latter compound and in situ prepared 1-(azidomethyl)-4-methoxybenzene derivatives led to the formation of the desired triazole products. Finally, all products were investigated for their capability to cause cytotoxicity against MCF-7, T-47D, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Among them, 2-methoxy-10-((1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)acridin-9(10H)-one 8c exhibited the most potency [Formula: see text] against MCF-7 cells, being more potent than etoposide [Formula: see text]. Also, apoptosis induced by compound 8c was confirmed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining.

  16. Optimization of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones as antimalarials utilizing structure-activity and structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Cross, R Matthew; Maignan, Jordany R; Mutka, Tina S; Luong, Lisa; Sargent, Justin; Kyle, Dennis E; Manetsch, Roman

    2011-07-14

    Antimalarial activity of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones (THAs) has been known since the 1940s and has garnered more attention with the development of the acridinedione floxacrine (1) in the 1970s and analogues thereof such as WR 243251 (2a) in the 1990s. These compounds failed just prior to clinical development because of suboptimal activity, poor solubility, and rapid induction of parasite resistance. Moreover, detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the THA core scaffold were lacking and SPR studies were nonexistent. To improve upon initial findings, several series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones were synthesized and tested in a systematic fashion, examining each compound for antimalarial activity, solubility, and permeability. Furthermore, a select set of compounds was chosen for microsomal stability testing to identify physicochemical liabilities of the THA scaffold. Several potent compounds (EC(50) < 100 nM) were identified to be active against the clinically relevant isolates W2 and TM90-C2B while possessing good physicochemical properties and little to no cross-resistance.

  17. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Perfit, M.R.; Batiza, R.; Fornari, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

  18. Structure of the toxaphene compound 2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-octachlorobornene-2: a temperature-dependent formation of two rotamers.

    PubMed

    Parlar, Harun; Burhenne, Jürgen; Coelhan, Mehmet; Vetter, Walter

    2005-03-15

    The irradiation of 2,2,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-decachlorobornane in n-hexane at 254 nm leads to a spontaneous Cl2 elimination as the major reaction pathway. This results finally in the main product 2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-octachlorobornene-2, of which the structure could be elucidated with the help of X-ray, 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and MS. Temperature-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopic investigations have shown that the -CHCl2 groups located at C1 and C7 are able to rotate slowly under normal circumstances. If such measurements, however, are exerted at low temperatures (-10 to -60 degrees C), so can be seen that two rotamers are formed due to the hindrance of the free rotation about the bonds C1-C10, C7-C8, and C7-C9, which for the first time could be revealed for a toxaphene compound. Furthermore, as all 1H NMR chlorobornane spectra known so far show only sharp and clear signals, it can be assumed that chlorobornane compounds as main toxaphene components have fixed bonds, which requires to indicate chlorine atoms within the tentacles such as "a", "b", and "c" for characterizing the correct position. Those fixed tentacles are probably the reason that many toxaphene congeners remain very stable in environmental compartments, and particularly the biotic and abiotic transformation may strongly be hindered by the inflexibility of the tentacles.

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc. (42nd, Raleigh, North Carolina, July 9-10, 1963). Our Concern for the Disadvantaged in Town and Country Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The future of the disadvantaged is discussed in these proceedings of a 1963 conference of the American Country Life Association. Papers presented at 3 panel discussions give detailed information on the disadvantaged. The panel discussion on the types of disadvantaged people covered American Indians, Appalachian whites, migrants, and Negroes. The…

  20. [Human physiology: kidney].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  1. Society of Mind Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    the "Society of Mind " model of intelligence. This research was funded over a period of years by the Computer Science Division of the Office of Naval...Research.’ Ilt involved not merely the past three years but the entire period from the early 70s when the Society of Mind hypothesis began to take...form. In 1987 we ublished a major book on this theory: The Society of Mind , OSimon&Schuste. followed by a paperback version in 1988 and translations into

  2. The HUPO Brain Proteome project wish list--summary of the 9(th) HUPO BPP Workshop 9-10 January 2008, Barbados.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Tribl, Florian; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Hardt, Tanja; Wiltfang, Jens; Martens, Lennart; Desiderio, Dominic; Gutstein, Howard; Park, Young Mok; Meyer, Helmut E

    2008-06-01

    The Human Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) aims at advancing knowledge and the understanding of neurodiseases and aging with the purpose of identifying prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as to push new diagnostic approaches and medications. The participating groups meet in semi-annual workshops to discuss the progress, as well as the needs, within the field of proteomics. The 9(th) HUPO BPP workshop took place in Barbados from 9-10 January, 2008. Discussing the future HUPO BPP Roadmap, the attendees drafted the so called HUPO BPP wish list containing timelines, suggestions and missions. This wish list will be updated regularly and will serve as a guideline for the next phase.

  3. Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

  4. The role of charge-transfer integral in determining and engineering the carrier mobilities of 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, S. C.; So, S. K.; Yeung, M. Y.; Lo, C. F.; Wen, S. W.; Chen, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    The charge transporting properties of t-butylated 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) compounds have been investigated experimentally and computationally in relation to their molecular structures. The ADN compounds are found to be ambipolar with both electron and hole mobilities in the range of 1-4 × 10 -7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (electric field 0.5-0.8 MV/cm). As the degree of t-butylation increases, the carrier mobility decreases progressively. The mobility reduction was examined by Marcus theory of reorganization energies. All ADN compounds possess similar reorganization energies of ˜0.3 eV. The reduction of carrier mobilities with increasing t-butylation can be attributed to a decrease in the charge-transfer integral or the wavefunction overlap.

  5. Methyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and 9-10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,4,7-triol two phenolic compounds from Dioscorea alata L. and their antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminah, N. S.; Yulvia, A.; Tanjung, M.

    2017-09-01

    Two phenolic compounds namely: methyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (1) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,4,7-triol (2) had been isolated for the first time from the tuber of Dioscorea alata L. The extraction of two compounds were done by maceration method using methanol as solvent, followed by partition with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract was separated and purified using various chromatographic techniques yielded pure compounds. The structure of isolated compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data, including UV-Vis, 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Compounds (1), (2) and ascorbic acid as a comparator were evaluated for their antioxidant properties against DPPH, showing their IC50 were 9,41 ± 0,08; 23,52 ± 0,05; and 10,95 ± 0,08 ppm, respectively.

  6. 4,5,9,10-Pyrene Diimides: A Family of Aromatic Diimides Exhibiting High Electron Mobility and Two-Photon Excited Emission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-Hua; Huang, Zhuo-Ting; Guo, Rui-Xue; Sun, Chun-Lin; Chen, Li-Chuan; Sun, Bing; Shi, Zi-Fa; Shao, Xiangfeng; Li, Hanying; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2017-10-09

    The design and synthesis of high-performance n-type organic semiconductors are important for the development of future organic optoelectronics. Facile synthetic routes to reach the K-region of pyrene and produce 4,5,9,10-pyrene diimide (PyDI) derivatives are reported. The PyDI derivatives exhibited efficient electron transport properties, with the highest electron mobility of up to 3.08 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) . The tert-butyl-substituted compounds (t-PyDI) also showed good one- and two-photon excited fluorescence properties. The PyDI derivatives are a new family of aromatic diimides that may exhibit both high electron mobility and good light-emitting properties, thus making them excellent candidates for future optoelectronics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  8. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: Clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  9. Phenanthrenes, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, bibenzyls with their derivatives, and malate or tartrate benzyl ester glucosides from tubers of Cremastra appendiculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Guan, Shu-Hong; Meng, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Cheng, Chun-Ru; Shi, Yang-Yang; Feng, Rui-Hong; Zeng, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Yang, Min; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Kai-Shun; Guo, De-An

    2013-10-01

    Eleven previously unknown compounds and 23 known compounds, including 20 phenanthrene or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, five bibenzyls, seven malate or tartrate benzyl ester glucosides, adenosine and gastrodin were isolated from tubers of Cremastra appendiculata. Among the obtained compounds, two are the first isolated dimers with one phenanthrene or bibenzyl unit connected to C-3 of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-phenanthro[2,1-b]furan moiety. In addition, 33 of these compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against two cancer cell lines. Among the compounds examined, one compound showed moderate cytotoxic activity, while five showed weak cytotoxic activity against the A549 cell line. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dihalogenated trichodermin (4β-acet­oxy-9,10-dibromo-12,13-epoxy­tri­chothec)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Hao; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Jian-Gong; Cheng, Jing-Li; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    In the title dihalogenated trichodermin mol­ecule, C17H24Br2O4 (systematic name: 9,10-dibromo-12,13-epoxy­trichothec-9-en-4β-yl acetate), the five-membered ring displays an envelope conformation, whereas the two six-membered rings show the same conformation, viz. chair. As for the seven-membered ring, the dihedral angle between the mean planes formed by the four C atoms of the envelope unit and the three C and one O atoms of the six-membered chair is 69.08 (4)°; these two mean planes are nearly perpendicular to the ep­oxy ring with angles of 87.53 (4) and 88.67 (4)°, respectively. PMID:21580095

  11. Chemopreventive activity of chlorophyllin against mouse skin carcinogenesis by benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Park, K K; Surh, Y J

    1996-04-19

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), the sodium and copper salt of chlorophyll, was tested for its chemopreventive activity against tumorigenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and its ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic metabolite, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide(BPDE). Administration of CHL (15 mg/kg body wt) by gavage to female ICR mice 30 min prior to a topical application of B[a]P or BPDE resulted in significant reduction in both incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors initiated by these carcinogens. CHL was rapidly distributed in the skin and other tissues of mice after oral administration. Taken together, these results suggest that CHL is a potential chemopreventive agent.

  12. Real-time measurement of photo-induced effects in 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer by phase-modulated ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chun-I.; Hsiao, Yi-Nan; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Chao, Yu-Faye

    2010-09-01

    The photo-induced effects in 9,10-phenanthrenequinone-doped (PQ-doped) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) photopolymer were studied by phase-modulated ellipsometry and polarimetry in real time. The PQ-doped PMMA was exposed to an Ar/Kr tunable laser at the wavelength of 488 nm and measured by a HeNe laser (632.8 nm). We measured the induced birefringence and the variation of the refractive index separately during exposure; there was a difference of three orders of magnitude between these two effects. This suggested that the physical mechanism of holographic recording in PQ-doped PMMA is mainly due to the photo-induced variation in the refractive index.

  13. American Society of Hematology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  14. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Senior Leadership Team Founder Sylvia Lawry d Cultural Values d Financials Annual Reports Sources of Support d ... Connection About the Society Vision Careers Leadership Cultural Values Financials News Press Room MS Prevalence Charitable Ratings ...

  15. American Epilepsy Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA SUDEP SURGERY DEVICES GENETICS TREATMENTS Drug Alerts and ... RESOURCES Navigation CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA SUDEP SURGERY DEVICES GENETICS TREATMENTS Drug Alerts and ...

  16. American Pain Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Award Recipients Strong Evidence Still Lacking on Medical Marijuana for Pain Fibromyalgia Has Central Nervous System Origins ... Mayday Fund American Pain Society Offers Guidance on Medical Marijuana for Pain Study Shows Pain Often Improves in ...

  17. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  18. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... realistic expectations for therapies, hear about clinical trial design and recruitment effort and reiterate the importance of ... Copyright © National MPS Society. All Rights Reserved. Web Design & Development by TheeDesign

  19. Thank you, Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumey, Chris

    2015-04-01

    More than a decade after it was first published, Chris Toumey revisits a report from the Royal Society on the opportunities and uncertainties of nanotechnology, and finds that it still has plenty to offer.

  20. American Headache Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEWS VIEW ALL NEWS FIRST ANNUAL “MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American ... RT @mrobbinsmd : A7 See the recent @amfmigraine #MigraineMoment film competition & stories like @brainstorm83 to understand the gravity & ...

  1. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  2. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  3. Trends in fruit, vegetable and salad intakes in 9-10-year-old schoolchildren living in Liverpool, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B; Hackett, A F

    2007-03-01

    To report on the fruit, vegetable and salad intakes of Liverpool schoolchildren aged 9-10 years over a 5-year period (2000-2005). Cross-sectional observational study. Between 75 and 100 Liverpool primary schools took part in each survey year. Subjects consisted of five separate cohorts of 9-10-year-old children from all areas of the city. Number and proportion of boys and girls who reported eating fruit, vegetables and salad on the previous day. There was an upward trend in the reported intake of fruit between 2002 and 2005. Girls were more likely than boys to report eating fruit (P < 0.001). The trend in salad intake was positive. Between 2000 and 2005 there were significant increases in the number of boys (chi2 = 17.57, P = 0.001) and girls (chi2 = 80.56, P = 0.001) eating salad. Girls were significantly more likely to eat salad than boys in all years (chi2 = 58.75, P = 0.001). Trends in vegetable intake were similar to those for salad, with both sexes reporting yearly increases over the 5-year period. The increase in the number of boys who reported eating vegetables between 2000 and 2005 was 23.5% (chi2 = 32.9, P = 0.000). In girls there was a 44.8% increase over the same period (chi2 = 110.3, P < 0.000). The data reveal positive trends in the fruit, vegetable and salad intakes of Liverpool schoolchildren between 2000 and 2005. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific factors that have enabled the changes to take place.

  4. History of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society.

    PubMed

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Williams, William G

    2015-10-01

    The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society is a group of over 100 pediatric heart surgeons representing 72 institutions that specialize in the treatment of patients with congenital heart defects. The Society began in 1972 and incorporated as a not-for-profit charitable organization in 2004. It has become the face and voice of congenital heart surgery in North America. In 1985, the Society established a data center for multicenter clinical research studies to encourage congenital heart professionals to participate in improving outcomes for our patients. The goals of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society are to stimulate the study of congenital cardiac physiology, pathology, and management options which are instantiated in data collection, multi-institutional studies, and scientific meetings. Honest and open discussion of problems with possible solutions to the challenges facing congenital heart professionals have been the strength of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society. It is imperative for the growth of an organization to know from where it came in order to know to where it is going. The purpose of this article is to review the history of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society.

  5. A census of star-forming galaxies in the z ∼ 9-10 universe based on HST+Spitzer observations over 19 clash clusters: three candidate z ∼ 9-10 galaxies and improved constraints on the star formation rate density at z ∼ 9.2

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Labbé, I.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Carrasco, M.; Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Host, O.; Moustakas, L.; Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Donahue, M.; Kelson, D.D.; Meneghetti, M.; Umetsu, K.; Broadhurst, T.; and others

    2014-11-10

    We utilize a two-color Lyman-break selection criterion to search for z ∼ 9-10 galaxies over the first 19 clusters in the CLASH program. A systematic search yields three z ∼ 9-10 candidates. While we have already reported the most robust of these candidates, MACS1149-JD, two additional z ∼ 9 candidates are also found and have H {sub 160}-band magnitudes of ∼26.2-26.9. A careful assessment of various sources of contamination suggests ≲1 contaminants for our z ∼ 9-10 selection. To determine the implications of these search results for the luminosity function (LF) and star formation rate density at z ∼ 9, we introduce a new differential approach to deriving these quantities in lensing fields. Our procedure is to derive the evolution by comparing the number of z ∼ 9-10 galaxy candidates found in CLASH with the number of galaxies in a slightly lower-redshift sample (after correcting for the differences in selection volumes), here taken to be z ∼ 8. This procedure takes advantage of the fact that the relative volumes available for the z ∼ 8 and z ∼ 9-10 selections behind lensing clusters are not greatly dependent on the details of the lensing models. We find that the normalization of the UV LF at z ∼ 9 is just 0.28{sub −0.20}{sup +0.39}× that at z ∼ 8, which is ∼1.4{sub −0.8}{sup +3.0}× lower than extrapolating z ∼ 4-8 LF results. While consistent with the evolution in the UV LF seen at z ∼ 4-8, these results marginally favor a more rapid evolution at z > 8. Compared to similar evolutionary findings from the HUDF, our result is less insensitive to large-scale structure uncertainties, given our many independent sightlines on the high-redshift universe.

