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Sample records for phytoplankton

  1. Indicators: Phytoplankton

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Phytoplankton are free-floating, microscopic algae that inhabit the sunlit, upper layer of most freshwater and marine environments. They are usually responsible for the color and clarity of lakes, wetlands, rivers, streams and estuaries.

  2. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up…

  3. Sea Soup: Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerullo, Mary M.

    This guide, designed for students in grades 3-7, answers intriguing questions about phytoplankton, tiny drifters that have shaped our world. Invisible to the naked eye, phytoplankton are the source of our atmosphere, our climate, our ocean food chain, much of our oil supply, and more. They're also food for zooplankton. Photomicroscopy serves up…

  4. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargraves, Paul E.

    Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped marine science library trying in vain to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of phytoplankton systematics and taxonomy, or track down one of the rarest of endangered species—a phytoplankton taxonomist—and beg for help.To these unfortunate choices is added one considerably more hopeful: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. This volume, which has seven contributing authors, contains most of the taxonomic groups that make up the planktonic autotrophs and some heterotrophs of the seas, coasts, and estuaries of the world (missing are cyanobacteria and some of the picoplankton groups).

  5. Phytoplankton and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean phytoplankton supply about half of the oxygen that humans utilize to sustain life. In this lecture, we will explore how phytoplankton plays a critical role in modulating the Earth's climate. These tiny organisms are the base of the Ocean's food web. They can modulate the rate at which solar heat is absorbed by the ocean, either through direct absorption or through production of highly scattering cellular coverings. They take up and help sequester carbon dioxide, a key greenhouse gas that modulated the Earth's climate. They are the source of cloud nucleation gases that are key to cloud formation/processes. They are also able to modify the nutrient budgets of the ocean through active uptake of inert atmospheric nitrogen. Climate variations have a pronounced impact on phytoplankton dynamics. Long term variations in the climate have been studied through geological interpretations on its influence on phytoplankton populations. The presentation will focus on presenting the numerous linkages that have been observed between climate and phytoplankton and further discuss how present climate change scenarios are likely to impact phytoplankton populations as well as present findings from several studies that have tried to understand how the climate might react to the feedbacks from these numerous climate-phytop|ankton linkages.

  6. Phytoplankton and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean phytoplankton supply about half of the oxygen that humans utilize to sustain life. In this lecture, we will explore how phytoplankton plays a critical role in modulating the Earth's climate. These tiny organisms are the base of the Ocean's food web. They can modulate the rate at which solar heat is absorbed by the ocean, either through direct absorption or through production of highly scattering cellular coverings. They take up and help sequester carbon dioxide, a key greenhouse gas that modulated the Earth's climate. They are the source of cloud nucleation gases that are key to cloud formation/processes. They are also able to modify the nutrient budgets of the ocean through active uptake of inert atmospheric nitrogen. Climate variations have a pronounced impact on phytoplankton dynamics. Long term variations in the climate have been studied through geological interpretations on its influence on phytoplankton populations. The presentation will focus on presenting the numerous linkages that have been observed between climate and phytoplankton and further discuss how present climate change scenarios are likely to impact phytoplankton populations as well as present findings from several studies that have tried to understand how the climate might react to the feedbacks from these numerous climate-phytop|ankton linkages.

  7. Phytoplankton bloom off Newfoundland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired August 9, 2010 Phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that live in watery environments. When conditions are right, phytoplankton undergo explosive population growth, creating blooms visible from space. Such a bloom occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Newfoundland in early August 2010. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image on August 9, 2010. The paisley pattern of peacock blue owes its color to phytoplankton. Phytoplankton thrive at high latitudes, especially in the spring and summer when abundant sunlight spurs photosynthesis, and relatively calm seas allow the tiny organisms to congregate in sunlit waters. Blooms can last for weeks even though an individual phytoplankton lifespan may be just a few days. NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team Click here to see more images from MODIS NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  8. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

  9. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  10. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  11. Photoreception in Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Colley, Nansi Jo; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    In many species of phytoplankton, simple photoreceptors monitor ambient lighting. Photoreceptors provide a number of selective advantages including the ability to assess the time of day for circadian rhythms, seasonal changes, and the detection of excessive light intensities and harmful UV light. Photoreceptors also serve as depth gauges in the water column for behaviors such as diurnal vertical migration. Photoreceptors can be organized together with screening pigment into visible eyespots. In a wide variety of motile phytoplankton, including Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Euglena, and Kryptoperidinium, eyespots are light-sensitive organelles residing within the cell. Eyespots are composed of photoreceptor proteins and typically red to orange carotenoid screening pigments. This association of photosensory pigment with screening pigment allows for detection of light directionality, needed for light-guided behaviors such as positive and negative phototaxis. In Chlamydomonas, the eyespot is located in the chloroplast and Chlamydomonas expresses a number of photosensory pigments including the microbial channelrhodopsins (ChR1 and ChR2). Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists that are ecologically important constituents of the phytoplankton. They display a great deal of diversity in morphology, nutritional modes and symbioses, and can be photosynthetic or heterotrophic, feeding on smaller phytoplankton. Dinoflagellates, such as Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, have eyespots that are used for light-mediated tasks including phototaxis. Dinoflagellates belonging to the family Warnowiaceae have a more elaborate eye. Their eye-organelle, called an ocelloid, is a large, elaborate structure consisting of a focusing lens, highly ordered retinal membranes, and a shield of dark pigment. This complex eye-organelle is similar to multicellular camera eyes, such as our own. Unraveling the molecular makeup, structure and function of dinoflagellate eyes, as well as light-guided behaviors in

  12. Phytoplankton bloom off Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A massive phytoplankton bloom stained the waters of the Atlantic Ocean north of Iceland with brilliant jewel tones in late summer, 2014. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image on August 2. Huge colonies of the floating, plant-like organisms create swirls of green, teal and turquoise and cover over 80% of the visible ocean off the northeast coast of Iceland. Marine phytoplankton require just the right amount of sunlight, dissolved nutrients and water temperatures which are not too hot, nor too cold to spark explosive reproduction and result in blooms which can cover hundreds of square kilometers. Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and are a rich food source for zooplankton, fish and other marine species. Some species, however, can deplete the water of oxygen and may become toxic to marine life. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  14. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  15. Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean.

    PubMed

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing.

  16. The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.

    2000-01-01

    Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.

  17. The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.

    2000-01-01

    Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.

  18. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming.

  19. Estimating Phytoplankton Biomass and Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Identlfy by block nuusbet) -Estimates of phytoplankton biomass and rates of production can provide a manager with some insight into questions concerning...and growth. Phytoplankton biomass is the amount of algal material present, whereas productivity is the rate at which algal cell material is produced...biomass and productivity parameters. Munawar et al. (1974) reported that cell volume was better correlated to chlorophyll a and photosynthe- sis rates

  20. Disassembling Iron Availability to Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Yeala; Lis, Hagar

    2012-01-01

    The bioavailability of iron to microorganisms and its underlying mechanisms have far reaching repercussions to many natural systems and diverse fields of research, including ocean biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and climate, harmful algal blooms, soil and plant research, bioremediation, pathogenesis, and medicine. Within the framework of ocean sciences, short supply and restricted bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton is thought to limit primary production and curtail atmospheric CO2 drawdown in vast ocean regions. Yet a clear-cut definition of bioavailability remains elusive, with elements of iron speciation and kinetics, phytoplankton physiology, light, temperature, and microbial interactions, to name a few, all intricately intertwined into this concept. Here, in a synthesis of published and new data, we attempt to disassemble the complex concept of iron bioavailability to phytoplankton by individually exploring some of its facets. We distinguish between the fundamentals of bioavailability – the acquisition of Fe-substrate by phytoplankton – and added levels of complexity involving interactions among organisms, iron, and ecosystem processes. We first examine how phytoplankton acquire free and organically bound iron, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of the reductive uptake pathway in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs. Turning to acquisition rates, we propose to view the availability of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton as a spectrum rather than an absolute “all or nothing.” We then demonstrate the use of uptake rate constants to make comparisons across different studies, organisms, Fe-compounds, and environments, and for gaging the contribution of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton growth in situ. Last, we describe the influence of aquatic microorganisms on iron chemistry and fate by way of organic complexation and bio-mediated redox transformations and examine the bioavailability of these bio-modified Fe species. PMID:22529839

  1. Techniques for quantifying phytoplankton biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zackary I; Martiny, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools-such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization-have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  2. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  3. Microscale patches of nonmotile phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Jorge; Barreira, Ana; Tuval, Idan

    2015-03-27

    Phytoplankton cells have evolved sophisticated strategies for actively responding to environmental signals, most notably to mechanical stresses of hydrodynamic origin. A largely unanswered question, however, is the significance of these cellular responses for the largely heterogeneous spatial distribution of cells found in the oceans. Motivated by the physiological regulation of buoyancy prevalent in nonmotile phytoplankton species, we solve here a minimal model for "active" sinking that incorporates these cellular responses. Within this model, we show how buoyancy regulation leads to intense patchiness for nonmotile species as compared to passive tracers, resulting in important variations in settling speeds and, as a consequence, determining escape rates to the deep ocean.

  4. Experimental evolution meets marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Boyd, Philip W

    2013-07-01

    Our perspective highlights potentially important links between disparate fields-biological oceanography, climate change research, and experimental evolutionary biology. We focus on one important functional group-photoautotrophic microbes (phytoplankton), which are responsible for ∼50% of global primary productivity. Global climate change currently results in the simultaneous change of several conditions such as warming, acidification, and nutrient supply. It thus has the potential to dramatically change phytoplankton physiology, community composition, and may result in adaptive evolution. Although their large population sizes, standing genetic variation, and rapid turnover time should promote swift evolutionary change, oceanographers have focussed on describing patterns of present day physiological differentiation rather than measure potential adaptation in evolution experiments, the only direct way to address whether and at which rate phytoplankton species will adapt to environmental change. Important open questions are (1) is adaptation limited by existing genetic variation or fundamental constraints? (2) Will complex ecological settings such as gradual versus abrupt environmental change influence adaptation processes? (3) How will increasing environmental variability affect the evolution of phenotypic plasticity patterns? Because marine phytoplankton species display rapid acclimation capacity (phenotypic buffering), a systematic study of reaction norms renders them particularly interesting to the evolutionary biology research community. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Stoichiometric regulation of phytoplankton toxins.

    PubMed

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Smith, Val H; Declerck, Steven A J; Stam, Eva C M; Elser, James J

    2014-06-01

    Ecological Stoichiometry theory predicts that the production, elemental structure and cellular content of biomolecules should depend on the relative availability of resources and the elemental composition of their producer organism. We review the extent to which carbon- and nitrogen-rich phytoplankton toxins are regulated by nutrient limitation and cellular stoichiometry. Consistent with theory, we show that nitrogen limitation causes a reduction in the cellular quota of nitrogen-rich toxins, while phosphorus limitation causes an increase in the most nitrogen-rich paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin. In addition, we show that the cellular content of nitrogen-rich toxins increases with increasing cellular N : P ratios. Also consistent with theory, limitation by either nitrogen or phosphorus promotes the C-rich toxin cell quota or toxicity of phytoplankton cells. These observed relationships may assist in predicting and managing toxin-producing phytoplankton blooms. Such a stoichiometric regulation of toxins is likely not restricted to phytoplankton, and may well apply to carbon- and nitrogen-rich secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi and plants.