  6. The Janes Surgical Society

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Stephen E.; Carrie, Alan W.; Palmer, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    The Janes Surgical Society was formed in 1953 by surgeons who had undertaken their surgical training during the tenure of Dr. Robert M. Janes, Professor of Surgery at the University of Toronto from 1947 to 1957. Over the next 35 years, this unique Canadian surgical society met annually at surgical centres on this continent and abroad as well as at certain resort areas from time to time. Members of the Janes Surgical Society could be found in major clinical and academic positions across the country from St. John’s to Victoria. Their annual meetings served a dual purpose: they provided a forum for the exchange of scientific knowledge and ideas by the members; and they provided an opportunity for members and their wives to socialize and renew old friendships dating back to their residency days and to establish new relationships with surgeons and their wives from other countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, France and Sweden. Unfortunately, owing to death and retirements of its members, the Society can no longer hold scientific meetings and travel to distant centres. Its sole activity is now an annual dinner in Toronto, when members and their wives gather to recall the highlights and experiences in their lives that this unique surgical society provided. PMID:10459335

  7. Myths and Truths from Exercise Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…

  8. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  9. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 548: Areas 9, 10, 18, 19, and 20 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-27

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 548, Areas 9, 10, 18, 19, and 20 Housekeeping Sites, and complies with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 548 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 9, 10, 12, 18, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 09-99-02, Material Piles (2) · CAS 09-99-04, Wax, Paraffin · CAS 09-99-05, Asbestos, Vermiculite · CAS 09-99-07, Tar Spill · CAS 10-22-02, Drums · CAS 10-22-05, Gas Block · CAS 10-22-07, Gas Block · CAS 10-22-34, Drum · CAS 10-22-38, Drum; Cable · CAS 12-99-04, Epoxy Tar Spill · CAS 12-99-08, Cement Spill · CAS 18-14-01, Transformers (3) · CAS 19-22-01, Drums · CAS 19-22-11, Gas Block (2) · CAS 19-44-01, Fuel Spill · CAS 20-22-07, Drums (2) · CAS 20-22-09, Drums (3) · CAS 20-22-14, Drums (2) · CAS 20-22-16, Drums (2) · CAS 20-24-09, Battery Closure activities began in July 2011 and were completed in December 2011 and included removal and disposal of material piles, spills, sanitary debris, a lead acid battery, lead and steel shot, and stained soil. Activities were conducted according to the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003). Closure activities generated sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, low-level waste, hazardous waste, and mixed waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for

  11. Excited singlet states of covalently bound, cofacial dimers and trimers of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide)s.

    PubMed

    Giaimo, Jovan M; Lockard, Jenny V; Sinks, Louise E; Scott, Amy M; Wilson, Thea M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2008-03-20

    Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) and its derivatives are robust organic dyes that strongly absorb visible light and display a strong tendency to self-assemble into ordered aggregates, having significant interest as photoactive materials in a wide variety of organic electronics. To better understand the nature of the electronics states produced by photoexcitation of such aggregates, the photophysics of a series of covalent, cofacially oriented, pi-stacked dimers and trimers of PDI and 1,7-bis(3',5'-di-t-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PPDI) were characterized using both time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The covalent linkage between the chromophores was accomplished using 9,9-dimethylxanthene spacers. Placing n-octyl groups on the imide nitrogen atoms at the end of the PDI chromophores not attached to the xanthene spacer results in PDI dimers having near optimal pi-stacking, leading to formation of a low-energy excimer-like state, while substituting the more sterically demanding 12-tricosanyl group on the imides causes deviations from the optimum that result in slower formation of an excimer-like excited state having somewhat higher energy. By comparison, PPDI dimers having terminal n-octyl imide groups have two isomers, whose photophysical properties depend on the ability of the phenoxy groups at the 1,7-positions to modify the pi stacking of the PPDI molecules. In general, disruption of optimal pi-stacking by steric interactions of the phenoxy side groups results in excimer-like states that are higher in energy. The corresponding lowest excited singlet states of the PDI and PPDI trimers are dimer-like in nature and suggest that structural distortions that accompany formation of the trimers are sufficient to confine the electronic interaction on two chromophores within these systems. This further suggests that it may be useful to build into oligomeric PDI and PPDI systems some degree of flexibility that allows the

  12. The impact of hydrothermally-sourced Fe on ocean biogeochemistry: new investigations from the East Pacific Rise, 9-10°N.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Manganini, S. J.; Rouxel, O. J.; Edwards, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    We have initiated a new study as part of NSF's Ridge 2000 program to investigate the fate of dissolved Fe(II) released from high-temperature hydrothermal venting on the East Pacific Rise and its potential impact on local deep-ocean biogeochemical budgets. Our principal focus is on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe and the role of microbial activity in that cycle: Fe is released in abundance from high-temperature vents, it plays a major role in modifying the gross flux of other elements from hydrothermal vents to the oceans and hydrothermal sources have the potential to dominate the global deep ocean budget of dissolved Fe: an essential micronutrient. To achieve our goals we have collected samples from close to vent-sites at 9-10°N on the East Pacific Rise over a period extending from late 2004 to late 2007 that brackets an episode of recent volcanism (Winter 2005-2006). Thus, we are in a position to investigate both the "steady state" input from a deep-ocean vent-system and also how that system has been perturbed following volcanic activity out to a period of 1-2 years post-eruption. Sampling has been conducted using time-series sediment traps deployed on long-term moorings that have sampled particles settling from buoyant and non-buoyant plumes at 9°50`N and at a contrasting (sulfide- free) vent-site at 9°30`N. Our project is nested within a larger study (LADDER) that spans across disciplines from segment-scale ocean circulation in the 9-10°N area to larval transport between adjacent vent sites. Our specific on-going work includes: i) analyses for major and trace element flux variations; ii) investigation for Fe isotope fractionation within our hydrothermal plume samples; and iii) a study of the role of Fe- oxidising bacteria in catalysing Fe oxidation and/or Fe isotope fractionation within these hydrothermal plumes. For example, the mineralogical structure and character of Fe oxyhydroxide minerals may, themselves, result from the microbial catalysis of Fe

  13. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  14. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  15. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  16. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  17. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  18. Copper(II)-selective fluorimetric bulk optode membrane based on a 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone derivative having two propenyl arms as a neutral fluorogenic ionophore.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Avanes, Armen; Sharghi, Hashem

    2006-01-01

    A new optical chemical sensor has been developed for the selective determination of copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions. The reversible sensing system was prepared by incorporating 1-hydrpxy-2-(prop-2'-enyl)-4-(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) as a neutral Cu2+-selective fluoroionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane with potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl borate) as an anionic additive. The response of the sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of AQ by Cu2+ ions. At a pH 5.5, the proposed sensor displays a calibration response for Cu2+ over a wide concentration rang of 1.0 x 10(-2) to 1.0 x 10(-6) M, with a relatively fast response of less than 40 s. In addition to high stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows a unique selectivity towards Cu2+ ion with respect to common co-existing cations. The proposed fluorescence optode was applied successfully to the determination of copper(II) in black tea samples.

  19. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric determination of lead(II) with a 1,4-bis(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, M F; Rahmani, A; Golabi, S M; Shamsipur, M; Sharghi, H

    2001-08-30

    A sensitive and selective method for the determination of lead(II) with a 1,4-bis(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) modified carbon paste electrode has been developed. The method is based on non-electrolytic preconcentration via complex formation with modifier, followed by an accumulation period with a negative potential (-1.5 V), and then by a proper anodic stripping. The analytical performance was evaluated with respect to the quantity of modifier in the paste, concentration of electrolyte solution, preconcentration time, lead(II) concentration, and other variables. A linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range 2.00x10(-9)-1.06x10(-5) M Pb(II) (n=21, r=0.9999) with 30 s preconcentration time. The detection limit was found to be 1x10(-9) M. For eight preconcentration/determination cycles, the differential pulse voltammetric response was reproduced with 5.0 and 3.7% relative standard deviations at 2.00x10(-8) and 2.00x10(-6) M Pb(II), respectively. Rapid and convenient renewal of electrode surface allows the use of a single modified electrode surface in multiple analytical determinations over several weeks. Many coexisting metal ions had little or no effect on the determination of lead(II). The developed method was applied to lead determination in waste waters.

  20. A 9,10-anthraquinone derivative having two propenyl arms as a neutral ionophore for highly selective and sensitive membrane sensors for copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Avanes, Armen; Javanbakht, Mehran; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Sharghi, Hashem

    2002-08-01

    New polymeric membrane (PME) and coated graphite (CGE) copper(II)-selective electrodes based on 1-hydroxy-2-(prop-2'-enyl)-4-(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone were prepared. The electrodes reveal linear emf-pCu2+ responses over wide concentration ranges (1.0 x 10(-5)-1.0 x 10(-1) M with a slope of 27.3 mV decade-1 for PME and 8.0 x 10(-8)-5.0 x 10(-2) M with a slope of 29.1 mV decade-1 for CGE) and very low limits of detection (8.0 x 10(-6) M for PME and 5.0 x 10(-8) M for CGE). The potentiometric response is independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-6.0. The proposed electrodes possess very good selectivities over a wide variety of other cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions, the selectivity coefficients for the CGE being much improved over those for the PME. The electrodes were used as indicator electrodes in the potentiometric titration of Cu2+ and in the recovery of copper ions from wastewater.

  1. Copper(II)-selective fluorimetric bulk optode membrane based on a 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone derivative having two propenyl arms as a neutral fluorogenic ionophore.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Avanes, Armen; Sharghi, Hashem

    2006-01-01

    A new optical chemical sensor has been developed for the selective determination of copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions. The reversible sensing system was prepared by incorporating 1-hydroxy-2-(prop-2'-enyl)-4-(prop-2'-enyloxy)-9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) as a neutral Cu2+-selective fluoroionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane with potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl borate) as an anionic additive. The response of the sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of AQ by Cu2+ ions. At a pH 5.5, the proposed sensor displays a calibration response for Cu2+ over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-2) to 1.0 x 10(-6) M, with a relatively fast response of less than 40 s. In addition to high stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows a unique selectivity towards Cu2+ ion with respect to common co-existing cations. The proposed fluorescence optode was applied successfully to the determination of copper(II) in black tea samples.

  2. Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide induced p53-independent necrosis via the mitochondria-associated pathway involving Bax and Bak activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Liu, N; Wang, X; Jin, X; Du, H; Peng, G; Xue, J

    2015-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is a highly reactive DNA damage agent and can induce cell death through both p53-independent and -dependent pathways. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of p53-independent pathways in BPDE-induced cell death. To understand the p53-independent mechanisms, we have now examined BPDE-induced cytotoxicity in p53-deficient baby mouse kidney (BMK) cells. The results showed that BPDE could induce Bax and Bak activation, cytochrome c release, caspases activation, and necrotic cell death in the BMK cells. Bax and Bak, two key molecules of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, were interdependently activated by BPDE, with Bax and Bak translocation to and Bax/Bak homo-oligomerization in mitochondria, release of cytochrome c was induced. Importantly, cytochrome c release and necrotic cell death were diminished in BMK cells (Bax(-/-)), BMK cells (Bak(-/-)), and BMK cells (Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-)). Furthermore, overexpression of Bcl-2 could ameliorate BPDE-induced cytochrome c release and necrosis. Together the findings suggested that BPDE-induced necrosis was modulated by the p53-independent pathway, which was related to the translocation of Bax and Bak to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Aptamer-based spectrofluorometry for cellular prion protein using N,N'-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamino)propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Liang, Li Jiao; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-02-21

    A new spectrofluorometric method for cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) was developed based on the regulation of N,N'-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamino)propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (DAPER) fluorescence. As a perylene derivative, DAPER emits strong fluorescence in the form of free monomer in aqueous medium, but not in the form of aggregates. In this contribution, we found that the aptamer of PrP(C) could induce the aggregation of DAPER, and the bright fluorescence of DAPER was completely quenched. The quenched fluorescence, however, was recovered if PrP(C) was further added, which was ascribed to the specific binding of PrP(C) to its aptamer and the releasing of free DAPER monomers. This signalling mechanism makes it possible to detect PrP(C) by fluorescence spectroscopy. The assay allows the selective determination of PrP(C) in aqueous solution with high sensitivity and exhibits a good linear range from 0.4 to 1.6 nmol L(-1). Moreover, this probe can be applied to monitor the level of PrP(C) in human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Relationship between molecular stacking and optical properties of 9,10-bis((4-N,N-dialkylamino)styryl) anthracene crystals: the cooperation of excitonic and dipolar coupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Gao, Na; Xu, Hai; Liu, Wei; Shang, Hui; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Ming

    2014-08-04

    Five 9,10-bis((4-N,N-dialkylamino)styryl) anthracene derivatives (DSA-C1-DSA-C7) with different length alkyl chains were synthesized. They showed the same color in dilute solutions but different colors in crystals. The absorption, photoluminescence, and fluorescence decay indicate that there exist both excitonic and dipolar coupling in crystals of DSA-C1-DSA-C7. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that all the crystals belong to the triclinic space group P1 with one molecule per unit cell and that the molecules in every crystal have the identical orientation. This offers ideal samples to investigate the impact of the molecular stacking on the optical properties of the crystals. For the first time, the cooperation of excitonic and dipolar coupling has been comprehensively studied, and the contribution to the spectral shift from the excitonic and dipolar couplings quantitatively obtained. The experiments of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) together with measurements of the quantum efficiency further confirmed this interpretation. The results suggest that the excitonic and dipolar couplings between the adjacent molecules are both important and jointly induce the spectral shifts of the crystals.

  5. Highly Efficient and Stable Red Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using 9,10-Di(2-naphthyl)anthracene as the Host Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Wengen; Sun, Runguang

    2007-04-01

    We present red organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with high efficiency and stability based on a wide band gap host material 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN). In these devices, N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq) were used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. Coumarin 6 (C6) and 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were co-doped into the ADN emitting layer. Utilizing the two-step energy transfer from ADN to C6 and then from C6 to DCJTB, we achieved pure red organic light-emitting devices, which showed improved optical and electrical characteristics. Compared with devices where the emitting layer is composed of Alq and DCJTB, the emission efficiency and stability of the co-doped ADN-based devices are greatly improved and the turn-on voltage is also decreased. The co-doping technique provides a promising way to utilize wide band gap materials as the host to make red OLEDs, which will be useful in improving the EL performance of devices and simplifying the process of fabricating full-color OLEDs.

  6. Influence of different amino substituents in position 1 and 4 on spectroscopic and acid base properties of 9,10-anthraquinone moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wcisło, Anna; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Wnuk, Elżbieta; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel 1-amino and 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinones, substituted with different alkyl groups, were synthesized as the result of alkylation with amino substituents. All the obtained aminoanthraquinone derivatives were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were determined by using UV-Vis spectroscopy in acetonitrile, and in the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol at different pH ranges. The effects of various substituents present in the newly developed anthraquinone derivatives and their ability to form hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone moiety and nitrogen atom of N-H group in 1-aminoanthraquinone (1-AAQ) and 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAAQ) were studied. Additionally, the effects of hydrogen bond formation between O-H group in hydroxyethylamino substituent and the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone were investigated. The spectroscopic behavior of the studied derivatives strongly depended on the solvent-solute interactions and the nature of solvent. The values of pKa for the new anthraquinones were determined by the combined potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration methods.

  7. First steps in photophysics. I. Fluorescence yield and radiative rate coefficient of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene in paraffins.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Attila

    2014-10-30

    The fluorescence quantum yield of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) is almost unity in every examined solvent. Using different hydrocarbons, one can make a convenient and sufficiently accurate experimental test for determination of the extent of the refractive index correction needed in fluorescence quantum yield determination on a given fluorometer. By comparison of the measurements in n-pentane-cis-decaline or n-hexane-toluene solvent pairs, the requirement of the n(2) correction is confirmed for most of the fluorometers; however, for one of the examined pieces of equipment the necessary correction proved to be slightly lower. By excited state's lifetime measurements, the refractive index dependence of the fluorescence rate coefficient was reexamined. At 25 °C for BPEA the relationship is in agreement with Bakhshiev's prediction: the experimentally determined exponent of n in the rate coefficient deriving equation is around 1.32 using different paraffins as solvents. The negative temperature coefficient of the radiative rate in part originates from the temperature dependence of the refractive index, while also a small intrinsic contribution has been found.

  8. High-precision Penning trap mass measurements of 9,10Be and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringle, R.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Smith, M.; Lapierre, A.; Ryjkov, V. L.; Delheij, P.; Drake, G. W. F.; Lassen, J.; Lunney, D.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of 9Be, 10Be (t1 / 2 = 1.51 My), and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be (t1 / 2 = 13.8 s) have been performed using TITAN at TRIUMF. The resulting 11Be mass excess (ME = 20 177.60 (58) keV) is in agreement with the current Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME03) [G. Audi, et al., Nucl. Phys. A 729 (2003) 337] value, but is over an order of magnitude more precise. The precision of the mass values of 9,10Be have been improved by about a factor of four and reveal a ≈ 2 σ deviation from the AME mass values. Results of new atomic physics calculations are presented for the isotope shift of 11Be relative to 9Be, and it is shown that the new mass values essentially remove atomic mass uncertainties as a contributing factor in determining the relative nuclear charge radius from the isotope shift. The new mass values of 10,11Be also allow for a more precise determination of the single-neutron binding energy of the halo neutron in 11Be.