  6. Phytoplankton fuels Delta food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jassby, Alan D.; Cloern, James E.; Muller-Solger, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of certain fishes and invertebrates in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have declined in abundance in recent decades and there is evidence that food supply is partly responsible. While many sources of organic matter in the Delta could be supporting fish populations indirectly through the food web (including aquatic vegetation and decaying organic matter from agricultural drainage), a careful accounting shows that phytoplankton is the dominant food source. Phytoplankton, communities of microscopic free-floating algae, are the most important food source on a Delta-wide scale when both food quantity and quality are taken into account. These microscopic algae have declined since the late 1960s. Fertilizer and pesticide runoff do not appear to be playing a direct role in long-term phytoplankton changes; rather, species invasions, increasing water transparency and fluctuations in water transport are responsible. Although the potential toxicity of herbicides and pesticides to plank- ton in the Delta is well documented, the ecological significance remains speculative. Nutrient inputs from agricultural runoff at current levels, in combination with increasing transparency, could result in harmful al- gal blooms. 

  7. State of Climate 2011 - Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, D. A.; Antoine, D.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; d'Andon, O. H. Fanton; Fields, E.; Franz, B. A.; Goryl, P.; Maritorena, S.; McClain, C. R.; Wang, M.; Yoder, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the sun lit upper layer of the global ocean is the overwhelmingly dominant source of organic matter that fuels marine ecosystems. Phytoplankton contribute roughly half of the global (land and ocean) net primary production (NPP; gross photosynthesis minus plant respiration) and phytoplankton carbon fixation is the primary conduit through which atmospheric CO2 concentrations interact with the ocean s carbon cycle. Phytoplankton productivity depends on the availability of sunlight, macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and micronutrients (e.g., iron), and thus is sensitive to climate-driven changes in the delivery of these resources to the euphotic zone

  8. Phytoplankton assemblage characteristics in recurrently fluctuating environments.

    PubMed

    Roelke, Daniel L; Spatharis, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Annual variations in biogeochemical and physical processes can lead to nutrient variability and seasonal patterns in phytoplankton productivity and assemblage structure. In many coastal systems river inflow and water exchange with the ocean varies seasonally, and alternating periods can arise where the nutrient most limiting to phytoplankton growth switches. Transitions between these alternating periods can be sudden or gradual and this depends on human activities, such as reservoir construction and interbasin water transfers. How such activities might influence phytoplankton assemblages is largely unknown. Here, we employed a multispecies, multi-nutrient model to explore how nutrient loading switching mode might affect characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages. The model is based on the Monod-relationship, predicting an instantaneous growth rate from ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations whereas the limiting nutrient at any given time was determined by Liebig's Law of the Minimum. Our simulated phytoplankton assemblages self-organized from species rich pools over a 15-year period, and only the surviving species were considered as assemblage members. Using the model, we explored the interactive effects of complementarity level in trait trade-offs within phytoplankton assemblages and the amount of noise in the resource supply concentrations. We found that the effect of shift from a sudden resource supply transition to a gradual one, as observed in systems impacted by watershed development, was dependent on the level of complementarity. In the extremes, phytoplankton species richness and relative overyielding increased when complementarity was lowest, and phytoplankton biomass increased greatly when complementarity was highest. For low-complementarity simulations, the persistence of poorer-performing phytoplankton species of intermediate R*s led to higher richness and relative overyielding. For high-complementarity simulations, the formation of phytoplankton

  9. Phytoplankton Assemblage Characteristics in Recurrently Fluctuating Environments

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Daniel L.; Spatharis, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Annual variations in biogeochemical and physical processes can lead to nutrient variability and seasonal patterns in phytoplankton productivity and assemblage structure. In many coastal systems river inflow and water exchange with the ocean varies seasonally, and alternating periods can arise where the nutrient most limiting to phytoplankton growth switches. Transitions between these alternating periods can be sudden or gradual and this depends on human activities, such as reservoir construction and interbasin water transfers. How such activities might influence phytoplankton assemblages is largely unknown. Here, we employed a multispecies, multi-nutrient model to explore how nutrient loading switching mode might affect characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages. The model is based on the Monod-relationship, predicting an instantaneous growth rate from ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations whereas the limiting nutrient at any given time was determined by Liebig’s Law of the Minimum. Our simulated phytoplankton assemblages self-organized from species rich pools over a 15-year period, and only the surviving species were considered as assemblage members. Using the model, we explored the interactive effects of complementarity level in trait trade-offs within phytoplankton assemblages and the amount of noise in the resource supply concentrations. We found that the effect of shift from a sudden resource supply transition to a gradual one, as observed in systems impacted by watershed development, was dependent on the level of complementarity. In the extremes, phytoplankton species richness and relative overyielding increased when complementarity was lowest, and phytoplankton biomass increased greatly when complementarity was highest. For low-complementarity simulations, the persistence of poorer-performing phytoplankton species of intermediate R*s led to higher richness and relative overyielding. For high-complementarity simulations, the formation of phytoplankton

  10. Phytoplankton Enumeration and Evaluation Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    beaker. Using a sterile dropper, two drops of low-acidity food-grade vinegar (acetic acid) were added to the 10 mL sample to de-mobilize the living...Tetraselmis cells. After the Tetraselmis sample and vinegar were well mixed by pouring the solution back and forth between the beaker and a second 80 mL...dropper, two drops of low-acidity vinegar (acetic acid) were added to the 10 mL sample to de-mobilize the living Tetraselmis cells. The phytoplankton and

  11. Phytoplankton and sediments in Yellow Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sediment and phytoplankton cloud the waters of the Yellow Sea in this true-color MODIS image acquired March 18, 2002. The swirls of sediment appear as a murky brownish blue color, while the phytoplankton are purely blue green and are concentrated around the small island in the lower right corner of the image.

  12. Iron bioavailability to phytoplankton: an empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Lis, Hagar; Shaked, Yeala; Kranzler, Chana; Keren, Nir; Morel, François M M

    2015-03-17

    Phytoplankton are often limited by iron in aquatic environments. Here we examine Fe bioavailability to phytoplankton by analyzing iron uptake from various Fe substrates by several species of phytoplankton grown under conditions of Fe limitation and comparing the measured uptake rate constants (Fe uptake rate/ substrate concentration). When unchelated iron, Fe', buffered by an excess of the chelating agent EDTA is used as the Fe substrate, the uptake rate constants of all the eukaryotic phytoplankton species are tightly correlated and proportional to their respective surface areas (S.A.). The same is true when FeDFB is the substrate, but the corresponding uptake constants are one thousand times smaller than for Fe'. The uptake rate constants for the other substrates we examined fall mostly between the values for Fe' and FeDFB for the same S.A. These two model substrates thus empirically define a bioavailability envelope with Fe' at the upper and FeDFB at the lower limit of iron bioavailability. This envelope provides a convenient framework to compare the relative bioavailabilities of various Fe substrates to eukaryotic phytoplankton and the Fe uptake abilities of different phytoplankton species. Compared with eukaryotic species, cyanobacteria have similar uptake constants for Fe' but lower ones for FeDFB. The unique relationship between the uptake rate constants and the S.A. of phytoplankton species suggests that the uptake rate constant of Fe-limited phytoplankton has reached a universal upper limit and provides insight into the underlying uptake mechanism.

  13. Iron bioavailability to phytoplankton: an empirical approach

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Hagar; Shaked, Yeala; Kranzler, Chana; Keren, Nir; Morel, François M M

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton are often limited by iron in aquatic environments. Here we examine Fe bioavailability to phytoplankton by analyzing iron uptake from various Fe substrates by several species of phytoplankton grown under conditions of Fe limitation and comparing the measured uptake rate constants (Fe uptake rate/ substrate concentration). When unchelated iron, Fe′, buffered by an excess of the chelating agent EDTA is used as the Fe substrate, the uptake rate constants of all the eukaryotic phytoplankton species are tightly correlated and proportional to their respective surface areas (S.A.). The same is true when FeDFB is the substrate, but the corresponding uptake constants are one thousand times smaller than for Fe′. The uptake rate constants for the other substrates we examined fall mostly between the values for Fe′ and FeDFB for the same S.A. These two model substrates thus empirically define a bioavailability envelope with Fe′ at the upper and FeDFB at the lower limit of iron bioavailability. This envelope provides a convenient framework to compare the relative bioavailabilities of various Fe substrates to eukaryotic phytoplankton and the Fe uptake abilities of different phytoplankton species. Compared with eukaryotic species, cyanobacteria have similar uptake constants for Fe′ but lower ones for FeDFB. The unique relationship between the uptake rate constants and the S.A. of phytoplankton species suggests that the uptake rate constant of Fe-limited phytoplankton has reached a universal upper limit and provides insight into the underlying uptake mechanism. PMID:25350155

  14. "Trophic overyielding": phytoplankton diversity promotes zooplankton productivity.

    PubMed

    Striebel, Maren; Singer, Gabriel; Stibor, Herwig; Andersen, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Diversity-productivity relationships at the primary producer level have been extensively studied, especially for terrestrial systems. Here, we explore whether the diversity of aquatic primary producers (phytoplankton) has effects on higher trophic levels (zooplankton). We investigated the effect of phytoplankton diversity on an artificial zooplankton community in a laboratory experiment where phytoplankton biomass and elemental composition (carbon-to-phosphorus ratio) were kept constant. Phytoplankton diversity increased the means of both zooplankton growth rate and abundance while suppressing their variability, and sustained higher zooplankton diversity. Likely explanations include resource complementarity effects among phytoplankton species as food entities, as well as niche complementarity effects among Daphnia species as competitors. By affecting the productivity as well as the variability of the next trophic level, biodiversity of primary producers may have far-reaching consequences in aquatic food webs.

  15. Phytoplankton strategies for photosynthetic energy allocation.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Kimberly H; Jones, Bethan M

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton physiology is dynamic and highly responsive to the environment. Phytoplankton acclimate to changing environmental conditions by a complex reallocation of carbon and energy through metabolic pathways to optimize growth. Considering the tremendous diversity of phytoplankton, it is not surprising that different phytoplankton taxa use different strategies to partition carbon and energy resources. It has therefore been satisfying to discover that general principles of energetic stoichiometry appear to govern these complex processes and can be broadly applied to interpret phytoplankton distributions, productivity, and food web dynamics. The expectation of future changes in aquatic environments brought on by climate change warrants gathering knowledge about underlying patterns of photosynthetic energy allocation and their impacts on community structure and ecosystem productivity.

  16. Phytoplankton Strategies for Photosynthetic Energy Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsey, Kimberly H.; Jones, Bethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton physiology is dynamic and highly responsive to the environment. Phytoplankton acclimate to changing environmental conditions by a complex reallocation of carbon and energy through metabolic pathways to optimize growth. Considering the tremendous diversity of phytoplankton, it is not surprising that different phytoplankton taxa use different strategies to partition carbon and energy resources. It has therefore been satisfying to discover that general principles of energetic stoichiometry appear to govern these complex processes and can be broadly applied to interpret phytoplankton distributions, productivity, and food web dynamics. The expectation of future changes in aquatic environments brought on by climate change warrants gathering knowledge about underlying patterns of photosynthetic energy allocation and their impacts on community structure and ecosystem productivity.

  17. [Ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Shui; Wai, Onyx Wing-Hong; Dai, Ji-Cui; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2010-01-01

    Based on the data of surface phytoplankton investigated by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in Shenzhen Bay in 2006, variation characteristics of phytoplankton communities and the relationship between the phytoplankton diversity indices and environmental factors were analyzed in the present paper. Results showed that a total of 27 genera and 34 species of phytoplankton were identified. Of these, 18 were diatoms (52.94%), 10 were dinoflagellates (29.41%), 6 were from other minor groups (17.65%). The cell abundance was estimated to be from 2.13 x 10(6) to 4.15 x 10(6) cells/L, with an average of 2.92 x 10(6) cells/L. The maximum cell abundance appeared in the autumn (October), followed in spring (May). The cell abundance showed double abundance peaks annually. The cell abundance of phytoplankton decreased from the middle bay to the bay mouth. In the marine area, the diversity index of the phytoplankton ranged from 0.76 to 2.52; the evenness of phytoplankton ranged from 0.29 to 0.74; the diversity and evenness of phytoplankton community were rather low, which indicated that the relative abundances of the species diverged from evenness, phytoplankton community were not steady, and only few dominant species increased rapidly. The species richness index ranged from 0.57 to 2.17, the high eutrophic water body caused the species richness index declined. Better relationship was found between phytoplankton diversity indices and nutrient, salinity, dissolved oxygen.