  9. 4-(1H)-Quinolones and 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones prevent the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum to Anopheles freeborni.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Fabián E; Lacrue, Alexis N; Cross, R Matthew; Maignan, Jordany R; Udenze, Kenneth O; Manetsch, Roman; Kyle, Dennis E

    2013-12-01

    Malaria kills approximately 1 million people a year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Essential steps in the life cycle of the parasite are the development of gametocytes, as well as the formation of oocysts and sporozoites, in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Preventing transmission of malaria through the mosquito is necessary for the control of the disease; nevertheless, the vast majority of drugs in use act primarily against the blood stages. The study described herein focuses on the assessment of the transmission-blocking activities of potent antierythrocytic stage agents derived from the 4(1H)-quinolone scaffold. In particular, three 3-alkyl- or 3-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolones (P4Qs), one 7-(2-phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-quinolone (PEQ), and one 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-one (THA) were assessed for their transmission-blocking activity against the mosquito stages of the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) and the rodent parasite (P. berghei). Results showed that all of the experimental compounds reduced or prevented the exflagellation of male gametocytes and, more importantly, prevented parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. Additionally, treatment with ICI 56,780 reduced the number of sporozoites that reached the Anopheles salivary glands. These findings suggest that 4(1H)-quinolones, which have activity against the blood stages, can also prevent the transmission of Plasmodium to the mosquito and, hence, are potentially important drug candidates to eradicate malaria.

  10. 3,4,5,6-tetramethylphenanthrene 9,10-oxide: a step on the way to the transition state for nucleophilic ring opening of arene oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Darnow, J.N.; Armstrong, R.N.

    1987-05-01

    Force field calculations (MM2) and studies of the parent hydrocarbons suggest that 3,4,5,6-tetramethylphenanthrene 9,10-oxide (TMPO) should exist as two kinetically stable enantiomers. Stereoelectronic considerations indicate that the axial chirality of each enantiomer should direct nucleophilic attack to the diastereotopic oxirane carbon that most closely approaches the geometry of the transition state. The two enantiomers of TMPO can be synthesized from the chiral hydrocarbons by direct oxidation. The half-life for racemization of TMPO is 30 min at 25/sup 0/C. The two enantiomers are found to be substrates for glutathione (GSH) transferase and epoxide hydrolase. Isozyme 4-4 of GSH transferase which normally catalyzes addition of GSH to oxirane carbons of R absolute configuration, catalyzes addition to the oxirane carbon of S configuration in the M-isomer of TMPO and of R configuration in the P-isomer. Analogous results are obtained with the epoxide hydrolase catalyzed addition of water. The results suggest that TMPO should be an interesting stereochemical probe of both spontaneous and enzyme catalyzed ring opening reactions of arene oxides.

  11. Air stable, ambipolar organic transistors and inverters based upon a heterojunction structure of pentacene on N ,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Min-Jun; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Zhang, Ying; Oh, Jeong-Do; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of top-contact, ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and inverters based upon a heterostructure of p-type pentacene on n-type N ,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (P13), using the neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method. The device characteristics measured as a function of both P13 and pentacene layer thicknesses revealed that OFETs with thicknesses of P13 (300 Å) and pentacene (200 Å) showed high air-stability and well-balanced ambipolarity with hole and electron mobilities of 0.12 and 0.08 cm2/V s. The complementary inverters, comprising two identical ambipolar OFETs, were found to operate both in the first and third quadrants of the transfer curves and exhibited a high voltage inversion gain of 13, good noise margins, and little hysteresis under ambient conditions. The results presented demonstrate that the NCBD-based ambipolar transistors and inverters qualify them as promising potential candidates for the construction of high-performance, organic thin film-based integrated circuits.

  12. Preparation of new fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite nanohybrids using the tricationic Pr(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) complexes with 9,10-phenanthrenequinone.

    PubMed

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi; Dinari, Mohammad; Hadadzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-25

    New fluorophore lanthanide complexes-Cloisite (LCs-C) nanohybrids have been prepared by the intercalation reaction of Cloisite Na(+) with the tricationic lanthanide complexes (1-3), [M(PQ)3(DMF)2(H2O)2](3+) (M=Pr(III) (1), Gd(III) (2), and Dy(III) (3); PQ=9,10-phenanthrenequinone), in aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the modified clays (LCs-C) showed an increase in the interlayer distance (d) as compared to the pure Cloisite Na(+). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology of the modified clays and the results were demonstrated a homogeneous morphology for the nanohybrids. The thermal behavior of the LCs-C nanohybrids was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Solid-state fluorescence properties of the LCs-C nanohybrids were also investigated. The results show that all tricationic complexes have a significant fluorescence at room temperature when the complexes are adsorbed onto Cloisite.

  13. H{sub 2} EJECTION FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: INFRARED MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION STUDY OF PROTONATED ACENAPHTHENE AND 9,10-DIHYDROPHENANTHRENE

    SciTech Connect

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin T.; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-20

    The infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of protonated acenaphthene ([ACN+H]{sup +}) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene ([DHP+H]{sup +}) have been recorded using an infrared free electron laser after the compounds were protonated by electrospray ionization and trapped in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. In both compounds, the loss of two mass units is predominant. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) of the infrared spectra of all possible protonated isomers of each species showed that the observed IRMPD spectra are best fit to the isomer with the largest proton affinity and lowest relative electronic energy. Potential energy surfaces of the most stable isomers of [ACN+H]{sup +} and [DHP+H]{sup +} have been calculated for H and H{sub 2} loss. The lowest energy barriers are for loss of H{sub 2}, with predicted energies 4.28 and 4.15 eV, respectively. After H{sub 2} ejection, the adjacent aliphatic hydrogens migrate to the bare ejection site and stabilize the remaining fragment. Single H loss may occur from [ACN+H]{sup +} but the energy required is higher. No single H loss is predicted from [DHP+H]{sup +}, only H migration around the carbon skeleton. The vibrational bands in the parent closed-shell protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are compared to bands observed from the interstellar medium.

  14. Effects of Supramolecular Encapsulation on Photophysics and Photostability of a 9,10-Bis(arylethynyl)anthracene-Based Chromophore Revealed by Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Masaaki; Higashi, Koji; Hirumi, Yohei; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2016-10-18

    The effects of supramolecular encapsulation on the photophysics and photostability of a highly fluorescent dimeric derivative of 2,6-diacetoxy-9,10-bis(arylethynyl)anthracene (G2) were investigated by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMFS). The fluorescence properties of free-G2 and its self-assembled boronic ester encapsulation complex, G2@(Cap)2, were compared in solution and a glassy polymer film. The fluorescence spectral characteristics and theoretical calculations suggest that the environment affects the excited-state conformation and subsequent fluorescence emission of G2@(Cap)2. In particular, in the liquid and polymer environments, G2@(Cap)2 emits a fluorescence photon in the planar and twist conformation, respectively, whereas the fluorescence-emitting conformation of free-G2 is planar in both environments. The luminous conformation differences between free-G2 and G2@(Cap)2 in polymer are reflected in the intersystem crossing (ISC) parameters (the ISC quantum yield and triplet lifetime), as determined by fluorescence autocorrelation analysis. The photobleaching yield revealed a 3-fold enhancement in the photostability of encapsulated G2 (relative to free-G2). Under the SMFS measurement conditions, the photostability of the encapsulation complex was independent of the guest's photostability and appeared to be dominated by the thermal stability of the Cap host molecule.

  15. Three coordination polymers based on 9,10-di(pyridine-4-yl)anthracene ligand: Syntheses, structures and fluorescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun-Liang; Wang, Duo-Zhi; Jia, Yan-Yuan; Wang, Dan-Hong

    2017-08-01

    Three new mixed-ligand divalent coordination polymers (CPs) {[Zn3(L)(1,4-bdc)3]·2DMF}n (1), {[Zn2(L)(2,6-ndc)2]·3DMF}n (2) and {[Cd2(L)3(2,6-ndc)2]}n (3) [L = 9,10-di(pyridine-4-yl)anthracene, 1,4-H2bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 2,6-H2ndc = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid] have been prepared and well characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetric analyses. The crystal structure analyses of coordination polymers (CPs) reveal that all the complexes 1-3 have the three-dimensional (3D) coordination networks. The structure of 1 can be simplified as a sqc3 3D 8-connected framework with the point symbol of (424·64). Particularly, in the presence of the linear 2,6-H2ndc auxiliary ligand, a double-deck interpenetrating pcu 3D network of 2 is assembled by 6-connecting framework with the point symbol of (412·63). Complex 3 exhibits a ttd 3D 5-connected net with a point symbol of (46·64). Further, the solid-state luminescent properties of the complexes 1-3 were measured and studied at room temperature.

  16. N-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine for blue organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Song Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized two blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives with electron-donating diphenylamine moieties by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. To explore their electroluminescent properties as blue emitting materials, multilayer devices were fabricated in following sequence: indium-tin-oxide (180 nm)/4,4‧-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (50 nm)/blue emitters (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). Among them, a device using N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 3.11 cd/A, 2.39 lm/W, and 1.82% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The Commission International de L’Eclairage coordinates of this device were (x,y) = (0.14,0.15) at 6.0 V.

  17. Determination of the individual atomic site contribution to the electronic structure of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. W.; Newby, D.; DeMasi, A.; Smith, K. E.; Piper, L. F. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied the element and orbital-specific electronic structure of thin films of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) using a combination of synchrotron radiation-exited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory calculations. Resonant and non-resonant x-ray emission spectroscopies were used to measure the C and O 2p partial densities of state in PTCDA. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the C and O K-edges is shown to be able to measure the partial densities of states associated with individual atomic sites. The flat molecular orientation of PTCDA on various substrates is explained in terms of the carbonyl O atom acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor leading to multiple in-plane intermolecular C=O...H-C hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups and the perylene core of the neighboring PTCDA molecules. We support this conclusion by comparison of our calculations to measurements of the electronic structure using element-, site-, and orbital-selective C and O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy.

  18. Influence of different amino substituents in position 1 and 4 on spectroscopic and acid base properties of 9,10-anthraquinone moiety.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Anna; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Wnuk, Elżbieta; Zarzeczańska, Dorota; Ossowski, Tadeusz

    2013-05-01

    A series of novel 1-amino and 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinones, substituted with different alkyl groups, were synthesized as the result of alkylation with amino substituents. All the obtained aminoanthraquinone derivatives were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were determined by using UV-Vis spectroscopy in acetonitrile, and in the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol at different pH ranges. The effects of various substituents present in the newly developed anthraquinone derivatives and their ability to form hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone moiety and nitrogen atom of N-H group in 1-aminoanthraquinone (1-AAQ) and 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAAQ) were studied. Additionally, the effects of hydrogen bond formation between O-H group in hydroxyethylamino substituent and the carbonyl oxygen atom of anthraquinone were investigated. The spectroscopic behavior of the studied derivatives strongly depended on the solvent-solute interactions and the nature of solvent. The values of pKa for the new anthraquinones were determined by the combined potentiometric and spectrophotometric titration methods.

  19. Synthesis of 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-Octaalkynylphthalocyanines and the Effects of Concentration and Temperature on Their (1)H NMR Spectra.

    PubMed

    Terekhov, Dmitri S.; Nolan, Kieran J. M.; McArthur, Colin R.; Leznoff, Clifford C.

    1996-05-03

    The syntheses of 3,4- and 4,5-diiodophthalonitriles are described. Coupling of the latter compound with Pd(PPh(3))(2)Cl(2) and 1-octyne, 1-heptyne, 1-hexyne, 1-pentyne, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyne gave a series of 4,5-dialkynylphthalonitriles. Hydrogenation of 4,5-bis(1-pentynyl)phthalonitrile and 4,5-bis(3,3-dimethyl-1-butynyl)phthalonitrile gave 4,5-dipentylphthalonitrile and 4,5-bis(3,3-dimethylbutyl)phthalonitriles. Condensation of the dialkynylphthalonitriles with lithium 1-pentoxide in 1-pentanol gave 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octaalkynylphthalocyanines, while intervention of the intermediate dilithium phthalocyanines with zinc acetate gave the related zinc(II) phthalocyanines. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of these octaalkynylphthalocyanines exhibited large chemical shifts (1-2 ppm) of the internal and aromatic protons at concentrations ranging from 10(-)(2) to 10(-)(5) M and at temperatures from 27 to 147 degrees C. The effects of aggregation phenomena are discussed. The importance of reporting concentration and temperature values for NMR spectra of phthalocyanines is stressed.

  20. Food and drink consumption at school lunchtime: the impact of lunch type and contribution to overall intake in British 9-10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; Jennings, Amy; Jones, Andy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther; Griffin, Simon; Cassidy, Aedín

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food diaries and school lunchtime intake from the two diary days completed while at school. Norfolk, UK. One thousand six hundred and twenty-six children (aged 9-10 years) attending ninety Norfolk primary schools. At school, lunchtime school meal eaters consumed more vegetables, sweet snacks, chips, starchy foods and milk, and less squash/cordial, fruit, bread, confectionery and savoury snacks than packed lunch eaters. These differences were also reflected in the overall diet. On average school meal eaters met the School Food Trust (SFT) food-based standards, while food choices among packed lunch eaters were less healthy. The contribution of food consumed at school lunchtime to overall diet varied by food and lunch type, ranging from 0.8 % (milk intake in packed lunches) to 74.4 % (savoury snack intake in packed lunches). There were significant differences in the foods consumed by school meal and packed lunch eaters, with food choices among school meal eaters generally in line with SFT standards. The food choices made at school lunchtime make a significant contribution to overall diet.

  1. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O82-/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O82-/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O82-/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10-5-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM.A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal

  2. Increased Cellular Distribution of Vimentin and Ret in the Cingulum of Rat Offspring After Developmental Exposure to Decabromodiphenyl Ether or 1,2,5,6,9,10-Hexabromocyclododecane

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Morita, Reiko; Itahashi, Megu; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: To determine effects of developmental exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), weak thyroid hormone disruptors, on white matter development, white matter-specific global gene expression analysis was performed using microdissection techniques and microarrays in male rats exposed maternally to decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), one of the representative BFRs, at 10, 100 or 1000 ppm. Based on previous gene expression profiles of developmental hypothyroidism and DBDE-exposed cases, vimentin+ immature astrocytes and ret proto-oncogene (Ret)+ oligodendrocytes were immunohistochemically examined after developmental exposure to representative BFRs, i.e., DBDE, 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD; 100, 1000 or 10,000 ppm) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA; 100, 1000 or 10,000 ppm). Vimentin+ and Ret+ cell populations increased at ≥ 100 ppm and ≥ 10 ppm DBDE, respectively. Vimentin+ and Ret+ cells increased at ≥ 1000 ppm HBCD, with no effect of TBBPA. The highest dose of DBDE and HBCD revealed subtle fluctuations in serum thyroid-related hormone concentrations. Thus, DBDE and HBCD may exert direct effects on glial cell development at ≥ middle doses. At high doses, hypothyroidism may additionally be an inducing mechanism, although its contribution is rather minor. PMID:23914054

  3. Multidimensional religious involvement and tobacco smoking patterns over 9-10 years: A prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Slopen, Natalie; Albert, Michelle; Williams, David R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of religious involvement and transitions of tobacco smoking abstinence, persistence, cessation and relapse over 9-10 years of follow-up in a national sample of adults in the United States. Using data provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Religious involvement over the two time points were categorized into combinations of "high" and "low" involvement within the domains of (a) religious attendance, (b) religious importance, (c) spiritual importance, (d) religious/spiritual comfort seeking, and (e) religious/spiritual decision-making. High levels of religious involvement across five dimensions (religious attendance, religious importance, spiritual importance, religious/spiritual comfort-seeking, and religious/spiritual decision-making) were associated with lower odds of being a persistent smoker or ex-smoker. Religious involvement was not associated with smoking cessation among smokers at baseline. Interventions to increase smoking abstinence may be more effective if they draw on ties to religious and spiritual organizations and beliefs. Meanwhile, religious involvement is unlikely to affect smoking cessation effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial stress and cigarette smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9-10 years: a prospective study of middle-aged adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Kontos, Emily Z; Ryff, Carol D; Ayanian, John Z; Albert, Michelle A; Williams, David R

    2013-10-01

    Year-to-year decreases in smoking in the US have been observed only sporadically in recent years, which suggest a need for intensified efforts to identify those at risk for persistent smoking. To address this need, we examined the association between a variety of psychosocial stressors and smoking persistence, cessation, and relapse over 9-10 years among adults in the United States (n = 4,938, ages 25-74). Using information provided at baseline and follow-up, participants were categorized as non-smokers, persistent smokers, ex-smokers, and relapsed smokers. Stressors related to relationships, finances, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, neighborhood, discrimination, and past-year family problems were assessed at baseline and follow-up. High stress at both assessments was associated with greater odds of persistent smoking for stressors related to relationships, finances, work, perceived inequality, past-year family problems, and a summary score. Among respondents who were smokers at baseline, high stress at both time points for relationship stress, perceived inequality, and past-year family problems was associated with nearly double the odds of failure to quit. Interventions to address psychosocial stress may be important components within smoking cessation efforts.