  18. Phytoplankton bloom off South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired December 26, 2011 Off the coast of South Africa, near where the South Atlantic meets the Southern Indian Ocean, a massive summer phytoplankton bloom colored the waters with a swirl of turquoise, green and white in late December 2011. Although this circular bloom has the appearance of a precious antique gaming marble, it is actually the result of millions of tiny plant-like organisms (phytoplankton) which are growing where nutrient-rich waters mix together. Each spring and summer, lengthening sunshine comes to the southern oceans, providing light to spur the growth of these microscopic plants. The lengthening light also melts sea ice, which can release additional nutrients into the sea. Blooms such as this one become a banquet for krill, fish and other marine species which survive in these cool waters. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image on December 26, 2011 as it passed over the region. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Spatial dynamics of a nutrient-phytoplankton system with toxic effect on phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P K; Misra, A K; Chattopadhyay, J

    2015-06-01

    The production of toxins by some species of phytoplankton is known to have several economic, ecological, and human health impacts. However, the role of toxins on the spatial distribution of phytoplankton is not well understood. In the present study, the spatial dynamics of a nutrient-phytoplankton system with toxic effect on phytoplankton is investigated. We analyze the linear stability of the system and obtain the condition for Turing instability. In the presence of toxic effect, we find that the distribution of nutrient and phytoplankton becomes inhomogeneous in space and results in different patterns, like stripes, spots, and the mixture of them depending on the toxicity level. We also observe that the distribution of nutrient and phytoplankton shows spatiotemporal oscillation for certain toxicity level.

  20. Phytoplankton bloom in Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a large amount of sediment clearly visible in the true-color image of the Persian Gulf, acquired on November 1, 2001, by MODIS. Carried by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (at center), the sediment-laden waters appear light brown where they enter the northern end of the Persian Gulf and then gradually dissipate into turquoise swirls as they drift southward. The nutrients these sediments carry are helping to support a phytoplankton bloom in the region, which adds some darker green hues in the rich kaleidoscope of colors on the surface (see the high resolution image). The confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers marks the southernmost boundary between Iran (upper right) and Iraq (upper left). South of Iraq are the countries of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The red dots indicate the probable locations of fires burning at oil refineries. Thin black plumes of smoke can be seen streaming away from several of these.

  1. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H

    2012-06-15

    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  2. Marine biogeochemistry: Phytoplankton in a witch's brew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Natural seafloor hydrocarbon seeps are responsible for roughly half of the oil released into the ocean. As these oils and gases rise to the surface, they transport nutrients upwards, benefiting phytoplankton in the upper sunlit layer.

  3. Determining the Population Size of Pond Phytoplankton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods for determining the population size of pond phytoplankton, including water sampling techniques, laboratory analysis of samples, and additional studies worthy of investigation in class or as individual projects. (CS)

  4. Light Absorption and Utilization by Phytoplankton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Norman Bradford

    1994-01-01

    The impact of biological and optical factors on light absorption by phytoplankton ceIls was assessed for cultures of dinoflagellates and for natural communities in the Southern California Bight. Pigment-specific light absorption in cultures of dinoflagellates was an inverse function of cellular pigment concentration, which varied 3-fold with photoadaptation. In the low-biomass (< 1 mg m^{-3} chlorophyll a), summertime conditions in the Southern California Bight, the phytoplankton communities were usually dominated by small (<5 μm) cells, so absorption was primarily a function of the water column pigment concentrations. Algorithms for estimating phytoplankton light absorption based on pigmentation and cell size parameters provided accurate estimates of photosynthetic light absorption despite the presence of the 'package effect,' which is a reduction in specific absorption of phytoplankton due to incorporating pigments into discrete cells. The package effect was found by theoretical calculations to increase depth-integrated primary productivity rates for large phytoplankton cells in dense phytoplankton blooms. No similar increases were found for similar cells in low-biomass (< 1 mg m^{-3} chlorophyll a), oceanic conditions. A close relationship was found between photosynthetic light absorption, chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra, and photosynthetic carbon fixation action spectra of samples collected in the Southern California Bight. Photosynthetically active light absorption was found by this relationship to be on average 52% of total light absorption by phytoplankton in surface waters, and 85% at the subsurface chlorophyll a maximum depth. To support these investigations, I developed a new technique for accurately measuring phytoplankton light absorption by using an integrating sphere.

  5. Phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.

  6. Nearshore phytoplankton of Hammond Bay, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1983-01-01

    To predict the effects of increased nutrient loading on nearshore phytoplankton populations in northern Lake Huron, we collected phytoplankton from a small, nearshore water intake at Hammond Bay four times per week from August 1973 to July 1975. Phytoplankton density, taxonomic composition, and biomass in the nearshore waters followed predictable, seasonal fluctuations during each of two 12-month periods. The density of total phytoplankton was high (450600 cells/mL) in June and low (60 to 210 cells/mL) from January to April each year. The mean annual composition of the phytoplankton assemblage by number for the study period was 33% cryptomonads, 24% diatoms, 16% chrysophytes, 16% blue-green algae, and 10% green algae. Phytoplankton biomass was low through each year (range, 0.09 to 0.66 g/m3), resembling values previously reported from Lake Superior. Pennate diatoms contributed 60 to 80% of the total biomass from December to April and in July. Phytoflagellates consisting of chrysophytes and cryptomonads accounted for 35% of the biomass throughout the 2-year study.

  7. Copper sensitivity of Oregon coastal phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The copper sensitivity of natural populations of Oregon coastal phytoplankton was studied using both additions of ionic copper and Cu-TRIS free ion activity buffers in coastal seawater. Phytoplankton growth rate, taxonomic composition and copper content were examined in treatment additions. The growth rate results suggested that the deficiency of another trace metal increased the apparent toxicity of copper to phytoplankton, especially in TRIS-free ion activity buffered seawater. Laboratory experiments with isolated coastal phytoplankton species indicated that manganese deficiency exacerbated copper toxicity, and that manganese deficiency was induced in TRIS buffered seawater by a TRIS-catalyzed oxidation of Mn. When manganese additions to natural populations were employed inconjunction with ionic copper additions and TRIS-free ion regulated seawater, they showed that ambient manganese concentrations were low enough to shift the onset of copper toxicity to lower copper concentrations. The results suggest that while acute toxicity to phytoplankton by ambient concentrations of copper is unlikely, the interactions of copper and other metals, especially manganese, may influence natural coastal phytoplankton populations in more subtle ways, such as taxonomic composition.

  8. Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We found clear evidence of two independent physical drivers for phytoplankton abundance. The first one is the widely accepted phytoplankton blooming produced by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich deep ocean waters. The second, which explains the Bay of Bengal findings, is coastal phytoplankton blooming during high river discharges with terrestrial nutrients. Causal mechanisms should be understood when associating SST with phytoplankton and subsequent cholera outbreaks in regions where freshwater discharge are a predominant mechanism for phytoplankton production. PMID:21813852

  9. Phytoplankton niche generation by interspecific stoichiometric variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GöThlich, L.; Oschlies, A.

    2012-06-01

    For marine biogeochemical models used in simulations of climate change scenarios, the ability to account for adaptability of marine ecosystems to environmental change becomes a concern. The potential for adaptation is expected to be larger for a diverse ecosystem compared to a monoculture of a single type of (model) algae, such as typically included in biogeochemical models. Recent attempts to simulate phytoplankton diversity in global marine ecosystem models display remarkable qualitative agreement with observed patterns of species distributions. However, modeled species diversity tends to be systematically lower than observed and, in many regions, is smaller than the number of potentially limiting nutrients. According to resource competition theory, the maximum number of coexisting species at equilibrium equals the number of limiting resources. By simulating phytoplankton communities in a chemostat model and in a global circulation model, we show here that a systematic underestimate of phytoplankton diversity may result from the standard modeling assumption of identical stoichiometry for the different phytoplankton types. Implementing stoichiometric variation among the different marine algae types in the models allows species to generate different resource supply niches via their own ecological impact. This is shown to increase the level of phytoplankton coexistence both in a chemostat model and in a global self-assembling ecosystem model.

  10. Phytoplankton Bloom in North Sea off Scotland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The northern and western highlands of Scotland were still winter-brown and even dusted with snow in places, but the waters of the North Sea were blooming with phytoplankton on May 8, 2008, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the region and captured this image. The tiny, plant-like organisms swirled in the waters off the country's east coast, coloring the shallow coastal waters shades of bright blue and green. Phytoplankton are tiny organisms--many are just a single cell--that use chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light for photosynthesis. Because these pigments absorb sunlight, they change the color of the light reflected from the sea surface back to the satellite. Scientists have used observations of 'ocean color' from satellites for more than 20 years to track worldwide patterns in phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton are important to the Earth system for a host of reasons, including their status as the base of the ocean food web. In the North Sea, they are the base of the food web that supports Scotland's commercial fisheries, including monkfish and herring. As photosynthesizers, they also play a crucial role in the carbon cycle, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Some oceanographers are concerned that rising ocean temperatures will slow phytoplankton growth rates, harming marine ecosystems and causing carbon dioxide to accumulate more rapidly in the atmosphere.

  11. Phytoplankton Bloom in North Sea off Scotland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The northern and western highlands of Scotland were still winter-brown and even dusted with snow in places, but the waters of the North Sea were blooming with phytoplankton on May 8, 2008, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the region and captured this image. The tiny, plant-like organisms swirled in the waters off the country's east coast, coloring the shallow coastal waters shades of bright blue and green. Phytoplankton are tiny organisms--many are just a single cell--that use chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light for photosynthesis. Because these pigments absorb sunlight, they change the color of the light reflected from the sea surface back to the satellite. Scientists have used observations of 'ocean color' from satellites for more than 20 years to track worldwide patterns in phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton are important to the Earth system for a host of reasons, including their status as the base of the ocean food web. In the North Sea, they are the base of the food web that supports Scotland's commercial fisheries, including monkfish and herring. As photosynthesizers, they also play a crucial role in the carbon cycle, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Some oceanographers are concerned that rising ocean temperatures will slow phytoplankton growth rates, harming marine ecosystems and causing carbon dioxide to accumulate more rapidly in the atmosphere.

  12. Global phytoplankton decline over the past century.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Daniel G; Lewis, Marlon R; Worm, Boris

    2010-07-29

    In the oceans, ubiquitous microscopic phototrophs (phytoplankton) account for approximately half the production of organic matter on Earth. Analyses of satellite-derived phytoplankton concentration (available since 1979) have suggested decadal-scale fluctuations linked to climate forcing, but the length of this record is insufficient to resolve longer-term trends. Here we combine available ocean transparency measurements and in situ chlorophyll observations to estimate the time dependence of phytoplankton biomass at local, regional and global scales since 1899. We observe declines in eight out of ten ocean regions, and estimate a global rate of decline of approximately 1% of the global median per year. Our analyses further reveal interannual to decadal phytoplankton fluctuations superimposed on long-term trends. These fluctuations are strongly correlated with basin-scale climate indices, whereas long-term declining trends are related to increasing sea surface temperatures. We conclude that global phytoplankton concentration has declined over the past century; this decline will need to be considered in future studies of marine ecosystems, geochemical cycling, ocean circulation and fisheries.

  13. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  14. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  15. Iron–Nutrient Interactions within Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Schoffman, Hanan; Lis, Hagar; Shaked, Yeala; Keren, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Iron limits photosynthetic activity in up to one third of the world’s oceans and in many fresh water environments. When studying the effects of Fe limitation on phytoplankton or their adaptation to low Fe environments, we must take into account the numerous cellular processes within which this micronutrient plays a central role. Due to its flexible redox chemistry, Fe is indispensable in enzymatic catalysis and electron transfer reactions and is therefore closely linked to the acquisition, assimilation and utilization of essential resources. Iron limitation will therefore influence a wide range of metabolic pathways within phytoplankton, most prominently photosynthesis. In this review, we map out four well-studied interactions between Fe and essential resources: nitrogen, manganese, copper and light. Data was compiled from both field and laboratory studies to shed light on larger scale questions such as the connection between metabolic pathways and ambient iron levels and the biogeographical distribution of phytoplankton species. PMID:27588022

  16. Evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Quigg, Antonietta; Irwin, Andrew J.; Finkel, Zoe V.

    2011-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton is a fusion of the evolutionary history of the host and plastid, resulting in differences in genetic constraints and selection pressures associated with environmental conditions. The evolutionary inheritance hypothesis predicts similarities in elemental composition within related taxonomic lineages of phytoplankton. To test this hypothesis, we measured the elemental composition (C, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd and Mo) of 14 phytoplankton species and combined these with published data from 15 more species from both marine and freshwater environments grown under nutrient-replete conditions. The largest differences in the elemental profiles of the species distinguish between the prokaryotic Cyanophyta and primary endosymbiotic events that resulted in the green and red plastid lineages. Smaller differences in trace element stoichiometry within the red and green plastid lineages are consistent with changes in trace elemental stoichiometry owing to the processes associated with secondary endosymbioses and inheritance by descent with modification. PMID:20826483

  17. Evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Antonietta; Irwin, Andrew J; Finkel, Zoe V

    2011-02-22

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton is a fusion of the evolutionary history of the host and plastid, resulting in differences in genetic constraints and selection pressures associated with environmental conditions. The evolutionary inheritance hypothesis predicts similarities in elemental composition within related taxonomic lineages of phytoplankton. To test this hypothesis, we measured the elemental composition (C, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd and Mo) of 14 phytoplankton species and combined these with published data from 15 more species from both marine and freshwater environments grown under nutrient-replete conditions. The largest differences in the elemental profiles of the species distinguish between the prokaryotic Cyanophyta and primary endosymbiotic events that resulted in the green and red plastid lineages. Smaller differences in trace element stoichiometry within the red and green plastid lineages are consistent with changes in trace elemental stoichiometry owing to the processes associated with secondary endosymbioses and inheritance by descent with modification.

  18. Imaging flow cytometry for phytoplankton analysis.

    PubMed

    Dashkova, Veronika; Malashenkov, Dmitry; Poulton, Nicole; Vorobjev, Ivan; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2017-01-01

    This review highlights the concepts and instrumentation of imaging flow cytometry technology and in particular its use for phytoplankton analysis. Imaging flow cytometry, a hybrid technology combining speed and statistical capabilities of flow cytometry with imaging features of microscopy, is rapidly advancing as a cell imaging platform that overcomes many of the limitations of current techniques and contributed significantly to the advancement of phytoplankton analysis in recent years. This review presents the various instrumentation relevant to the field and currently used for assessment of complex phytoplankton communities' composition and abundance, size structure determination, biovolume estimation, detection of harmful algal bloom species, evaluation of viability and metabolic activity and other applications. Also we present our data on viability and metabolic assessment of Aphanizomenon sp. cyanobacteria using Imagestream X Mark II imaging cytometer. Herein, we highlight the immense potential of imaging flow cytometry for microalgal research, but also discuss limitations and future developments.

  19. The species concept in phytoplankton ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.M.; Leatham, T. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors discuss the broad aspects and difficulties of phytoplankton species identification. Phytoplankton ecology relies heavily on the use of taxon-insensitive indicies like chlorophyll a concentration, [sup 14]C incubations, and light-dark bottles for measurement of abundance and productivity. Numerous excellent studies have been done in comparative algal physiology, but none of them actually demonstrate species level differences in the traits of interest. Many of the studies underestimate genetic diversity within taxa because they rely on genotypes that can be cultured and maintained in the laboratory. Significant interclonal variablity is found every time that strains from the same putative taxon are compared, and the magnitude of these differences is not trivial. The authors follow this discussion by detailing several specific ways of approaching speciation in phytoplankton including identifying the ecological significance of morphological traits and ecologically important traits consistently correlated with mprphological features used to distinguish among speiceis or sub-species. 82 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  1. The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winder, M.; Cloern, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are powerful climate sentinels because their annual cycles of growth, reproduction and senescence are finely tuned to the annual climate cycle having a period of one year. Consistency in the seasonal phasing of terrestrial plant activity provides a relatively low-noise background from which phenological shifts can be detected and attributed to climate change. Here, we ask whether phytoplankton biomass also fluctuates over a consistent annual cycle in lake, estuarine-coastal and ocean ecosystems and whether there is a characteristic phenology of phytoplankton as a consistent phase and amplitude of variability. We compiled 125 time series of phytoplankton biomass (chloro-phyll a concentration) from temperate and subtropical zones and used wavelet analysis to extract their dominant periods of variability and the recurrence strength at those periods. Fewer than half (48%) of the series had a dominant 12-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the canonical spring-bloom pattern. About 20 per cent had a dominant six-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the spring and autumn or winter and summer blooms of temperate lakes and oceans. These annual patterns varied in recurrence strength across sites, and did not persist over the full series duration at some sites. About a third of the series had no component of variability at either the six-or 12-month period, reflecting a series of irregular pulses of biomass. These findings show that there is high variability of annual phytoplankton cycles across ecosystems, and that climate-driven annual cycles can be obscured by other drivers of population variability, including human disturbance, aperiodic weather events and strong trophic coupling between phytoplankton and their consumers. Regulation of phytoplankton biomass by multiple processes operating at multiple time scales adds complexity to the challenge of detecting climate-driven trends in aquatic ecosystems where the noise to

  2. [Tools for determining health of phytoplankton cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary purpose of the proposed research is to develop molecular tools for determining the health of marine phytoplankton on an individual cell basis. Since the definition of healthy in phytoplankton cells is elusive, we propose to develop markers for several different metabolic processes indicative of physiological state: photosynthetic activity, esterase activity, membrane permeability, and mitochondrial activity. One underlying motivation is to develop methods which will allow us to evaluate the hypothesis that, while healthy cells release very little dissolved organic carbon (DOC), many phytoplankton communities are comprised of unhealthy or physiologically stressed cells which release a large proportion of total photosynthate directly into the pool of labile DOC. This is proposed to be especially true in continental shelf and coastal environments where zones of productivity are patchy and phytoplankton populations adapted to one regime can be easily transported into waters which differ in salinity, nutrient supply, and/or turbidity. The significance of the work, however, extends beyond this immediate goal since there are presently relatively few methods which allow us to estimate the physiological state of phytoplankton cells.When we evaluate population sizes of phytoplankton in the water column or examine fecal pellets, particulate aggregates, or other material, we generally work in ignorance of the activity of the cells except as the average cell-specific activity is estimated from bulk measurements. This approach effectively hides any differences in the relative contribution of different taxa or individuals to overall productivity eventhough most flux processes are sensitive to physiological and taxonomically determined differences among members of the community.

  3. [Tools for determining health of phytoplankton cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The primary purpose of the proposed research is to develop molecular tools for determining the health of marine phytoplankton on an individual cell basis. Since the definition of healthy in phytoplankton cells is elusive, we propose to develop markers for several different metabolic processes indicative of physiological state: photosynthetic activity, esterase activity, membrane permeability, and mitochondrial activity. One underlying motivation is to develop methods which will allow us to evaluate the hypothesis that, while healthy cells release very little dissolved organic carbon (DOC), many phytoplankton communities are comprised of unhealthy or physiologically stressed cells which release a large proportion of total photosynthate directly into the pool of labile DOC. This is proposed to be especially true in continental shelf and coastal environments where zones of productivity are patchy and phytoplankton populations adapted to one regime can be easily transported into waters which differ in salinity, nutrient supply, and/or turbidity. The significance of the work, however, extends beyond this immediate goal since there are presently relatively few methods which allow us to estimate the physiological state of phytoplankton cells.When we evaluate population sizes of phytoplankton in the water column or examine fecal pellets, particulate aggregates, or other material, we generally work in ignorance of the activity of the cells except as the average cell-specific activity is estimated from bulk measurements. This approach effectively hides any differences in the relative contribution of different taxa or individuals to overall productivity eventhough most flux processes are sensitive to physiological and taxonomically determined differences among members of the community.

  4. The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Monika; Cloern, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants are powerful climate sentinels because their annual cycles of growth, reproduction and senescence are finely tuned to the annual climate cycle having a period of one year. Consistency in the seasonal phasing of terrestrial plant activity provides a relatively low-noise background from which phenological shifts can be detected and attributed to climate change. Here, we ask whether phytoplankton biomass also fluctuates over a consistent annual cycle in lake, estuarine–coastal and ocean ecosystems and whether there is a characteristic phenology of phytoplankton as a consistent phase and amplitude of variability. We compiled 125 time series of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a concentration) from temperate and subtropical zones and used wavelet analysis to extract their dominant periods of variability and the recurrence strength at those periods. Fewer than half (48%) of the series had a dominant 12-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the canonical spring-bloom pattern. About 20 per cent had a dominant six-month period of variability, commonly expressed as the spring and autumn or winter and summer blooms of temperate lakes and oceans. These annual patterns varied in recurrence strength across sites, and did not persist over the full series duration at some sites. About a third of the series had no component of variability at either the six- or 12-month period, reflecting a series of irregular pulses of biomass. These findings show that there is high variability of annual phytoplankton cycles across ecosystems, and that climate-driven annual cycles can be obscured by other drivers of population variability, including human disturbance, aperiodic weather events and strong trophic coupling between phytoplankton and their consumers. Regulation of phytoplankton biomass by multiple processes operating at multiple time scales adds complexity to the challenge of detecting climate-driven trends in aquatic ecosystems where the noise to

  5. Production of volatile organohalogens by phytoplankton cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarczyk, R.; Moore, R.M. )

    1994-02-15

    The authors report on laboratory experiments which have demonstrated that types of unialgal cultures of marine phytoplankton can produce a range of halocarbons, including CHBr[sub 3], CHBr[sub 2]Cl, CH[sub 2]Br[sub 2]. In the laboratory environment the production rate is shown to be dependent upon the species of phytoplankton, and the development stage. Such volatile halocarbons, coming from natural sources in the seas, are thought to be important sources of reactive halogens in the troposphere, and perhaps even in the stratosphere, if the compounds are stable enough.

  6. Using phytoplankton`s fluorescence for remote detection of radioactive pollutions in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipenyuk, D.Yu.

    1996-08-01

    One of important ecological problems of our world is unfortunately radioactive pollutions in the ocean from sources of different types. For successful solving this problem it is important to locate precisely pollution areas using remote sensing methods. In the experiments performed we investigated the changes in fluorescence spectra of phytoplankton under an action of radiation. For this purpose we compared fluorescence spectra of samples of phytoplankton`s that were grown and maintained under the same conditions (light temperature, etc.) and the only difference between these samples was different radioactive doze obtained. Gamma irradiations of the samples was performed by bremsstrahlung of 30 Mev electrons or gamma-rays from (Ra-Be)- neutron source. To obtain reliable quantitative results the samples were simultaneously irradiated at different distances from the bremsstrahlung target or radioactive source. In such a way we could avoid possible errors due to different state of phytoplankton and temporal changes of gamma-radiation. The fluorescence spectra of phytoplankton were exited with a nitrogen laser emitting at 337 nm. An optical system focused fluorescence onto the entry slit of the polychromator of optical multichannel spectrum analyzer. A diffraction grating with a relatively weak dispersion (150 lines/mm) was used to record simultaneously spectra in a rather wide range of wavelengths (370-720 nm). We found in our experiments that very characteristic changes were relevant in fluorescence spectra of phytoplankton under radioactive influence in registered range of wavelength. Thus it is possible to use active and passive remote sensing methods of registration of phytoplankton`s fluorescence for express remote location areas of radioactive pollutions in the ocean from satellites or aircrafts.