  5. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  6. Prejudice and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Earl; Lipset, Seymour M.

    This monograph consists of six chapters which discuss the problem of prejudice in our society. Chapter I looks at "Prejudice as a Social Problem." As a social problem prejudice can be defined exclusively in terms of human behavior which denies or attempts to deny equality of opportunity or status to certain racial, religious, or ethnic groups.…

  7. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  8. Education, Change and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Peter, Ed.

    The conference papers in this publication focus on the interrelationship between change in the education sector and change in the wider society. The papers were generated by an invitational conference held in 1980 to mark the golden jubilee year of the Australian Council for Educational Research. While many of the papers have an Australian…

  9. Education for Jobless Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…

  10. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  11. Literacy in Traditional Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goody, Jack, Ed.

    This series of essays derives from an interest in communications, in media and their effect upon human intercourse. Primarily, this concern with the technology of the intellect centers upon the effect of literacy on human culture, especially in 'traditional' or pre-industrial societies. In most of the essays, the effects of literacy are considered…

  12. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  13. Art, Society and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1976-01-01

    In considering the relation of art with society the author comments on the ideas of the American philosopher, John Dewey, the art historian, Lord Kenneth Clark, a popular humanistic educator, Clifton Fadiman, and a major cultural critic, Jacques Barzun. (Author/RK)

  14. Education for Jobless Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…

  15. Science, Technology, Society: Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Donald G., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The science-technology-society (STS) movement is emerging at the collegiate level. In elementary and secondary school science, social studies, and industrial arts classes, there is a growing awareness of the need for students to learn about technology and the methods by which it can be directed, made more appropriate, and controlled. This issue of…

  16. Science, Technology, Society: Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Donald G., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the potential pitfalls resulting from a lack of human foresight lies at the heart of the science-technology-society (STS) movement. This issue of "Theory Into Practice" is the second part of a two-part series that examines the educational opportunities arising as educators attempt to develop student understanding of STS. In the first…

  17. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  18. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  19. Time and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazancigil, Ali, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this issue review the history of the sociological study of different societies' conceptions of time. Social time is the way people regard and employ time dependent on economic conditions, the organization of daily life, the cultural setting, and religion. (JDH)

  20. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is…

  1. Values and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…

  2. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  3. Values and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…

  4. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  5. The School in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the role of school in Tasmania as seen in a report by a committee appointed to determine that question. At present, Tasmanian children are required to attend school between the ages of 6 and 16. About 20% of children attend private schools. The demands of society for…

  6. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  7. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  8. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  9. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  10. Effects of 5,6-Dihydroxy-2,4-Dimethoxy-9,10-Dihydrophenanthrene on G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Duangprompo, Wipada; Aree, Kalaya; Itharat, Arunporn; Hansakul, Pintusorn

    2016-01-01

    5,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (HMP) is an active compound isolated from the rhizome extracts of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre, a Thai medicinal plant. This study aimed to investigate the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of HMP in human lung cancer A549 cells. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of HMP were analyzed by a Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell division, cell cycle distribution and membrane asymmetry changes were each performed with different fluorescent dyes and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect cell cycle- and apoptosis-related mRNA levels and proteins, respectively. The nuclear morphology of the cells stained with DAPI and DNA fragmentation were detected by fluorescence microscopy and gel electrophoresis, respectively. The results showed that HMP exerted strong antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities in A549 cells with the highest selectivity index. It halted the cell cycle in [Formula: see text]/M phase via down-regulation of the expression levels of regulatory proteins Cdc25C, Cdk1 and cyclinB1. In addition, HMP induced early apoptotic cells with externalized phosphatidylserine and subsequent apoptotic cells in sub-[Formula: see text] phase. HMP increased caspase-3 activity and levels of the cleaved (active) form of caspase-3 whose actions were supported by the cleavage of its target PARP, nuclear condensation and DNA apoptotic ladder. Moreover, HMP significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic Bax as well as promoted subsequent caspase-9 activation and BID cleavage, indicating HMP-induced apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These data support, for the first time, the potential role of HMP as a cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing agent for lung cancer treatment.

  11. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  12. High‐Performance Organic Lithium Batteries with an Ether‐Based Electrolyte and 9,10‐Anthraquinone (AQ)/CMK‐3 Cathode

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Chunyang; Zhao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials of lithium batteries have shown multifunctional molecule design and high capacity, but have the problems of poor cycling and low rate performance due to their high solubility in traditional carbonate‐based electrolytes and low conductivity. High‐performance organic lithium batteries with modified ether‐based electrolyte (2 m LiN(CF3SO2)2 in 1,3‐dioxolane/dimethoxyethane solvent with 1% LiNO3 additive (2m‐DD‐1%L)) and 9,10‐anthraquinone (AQ)/CMK‐3 (AQC) nanocomposite cathode are reported here. The electrochemical results manifest that 2m‐DD‐1%L electrolyte promotes the cycling performance due to the restraint of AQ dissolution in ether‐based electrolyte with high Li salt concentration and formation of a protection film on the surface of the anode. Additionally, the AQC nanocomposite improves the rate performance because of the nanoconfinement effect of CMK‐3 and the decrease of charge transfer impedance. In 2m‐DD‐1%L electrolyte, AQC nanocomposite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 205 mA h g−1 and a capacity of 174 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Even at a high rate of 2 C, its capacity is 146 mA h g−1. This strategy is also used for other organic carbonyl compounds with quinone substructures and they maintain high stable capacities. This sheds light on the development of advanced organic lithium batteries with carbonyl electrode materials and ether‐based electrolytes. PMID:27980937

  13. Direct Observation of Thermal Equilibrium of Excited Triplet States of 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone. A Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Venkatraman Ravi; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Ariese, Freek; Umapathy, Siva

    2015-10-08

    The photochemistry of aromatic ketones plays a key role in various physicochemical and biological processes, and solvent polarity can be used to tune their triplet state properties. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the conformational structure and the solvent polarity induced energy level reordering of the two lowest triplet states of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) was carried out using nanosecond-time-resolved absorption (ns-TRA), time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy, and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies. The ns-TRA of PQ in acetonitrile displays two bands in the visible range, and these two bands decay with similar lifetime at least at longer time scales (μs). Interestingly, TR(3) spectra of these two bands indicate that the kinetics are different at shorter time scales (ns), while at longer time scales they followed the kinetics of ns-TRA spectra. Therefore, we report a real-time observation of the thermal equilibrium between the two lowest triplet excited states of PQ, assigned to nπ* and ππ* of which the ππ* triplet state is formed first through intersystem crossing. Despite the fact that these two states are energetically close and have a similar conformational structure supported by TD-DFT studies, the slow internal conversion (∼2 ns) between the T(2)(1(3)nπ*) and T(1)(1(3)ππ*) triplet states indicates a barrier. Insights from the singlet excited states of PQ in protic solvents [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 142 , 24305 ] suggest that the lowest nπ* and ππ* triplet states should undergo hydrogen bond weakening and strengthening, respectively, relative to the ground state, and these mechanisms are substantiated by TD-DFT calculations. We also hypothesize that the different hydrogen bonding mechanisms exhibited by the two lowest singlet and triplet excited states of PQ could influence its ISC mechanism.

  14. On the dynamics of the reentrant spin-glass state of the Fe100-xZrx (x = 9, 10) amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, P. R. T.; Machado, F. L. A.; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2015-05-01

    Low temperature magnetization (M) and ac susceptibility (χac) data were used to investigate the reentrant spin-glass state in lengths of melt-spun ribbons of Fe100-xZrx (x = 9, 10) amorphous alloys. The temperature range investigated was from 2 to 300 K, while the applied magnetic field H was varied in the range of ±85 kOe. The magnetic properties were found to be strongly influenced by the sample composition despite the fact that the amount of Fe varies by 1 at. %. For instance, the Curie temperature (TC) is reduced from 232.5 K to 213.0 K with decreasing Fe concentration, while M for the lower Fe concentration, measured at the highest applied magnetic field (H = 85 kOe) was nearly double the value for that of the higher; the coercivity in the ferromagnetic regime is reduced by a factor close to five when x is increased from 9 at. % to 10 at. %. The ac susceptibility measured for frequencies f in the range of 10-104 Hz showed a sharp drop in the magnitude of the in-phase contribution ( χa c ' ) and a peak at the out-of-phase component ( χa c ″ ), which shifts to higher temperatures with increasing values of f. The Voguel-Fulcher law applied to the χa c ″ data yielded an activation energy Ea/kB = 21.3 K (40.1 K), the glassy temperature TG = 15.5 K (38.2 K), and a relaxation time τ 0 = 9.1 × 10 - 7 s ( 8.3 × 10 - 7 s ) , for the sample with x = 10 (x = 9). A plot of χa c ″ vs χa c ' for a broad range of T and f yielded a broad maximum near the glassy temperature TG for both sample concentrations.

  15. Mechanistic study on the electrochemical reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone in the presence of hydrogen-bond and proton donating additives.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, Jiro; Nakayama, Tatsushi; Esaka, Yukihiro; Uno, Bunji

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was investigated in CH(3)CN in both the absence and presence of the hydrogen-bond and proton donating additives, CH(3)OH, CH(CF(3))(2)OH, phenol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-cyanophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and benzoic acid (BA). Three clearly different types of electrochemical behavior were observed with increasing concentrations of the additives, and were simulated to analyze the reaction mechanisms. Type I was observed for weakly interacting additives, such as CH(3)OH, characterized by positive shifts of the two well-separated reduction waves, corresponding to the formation of AQ(•-) and AQ(2-), with no loss of reversibility. The second wave shifted more strongly, and finally merged with the first. These behaviors are explained by the association of AQ(2-) with the additives via strong hydrogen-bonding. Type II is attributed to a reduction mechanism involving quantitative formation of strong hydrogen-bonded complexes of AQ(2-) with additives, such as CH(CF(3))(2)OH, phenol and 4-methoxyphenol, showing a reversible or quasireversible two-electron reduction wave with increasing concentrations of the additives. The behavior of Type III, observed in the presence of strongly interacting additives, such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and BA, is characterized by a voltammogram composed of the 2-electorn cathodic and the broad anodic waves without keeping reversibility, facilitated by proton transfer in the hydrogen-bonded complexes, AQ(•-)-BA and AQ(2-)-BA. The effects of hydrogen-bonding and protonation on the electrochemistry of AQ have been systematically demonstrated in terms of the potentials and reaction pathways of the various species, which appear in quinone-hydroquinone systems.

  16. Translation of globin messenger RNA modified by benzo(a)pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-oxide in a wheat germ cell-free system

    SciTech Connect

    Grunberger, D.; Pergolizzi, R.G.; Jones, R.E.

    1980-01-25

    Poly(U/sub 3/G) and rabbit globin mRNA were modified with the active carcinogenic metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, (+-)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..-dihydroxy-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, and the effects of modification on translation in a cell-free protein synthesizing system were studied. High performance liquid chromatography of modified nucleosides from enzymatically hydrolyzed globin mRNA reveals that the active carcinogen formed two adducts with guanosine, four adducts with adenosine, and one adduct probably with cytidine residues. When globin mRNA with 0.4 carcinogen residues/molecule is used as a template, incorporation of amino acids into proteins is inhibited by 50%, and mRNA with 2.4 residues has only 10% of the template activity compared to unmodified molecules. On the other hand, modification of poly(U/sub 3/G) has no effect on its template activity. Since no significant formation of smaller peptides in the protein synthesizing system programmed with modified mRNA is detected, it is suggested that the carcinogen does not block the elongation step in mRNA translation. However, glycerol gradient centrifugation of initiation complexes reveals that modified globin mRNA does not form initiation complexes with ribosomes as effectively as does the unmodified globin mRNA. These results suggest that modification significantly reduces the ability of mRNA to be translated by affecting the initiation step in protein synthesis.

  17. β-Carotene 9',10' Oxygenase Modulates the Anticancer Activity of Dietary Tomato or Lycopene on Prostate Carcinogenesis in the TRAMP Model.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Moran, Nancy E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Erdman, John W; Young, Gregory S; Clinton, Steven K

    2017-02-01

    The hypothesis that dietary tomato consumption or the intake of the carotenoid lycopene inhibits prostate cancer arose from epidemiologic studies and is supported by preclinical rodent experiments and in vitro mechanistic studies. We hypothesize that variation in activity of carotenoid cleavage enzymes, such as β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2), may alter the impact of dietary tomato and lycopene on prostate carcinogenesis and therefore examined this relationship in the TRAMP model. Starting at 3 weeks of age, TRAMP:Bco2(+/+) and TRAMP:Bco2(-/-) mice were fed either AIN-93G control, or semipurified diets containing 10% tomato powder or 0.25% lycopene beadlets until 18 weeks of age. Both tomato- and lycopene-fed TRAMP:Bco2(-/-) mice had significantly greater serum concentrations of total, 5-cis, other cis, and all-trans lycopene than TRAMP:Bco2(+/+) mice. Tomato- and lycopene-fed mice had a lower incidence of prostate cancer compared with the control-fed mice. Although Bco2 genotype alone did not significantly change prostate cancer outcome in the control AIN-93G-fed mice, the abilities of lycopene and tomato feeding to inhibit prostate carcinogenesis were significantly attenuated by the loss of Bco2 (Pinteraction = 0.0004 and 0.0383, respectively). Overall, dietary tomato and lycopene inhibited the progression of prostate cancer in TRAMP in a Bco2 genotype-specific manner, potentially implicating the anticancer activity of lycopene cleavage products. This study suggests that genetic variables impacting carotenoid metabolism and accumulation can impact anticancer activity and that future efforts devoted to understanding the interface between tomato carotenoid intake, host genetics, and metabolism will be necessary to clearly elucidate their interactive roles in human prostate carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res; 10(2); 161-9. ©2016 AACR.

  18. Associations between eating frequency, adiposity, diet, and activity in 9-10 year old healthy-weight and centrally obese children.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Cassidy, Aedín; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Welch, Ailsa A

    2012-07-01

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a key public health issue worldwide. Increased eating frequency (EF) is one aspect of diet that has been beneficially associated with obesity, although the mechanisms are unclear. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increased EF was associated with improved adiposity in children, and if this was due to differences in dietary and activity behaviors. Cross-sectional data from 1,700 children aged 9-10 year were analyzed to examine the associations between EF, as estimated from diet diaries, measures of adiposity, and activity measured by accelerometer. Analyses were stratified by obesity status using waist-to-height ratio to define obesity as it has been shown to be a good predictor of adverse health outcomes. Mean EF was 4.3 occasions/day and after adjustment for underreporting, energy intake (EI), and activity significant relative mean differences of -2.4% for body weight (P = 0.001), -1.0% for BMI (P = 0.020), -33% for BMI z-score (P = 0.014), and -0.6% for waist circumference (P = 0.031) per increase in eating occasion were found in healthy-weight but not centrally obese children. Differences between the extreme quartiles of EF were observed for total fat intake at breakfast (-18%, P < 0.001), fruit and vegetables from snacks (201% healthy-weight and 209% centrally obese children, P < 0.01), and for healthy-weight children, vigorous activity (4%, P = 0.003). Increased EF was favorably associated with adiposity, diet quality, and activity behaviors in healthy-weight but not centrally obese children. Future obesity interventions should consider the mediating role of diet quality and activity in the relationship between EF and adiposity in children.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-9, -10, and -12, MDM2 and p53 expression in mouse liver during dimethylnitrosamine-induced oxidative stress and genomic injury.

    PubMed

    Syed, Ismail; Rathod, Jasmine; Parmar, Mayur; Corcoran, George B; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2012-06-01

    Treatment during early tumor development has greater success because tissue growth remains largely confined to its original locus. At later stages, malignant cells migrate from their original location, invade surrounding normal areas, and can disseminate widely throughout the body. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a key facilitator of this dissemination. Proteolytic enzymes including plasmin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an integral role in degrading the surrounding ECM proteins and clearing a path for tumor cell migration. Specific MMPs are highly expressed late during malignant tumor invasion. It is not understood whether early changes in MMPs influence apoptotic and necrotic cell death, processes known to govern the early stages of carcinogenesis. Similarly, the interaction between MDM2 and p53 is tightly controlled by a complex array of post-translational modifications, which in turn dictates the stability and activity of both p53 and MDM2. The present studies examine the hypothesis that model hepatotoxin dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), which is also a model carcinogen, will induce the MMP family of proteins after administration in hepatotoxic doses. Doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg DMN were administered i.p. to male C3H mice. Changes in parameters associated with apoptotic and necrotic cell death, DNA damage, cell proliferation, and extracellular proteinases were examined in liver at 24 h. Serum ALT activity, oxidative stress [malondialdehyde], and caspase-activated DNAse mediated DNA laddering increased in a dose-dependent manner, as did the level of MDM2 protein. MMP-9, -10 and -12 (gelatinase-B, stromelysin-2, macrophage elastase), and p53 protein levels increased following 25 mg/kg DMN, but were successively decreased after higher DMN doses. The results of this study demonstrate changes in MDM2 and MMPs during DMN-induced acute liver injury and provide a plausible linkage between DMN-induced oxidative stress-mediated genomic

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide causes caspase-mediated apoptosis in H460 human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui; Rawal, Malika; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Shivendra V

    2007-11-15

    We have shown previously that wild-type p53 renders H460 human lung cancer cells more sensitive to apoptosis induction by environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. The present study provides insights into the mechanism by which BPDE causes apoptosis in H460 cells. Exposure of H460 cells to BPDE resulted in a concentration-dependent apoptotic cell death characterized by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, DNA condensation, and apoptotic histone-associated DNA fragments released into the cytosol. The BPDE-mediated release of apoptotic histone-associated DNA fragments into the cytosol was also observed in a normal bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. The BPDE-induced apoptosis in H460 cells correlated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bak, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol without a change in mitochondrial membrane potential or mitochondrial morphology (electron microscopy), and cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 failed to confer significant protection against BPDE-induced apoptosis in H460 cells. The SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Bak and Bax double knockout mice, but not Bid knockout mice, were significantly more resistant to BPDE-induced apoptosis compared with the MEFs derived from wild-type mice. The BPDE-induced apoptosis was partially but statistically significantly attenuated in the presence of specific inhibitors of caspase-9 (z-LEHDfmk) and caspase-8 (z-IETDfmk). In conclusion, the present study reveals that BPDE-induced apoptosis in H460 cells is associated with Bak induction and caspase activation but independent of Bcl-2.

  1. Genetic linkage mapping for a susceptibility locus to bipolar illness: Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and Xpter

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Hseih, W.T.; Goldin, L.R.

    1994-09-15

    We are conducting a genome search for a predisposing locus to bipolar (manic-depressive) illness by genotyping 21 moderate-sized pedigrees. We report linkage data derived from screening marker loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10p, 11p, 22, and the pseudoautosomal region at Xpter. To analyze for linkage, two-point marker to illness lod scores were calculated under a dominant model with either 85% or 50% maximum penetrance and a recessive model with 85% maximum penetrance, and two affection status models. Under the dominant high penetrance model the cumulative lod scores in the pedigree series were less than -2 at {theta} = 0.01 in 134 of 142 loci examined, indicating that if the disease is genetically homogeneous, linkage could be excluded in these marker regions. Similar results were obtained using the other genetic models. Heterogeneity analysis was conducted when indicated, but no evidence for linkage was found. In the course of mapping we found a positive total lod score greater than +3 at the D7S78 locus at {theta} = 0.01 under a dominant, 50% penetrance model. The lod scores for additional markers within the D7S78 region failed to support the initial finding, implying that this was a spurious positive. Analysis with affected pedigree member method for COL1A2 and D7S78 showed no significance for linkage, but for PLANH1, at the weighting functions f(p)=1 and f(p)=1/sqrt(p), borderline P values of 0.036 and 0.047 were obtained. We also detected new polymorphisms at the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MLR) and calmodulin II (CALMII) genes. These genes were genetically mapped and under affection status model 2 and a dominant, high penetrance mode of transmission the lod scores of {le}2 at {theta} = 0.01 were found. 39 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Core food intakes of Australian children aged 9-10 years: nutrients, daily servings and diet quality in a community cross-sectional sample.

    PubMed

    Whitrow, M J; Moran, L; Davies, M J; Collins, C E; Burrows, T L; Edwards, S; Moore, V M

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate core food intakes in 9-10-year-old Australian children by considering adequacy of nutrient intakes, comparing servings of core food groups with Australian recommendations and scoring overall diet quality. Children from an established community-based cohort study completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Daily intakes of energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, servings of core (i.e. nutrient-rich) foods and a diet quality index were calculated and compared with appropriate standards. Sex and socio-economic differences were examined. The 436 children participating were from low to high socio-economic status families. As a group, over half of the children met estimated average requirements for key macro- and micronutrients, with the exception of fibre (inadequate in 41% of boys and 24% of girls). Children obtained 55% of their daily energy from core foods. Most children had fewer than the recommended servings of vegetables (91%) and meat/alternatives (99.8%), whereas boys generally ate fewer servings of grains and cereals than recommended (87%), and girls ate fewer servings of dairy (83%). Diet quality scores indicated room for improvement (median score of 26 for boys and 25 for girls, out of a maximum of 73 points). As a group, a large proportion of children were able to meet their daily nutrient requirements. However, achieving this through noncore foods meant that diets were high in salt, saturated fat and sugar; more servings of core foods and greater dietary diversity would be preferable. These results suggest that families need more support to optimise dietary patterns of children in this age group. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. High-Performance Organic Lithium Batteries with an Ether-Based Electrolyte and 9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ)/CMK-3 Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Chunyang; Zhao, Qing; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials of lithium batteries have shown multifunctional molecule design and high capacity, but have the problems of poor cycling and low rate performance due to their high solubility in traditional carbonate-based electrolytes and low conductivity. High-performance organic lithium batteries with modified ether-based electrolyte (2 m LiN(CF3SO2)2 in 1,3-dioxolane/dimethoxyethane solvent with 1% LiNO3 additive (2m-DD-1%L)) and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ)/CMK-3 (AQC) nanocomposite cathode are reported here. The electrochemical results manifest that 2m-DD-1%L electrolyte promotes the cycling performance due to the restraint of AQ dissolution in ether-based electrolyte with high Li salt concentration and formation of a protection film on the surface of the anode. Additionally, the AQC nanocomposite improves the rate performance because of the nanoconfinement effect of CMK-3 and the decrease of charge transfer impedance. In 2m-DD-1%L electrolyte, AQC nanocomposite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 205 mA h g(-1) and a capacity of 174 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Even at a high rate of 2 C, its capacity is 146 mA h g(-1). This strategy is also used for other organic carbonyl compounds with quinone substructures and they maintain high stable capacities. This sheds light on the development of advanced organic lithium batteries with carbonyl electrode materials and ether-based electrolytes.

  4. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  5. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  6. A novel modified carbon paste electrode based on NiO/CNTs nanocomposite and (9, 10-dihydro-9, 10-ethanoanthracene-11, 12-dicarboximido)-4-ethylbenzene-1, 2-diol as a mediator for simultaneous determination of cysteamine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Biparva, Pourya; Hatami, Mehdi

    2013-10-15

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with (9, 10-dihydro-9, 10-ethanoanthracene-11, 12-dicarboximido)-4-ethylbenzene-1, 2-diol (DEDE) and NiO/CNTs nanocomposite was used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of cysteamine (CA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and folic acid (FA) for the first time. The synthesized materials were characterized with different methods such as XRD, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The modified electrode exhibited a potent and persistent electron mediating behavior followed by well-separated oxidation peaks of CA, NADH and FA. The peak currents were linearly dependent on CA, NADH and FA concentrations using square wave voltammetry (SWV) method in the ranges of 0.01-250, 1.0-500, and 3.0-550 µmol L⁻¹, with detection limits of 0.007, 0.6, and 0.9 µmol L⁻¹, respectively. The modified electrode was used for the determination of CA, NADH and FA in biological and pharmaceutical samples.

  7. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  8. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  9. Physiology of Visceral Pain.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, G F; Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint. We review here the anatomical organization of the visceral sensory innervation that distinguishes the viscera from innervation of all other tissues in the body. The viscera are innervated by two nerves that share overlapping functions, but also possess notably distinct functions. Additionally, the visceral innervation is sparse relative to the sensory innervation of other tissues. Accordingly, visceral sensations tend to be diffuse in character, are typically referred to nonvisceral somatic structures and thus are difficult to localize. Early arguments about whether the viscera were innervated ("sensate") and later, whether innervated by nociceptors, were resolved by advances reviewed here in the anatomical and functional attributes of receptive endings in viscera that contribute to visceral pain (i.e., visceral nociceptors). Importantly, the contribution of plasticity (i.e., sensitization) of peripheral and central visceral nociceptive mechanisms is considered in the context of persistent, chronic visceral pain conditions. The review concludes with an overview of the functional anatomy of visceral pain processing. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1609-1633, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Synthesis, cytotoxic activities and proposed mode of binding of a series of bis([(9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-4-carbonyl)amino]alkyl) alkylamines.

    PubMed

    Braña, Miguel F; Casarrubios, Luis; Domínguez, Gema; Fernández, Carlos; Pérez, José M; Quiroga, Adoración G; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; de Pascual-Teresa, Beatriz

    2002-04-01

    A series of bis([(9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-4-carbonyl)amino]alkyl) alkylamines have been prepared and their antiproliferative properties have been tested against HT-29 cell lines. Compounds 6b and 6d showed an interesting cytotoxic profile and were subjected to further cytotoxic evaluation, DNA binding properties and molecular modelling studies. The evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of compounds 6b and 6d against pairs of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian tumour cells shows that both compounds may be endowed with interesting antitumour properties because they are able to circumvent cisplatin resistance in A2780cisR, CH1cisR and Pam 212-ras tumour cells. On the other hand, DNA binding data indicate that compounds 6b and 6d are able to intercalate stronger than acridine within the double helix. Both compounds displace ethidium bromide with an efficiency ten times higher than acridine from several linear double-stranded DNAs and induce 43 degrees unwinding in supercoiled pBR322 DNA while acridine unwinds pBR322 DNA by only 24 degrees. Altogether these data indicate that the significant conformational changes induced by compounds 6b and 6d in the double helix are due to a bis-intercalative DNA binding mode. We propose that binding to DNA through bisintercalation might be at least in part responsible for the remarkable cytotoxic properties of these acridine derivatives. The complex of 6b with d(GCGCGC)(2) in the four possible orientations that the ligand can adopt when binding to the DNA hexamer have been modelled and subjected to molecular dynamics simulations with the aim of evaluating the binding preferences of this bisintercalating agent into the DNA molecule. The predictions suggest that 6b binds to d(GCGCGC)(2) with a parallel orientation of the chromophores relative to each other and with a preference for binding through the minor groove of the hexamer. The possible relevance of these findings to the process of bisintercalation and the antitumour

  11. [On the pharmacology of 9,10-dihydro-10-(1-methyl-4-piperidylidene)-9-anthrol (WA 335), a histamine and serotonin antagonist (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, G

    1975-11-01

    The substance 9,10-dihydro-10-(1-methyl-4-piperidylidene)-9-anthrol (WA 335) was examined for its antagonistic effects against histamine and serotonin, for its atropine-like properties as well as for a series of other qualities in comparison with cyproheptadine and pimethixene. The anti-histamine and anti-serotonin activities of compound WA 335 on the smooth muscle and the capillary do not only exceed that of cyproheptadine but also that of pimethixene. WA 335 shows an extremely strong binding to histamine and serotonin receptors. In the dose range in which it causes already an antamine effect, its oral absorption is very good. The anti-anaphylactic effect is much stronger than that of cyproheptadine. Like pimethixene and cyproheptadine, WA 335 has no distinct antagonistic qualities against bradykinin. The anticholinergic effects of WA 335 are dependent on the test object. In examinations on the bronchus of the guinea pig and the pupil of the mouse, the atropine-like efficiency corresponds to that of cyproheptadine; it is stronger on the stimulated vagus of the cat and less efficient than cyproheptadine on the stomach of the rat. WA 335 has distinct central atropine-like properties. It possesses a strong surface anesthetic activity. The effects of WA 335 on circulation are dependent on species. In contrast to pimethixene, compound WA 335 like cyproheptadine potentiates the effects of norepinephrine in cats. The reduction of the carotid sinus reflex in the cat is more distinct after WA 335 than after pimethixene and corresponds to that produced by cyproheptadine. Higher doses of WA 335 than are necessary to demonstrate antaminic effects are needed to provoke central nervous effects. WA 335 shows no analgesic potency in mice. The influence on body temperature in the rat is similar to that of cyproheptadine. WA 335 is equally efficient as pimethixene with regard to the inhibition of spontaneous motility and prolongation of barbiturate sleep in mice, and shows the same

  12. A quick solution structure determination of the fully oxidized double mutant K9-10A cytochrome c7 from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans and mechanistic implications.

    PubMed

    Assfalg, Michael; Bertini, Ivano; Turano, Paola; Bruschi, Mireille; Durand, Marie-Claire; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Dolla, Alain

    2002-02-01

    Lysines 9 and 10 in Desulfuromonas acetoxidans cytochrome c7, which could be involved in the interaction mechanism with the redox partners, have been replaced by alanine residues using site-directed mutagenesis. The solution structure of the fully oxidized form of K9-10A cytochrome c7, which is paramagnetic with three paramagnetic centers, has been determined via 1H NMR. The assignment of the spectra has been performed through an automatic program whose algorithm and strategy are here described. The assignment of the NOESY spectra has been further extended by back calculating the NOESY maps. The final number of meaningful NOE-based upper distance limits was 1186. In the Restrained Energy Minimization calculations, 147 pseudocontact shift constraints were also included, which showed consistency with NOE-based constraints and therefore further contribute to validate the structure quality. A final family of 35 conformers was calculated with RMSD values with respect to the mean structure of 0.69 +/- 0.17 A and 1.05 +/- 0.14 A for the backbone and heavy atoms, respectively. The overall fold of the molecule is maintained with respect to the native protein. The loop present between heme III and heme IV results to be highly disordered also in the present structure although its overall shape mainly resembles that of the oxidized native protein, and the two strands which give rise to the short beta-sheet present at the N-terminus and connected by a turn containing the mutated residues, are less clearly defined. If this loop is neglected, the RMSD values are 0.52 +/- 0.07 A and 0.92 +/- 0.06 A for the backbone and heavy atoms, respectively, which represent a reasonable resolution. The relative distances and orientations of the three hemes are maintained, as well as the orientation of the imidazole rings of the axial histidine ligands, with the only exception of heme IV. Such difference probably reflects minor conformational changes due to the substitution of the vicinal Lys

  13. Tumorigenicity of the optical enantiomers of the diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxides in newborn mice: exceptional activity of (+)-7beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha,10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Buening, M K; Wislocki, P G; Levin, W; Yagi, H; Thakker, D R; Akagi, H; Koreeda, M; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1978-01-01

    The tumorigenicities of benzo[a]pyrene and each optical enantiomer of the diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxides derived from trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzol[a]pyrene were tested by sequential intraperitoneal injection of mice with 1,2, and 4 nmol, or with 2, 4, and 8 nmol of each compound on the 1st, 8th, and 15th day of life, respectively. The experiment was terminated when the animals were 34--37 weeks old. (+)-7beta, 8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha,10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzol[a]pyrene [(+)-BP-7beta,8alpha-diol-9alpha,10alpha-epoxide 2] had exceptional tumorigenicity, whereas benzo[a]-pyrene and the other three optically pure isomers of the benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol,9,10-epoxides had little or no activity. These results demonstrate differences in the carcinogenic activities of optically active isomers of a polycyclic hydrocarbon diol epoxide. Eleven percent of control mice had pulmonary tumors, whereas 71% and 100% of the mice treated with a total dose of 7 or 14 nmol of (+)-BP-7beta,8alpha-diol-9alpha,10alpha-epoxide 2, respectively, had pulmonary tumors. Control mice had an average of 0.12 pulmonary tumors per mouse, whereas mice treated with a total dose of 7 or 14 nmol of (+)-BP-7beta,8alpha-diol-9alpha,10alpha-epoxide 2 had 1.72 and 7.67 pulmonary tumors per mouse, respectively. Mice treated with 14 nmol of (-)-BP-7alpha,8beta-diol-9beta,10beta-epoxide 2, (-)-BP-7beta,8alpha-diol-9beta,10beta-epoxide 1, or (+)-BP-7alpha,8beta-diol-9alpha,10alpha-epoxide 1 had 0.13, 0.25, and 0.34 pulmonary tumors per animal, respectively. PMID:281685

  14. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  15. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  16. Rethinking Cells to Society

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting time to be a developmental scientist. We have advanced theoretical frameworks and developed ground-breaking methods for addressing questions of interest, ranging literally from cells to society. We know more now than we have ever known about human development and the base of acquired knowledge is increasing exponentially. In this paper we share some thoughts about where we are in the science of human development, how we got there, what may be going wrong and what may be going right. Finally, we offer some thoughts about where we go from here to assure that in the future we achieve the best developmental science possible. PMID:25642155

  17. NMR solution structure of a nonanucleotide duplex with a dG mismatch opposite a 10R adduct derived from trans addition of a deoxyadenosine N6-amino group to (-)-(7S,8R,9R,10S)-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Schurter, E J; Yeh, H J; Sayer, J M; Lakshman, M K; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M; Gorenstein, D G

    1995-01-31

    A nonanucleotide in which (-)-(7S,8R,9R,10S)-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy- 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (7-hydroxy group and epoxide oxygen are trans) is covalently bonded to the exocyclic N6-amino group of deoxyadenosine through trans addition at C10 of the epoxide (10R adduct) has been synthesized. The modified oligonucleotide d(GGTCA*CGAG) was incorporated into the duplex d(GGTCA*CGAG).d(CTCGGGACC), containing a dG mismatch opposite the modified base (dA*). Proton assignments for the solution structure of the duplex containing the 10R adduct were made using 2D TOCSY and NOESY NMR spectra. The complete hybrid relaxation matrix program, MORASS2.0, was used to generate NOESY distance constraints for iterative refinement using distance-restrained molecular dynamics calculations with AMBER4.0. The iteratively refined structure showed the hydrocarbon intercalated from the major groove immediately below the dC4-dG15 base pair and oriented toward the 5'-end of the modified strand. The modified dA is in an anti configuration, with the dG of the GA mismatch turned out into the major groove. Chemical shifts of the hydrocarbon protons and unusual chemical shifts of sugar protons were accounted for by this orientation of the adduct. The information available currently provides the foundation for the rational explanation of observed benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) structures and predictions for other BaP dG and dA adducts.