  7. Remote sensing of phytoplankton using laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, S.; Poryvkina, L.; Arikese, V. ); Kaitala, S. ); Kuosa, H. )

    1993-06-01

    The results of remote laser sensing of brackish-water phytoplankton on board a research vessel are presented. Field data of laser-induced fluorescence of phytoplankton obtained during the several cruises in the mouth of tile Gulf of Finland are compared with the results of standard chlorophyll a analysis of water samples and phytoplankton species determination by microscopy. The approach of fluorescence excitation by tunable laser radiation is applied to study the spatial distribution of a natural phytoplankton community. The remote analysis of the pigment composition of a phytoplankton community using the method of selective pigment excitation is described. The possibility of elaborating methods of quantitative laser remote biomonitoring is discussed.

  8. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  9. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  10. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Programmed Cell Death in Unicellular Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bidle, Kay D

    2016-07-11

    Unicellular, planktonic, prokaryotic and eukaryotic photoautotrophs (phytoplankton) have an ancient evolutionary history on Earth during which time they have played key roles in the regulation of marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. Since they represent the basis of aquatic ecosystems, the manner in which phytoplankton die critically determines the flow and fate of photosynthetically fixed organic matter (and associated elements), ultimately constraining nutrient flow. Programmed cell death (PCD) and associated pathway genes, which are triggered by a variety of abiotic (nutrient, light, osmotic) and biotic (virus infection, allelopathy) environmental stresses, have an integral grip on cell fate, and have shaped the ecological success and evolutionary trajectory of diverse phytoplankton lineages. A combination of physiological, biochemical, and genetic techniques in model algal systems has demonstrated a conserved molecular and mechanistic framework of stress surveillance, signaling, and death activation pathways, involving collective and coordinated participation of organelles, redox enzymes, metabolites, and caspase-like proteases. This mechanistic understanding has provided insight into the integration of sensing and transduction of stress signals into cellular responses, and the mechanistic interfaces between PCD, cell stress and virus infection pathways. It has also provided insight into the evolution of PCD in unicellular photoautotrophs, the impact of PCD on the fate of natural phytoplankton assemblages and its role in aquatic biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Phytoplankton in the northwestern Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanova, I. N.; Flint, M. V.; Druzhkova, E. I.; Sazhin, A. F.; Sergeeva, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    Studies were conducted in the northwestern Kara Sea in late September of 2007 and 2011. The assessment of species, size, structure, abundance, and biomass of phytoplankton and the role of autotrophic and heterotrophic components in phytocenoses was conducted. The abundance of autotrophic micro-, nanoand picoplankton increased by more than an order of magnitude in each of the following smaller-sized groups of algae. Microphytoplankton dominated in the total biomass of autotrophic phytoplankton. The wet biomass of microphytoplankton was 2.5 times higher than the wet biomass of nanophytoplankton and 5 times higher than that of picoplankton. Nanophytoplankton dominated in abundance and biomass in the heterotrophic component of phytoplankton. The ratio of the total abundance of autotrophic and heterotrophic phytotoplankton was 7: 1, the ratio of the wet biomass of the both groups was 2.5: 1, and the proportion of the carbon biomass was 2: 1. Three biotopes were distinguished in the area of the outer shelf, the continental slope, and the deepwater area adjacent to the St. Anna Trough, which differed in composition and quantitative characteristics of phytocenoses. Frontal zones dividing the biotopes are characterized by high phytoplankton biomass and the dominance of diatoms in the community (more than 40% of the total biomass), which indicates the local availability of "new" nutrients for planktonic algae.

  14. The dynamical landscape of marine phytoplankton diversity

    PubMed Central

    Lévy, Marina; Jahn, Oliver; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Follows, Michael J.; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Observations suggest that the landscape of marine phytoplankton assemblage might be strongly heterogeneous at the dynamical mesoscale and submesoscale (10–100 km, days to months), with potential consequences in terms of global diversity and carbon export. But these variations are not well documented as synoptic taxonomic data are difficult to acquire. Here, we examine how phytoplankton assemblage and diversity vary between mesoscale eddies and submesoscale fronts. We use a multi-phytoplankton numerical model embedded in a mesoscale flow representative of the North Atlantic. Our model results suggest that the mesoscale flow dynamically distorts the niches predefined by environmental contrasts at the basin scale and that the phytoplankton diversity landscape varies over temporal and spatial scales that are one order of magnitude smaller than those of the basin-scale environmental conditions. We find that any assemblage and any level of diversity can occur in eddies and fronts. However, on a statistical level, the results suggest a tendency for larger diversity and more fast-growing types at fronts, where nutrient supplies are larger and where populations of adjacent water masses are constantly brought into contact; and lower diversity in the core of eddies, where water masses are kept isolated long enough to enable competitive exclusion. PMID:26400196

  15. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  16. Phytoplankton adapt to changing ocean environments.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Andrew J; Finkel, Zoe V; Müller-Karger, Frank E; Troccoli Ghinaglia, Luis

    2015-05-05

    Model projections indicate that climate change may dramatically restructure phytoplankton communities, with cascading consequences for marine food webs. It is currently not known whether evolutionary change is likely to be able to keep pace with the rate of climate change. For simplicity, and in the absence of evidence to the contrary, most model projections assume species have fixed environmental preferences and will not adapt to changing environmental conditions on the century scale. Using 15 y of observations from Station CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean), we show that most of the dominant species from a marine phytoplankton community were able to adapt their realized niches to track average increases in water temperature and irradiance, but the majority of species exhibited a fixed niche for nitrate. We do not know the extent of this adaptive capacity, so we cannot conclude that phytoplankton will be able to adapt to the changes anticipated over the next century, but community ecosystem models can no longer assume that phytoplankton cannot adapt.

  17. Ecotoxicology of bromoacetic acid on estuarine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ana R; Richardson, Tammi L; Pinckney, James L

    2015-11-01

    Bromoacetic acid is formed when effluent containing chlorine residuals react with humics in natural waters containing bromide. The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of bromoacetic acid on estuarine phytoplankton as a proxy for ecosystem productivity. Bioassays were used to measure the EC50 for growth in cultured species and natural marine communities. Growth inhibition was estimated by changes in chlorophyll a concentrations measured by fluorometry and HPLC. The EC50s for cultured Thalassiosira pseudonana were 194 mg L(-1), 240 mg L(-1) for Dunaliella tertiolecta and 209 mg L(-1) for Rhodomonas salina. Natural phytoplankton communities were more sensitive to contamination with an EC50 of 80 mg L(-1). Discriminant analysis suggested that bromoacetic acid additions cause an alteration of phytoplankton community structure with implications for higher trophic levels. A two-fold EC50 decrease in mixed natural phytoplankton populations affirms the importance of field confirmation for establishing water quality criteria.

  18. Production of isoprene by marine phytoplankton cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M.; Oram, D.E.; Penkett, S.A.

    1994-11-15

    The authors report experiments which demonstrate the production of light volatile hydrocarbons, including isoprene, by different marine phytoplankton cultures. This indicates that the ocean is a potential source of natural releases of isoprene to the atmosphere. Laboratory results do not allow extrapolation to atmospheric release rates.

  19. The dynamical landscape of marine phytoplankton diversity.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Marina; Jahn, Oliver; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Follows, Michael J; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2015-10-06

    Observations suggest that the landscape of marine phytoplankton assemblage might be strongly heterogeneous at the dynamical mesoscale and submesoscale (10-100 km, days to months), with potential consequences in terms of global diversity and carbon export. But these variations are not well documented as synoptic taxonomic data are difficult to acquire. Here, we examine how phytoplankton assemblage and diversity vary between mesoscale eddies and submesoscale fronts. We use a multi-phytoplankton numerical model embedded in a mesoscale flow representative of the North Atlantic. Our model results suggest that the mesoscale flow dynamically distorts the niches predefined by environmental contrasts at the basin scale and that the phytoplankton diversity landscape varies over temporal and spatial scales that are one order of magnitude smaller than those of the basin-scale environmental conditions. We find that any assemblage and any level of diversity can occur in eddies and fronts. However, on a statistical level, the results suggest a tendency for larger diversity and more fast-growing types at fronts, where nutrient supplies are larger and where populations of adjacent water masses are constantly brought into contact; and lower diversity in the core of eddies, where water masses are kept isolated long enough to enable competitive exclusion.

  20. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  1. Phytoplankton and sediments in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Affected both by terrestrial factors like agriculture, deforestation, and erosion, and by marine factors like salinity levels, ocean temperature and water pollution, coastal environments are the dynamic interface between land and sea. In this MODIS image from January 15, 2002, the Gulf of Mexico is awash in a mixture of phytoplankton and sediment. Tan-colored sediment is flowing out into the Gulf from the Mississippi River, whose floodplain cuts a pale, wide swath to the right of center in the image, and also from numerous smaller rivers along the Louisiana coast (center). Mixing with the sediment are the multi-colored blue and green swirls that reveal the presence of large populations of marine plants called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton populations bloom and then fade, and these cycles affect fish and mammals-including humans-higher up the food chain. Certain phytoplankton are toxic to both fish and humans, and coastal health departments must monitor ecosystems carefully, often restricting fishing or harvesting of shellfish until the blooms have subsided.

  2. Phytoplankton and sediments in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Affected both by terrestrial factors like agriculture, deforestation, and erosion, and by marine factors like salinity levels, ocean temperature and water pollution, coastal environments are the dynamic interface between land and sea. In this MODIS image from January 15, 2002, the Gulf of Mexico is awash in a mixture of phytoplankton and sediment. Tan-colored sediment is flowing out into the Gulf from the Mississippi River, whose floodplain cuts a pale, wide swath to the right of center in the image, and also from numerous smaller rivers along the Louisiana coast (center). Mixing with the sediment are the multi-colored blue and green swirls that reveal the presence of large populations of marine plants called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton populations bloom and then fade, and these cycles affect fish and mammals-including humans-higher up the food chain. Certain phytoplankton are toxic to both fish and humans, and coastal health departments must monitor ecosystems carefully, often restricting fishing or harvesting of shellfish until the blooms have subsided.

  3. Effect of Phytoplankton Richness on Phytoplankton Biomass Is Weak Where the Distribution of Herbivores is Patchy.

    PubMed

    Weis, Jerome J

    2016-01-01

    Positive effects of competitor species richness on competitor productivity can be more pronounced at a scale that includes heterogeneity in 'bottom-up' environmental factors, such as the supply of limiting nutrients. The effect of species richness is not well understood in landscapes where variation in 'top-down' factors, such as the abundance of predators or herbivores, has a strong influence competitor communities. I asked how phytoplankton species richness directly influenced standing phytoplankton biomass in replicate microcosm regions where one patch had a population of herbivores (Daphnia pulicaria) and one patch did not have herbivores. The effect of phytoplankton richness on standing phytoplankton biomass was positive but weak and not statistically significant at this regional scale. Among no-Daphnia patches, there was a significant positive effect of phytoplankton richness that resulted from positive selection effects for two dominant and productive species in polycultures. Among with-Daphnia patches there was not a significant effect of phytoplankton richness. The same two species dominated species-rich polycultures in no- and with-Daphnia patches but both species were relatively vulnerable to consumption by Daphnia. Consistent with previous studies, this experiment shows a measurable positive influence of primary producer richness on biomass when herbivores were absent. It also shows that given the patchy distribution of herbivores at a regional scale, a regional positive effect was not detected.

  4. Effect of Phytoplankton Richness on Phytoplankton Biomass Is Weak Where the Distribution of Herbivores is Patchy

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jerome J.