  18. Translation of satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA modified by (not equal to)-r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene is inhibited in a wheat germ cell-free system

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, R.; Pulkrabek, P.; Takanami, Y.; Grunberger, D.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that (not equal to)-r-7-,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) modification of rabbit globin mRNA results in inhibition of translational initiation. In order to explore the possibility that modification of the 5' cap structure was responsible for this inhibition, the naturally non-capped mRNA from satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) was reacted with BPDE and translated in a wheat germ cell-free system. The extent of modification was 1.3 and 2.9 BPDE residues/molecule. High performance liquid chromatography of the modified nucleosides from enzymatically hydrolyzed STNV RNA revealed that greater than 90% of the nucleoside adducts were substituted at the exocyclic amino group of guanosine. The translational ability of the lower and higher modified STNV, measured by incorporation of (/sup 14/C)amino acids into acid-precipitable polypeptides is inhibited by 55% and 63%, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analyses of the translation products indicate that predominantly full-length coat proteins are synthesized but with the carcinogen-modified STNV the amount is reduced. On the other hand, 80S initiation complex formation is not inhibited as measured by binding of the BPDE-modified STNV to ribosomes and followed by glycerol gradient centrifugation. Under these conditions, aurintricarboxylic acid completely inhibits 80S initiation complex formation in the presence of either modified or native STNV. These results suggest that inhibition of in vitro translation of BPDE-modified STNV, in contrast to that of globin mRNA, is not at the level of initiation complex formation but possibly by premature termination of growing polypeptides.

  19. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  20. A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1909, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) held its first annual meeting. The founding members based this new society on a revolutionary approach to research that emphasized newer physiological methods. In 1924 the ASCI started a new journal, the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The ASCI has also held an annual meeting almost every year. The society has long debated who could be a member, with discussions about whether members must be physicians, what sorts of research they could do, and the role of women within the society. The ASCI has also grappled with what else the society should do, especially whether it ought to take a stand on policy issues. ASCI history has reflected changing social, political, and economic contexts, including several wars, concerns about the ethics of biomedical research, massive increases in federal research funding, and an increasingly large and specialized medical environment. PMID:19348041

  1. Communicating Science to Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  2. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is ...

  3. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A ... Read Article View All News ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/ ...

  4. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  5. Advanced information society (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  6. Science, Technology and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  7. Geoscience Information Society Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geoscience Information Society (GIS) has announced the creation of the GIS-Mary B. Ansari Best Reference Work Award. The award is funded by a gift of $5000 from former GIS President Mary B. Ansari, currently Director for Branch Libraries and Library Administrative Services at the University of Nevada, Reno. The Best Reference Work Award has been given annually for 7 years, but now the GIS will begin to present the winner with a monetary award.The award will be $500 per year and will be presented to the author or editor of the geoscience reference work selected for the award. The money will be divided equally in cases of multiple authors.

  8. Behaviorism and Society.

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  9. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  10. Education in a Technological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W., Ed.; Smith, Wil J., Ed.

    Technological change places increased responsibility on the educational system of a democratic society to prepare citizens for intelligent participation in government. This conference was held to analyze the nature of the technological society and the role of education in preparing the individual for membership in that society. The papers…

  11. Sex-Based Differences in Physiology: What Should We Teach in the Medical Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Martha L.

    2007-01-01

    An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of disease. The Refresher Course on Gender Differences in Physiology, sponsored by the American Physiological Society Education Committee at the 2006 Experimental Biology Meeting in San…

  12. Sex-Based Differences in Physiology: What Should We Teach in the Medical Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Martha L.

    2007-01-01

    An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of disease. The Refresher Course on Gender Differences in Physiology, sponsored by the American Physiological Society Education Committee at the 2006 Experimental Biology Meeting in San…

  13. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  14. Microbial physiology vol. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.H. ); Tempest, D.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Hydrogen metabolism in Rhizobium: energetics, regulation, enzymology and genetics; The physiology and biochemistry of pili; Carboxysomes and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; Archaebacteria: the comparative enzymology of their central metabolic pathways; and Physiology of lipoteichoic acids in bacteria.

  15. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  16. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  17. Progress in physiological optics.

    PubMed

    Boynton, R M

    1967-08-01

    A survey is made of the current state of physiological optics, broadly defined as equated with visual science. After a survey of some historical and definitional matters, recent progress in a number of areas is critically reviewed. Finally, seven examples of important recent discoveries in physiological optics are given.

  18. Space physiology and medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Parker J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The state of knowledge in space physiology and medicine are reviewed. Overviews of manned space flight, the space environment, spaceflight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crew members, and medical problems of space flight are presented.

  19. Physiology of sport.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  20. Beauty and society.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Grossbart, Ted A; Didie, Elizabeth R

    2003-06-01

    Beauty is an abstract construct. We all have our own ideas about what is and is not beautiful--a particular song or painting, a man or woman. Accurately describing what exactly "it" is that makes the song, painting or person beautiful, however, is a daunting task. In this article, we attempt to make the case that beauty and physical attractiveness is a serious matter. We begin with a discussion of the role of beauty in evolutionary theory. Next, we turn to theories of the physiology of beauty, which focus on physical characteristics such as pathogen resistance, averageness, physical symmetry, body ratios, and youthfulness. We then describe changes in the societal standards of beauty through a discussion of the relatively recent history of mass media images of beauty. We then use the psychological construct of body image to begin to understand the nature of beauty on an individual level. The article concludes with a discussion of the things that we do to make ourselves more beautiful.

  1. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  2. Making Sense for Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Grus, M. M.; Nouwens, J. C. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated country. Cities in the metropolitan area (Randstad) will be growing at a fast pace in the coming decades1. Cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam are being overrun by tourists. Climate change effects are noticed in cities (heavy rains for instance). Call for circular economy rises. Traffic increases. People are more self-reliant. Public space is shared by many functions. These challenges call for smart answers, more specific and directly than ever before. Sensor data is a cornerstone of these answers. In this paper we'll discuss the approaches of Dutch initiatives using sensor data as the new language to live a happy life in our cities. Those initiatives have been bundled in a knowledge platform called "Making sense for society" 1 https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2016/37/pbl-cbs-prognose-groei-steden-zet-door (in dutch)

  3. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  4. Looking at physiological anthropology from a historical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2005-05-01

    As one way of thinking about physiological anthropology, let us survey it from a historical viewpoint. At the beginning of the 19th century, Blumenbach, considered the father of Physical Anthropology, wrote his "Handbook of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology." The subsequent research conducted and papers written by researchers such as Broca and Martin pointed in the direction of physiological anthropology; furthermore, the research carried out by the American researchers Demon and Baker had a physiological anthropology "feel." The courses in Physiological Anthropology taught by Tokizane exerted a major influence on physiological anthropology in Japan. The precursor of the Japan Society of Physiological Anthropology, organized by Sato in 1978, was extremely significant in the effect that it had on the subsequent development of physiological anthropology. The holding of the biennial International Congress of Physiological Anthropology, along with the allocation of the Research sub-field of Physiological Anthropology in the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, would seem to suggest that the field of physiological anthropology is set to increasingly grow and evolve.

  5. Mutation spectra induced by 1-nitropyrene 4,5-oxide and 1-nitropyrene 9,10-oxide in the supF gene of human XP-A fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Byung-Chun; Cha, Jin Soon; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Lee, Chong-Soon

    2008-08-31

    1-Nitropyrene 4,5-oxide and 1-nitropyrene 9,10-oxide are oxidative metabolites that are responsible for the mutagenicity of 1-nitropyrene. In this study, the mutation spectra induced by oxidative metabolites in human cells were determined using a shuttle vector assay. The mutation frequencies induced by 1-nitropyrene 9,10-oxide were 2-3 times higher than those induced by 1-nitropyrene 4,5-oxide. The base substitutions induced by 1-nitropyrene 4,5-oxide were G --> A transitions, G --> C transversions, and G --> T transversions. In the case of 1-nitropyrene 9,10-oxide, G --> A transitions, G --> T transversions, A --> G transitions and G --> C transversions were observed. Most base substitution mutations induced by oxidative metabolites occurred at the guanine sites in the supF gene. These sequence-specific hot spots were commonly identified as 5'-GA sequences for both metabolites. On the other hand, the sequence-specific hot spots at the adenine sites were identified as 5'-CAC sequences for 1-nitropyrene 9,10-oxide. These results suggest that the oxidative metabolites of 1-nitropyrene induce sequence-specific DNA mutations at the guanine and adenine sites at high frequency.

  6. Mechanism of inhibition of the ATPase domain of human topoisomerase IIα by 1,4-benzoquinone, 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-phenanthroquinone.

    PubMed

    Gurbani, Deepak; Kukshal, Vandna; Laubenthal, Julian; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pandey, Alok; Tripathi, Sarita; Arora, Ashish; Jain, Swatantra K; Ramachandran, Ravishankar; Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, Alok

    2012-04-01

    The inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα (Hu-TopoIIα), a major enzyme involved in maintaining DNA topology, repair, and chromosome condensation/decondensation results in loss of genomic integrity. In the present study, the inhibition of ATPase domain of Hu-TopoIIα as a possible mechanism of genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), hydroquinone (HQ), naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ and 1,4-NQ), and 9,10-phenanthroquinone (9,10-PQ) was investigated. In silico modeling predicted that 1,4-BQ, 1,2-NQ, 1,4-NQ, and 9,10-PQ could interact with Ser-148, Ser-149, Asn-150, and Asn-91 residues of the ATPase domain of Hu-TopoIIα. Biochemical inhibition assays with the purified ATPase domain of Hu-TopoIIα revealed that 1,4-BQ is the most potent inhibitor followed by 1,4-NQ > 1,2-NQ > 9,10-PQ > HQ. Ligand-binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that 1,4-BQ, HQ, 1,4-NQ, 1,2-NQ, and 9,10-PQ enter into four sequentially binding site models inside the domain. 1,4-BQ exhibited the strongest binding, followed by 1,4-NQ > 1,2-NQ > 9,10-PQ > HQ, as revealed by their average K(d) values. The cellular fate of such inhibition was further evidenced by an increase in the number of Hu-TopoIIα-DNA cleavage complexes in the human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) using trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining (TARDIS) assay, which utilizes antibody specific for Hu-TopoIIα. Furthermore, the increase in γ-H2A.X levels quantitated by flow cytometry and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy illustrated that accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks inside the cells can be attributed to the inhibition of Hu-TopoIIα. These findings collectively suggest that 1,4-BQ, 1,2-NQ, 1,4-NQ, and 9,10-PQ inhibit the ATPase domain and potentially result in Hu-TopoIIα-mediated clastogenic and leukemogenic events.

  7. Repression of Tropolone Production and Induction of a Burkholderia plantarii Pseudo-Biofilm by Carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a Cell-to-Cell Signaling Disrupter Produced by Trichoderma virens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengcen; Hashimoto, Makoto; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropolone-tolerant Trichoderma virens PS1-7 is a biocontrol agent against Burkholderia plantarii, causative of rice seedling blight. When exposed to catechol, this fungus dose-dependently produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a sesquiterpene-type autoregulatory signal molecule that promotes self-conidiation of T. virens PS1-7 mycelia. It was, however, uncertain why T. virens PS1-7 attenuates the symptom development of the rice seedlings infested with B. plantarii. Methodology/Principal Findings To reveal the antagonism by T. virens PS1-7 against B. plantarii leading to repression of tropolone production in a coculture system, bioassay-guided screening for active compounds from a 3-d culture of T. virens PS1-7 was conducted. As a result, carot-4-en-9,10-diol was identified and found to repress tropolone production of B. plantarii from 10 to 200 µM in a dose-dependent manner as well as attenuate virulence of B. plantarii on rice seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcriptional suppression of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase plaI in B. plantarii was the main mode of action by which carot-4-en-9,10-diol mediated the quorum quenching responsible for repression of tropolone production. In addition, the unique response of B. plantarii to carot-4-en-9,10-diol in the biofilm formed in the static culture system was also found. Although the initial stage of B. plantarii biofilm formation was induced by both tropolone and carot-4-en-9,10-diol, it was induced in different states. Moreover, the B. plantarii biofilm that was induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol at the late stage showed defects not only in matrix structure but also cell viability. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that carot-4-en-9,10-diol released by T. virens PS1-7 acts as an interkingdom cell-to-cell signaling molecule against B. plantarii to repress tropolone production and induces pseudo-biofilm to the cells. This observation also led to another discovery that

  8. Repression of tropolone production and induction of a Burkholderia plantarii pseudo-biofilm by carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a cell-to-cell signaling disrupter produced by Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcen; Hashimoto, Makoto; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The tropolone-tolerant Trichoderma virens PS1-7 is a biocontrol agent against Burkholderia plantarii, causative of rice seedling blight. When exposed to catechol, this fungus dose-dependently produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a sesquiterpene-type autoregulatory signal molecule that promotes self-conidiation of T. virens PS1-7 mycelia. It was, however, uncertain why T. virens PS1-7 attenuates the symptom development of the rice seedlings infested with B. plantarii. To reveal the antagonism by T. virens PS1-7 against B. plantarii leading to repression of tropolone production in a coculture system, bioassay-guided screening for active compounds from a 3-d culture of T. virens PS1-7 was conducted. As a result, carot-4-en-9,10-diol was identified and found to repress tropolone production of B. plantarii from 10 to 200 µM in a dose-dependent manner as well as attenuate virulence of B. plantarii on rice seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcriptional suppression of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase plaI in B. plantarii was the main mode of action by which carot-4-en-9,10-diol mediated the quorum quenching responsible for repression of tropolone production. In addition, the unique response of B. plantarii to carot-4-en-9,10-diol in the biofilm formed in the static culture system was also found. Although the initial stage of B. plantarii biofilm formation was induced by both tropolone and carot-4-en-9,10-diol, it was induced in different states. Moreover, the B. plantarii biofilm that was induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol at the late stage showed defects not only in matrix structure but also cell viability. Our findings demonstrate that carot-4-en-9,10-diol released by T. virens PS1-7 acts as an interkingdom cell-to-cell signaling molecule against B. plantarii to repress tropolone production and induces pseudo-biofilm to the cells. This observation also led to another discovery that tropolone is an autoregulatory cell-to-cell signaling molecule of B

  9. In vitro antiproliferative activity of 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone induced apoptosis against COLO320 cells through cytochrome c release caspase mediated pathway with PI3K/AKT and COX-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Emi, N; Arun, Y; Yamamoto, N; Duraipandiyan, V; Inaguma, Yoko; Okamoto, Akinao; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Perumal, P T

    2016-04-05

    The present study investigated the anticancer activity of 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone against different cancer cells such as MCF-7, COLO320, HepG-2, Skov-3, MOLM-14, NB-4, CEM, K562, Jurkat, HL-60, U937, IM-9 and Vero. 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone showed good antiproliferative activity against COLO320 cells when compared to other tested cells. The cytotoxicity results showed 79.8% activity at the dose of 2.07 μM with IC50 value of 0.13 μM at 24 h in COLO320 cells. So we chose COLO320 cells for further anticancer studies. mRNA expression was confirmed by qPCR analysis using SYBR green method. Treatment with 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone was found to trigger intrinsic apoptotic pathway as indicated by down regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl; up regulation of Bim, Bax, Bad; release of cytochrome c and pro-caspases cleaving to caspases. Furthermore, 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone stopped at G0/G1 phase with modulation in protein levels of cyclins. On the other hand PI3K/AKT signaling plays an important role in cell metabolism. We found that 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone inhibits PI3K/AKT activity after treatment. Also, COX-2 enzyme plays a major role in colorectal cancer. Our results showed that the treatment significantly reduced COX-2 enzyme in COLO320 cells. These results indicated antiproliferative activity of 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone involving apoptotic pathways, mitochondrial functions, cell cycle checkpoint and controlling the over expression genes during the colorectal cancer. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of Bcl-2, COX-2, PI3K and AKT. This is the first report of anticancer mechanism involving 2,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone in COLO320 cells. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of antitumor drugs toward colorectal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Science communication at scientific societies.

    PubMed

    Braha, Jeanne

    2017-10-01

    Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  12. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  13. Paperless or vanishing society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner Luke, Joy

    2002-06-01

    In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as

  14. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  15. Circadian Rhythms in Adipose Tissue Physiology.

    PubMed

    Kiehn, Jana-Thabea; Tsang, Anthony H; Heyde, Isabel; Leinweber, Brinja; Kolbe, Isa; Leliavski, Alexei; Oster, Henrik

    2017-03-16

    The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals. In adipose tissues, clock gene control has been documented for adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, lipid metabolism as well as endocrine function and other adipose oscillations are under control of systemic signals tied to endocrine, neuronal, or behavioral rhythms. Circadian rhythm disruption, for example, by night shift work or through genetic alterations, is associated with changes in adipocyte metabolism and hormone secretion. At the same time, adipose metabolic state feeds back to central and peripheral clocks, adjusting behavioral and physiological rhythms. In this overview article, we summarize our current knowledge about the crosstalk between circadian clocks and energy metabolism with a focus on adipose physiology. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:383-427, 2017.

  16. Intellectual Freedom and the National Laboratories : 2000 Sigma Xi Forum New Ethical Challenges in Science and Technology, November 9-10, 2000, Albuquerque, New Mexico"

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, John C.

    2001-01-01

    As we move toward the 21st century, I believe the importance of the ethical system on which the scientific establishment, including the national laboratories, can build its contributions to society is becoming increasingly more important. Issues include the impact of the research we do, the trust we have between ourselves and the general public and the federal government, and the complexity of the problems that we work on. One of the most important roles that I see for research management in large institutions, like the national laboratories, is to create the appropriate environment for ethical behavior for all of its employees. Ethics and modern science demands that we create and live a set of shared values. As Bob Dynes pointed out this morning, we're not just talking about rules. We really must have values upon which we build and create the kind of behaviors we want to see. The major issue that I see in developing these shared values is that management and employees must jointly develop, socialize and live those shared values. In this session today, as I said, we want to explore the issues of intellectual freedom and ethical environment in government and the contracts under which the national laboratories operate. One of the laboratories is run by a nonprofit, the University of California, and the other is a paid-for-profit corporation. I don't know if there are any differences, depending on who the overseeing contractor is. I don't think there are, but it would be interesting to explore any differences we might see between the two. We have chosen the title 'Intellectual Freedom.' It's not academic freedom. Although, clearly, there are a lot of shared attributes between academic freedom and intellectual freedom. In our case, intellectual freedom allows our researchers to challenge technical decisions that are made by the laboratory, by the government or by their peers in their area of expertise, not in policy making, but in the scientific realm. It really does

  17. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiology, behavior, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Blumstein, Daniel T; Buchholz, Richard; Caro, Tim; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Franklin, Craig E; Metcalfe, Julian; O'Connor, Constance M; St Clair, Colleen Cassady; Sutherland, William J; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many animal populations are in decline as a result of human activity. Conservation practitioners are attempting to prevent further declines and loss of biodiversity as well as to facilitate recovery of endangered species, and they often rely on interdisciplinary approaches to generate conservation solutions. Two recent interfaces in conservation science involve animal behavior (i.e., conservation behavior) and physiology (i.e., conservation physiology). To date, these interfaces have been considered separate entities, but from both pragmatic and biological perspectives, there is merit in better integrating behavior and physiology to address applied conservation problems and to inform resource management. Although there are some institutional, conceptual, methodological, and communication-oriented challenges to integrating behavior and physiology to inform conservation actions, most of these barriers can be overcome. Through outlining several successful examples that integrate these disciplines, we conclude that physiology and behavior can together generate meaningful data to support animal conservation and management actions. Tangentially, applied conservation and management problems can, in turn, also help advance and reinvigorate the fundamental disciplines of animal physiology and behavior by providing advanced natural experiments that challenge traditional frameworks.

  19. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the…

  20. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  1. Human Mind in Human Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Hans G.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that mind and mental objects form a societal mental structure enabling children to assimilate the society and become co-constructing members. Cites evidence that competence to create mental objects, symbols, and meanings separated from action is the evolutionary evolved human capacity for society and culture. Vygotsky's "natural"…

  2. Education for a Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempero, Howard E., Ed.

    The essays contained in this booklet are 1) "Education for a 'Learning Society': The Challenge" by Ernest Bayles in which he calls for focus on learning to live, developing skills of reflection and judgment applicable to vital issues, and reflective teaching; 2) "Teacher Education in a Learning Society" in which David Turney demands teacher…

  3. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  4. American Society of Human Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Deficiency October 20, 2016 Parents of Children with Cancer Value Sequencing Results, Even if Non-actionable October 20, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, Maryland 20814 society@ashg.org • 1-866-HUM-GENE • (301) 634-7300 Privacy Policy

  5. Numeracy in Society and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cath; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that focuses on how a Society and Environment unit could develop required numeracy. This is more of an integrated unit organised around a theme rather than a Society and Environment unit that required specific aspects of numeracy. Suggested data sources for examining students numeracy development included (1) a…

  6. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the…

  7. Assessing physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Burggren, W W; Monticino, M G

    2005-09-01

    Physiologists both admire and fear complexity, but we have made relatively few attempts to understand it. Inherently complex systems are more difficult to study and less predictable. However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. We begin this essay with a tour of some mathematical views of complexity. After briefly exploring chaotic systems, information theory and emergent behavior, we reluctantly conclude that, while a mathematical view of complexity provides useful perspectives and some narrowly focused tools, there are too few generally practical take-home messages for physiologists studying complex systems. Consequently, we attempt to provide guidelines as to how complex systems might be best approached by physiologists. After describing complexity based on the sum of a physiological system's structures and processes, we highlight increasingly refined approaches based on the pattern of interactions between structures and processes. We then provide a series of examples illustrating how appreciating physiological complexity can improve physiological research, including choosing experimental models, guiding data collection, improving data interpretations and constructing more rigorous system models. Finally, we conclude with an invitation for physiologists, applied mathematicians and physicists to collaborate on describing, studying and learning from studies of physiological complexity.

  8. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  9. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  10. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  11. Pavlov's physiology factory.

    PubMed

    Todes, D P

    1997-06-01

    The author examines the forces and relations of production in Pavlov's laboratory at the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine during the first phase of its operation (1891-1904). As in any production site, the forces of production included its physical plant and technologies, its workforce (with its skills), and management's ideas about what constituted good products and how best to produce them. In Pavlov's laboratory, these included a physical plant adapted for physiological surgery and "chronic experiments," dog-technologies and experimental practices created in accordance with Pavlov's Bernardian vision of physiology, and a workforce dominated by physicians untrained in physiology who were seeking quick doctoral degrees. The relations of production featured an authoritarian structure and cooperative ethos that allowed Pavlov to use coworkers as extensions of his sensory reach, while enabling him constantly to monitor the work process, to control the "interpretive moments" in experiments, to incorporate results into his developing ideas, and to convert them efficiently into marketable products.

  12. Human physiology in space.

    PubMed

    Vernikos, J

    1996-12-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  13. Physiological Signal Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a Physiological Signal Conditioner (PSC) for monitoring of astronauts in the ISS Human Research Facility. The PSC is battery powered and worn by the crew. The Engineering Development Unit (PSC EDU) and the form-and-fit PSC Tooling Model will be displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. Results of a recent advanced PSC-2 feasibility study will be presented. The presentation will stimulate discussion of the functional capabilities of a wireless, crew worn Physiological Signal Conditioner. Application of advanced technology to meet the conflicting demands of size, power, and functional capability will be of interest.

  14. Specifications Physiological Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The operation of a physiological monitoring system (PMS) is described. Specifications were established for performance, design, interface, and test requirements. The PMS is a compact, microprocessor-based system, which can be worn in a pack on the body or may be mounted on a Spacelab rack or other appropriate structure. It consists of two modules, the Data Control Unit (DCU) and the Remote Control/Display Unit (RCDU). Its purpose is to collect and distribute data from physiological experiments in the Spacelab and in the Orbiter.

  15. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for hematological malignancies from mismatched 9/10 human leukocyte antigen unrelated donors: comparison with transplants from 10/10 unrelated donors and human leukocyte antigen identical siblings.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Sobh, Mohamad; Serrier, Caroline; Morisset, Stéphane; Labussière, Hélène; Ducastelle, Sophie; Barraco, Fiorenza; Gilis, Lila; Thomas, Xavier; Nicolini, Franck E

    2015-04-01

    We studied the outcome of 213 patients who received allo-HSCT for hematological malignancies, 121 (57%) from HLA identical siblings, 63 (29%) from 10/10 HLA identical unrelated donors and 29 (14%) from 9/10 HLA mismatched unrelated donors. Engraftment was lower in the 9/10 HLA group (90%) than in the 10/10 HLA group (95%) than in the sibling group (99%); 3 months CI of aGVHD ≥ 2 was 32% (23-41), 20% (15-26) and 27% (23-32) respectively; the one year CI of extensive cGVHD was 21% (13-30), 9% (5-13) and 17% (14-21) respectively. The median OS was 10 months (5-21), 18 months (11-NR) and 60 months (31-NR) respectively with 2-years probability of 19% (8-44), 43% (31-59) and 63% (54-74) respectively. TRM was significantly higher in the 9/10 HLA group with 1 year CI of 45% (35-55), compared to 33% (27-39) in the unrelated 10/10 HLA group and 12% (9-15) in the identical siblings group (p < 0.001).

  16. Earthquake science in resilient societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, T.; Clark, M. K.; Zekkos, D.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Willis, M.; Medwedeff, William; Knoper, Logan; Townsend, Kirk; Jin, Jonson

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake science is critical in reducing vulnerability to a broad range of seismic hazards. Evidence-based studies drawing from several branches of the Earth sciences and engineering can effectively mitigate losses experienced in earthquakes. Societies that invest in this research have lower fatality rates in earthquakes and can recover more rapidly. This commentary explores the scientific pathways through which earthquake-resilient societies are developed. We highlight recent case studies of evidence-based decision making and how modern research is improving the way societies respond to earthquakes.

  17. The Contemporary Medical Society Library

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Susan; Michel, Carol; Waligorski, Conrad

    1965-01-01

    Four hundred sixty-eight medical societies in the United States were surveyed to determine those which sponsor libraries. Seventy-eight libraries were identified, of which eighteen are “marginal” and nine are jointly supported by a medical school and a society, leaving fifty-one relatively “substantial” libraries whose major support is through society membership. Characteristics measured include size of collection, types of media, staff, budget, services, and sources of support. Questions are raised concerning the role of the medical library as one institution which participates in the continuing education of the physician. PMID:14271112

  18. Exploitation of physiological and genetic variability to enhance crop productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.E.; Schrader, L.E.; Howell, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The American Society of Plant Physiologists recognizes the need to identify primary physiological limitations to crop productivity. This basic information is essential to facilitate and accelerate progress towards the goal of enhanced productivity on a global scale. Plant breeders currently select for desirable physiological traits intuitively by selecting for enhanced yield capability. Identification of specific physiological limitations by plant physiologists could potentially foster interdisciplinary research and accelerate progress in breeding for improved cultivars. The recent upsurge in research interest and funding in the area of biotechnology further exemplifies the importance of identification of specific physiological traits which may be amenable to manipulation at the molecular as well as the whole plant level. The theme of this symposium was to focus attention on current progress in identification of possible physiological limitations. The purpose of this publication is to document that progress and hopefully to extend the stimulating ideas to those who were unable to attend the symposium.

  19. Challenges and opportunities in developmental integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C A; Eme, J; Burggren, W W; Roghair, R D; Rundle, S D

    2015-06-01

    This review explores challenges and opportunities in developmental physiology outlined by a symposium at the 2014 American Physiological Society Intersociety Meeting: Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology. Across animal taxa, adverse embryonic/fetal environmental conditions can alter morphological and physiological phenotypes in juveniles or adults, and capacities for developmental plasticity are common phenomena. Human neonates with body sizes at the extremes of perinatal growth are at an increased risk of adult disease, particularly hypertension and cardiovascular disease. There are many rewarding areas of current and future research in comparative developmental physiology. We present key mechanisms, models, and experimental designs that can be used across taxa to investigate patterns in, and implications of, the development of animal phenotypes. Intraspecific variation in the timing of developmental events can be increased through developmental plasticity (heterokairy), and could provide the raw material for selection to produce heterochrony--an evolutionary change in the timing of developmental events. Epigenetics and critical windows research recognizes that in ovo or fetal development represent a vulnerable period in the life history of an animal, when the developing organism may be unable to actively mitigate environmental perturbations. 'Critical windows' are periods of susceptibility or vulnerability to environmental or maternal challenges, periods when recovery from challenge is possible, and periods when the phenotype or epigenome has been altered. Developmental plasticity may allow survival in an altered environment, but it also has possible long-term consequences for the animal. "Catch-up growth" in humans after the critical perinatal window has closed elicits adult obesity and exacerbates a programmed hypertensive phenotype (one of many examples of "fetal programing"). Grand challenges for developmental physiology include

  20. New York Zoological Society Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the institutional setting, history, and services of the New York Zoological Society Library. Topics covered include clientele; library collections and special collections; library staffing and organizational structure; computer applications; and relationships with other libraries. (11 references) (CLB)

  1. ISS Update: American Physical Society

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Becky Thompson, head of Public Outreach for the American Physical Society, a professional organization for physicists whose web site hosts astronaut ...

  2. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASCP Selects ArborMetrix to Drive Patient-Centric National Pathology Quality Registry ePolicy News August 2017 July 2017 ... Measure Copyright © 2017 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  3. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  4. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  5. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  6. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  7. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  8. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  9. Physiology of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  10. Postharvest storage and physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato storage makes the crop available for consumption or sale over an extended period of time. In this book chapter, the various way that potatoes are stored worldwide are described. The most important physiological defects that occur in storage are reviewed, as are the biochemical pathways of car...

  11. Physiology of lactation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  12. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  13. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  14. The Virtual Physiological Human

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

  15. The Physiology of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the physiology of motivation is presented. The basic assumption is that the amount of motivated behavior is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centers of the hypothalamus. Activities of these centers are determined by factors in four general classes. (SLD)

  16. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  17. Renal Physiology of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Katharine L.; Lafayette, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient. PMID:23928384

  18. Renal physiology of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Katharine L; Lafayette, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

  20. Perturbation of physiological systems by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Jia, Jianbo; Gao, Ningning; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruinan; Jiang, Guibin; Yan, Bing

    2014-05-21

    Nanotechnology is having a tremendous impact on our society. However, societal concerns about human safety under nanoparticle exposure may derail the broad application of this promising technology. Nanoparticles may enter the human body via various routes, including respiratory pathways, the digestive tract, skin contact, intravenous injection, and implantation. After absorption, nanoparticles are carried to distal organs by the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. During this process, they interact with biological molecules and perturb physiological systems. Although some ingested or absorbed nanoparticles are eliminated, others remain in the body for a long time. The human body is composed of multiple systems that work together to maintain physiological homeostasis. The unexpected invasion of these systems by nanoparticles disturbs normal cell signaling, impairs cell and organ functions, and may even cause pathological disorders. This review examines the comprehensive health risks of exposure to nanoparticles by discussing how nanoparticles perturb various physiological systems as revealed by animal studies. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to each physiological system and the implications of disrupting the balance among systems are emphasized.