    2016-01-01

    Positive effects of competitor species richness on competitor productivity can be more pronounced at a scale that includes heterogeneity in ‘bottom-up’ environmental factors, such as the supply of limiting nutrients. The effect of species richness is not well understood in landscapes where variation in ‘top-down’ factors, such as the abundance of predators or herbivores, has a strong influence competitor communities. I asked how phytoplankton species richness directly influenced standing phytoplankton biomass in replicate microcosm regions where one patch had a population of herbivores (Daphnia pulicaria) and one patch did not have herbivores. The effect of phytoplankton richness on standing phytoplankton biomass was positive but weak and not statistically significant at this regional scale. Among no-Daphnia patches, there was a significant positive effect of phytoplankton richness that resulted from positive selection effects for two dominant and productive species in polycultures. Among with-Daphnia patches there was not a significant effect of phytoplankton richness. The same two species dominated species-rich polycultures in no- and with-Daphnia patches but both species were relatively vulnerable to consumption by Daphnia. Consistent with previous studies, this experiment shows a measurable positive influence of primary producer richness on biomass when herbivores were absent. It also shows that given the patchy distribution of herbivores at a regional scale, a regional positive effect was not detected. PMID:27196376

  5. Temperature influence on phytoplankton community growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Elliot; Moore, J. Keith; Primeau, Francois; Tanouye, David

    2016-04-01

    A large database of field estimates of phytoplankton community growth rates in natural populations was compiled and analyzed to determine the apparent temperature effect on phytoplankton community growth rate. We conducted an ordinary least squares regression to optimize the parameters in two commonly used growth-temperature relations (Arrhenius and Q10 models). Both equations fit the observational data equally with the optimized parameter values. The optimum apparent Q10 value was 1.47 ± 0.08 (95% confidence interval, CI). Microzooplankton grazing rates closely matched the temperature trends for phytoplankton growth. This likely reflects a dynamic adjustment of biomass and grazing rates by the microzooplankton to match their available food source, illustrating tight coupling of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. The field-measured temperature effect and growth rates were compared with estimates from the satellite Carbon-based Productivity Model (CbPM) and three Earth System Models (ESMs), with model output extracted at the same month and sampling locations as the observations. The optimized, apparent Q10 value calculated for the CbPM was 1.51, with overestimation of growth rates. The apparent Q10 value in the Community Earth System Model (V1.0) was 1.65, with modest underestimation of growth rates. The GFDL-ESM2M and GFDL-ESM2G models produced apparent Q10 values of 1.52 and 1.39, respectively. Models with an apparent Q10 that is significantly greater than ~1.5 will overestimate the phytoplankton community growth response to the ongoing climate warming and will have spatial biases in estimated growth rates for the current era.

  6. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  7. Interactions between mercury and phytoplankton: speciation, bioavailability, and internal handling.

    PubMed

    Le Faucheur, Séverine; Campbell, Peter G C; Fortin, Claude; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2014-06-01

    The present review describes and discusses key interactions between mercury (Hg) and phytoplankton to highlight the role of phytoplankton in the biogeochemical cycle of Hg and to understand direct or indirect Hg effects on phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are exposed to various Hg species in surface waters. Through Hg uptake, phytoplankton affect the concentration, speciation, and fate of Hg in aquatic systems. The mechanisms by which phytoplankton take up Hg are still not well known, but several studies have suggested that both facilitated transport and passive diffusion could be involved. Once internalized, Hg will impact several physiological processes, including photosynthesis. To counteract these negative effects, phytoplankton have developed several detoxification strategies, such as the reduction of Hg to elemental Hg or its sequestration by intracellular ligands. Based on the toxicological studies performed so far in the laboratory, Hg is unlikely to be toxic to phytoplankton when they are exposed to environmentally relevant Hg concentrations. However, this statement should be taken with caution because questions remain as to which Hg species control Hg bioavailability and about Hg uptake mechanisms. Finally, phytoplankton are primary producers, and accumulated Hg will be transferred to higher consumers. Phytoplankton are a key component in aquatic systems, and their interactions with Hg need to be further studied to fully comprehend the biogeochemical cycle of Hg and the impact of this ubiquitous metal on ecosystems.

  8. Interaction among non-toxic phytoplankton, toxic phytoplankton and zooplankton: inferences from field observations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shovonlal; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Das, Partha; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2007-02-01

    We explore the mutual dependencies and interactions among different groups of species of the plankton population, based on an analysis of the long-term field observations carried out by our group in the North-West coast of the Bay of Bengal. The plankton community is structured into three groups of species, namely, non-toxic phytoplankton (NTP), toxic phytoplankton (TPP) and zooplankton. To find the pair-wise dependencies among the three groups of plankton, Pearson and partial correlation coefficients are calculated. To explore the simultaneous interaction among all the three groups, a time series analysis is performed. Following an Expectation Maximization (E-M) algorithm, those data points which are missing due to irregularities in sampling are estimated, and with the completed data set a Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) model is analyzed. The overall analysis demonstrates that toxin-producing phytoplankton play two distinct roles: the inhibition on consumption of toxic substances reduces the abundance of zooplankton, and the toxic materials released by TPP significantly compensate for the competitive disadvantages among phytoplankton species. Our study suggests that the presence of TPP might be a possible cause for the generation of a complex interaction among the large number of phytoplankton and zooplankton species that might be responsible for the prolonged coexistence of the plankton species in a fluctuating biomass.

  9. Assessing phytoplankton realized niches using a French national phytoplankton monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Fariñas, Tania; Bacher, Cédric; Soudant, Dominique; Belin, Catherine; Barillé, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Relating environmental factors to species occurrence is a fundamental step in a better understanding of the community structure, the spatial and temporal dynamics of populations and how species may respond to environmental changes. In this paper, we used phytoplankton occurrence data, from a French national phytoplankton monitoring network, and environmental variables with the aim of characterizing the realized ecological niches of phytoplankton groups. We selected 35 phytoplankton taxa representing the most important taxa in terms of occurrence frequency and abundance along the French coast of the eastern English Channel, the Southern Bight of the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. We show that environmental variables such as nutrient concentration, water temperature, irradiance and turbidity can be considered key factors controlling phytoplankton dynamics and influencing the community structure. By using a statistical framework based on an ordination technique the community structure was analyzed and interpreted in terms of niche overlap, marginality and tolerance. The most marginal taxon was Dactyliosolen and the most tolerant was Skeletonema. Non-marginal taxonomic units could be generalist and specialist, while marginal taxa were rather specialist. Specialist and marginal taxa globally showed lower values of overlap.

  10. Salient region detection for phytoplankton microscopic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jingjing; Ji, Guangrong; Zheng, Haiyong; Yu, Kun; Lu, Hongguang

    2013-07-01

    IG method is an excellent salient region detection method as its good generality and well-defined boundaries. In this paper, an improved method based on IG method is proposed to generate saliency map for phytoplankton microscopic images. This method utilizes the characteristics of phytoplankton microscopic images, through Gaussian low-pass filter to reduce high frequency components corresponding to water stains and dust specks. On the basis of luminance and color used in IG method, saturation is added to determine saliency due to that the saturation of background is lower than that of cells. The experimental results show that the proposed method can not only improve visual quality significantly, but also obtain higher precision and better recall rates compared with IG method.

  11. Optical determination of phytoplankton floristic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. S. D.; Bowers, D. G.; Mitchelson-Jacob, E. G.

    1997-02-01

    Radiance and irradiance measurements are collected using a seven channel profiling radiometer and a four channel moored irradiance sensor which both use Sea-viewing Wide Field-of- View Sensor (SeaWiFS) wavebands. The instruments were deployed as part of the Land-Ocean Interaction Study, shelf edge study on the Malin Shelf, off the west coast of Scotland, during spring and simmer 1995 and 1996. Changes in in-situ reflectance ratios, calculated from the blue, cyan and green wavebands of the moored color sensors, suggest a diatom-dominated spring bloom, followed by an early summer coccolithophore bloom, with a flagellate-dominated phytoplankton population during the summer. Similar changes are also seen in attenuance ratios and specific attenuation coefficients calculated from the profiling radiometer data. The use of these optical properties to determine phytoplankton floristic composition is discussed.

  12. Phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Irish Sea (right) is full of phytoplankton in this true-color image from January 15, 2002. The Irish Sea separates Ireland (center) from the United Kingdom (right). In this image the water of both the Irish and Celtic (lower right) Seas appears quite turbid, being a milky blue-green compared to the clearer waters of the open Atlantic (left). This milky appearance is likely due to the growth of marine plants called phytoplankton. Despite the fact that Ireland is at the same latitude as southern Hudson Bay, Canada, it remains green year round, thanks to the moderating effect on temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean. The Gulf Stream bring warmer waters up from the tropics, and southwesterly winds bring warmer air to the country, thus moderating seasonal temperature extremes.

  13. Revaluating ocean warming impacts on global phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; O'Malley, Robert T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Westberry, Toby K.; Graff, Jason R.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Siegel, David A.; Brown, Matthew B.

    2016-03-01

    Global satellite observations document expansions of the low-chlorophyll central ocean gyres and an overall inverse relationship between anomalies in sea surface temperature and phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations. These findings can provide an invaluable glimpse into potential future ocean changes, but only if the story they tell is accurately interpreted. Chlorophyll is not simply a measure of phytoplankton biomass, but also registers changes in intracellular pigmentation arising from light-driven (photoacclimation) and nutrient-driven physiological responses. Here, we show that the photoacclimation response is an important component of temporal chlorophyll variability across the global ocean. This attribution implies that contemporary relationships between chlorophyll changes and ocean warming are not indicative of proportional changes in productivity, as light-driven decreases in chlorophyll can be associated with constant or even increased photosynthesis. Extension of these results to future change, however, requires further evaluation of how the multifaceted stressors of a warmer, higher-CO2 world will impact plankton communities.

  14. B Vitamins as Regulators of Phytoplankton Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeca, Caterina; Tovar-Sanchez, Antonio; Agustí, Susana; Reche, Isabel; Duarte, Carlos M.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2006-12-01

    Without an adequate supply of dissolved vitamins, many species of phytoplankton do not grow. Additions of inorganic nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and trace metals like iron, are not alone adequate to sustain life-a practical lesson learned quickly by experimental biologists when they try to keep eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures alive in their labs. The reason is that coenzymes such as B vitamins are also required for many metabolic pathways. For example, vitamin B1 serves as a cofactor for a large number of enzymatic systems, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex required for the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis) and amino acid synthesis [Vandamme, 1989]. Vitamin B12 is used primarily to assist two enzymes: methionine synthase, which is involved in DNA synthesis, and methylmalonyl CoA mutase, which is required for inorganic carbon assimilation [Lindemans and Abels, 1985].

  15. Phytoplankton Succession in Recurrently Fluctuating Environments

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Daniel L.; Spatharis, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Coastal marine systems are affected by seasonal variations in biogeochemical and physical processes, sometimes leading to alternating periods of reproductive growth limitation within an annual cycle. Transitions between these periods can be sudden or gradual. Human activities, such as reservoir construction and interbasin water transfers, influence these processes and can affect the type of transition between resource loading conditions. How such human activities might influence phytoplankton succession is largely unknown. Here, we employ a multispecies, multi-nutrient model to explore how nutrient loading switching mode might affect phytoplankton succession. The model is based on the Monod-relationship, predicting an instantaneous reproductive growth rate from ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations whereas the limiting nutrient at any given time was determined by Liebig’s Law of the Minimum. When these relationships are combined with population loss factors, such as hydraulic displacement of cells associated with inflows, a characterization of a species’ niche can be achieved through application of the R* conceptual model, thus enabling an ecological interpretation of modeling results. We found that the mode of reversal in resource supply concentrations had a profound effect. When resource supply reversals were sudden, as expected in systems influenced by pulsed inflows or wind-driven mixing events, phytoplankton were characterized by alternating succession dynamics, a phenomenon documented in inland water bodies of temperate latitudes. When resource supply reversals were gradual, as expected in systems influenced by seasonally developing wet and dry seasons, or annually occurring periods of upwelling, phytoplankton dynamics were characterized by mirror-image succession patterns. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in plankton systems but has been observed in some terrestrial plant systems. These findings suggest that a transition from

  16. Phytoplankton dynamics in the NE subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip; Harrison, P. J.

    1999-11-01

    Ocean Station Papa (OSP, 50°N 145°W) in the NE subarctic Pacific is characterised as high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC). However, little is known about the spatial extent of these HNLC waters or the phytoplankton dynamics on the basin scale. Algal biomass, production and size-structure data are presented from winter, spring and summer between 1992 and 1997 for five stations ranging from coastal to open-ocean conditions. The inshore stations (P04-P16) are characterised by the classical seasonal cycle of spring and late summer blooms (production >3 g C m -2 d -1), diatoms are not Fe-stressed, and growth rate is probably controlled by macronutrient supply. The fate of the phytoplankton is likely sedimentation by diatom-dominated spring blooms, with a pelagic recycling system predominating at other times. The offshore stations (P20/OSP) display low seasonality in biomass and production (OSP, mean winter production 0.3 g C m -2 d -1, mean spring/summer production 0.85 g C m -2 d -1), and are dominated by small algal cells. Low Fe availability prevents the occurrence of diatom blooms observed inshore. The main fate of phytoplankton is probably recycling through the microbial food web, with relatively low sedimentation compared to inshore. However, the supply of macro- and micro-nutrients to the coastal and open ocean, respectively, may vary between years. Variability in macro-nutrient supply to the coastal ocean may result in decreased winter reserve nitrate, summer nitrate limitation, subsequent floristic shifts towards small cells, and reduced primary production. Offshore, higher diatom abundances are occasionally observed, perhaps indicating episodic Fe supply. The two distinct oceanic regimes have different phytoplankton dynamics resulting in different seasonality, community structure and fate of algal carbon. These differences will strongly influence the biogeochemical signatures of the coastal and open-oceanic NE subarctic Pacific.

  17. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Phytoplankton succession in recurrently fluctuating environments.

    PubMed

    Roelke, Daniel L; Spatharis, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Coastal marine systems are affected by seasonal variations in biogeochemical and physical processes, sometimes leading to alternating periods of reproductive growth limitation within an annual cycle. Transitions between these periods can be sudden or gradual. Human activities, such as reservoir construction and interbasin water transfers, influence these processes and can affect the type of transition between resource loading conditions. How such human activities might influence phytoplankton succession is largely unknown. Here, we employ a multispecies, multi-nutrient model to explore how nutrient loading switching mode might affect phytoplankton succession. The model is based on the Monod-relationship, predicting an instantaneous reproductive growth rate from ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations whereas the limiting nutrient at any given time was determined by Liebig's Law of the Minimum. When these relationships are combined with population loss factors, such as hydraulic displacement of cells associated with inflows, a characterization of a species' niche can be achieved through application of the R* conceptual model, thus enabling an ecological interpretation of modeling results. We found that the mode of reversal in resource supply concentrations had a profound effect. When resource supply reversals were sudden, as expected in systems influenced by pulsed inflows or wind-driven mixing events, phytoplankton were characterized by alternating succession dynamics, a phenomenon documented in inland water bodies of temperate latitudes. When resource supply reversals were gradual, as expected in systems influenced by seasonally developing wet and dry seasons, or annually occurring periods of upwelling, phytoplankton dynamics were characterized by mirror-image succession patterns. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in plankton systems but has been observed in some terrestrial plant systems. These findings suggest that a transition from alternating

  19. Fluid dynamical niches of phytoplankton types

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Silvia; Alvain, Séverine; Dandonneau, Yves; Lévy, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The biogeochemical role of phytoplanktonic organisms strongly varies from one plankton type to another, and their relative abundance and distribution have fundamental consequences at the global and climatological scales. In situ observations find dominant types often associated to specific physical and chemical water properties. However, the mechanisms and spatiotemporal scales by which marine ecosystems are organized are largely not known. Here we investigate the spatiotemporal organization of phytoplankton communities by combining multisatellite data, notably high-resolution ocean-color maps of dominant types and altimetry-derived Lagrangian diagnostics of the surface transport. We find that the phytoplanktonic landscape is organized in (sub-)mesoscale patches (10–100 km) of dominant types separated by physical fronts induced by horizontal stirring. These physical fronts delimit niches supported by water masses of similar history and whose lifetimes are comparable with the timescale of the bloom onset (few weeks). The resonance between biological activity and physical processes suggest that the spatiotemporal (sub-)mesoscales associated to stirring are determinant in the observation and modeling of marine ecosystems. PMID:20974927

  20. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in freshwater phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of natural assemblages of freshwater phytoplankton was measured by following the flow of inorganic /sup 14/C into the photosynthetic end products polysaccharide protein, lipid, and soluble metabolites. Data were collected from a wide range of physical, chemical, and trophic conditions in six southern United States reservoirs, with the primary environmental variables of interest being light intensity and nutrient supply. Polysaccharide and protein were consistently the primary products of photosynthetic carbon metabolism, comprising an average of 70% of the total carbon fixation over a wide range of light intensities. Polysaccharide was quantitatively more important at higher light intensities, and protein at lower light intensities, as light intensity varied both with depth within the water column and over diurnal cycles. Polysaccharide synthesis was more variable over the diurnal period than was protein synthesis. Phytoplankton in the downlake epilimnion of Normandy Lake, a central Tennessee reservoir, responded to summer nitrogen (N) deficiency by increasing relative rates of lipid synthesis from 10-15% to 20-25% of the total photosynthetic carbon fixation. Phytoplankton in more nitrogen-sufficient areas of the reservoir maintained lower rates of lipid synthesis throughout the summer. These results document the occurrence in nature of a relationship between N-deficiency and increased lipid synthesis previously observed only in laboratory algal culture studies.

  1. Phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Springtime in the Bay of Biscay, off the coast of France, as in most places, is a season of abundant growth. On April 20, 2013, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of the dynamic growth of a springtime phytoplankton bloom. The swirling colors indicate the presence of vast numbers of phytoplankton – tiny plant-like microorganisms that live in both fresh and salt water. Although these organisms live year-round in the Bay of Biscay, it is only when conditions are right that explosive blooms occur. In spring, the lengthening sunlight, the increased nutrient load swept into the Bay from ocean currents and from snowmelt carried by freshwater rivers, combined with warming waters create the perfect conditions to spur phytoplankton in to tremendous growth. The result is a swirling, multi-hued discoloration that can be easily seen from space. Each year, typically from March through April, such blooms occur in the Bay of Biscay. By May, however, conditions are not as favorable and the blooms fade, then disappear. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Dynamics of two phytoplankton populations under predation.

    PubMed

    Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the manner in which predation and single-nutrient competition affect the dynamics of a non-toxic and a toxic phytoplankton species in a homogeneous environment (such as a chemostat). We allow for the possibility that both species serve as prey for an herbivorous zooplankton species. We assume that the toxic phytoplankton species produces toxins that affect only its own growth (autotoxicity). The autotoxicity assumption is ecologically explained by the fact that the toxin-producing phytoplankton is not mature enough to produce toxins that will affect the growth of its nontoxic competitor. We show that, in the absence of phytotoxic interactions and nutrient recycling, our model exhibits uniform persistence. The removal rates are distinct and we use general response functions. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to show consistency with theoretical analysis. Our model has similarities with other food-chain models. As such, our results may be relevant to a wider spectrum of population models, not just those focused on plankton. Some open problems are discussed at the end of this paper.

  3. Phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On July 23, 2013 the deep blue waters of the central North Atlantic Ocean provided a background for a spectacular bloom of phytoplankton. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) captured this true-color image of the event at 16:25 UTC (12:25 p.m. EDT) that same day. Phytoplankton are tiny single-celled photosynthetic organisms that live suspended in a watery environment. They are primary producers in the ocean, forming the base of the marine food chain, and, like terrestrial plants, take up carbon dioxide, make carbohydrates from energy from light, and release oxygen. Phytoplankton live in the ocean year round, but are usually not visible. When light, nutrients and water temperature are just right, however, a colony can explode into growth, creating huge blooms that stain the ocean for miles. While each organism lives only a short time, the high reproductive means that a bloom can last for days or weeks. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. On phytoplankton aggregation: a view from an IBM approach.

    PubMed

    El Saadi, Nadjia; Bah, Alassane

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we build up an individual-based model (IBM) that describes the aggregative behavior in phytoplankton. The processes in play at the individual level (an individual=a phytoplankton cell) are: a random dispersal, a displacement due to the net effect of cells present in a suitable neighborhood (spatial interactions) and a branching (cell division and death). The IBM model provides a virtual world where phytoplankton cells appear to form clusters. Using this model, we explore the spatial structure of phytoplankton and present some numerical simulations that help the understanding of the aggregation phenomenon.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus intake by phytoplankton in the Xiamen Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cai; Li, Hui; He, Qing; Xu, Kuncan; Wu, Shengsan; Zhang, Yuanbiao; Chen, Jinmin; Chen, Baohong; Lin, Libin; Lu, Meiluan; Chen, Weifen; Tang, Rongkun; Ji, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a time series experiment examining the nitrogen and phosphorus intake of natural phytoplankton communities by a microcosms approach. Seawater samples containing natural phytoplankton communities were collected from waters around Baozhu Islet in inner Xiamen Bay and around Qingyu Islet in the outer bay. The goal was to elucidate the relationship between phytoplankton population enhancement, the biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the seawater, and the phytoplankton nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratio based on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from seawater by phytoplankton, to provide a basis for detecting prewarning conditions for red tide and the assessment of red tide events. Two key results were obtained: 1. During the experiment, the nitrogen and phosphorus seawater concentrations in samples from these two sites were negatively and closely correlated to the logarithm of the phytoplankton cell concentration and to the value of the apparent oxygen increment. The ratio of the intake coefficients was 3.5:1 for phosphorus and 1.1:1 for nitrogen for the phytoplankton between these samples from around Baozhu Islet and Qingyu Islet, respectively. This indicates that the intake capabilities of phytoplankton for nitrogen in the two waters are essentially identical. However, for phosphorus, the capability was much higher in the Baozhu Islet waters than the Qingyu Islet waters. In other words, the phytoplankton in Qingyu Islet waters produced more biomass while consuming the same amount of phosphorus as the other waters; 2. The phytoplankton nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratio from the Baozhu Islet and Qingyu Islet waters was 20:1 and 36:1, respectively. The latter waters had a significantly higher ratio than the former and both were higher than the Redfield Ratio. These results indicate that nitrogen and phosphorus intake ratios by phytoplankton can vary significantly from region to region.

  6. Effects of phytoplankton cell size and chloride concentration on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Van Duong, Hieu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Han, Seunghee

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, the effects of phytoplankton cell size and methylmercury (MeHg) speciation on the bioaccumulation of MeHg by marine phytoplankton were investigated. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) of MeHg were determined in relation to the surface area to volume ratio of the cells for four species of diatom and a cyanobacteria species cultured in unenriched seawater. The VCFs of MeHg, ranging from 7.3 × 10(4) to 1.6 × 10(6) , increased linearly as the cell surface area-to-volume ratio increased. It suggests that pico- and nano-dominated phytoplankton communities may lead to larger MeHg accumulation than the one dominated by microphytoplankton. MeHg VCFs increased with increasing chloride concentration from 0.47 to 470 mM, indicating that MeHg bioaccumulation is enhanced under conditions that facilitate membrane permeability by the formation of neutral MeHgCl species. Overall results suggest that the size distributions of the planktonic community as well as the seawater chemistry affect MeHg bioaccumulation by marine phytoplankton.