  1. Applied physiology of diving.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C

    1988-01-01

    Recreational diving is a popular sport, although human ability to stay in and under water is severely limited physiologically. An understanding of these limitations enhances safety and enjoyment of sports diving. Breath-hold diving involves head-out water immersion, apnoea and submersion, exercise, cold stress, and pressure exposure. Each of these components, by itself, elicits prominent and specific physiological effects. Combination of these factors produces a unique and interesting physiological response generally known as diving reflex. Humans display weak diving responses, but exhibit no oxygen conservation function. Nevertheless, application of diving-induced physiological changes is now finding its way into clinical practice. Apnoea, face immersion, and head-out water immersion all show promise of clinical application. There are several spin-offs from diving research worth noting. Diuresis, enhancement of cardiac performance, and redistribution of blood flow, all produced by head-out water immersion, have been shown to be clinically useful, besides providing physiological data useful to space travel. Results from investigations on apnoea have been shown to be relevant to the following: treating some forms of cardiac arrhythmias; understanding drowning, sudden infant death syndrome and sleep apnoea; and confirming hyperventilation as the major cause of drowning. In comparison to marine mammals, humans are poor divers because of severe physiological constraints which limit their breath-hold time, diving depth, and ability to conserve body heat. Although under special circumstances humans can achieve unusually long breath-hold time and reach exceptional depth with a single breath, the sustainable working time and depth are only about 1 minute and 5 metres, respectively. Hypothermia inevitably results in divers working in the ocean. Without thermal protection, the intolerable limit of 35 degrees C is reached within 30 minutes in winter (10 degrees C) water and

  2. XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Bejger, Michał

    2014-12-01

    XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

  3. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 9/10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Long shot, wide, showing entire impact and fireball in realtime No narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  4. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  5. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  6. Comparative gut physiology symposium: The microbe-gut-brain axis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium titled “The Microbe-Gut-Brain Axis” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association on Thursday, July 21, 2016, in Salt Lake City Utah. The goal of the symposium was to present basic r...

  7. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  8. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  9. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  10. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  11. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  12. [Physiologic effects of hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Eniko; Jenei, Zsigmond; Horváth, Anikó; Gellér, László; Szilágyi, Szabolcs; Király, Akos; Molnár, Levente; Sótonyi, Péter; Merkely, Béla; Zima, Endre

    2011-01-30

    Therapeutic use of hypothermia has come to the frontline in the past decade again in the prevention and in mitigation of neurologic impairment. The application of hypothermia is considered as a successful therapeutic measure not just in neuro- or cardiac surgery, but also in states causing brain injury or damage. According to our present knowledge this is the only proven therapeutic tool, which improves the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, decreasing the oxygen demand of the brain. Besides influencing the nervous system, hypothermia influences the function of the whole organ system. Beside its beneficial effects, it has many side-effects, which may be harmful to the patient. Before using it for a therapeutic purpose, it is very important to be familiar with the physiology and complications of hypothermia, to know, how to prevent and treat its side-effects. The purpose of this article is to summarize the physiologic and pathophysiologic effects of hypothermia.

  13. Physiological roles of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Siamon; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Macrophages are present in mammals from midgestation, contributing to physiologic homeostasis throughout life. Macrophages arise from yolk sac and foetal liver progenitors during embryonic development in the mouse and persist in different organs as heterogeneous, self-renewing tissue-resident populations. Bone marrow-derived blood monocytes are recruited after birth to replenish tissue-resident populations and to meet further demands during inflammation, infection and metabolic perturbations. Macrophages of mixed origin and different locations vary in replication and turnover, but are all active in mRNA and protein synthesis, fulfilling organ-specific and systemic trophic functions, in addition to host defence. In this review, we emphasise selected properties and non-immune functions of tissue macrophages which contribute to physiologic homeostasis.

  14. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  15. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Physiology of skin.

    PubMed

    Greaves, M W

    1976-07-01

    One of Montagna's greatest contributions to study of the biology of the skin has been his demolition of the artificial walls that traditionally separated the histologist from the physiologist. He has shown that only by relating function with structure can we shed light on the workings of the skin. He has stressed the fallacy of studying a single structural or functional unit in isolation from others. The skin represents an organization of many different functional units, and physiology of skin is the study of this organization. My purpose is to make a personal commentary on the achievements, failures, and prospects of understanding some aspects of the organization of the functional units. Twenty-five years ago, the importance of relating skin to internal organs and systems received much attention. We have long been aware that skin sometimes reacts to internal disease, but only recently has the impact of skin disorders on the circulatory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems been recognized. As a result, our patients are now less likely to suffer from neglect of the whole which follows narrow over-specialized attention to the part. Increased interest in endocrine effects on the skin has revealed that several important physiologic activities of the skin are either partly or wholly regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine glands. Nevertheless, some physiologic activities in skin seems to be independent, their regulation being carried out by local mediating hormones. Other activities involve both central and local regulation. The nature and roles of these two control mechanisms and their interrelation constitute by far the most promising physiologic research in skin.

  17. Physiology of Selective Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR: (7)C "Physiology of Selective Attention " ELECTF ONR Contract: 100014-88-K-0281 JUN 4 1992P.I. - Harold E. Pashler to P.I...Gordon C. Baylis W We have made progress in five related areas - practice effects, intertrial 1 _ effects, whether attention acts as a spotlight...lesioned monkeys showed normal speed- accuracy tradeoff, that is whether accuracy was improved at loger reaction times . Proabably as a result of

  18. Tuna comparative physiology.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  19. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  20. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Molecular biology in physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, S.; Gargus, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this symposium on molecular biology in physiology was to introduce molecular biology to physiologists who had relatively little exposure to the new developments in this field, so that they can become conversant on this topic and contribute to the advancement of physiology by incorporating molecular biological approaches as a part of their research arsenal. This report is a review of the symposium, which consisted of two four-part sessions. Each session had four papers. After the discussion of the basic concepts, terminology, and methodology used in molecular biology, it was shown how these basic principles have been applied to the study of the genes encoding two membrane proteins that have important transport functions (band 3 and ATPase). The second half of the symposium consisted of papers on the state-of-the-art developments in the application of molecular biology to the studies of the atrial natriuretic factor and renin genes, adenylate cyclase-coupled adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine receptors and sodium channel, and long-term and short-term memories. The ultimate goal is that these examples will provide an impetus for the opening of new frontiers of research in physiology by taking advantage of the tools developed from recent advances in molecular biology.

  2. Establishing common course objectives for undergraduate exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Shawn R

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate exercise physiology is a ubiquitous course in undergraduate kinesiology/exercise science programs with a broad scope and depth of topics. It is valuable to explore what is taught within this course. The purpose of the present study was to facilitate an understanding of what instructors teach in undergraduate exercise physiology, how it compares with various guidelines, and to continue the conversation regarding what should be taught. A survey was created using course outcomes from the American Society of Exercise Physiologists, National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Ivy's 2007 Quest article, the National Athletic Training Association, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, and 36 undergraduate exercise physiology course syllabi. The 134-item survey was disseminated to individuals who use exercise physiology: university faculty members, clinical exercise physiologists, researchers, and other practitioners on various exercise physiology lists; 2,009 surveys were sent, and 322 surveys were completed (16% rate of return). There was a high degree of agreement about a lot of important content in undergraduate exercise physiology. Instructors of exercise physiology should focus their curriculum on regulation and homeostasis (including adaptation, fatigue, and recovery), aerobic systems, bioenergetics, muscle physiology, and fitness principles. In addition, attention should be paid to performance and technical skills. In conclusion, it is up to exercise physiologists to ensure quality of knowledge and practice. Doing so will improve the uniformity and quality of practitioners within the various kinesiology/exercise science fields and increase the value of a Kinesiology/Exercise Science degree and set it apart from other healthcare providers and fitness professionals. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  3. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 13, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At the outset, the Journal published one issue in 1994. The first number comprised the Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Barcelona, Spain in October 1993. The Proceedings of the previous 14 Annual Meetings appeared as supplements to The Physiologist from 1979 to 1993. Each year, one issue of the Journal is devoted to the Annual Meeting Proceedings, and up to four more issues are comprised of full-length research papers. Additionally, Supplement Issues are considered by the Editorial Board as they are submitted. The Journal is published for the International Society for Gravitational Physiology by the Galileo Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation. This issue, the first number of 2006, comprises the Proceedings of the joint meeting of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology s 27th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Osaka, Japan 23- 28 April, 2006. The Journal of Gravitational Physiology invites the submission of original experimental or observational papers on subjects in the field of gravitational physiology. Review articles, theoretical papers and historical or biographical articles will also be solicited by the Editor for publication. The wide scientific span of the Journal rests on physiology as its keystone. Gravitational physiology is considered to include the effects of changes in the magnitude and directions of the gravitational force environment on cells and physiological systems and behavior of humans, animals and plants. The effects of weightlessness during space flight, high sustained G forces and chronic acceleration, vibration, impact and the various forms of simulated weightlessness are also included, as well as is consideration of the evolutionary consequences of gravity and the role of gravity in the manifestation of scale effects in animals and plants.

  4. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 13, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At the outset, the Journal published one issue in 1994. The first number comprised the Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Barcelona, Spain in October 1993. The Proceedings of the previous 14 Annual Meetings appeared as supplements to The Physiologist from 1979 to 1993. Each year, one issue of the Journal is devoted to the Annual Meeting Proceedings, and up to four more issues are comprised of full-length research papers. Additionally, Supplement Issues are considered by the Editorial Board as they are submitted. The Journal is published for the International Society for Gravitational Physiology by the Galileo Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation. This issue, the first number of 2006, comprises the Proceedings of the joint meeting of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology s 27th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, held in Osaka, Japan 23- 28 April, 2006. The Journal of Gravitational Physiology invites the submission of original experimental or observational papers on subjects in the field of gravitational physiology. Review articles, theoretical papers and historical or biographical articles will also be solicited by the Editor for publication. The wide scientific span of the Journal rests on physiology as its keystone. Gravitational physiology is considered to include the effects of changes in the magnitude and directions of the gravitational force environment on cells and physiological systems and behavior of humans, animals and plants. The effects of weightlessness during space flight, high sustained G forces and chronic acceleration, vibration, impact and the various forms of simulated weightlessness are also included, as well as is consideration of the evolutionary consequences of gravity and the role of gravity in the manifestation of scale effects in animals and plants.

  5. Society Membership 1980 Profile: Stability and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Beverly Fearn; Czujko, Roman

    This 1980 profile provides an overview of employment stability and change among a small random sample of U.S. and Canadian members of The American Institute of Physics (AIP) member societies: The American Physical Society; Optical Society of America; Acoustical Society of America; The Society of Rheology; American Association of Physics Teachers;…

  6. 9(10 leads to 19)abeo steriods. Total synthesis of abeo-estradiol, abeo-estradiol 3-methyl ether, and 17 alpha-ethynyl abeo-estradiol 3-methyl ether.

    PubMed

    Abushanab, E; Lee, D Y; Meresak, W A; Duax, W L

    1976-04-30

    Total synthesis of abeo-estradiol, abeo-estradiol 3-methyl ether, and 17alpha-ethynyl abeo-estradiol 3-methyl ether is described. Stereochemical assignments in 9(10 through 19) abeo-estradiol and its 3-methyl ether were made by X-ray analysis of the 17-keytone. Single crystals were grown by evaporation of a petroleum ether-ethanol solution and the intensities of 2619 diffraction spectra were measured, of which 1036 had intensity greater than twice the background. The structure was refined by full-matrix least-squares techniques and all hydrogen atoms were located in the Fourier difference syntheses.

  7. Skin tumor initiating ability of benzo(a)pyrene 4,5- 7,5- and 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxides and 7,8-diol.

    PubMed

    Slaga, T J; Viaje, A; Betty, D L; Brachen, W; Buty, S G; Scribner, J D

    1976-11-01

    The skin tumor initiating abilities of both K-region and non-K-region epoxides of benzo(a)pyrene(BP) were determined in mice using a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. BP-4,5-epoxide and BP-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (anti) were found to be weak tumor initiators whereas BP-7,8-epoxide had about a third of the activity as the parent hydrocarbon, BP. However, the 7,8-dihydrodiol of BP was found to be approximately as potent as BP suggesting that it may be a proximate carcinogen.

  8. The Physiology Undergraduate Major in the University of Arizona College of Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Atwater, Anne E.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Dantzler, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The American Physiological Society (APS) and APS Council encourage the teaching of physiology at the undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels to support the continued prominence of this area of science. One area identified by the APS Council that is of particular importance for the development of future physiologists (the…

  9. The Physiology Undergraduate Major in the University of Arizona College of Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Atwater, Anne E.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Dantzler, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The American Physiological Society (APS) and APS Council encourage the teaching of physiology at the undergraduate, graduate, and medical school levels to support the continued prominence of this area of science. One area identified by the APS Council that is of particular importance for the development of future physiologists (the…

  10. Japan-Russia Pediatric Society.

    PubMed

    Nihei, K; Thunemathu, Y; Kobayashi, N

    1993-12-01

    In March 1990, medical interchange between Japan and the Soviet Union began with a letter from the local health bureau of Khabarovsk. We visited Khabarovsk three times and Kamchatka once, and saw many hospitals and patients. Russian doctors of pediatrics visited Japan. Medical information was exchanged and discussed. The Japan-Russia Pediatric Society was established to perform interchange of medical information, technology and staff such as doctors, nurses and technicians between Japan and Russia, especially the Far East district of Russia. The Society meeting has been held three times: Tokyo (1991), Khabarovsk (1992) and Niigata (1993). It is necessary to continue the interchange between the two countries.

  11. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  12. APS: 125 Years of Progress of Physiology as a Scientific Discipline and a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Robert G.; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS…

  13. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  14. Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

  15. Analog device simulates physiological waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, D. M.

    1964-01-01

    An analog physiological simulator generates representative waveforms for a wide range of physiological conditions. Direct comparison of these waveforms with those from telemetric inputs permits quick detection of signal parameter degradation.

  16. Comparison of the metabolism of [1,2,6,7-3H(N)]cholesteryl oleate, cholesteryl [9,10-3H]oleate, and cholesteryl [1-14C]oleate labeled lipoproteins in the rat.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H

    1994-04-01

    The intravascular metabolism of sterol labeled [1,2,6,7-3H(N)]cholesteryl oleate and acyl labeled cholesteryl [9,10-3H]oleate and cholesteryl [1-14C]oleate was compared in the rat, an animal species without plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA). In a first series of studies, the metabolism of sterol labeled [1,2,6,7-3H(N)]cholesteryl oleate and acyl labeled cholesteryl [1-14C]oleate was compared, and the two tracers had identical plasma clearance rates when incorporated into human low density lipoproteins (LDL). The 3H sterol labeled cholesteryl ester (CE), however, had a plasma clearance rate lower than the 14C acyl labeled CE when incorporated into rat alpha- and beta-migrating LDL and human or rat high density lipoproteins (HDL). Unesterified 3H cholesterol reappeared in the plasma whereas the 14C radioactivity in the plasma remained associated with the CE. In a second set of studies, LDL and HDL were radiolabeled with cholesteryl [9,10-3H]oleate and cholesteryl [1-14C]oleate. Large amounts of 3H radioactivity that were dialyzable and not associated with the lipoprotein CE reappeared in the plasma during the kinetic studies. The two tracers had identical plasma disappearance rates when the plasma samples were dialyzed. The results of these studies indicate that the nature of the tracer used to trace lipoprotein CE can affect the estimated kinetic parameters of plasma CE.

  17. American Chemical Society, Preprints symposia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Petroleum Chemistry of the American Chemical Society met August 30-September 4, 1987, in New Orleans and presented symposia on advances in fluid cracking catalysts, advances in naphtha reforming, refinery waste cleanup, hydrocarbon oxidation, and methane conversion. Forty-two abstracts were prepared.

  18. White Resentment in Settler Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  19. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  20. White Resentment in Settler Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…