  7. Stoichiometry is crucial for modelling phytoplankton coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göthlich, Lena; Oschlies, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Owing to global warming, conditions in the pelagial are expected to change significantly. Rising temperatures will trigger shoaling of mixed layer depths, leading to increased light intensity and decreased nutrient supply. Adaptations of the pelagic ecosystems may include shifts in phytoplankton community composition, such as shifting dominance towards species tolerating more light and heat and/or lower nutrient concentrations, as well as changes in the extents of biogeochemical provinces and corresponding distributions of species abundances. Modelling adaptive responses to climate change requires representing phytoplankton biodiversity in global biogeochemical models. Modelling several species over longer time scales has proven to be difficult, since one species will usually outcompete all others, especially in oligotrophic areas, where the system is almost in equilibrium, resembling a chemostat. The R* concept as part of Tilman's resource competition theory (D Tilman, Am. Nat. 1980, Vol 116(3) pp. 362-393) predicts that for any given limiting resource, only the species with the lowest requirement for that resource will survive: In equilibrium, a monoculture of any species will reduce the concentration of its limiting resource to the lowest concentration allowing for its survival (R*), such that growth rate equals losses. In a multi-species assemblage, the species requiring the lowest resource concentration to survive will set the equilibrium resource concentration to its R*, which however is too low to allow for any other species to survive. The R* concept implies that in equilibrium, there can be at maximum one species for every given limiting resource. Thus, including several potentially limiting resources and parameterising the phytoplankton species such that each species is limited by a different resource, i.e. each species has the highest requirement for one resource among all species, is a necessary condition for the existence of an equilibrium including

  8. Phytoplankton-Fluorescence-Lifetime Vertical Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.; Guignon, Ernest F.; St. Louis, Ernest

    2004-01-01

    A battery-operated optoelectronic instrument is designed to be lowered into the ocean to measure the intensity and lifetime of fluorescence of chlorophyll A in marine phytoplankton as a function of depth from 0 to 300 m. Fluorescence lifetimes are especially useful as robust measures of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton and of physical and chemical mechanisms that affect photosynthesis. The knowledge of photosynthesis in phytoplankton gained by use of this and related instruments is expected to contribute to understanding of global processes that control the time-varying fluxes of carbon and associated biogenic elements in the ocean. The concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean presents a major detection challenge because in order to obtain accurate values of photosynthetic parameters, the intensity of light used to excite fluorescence must be kept very low so as not to disturb the photosynthetic system. Several innovations in fluorometric instrumentation were made in order to make it possible to reach the required low detection limit. These innovations include a highly efficient optical assembly with an integrated flow-through sample interface, and a high-gain, low-noise electronic detection subsystem. The instrument also incorporates means for self-calibration during operation, and electronic hardware and software for control, acquisition and analysis of data, and communications. The electronic circuitry is highly miniaturized and designed to minimize power demand. The instrument is housed in a package that can withstand the water pressure at the maximum depth of 300 m. A light-emitting diode excites fluorescence in the sample flow cell, which is placed at one focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector. A photomultiplier tube is placed at the other focal point. This optical arrangement enables highly efficient collection of fluorescence emitted over all polar directions. Fluorescence lifetime is measured indirectly, by use of a technique based on the

  9. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clear weather over the Pacific Northwest yesterday gave the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) a good view of this mountain region of the United States. Also, there are several phytoplankton blooms visible offshore. The white areas hugging the California coastline toward the bottom of the image are low-level stratus clouds. SeaWiFS acquired this true-color scene on October 3, 2001. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Phytoplankton Chytridiomycosis: Fungal Parasites of Phytoplankton and Their Imprints on the Food Web Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism is one of the earlier and common ecological interactions in the nature, occurring in almost all environments. Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Recently, environmental 18S rDNA surveys of microbial eukaryotes have unveiled major infecting agents in pelagic systems, consisting primarily of the fungal order of Chytridiales (chytrids). Chytrids are considered the earlier branch of the Eumycetes and produce motile, flagellated zoospores, characterized by a small size (2–6 μm), and a single, posterior flagellum. The existence of these dispersal propagules includes chytrids within the so-called group of zoosporic fungi, which are particularly adapted to the plankton lifestyle where they infect a wide variety of hosts, including fishes, eggs, zooplankton, algae, and other aquatic fungi but primarily freshwater phytoplankton. Related ecological implications are huge because chytrids can killed their hosts, release substrates for microbial processes, and provide nutrient-rich particles as zoospores and short fragments of filamentous inedible hosts for the grazer food chain. Furthermore, based on the observation that phytoplankton chytridiomycosis preferentially impacts the larger size species, blooms of such species (e.g., filamentous cyanobacteria) may not totally represent trophic bottlenecks. Besides, chytrid epidemics represent an important driving factor in phytoplankton seasonal successions. In this review, I summarize the knowledge on the diversity, community structure, quantitative importance, and functional roles of fungal chytrids, primarily those who are parasites of phytoplankton, and infer the ecological implications and potentials for the food web dynamics and properties. I reach the

  11. Iron from melting glaciers fuels phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean): Phytoplankton characteristics and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Mills, Matthew M.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Laan, Patrick; Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Payne, Christopher D.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2012-09-01

    The phytoplankton community composition and productivity in waters of the Amundsen Sea and surrounding sea ice zone were characterized with respect to iron (Fe) input from melting glaciers. High Fe input from glaciers such as the Pine Island Glacier, and the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves resulted in dense phytoplankton blooms in surface waters of Pine Island Bay, Pine Island Polynya, and Amundsen Polynya. Phytoplankton biomass distribution was the opposite of the distribution of dissolved Fe (DFe), confirming the uptake of glacial DFe in surface waters by phytoplankton. Phytoplankton biomass in the polynyas ranged from 0.6 to 14 μg Chl a L-1, with lower biomass at glacier sites where strong upwelling of Modified Circumpolar Deep Water from beneath glacier tongues was observed. Phytoplankton blooms in the polynyas were dominated by the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica, whereas the phytoplankton community in the sea ice zone was a mix of P. antarctica and diatoms, resembling the species distribution in the Ross Sea. Water column productivity based on photosynthesis versus irradiance characteristics averaged 3.00 g C m-2 d-1 in polynya sites, which was approximately twice as high as in the sea ice zone. The highest water column productivity was observed in the Pine Island Polynya, where both thermally and salinity stratified waters resulted in a shallow surface mixed layer with high phytoplankton biomass. In contrast, new production based on NO3 uptake was similar between different polynya sites, where a deeper UML in the weakly, thermally stratified Pine Island Bay resulted in deeper NO3 removal, thereby offsetting the lower productivity at the surface. These are the first in situ observations that confirm satellite observations of high phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the Amundsen Sea. Moreover, the high phytoplankton productivity as a result of glacial input of DFe is the first evidence that melting glaciers have the potential to increase phytoplankton

  12. Polar cooling due to increases of phytoplankton and DMS emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. H.; Lee, H.; Yum, S. S.; Shim, S.

    2016-12-01

    Marine phytoplankton play a key role not only in marine ecology but also in climate change. The link to climate change begins with the fact that phytoplankton produce the biogenic gas, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), that is emitted to the air above the sea surface and oxidized eventually to become sulfate aerosols, which are the major source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceanic regions remote from pollution sources. Effects of increased DMS emission due to increased marine phytoplankton activity are examined using Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2 - Atmosphere-Ocean (HadGEM2-AO). Several previous studies suggested that the increased phytoplankton biomass could enhance global warming and amplify Arctic warming by SST increase and sea ice melting. However increased phytoplankton biomass emit more DMS, thus the increased sulfate CCN concentration can induce global cooling effects, which are known as the aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we demonstrate that, as the DMS emission flux from the ocean is increased more, cooling trend becomes stronger. This cooling trend is pronounced especially over the polar regions due to increase of sea ice fraction and albedo. Despite the importance of phytoplankton response mechanisms, most climate models do not include both the positive and negative feedback mechanisms that involve phytoplankton. Both the warming and cooling effects of marine phytoplankton should be properly reflected in future climate models for better estimation of climate change, especially over the polar regions. More detail will be discussed at the conference.

  13. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.METHODS:We recruited beachgoers at Boquer6n Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.RESULTS: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/ml (median, 712 cells/ml). The category with the highest (≥75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% Cl: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% Cl: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% Cl: 1.12, 1

  14. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, M. J.; Westberry, T. K.; Boss, E. S.; O'Malley, R. T.; Siegel, D. A.; Wiggert, J. D.; Franz, B. A.; McClain, C. R.; Feldman, G. C.; Doney, S. C.; Moore, J. K.; Dall'Olmo, G.; Milligan, A. J.; Lima, I.; Mahowald, N.

    2009-05-01

    Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.

  15. Viral infection as a regulator of oceanic phytoplankton populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Truscott, J. E.; Martin, A. P.

    2008-11-01

    Viruses are the most abundant organism in seawater across all the world's oceans. Though they are believed to be capable of infecting all phytoplankton species their role in regulating plankton population levels is not well understood. In order to gain an understanding of the potential influence of viruses on phytoplankton population dynamics, particularly 'blooms', two plankton ecosystem models with explicit representation of viruses and virally infected phytoplankton are presented, and an initial investigation into their range of behaviours explored. The models are extensions of well-established plankton ecosystem models that now permit the possibility of viral infection and mortality of phytoplankton. Ecological and epidemiological parameters from a number of sources are used to furnish the models. The models are shown to be capable of capturing known features of phytoplankton population dynamics in the presence of viruses: viruses can stably co-exist in the plankton ecosystem without the need to invoke other stabilising processes, and infection can serve to suppress primary production and phytoplankton abundance whilst boosting nutrient levels. Intuitively, viral infection will be most effective when phytoplankton is high. We therefore use the two models to investigate the influence of viral infection on 'blooms' in two independent ways: first with a seasonally-forced variability and second with a triggered transient event. It is demonstrated that the impact of viruses can be very noticeable during episodes of enhanced phytoplankton density found during 'blooms'. Viruses serve to attenuate the intensity and duration of these transient events in a manner consistent with observations.

  16. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.METHODS:We recruited beachgoers at Boquer6n Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.RESULTS: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/ml (median, 712 cells/ml). The category with the highest (≥75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% Cl: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% Cl: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% Cl: 1.12, 1

  17. PHYTOPLANKTON DEPOSITION TO CHESAPEAKE BAY SEDIMENTS DURING WINTER-SPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The often rapid deposition of phytoplankton to sediments at the conclusion of the spring phytoplankton bloom is an important component of benthic-pelagic coupling in temperate and high latitude estuaries and other aquatic systems. However, quantifying the flux is difficult, parti...

  18. PHYTOPLANKTON DEPOSITION TO CHESAPEAKE BAY SEDIMENTS DURING WINTER-SPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The often rapid deposition of phytoplankton to sediments at the conclusion of the spring phytoplankton bloom is an important component of benthic-pelagic coupling in temperate and high latitude estuaries and other aquatic systems. However, quantifying the flux is difficult, parti...

  19. Global biodiversity patterns of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Irigoien, Xabier; Huisman, Jef; Harris, Roger P

    2004-06-24

    Although the oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface, our knowledge of biodiversity patterns in marine phytoplankton and zooplankton is very limited compared to that of the biodiversity of plants and herbivores in the terrestrial world. Here, we present biodiversity data for marine plankton assemblages from different areas of the world ocean. Similar to terrestrial vegetation, marine phytoplankton diversity is a unimodal function of phytoplankton biomass, with maximum diversity at intermediate levels of phytoplankton biomass and minimum diversity during massive blooms. Contrary to expectation, we did not find a relation between phytoplankton diversity and zooplankton diversity. Zooplankton diversity is a unimodal function of zooplankton biomass. Most strikingly, these marine biodiversity patterns show a worldwide consistency, despite obvious differences in environmental conditions of the various oceanographic regions. These findings may serve as a new benchmark in the search for global biodiversity patterns of plants and herbivores.

  20. [Early growth of phytoplankton community in Dianshan Lake].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community biomass (Chla) in Dianshan Lake was simulated based on data of 2004-2009. The result showed that early growths of the phytoplankton community in spring and summer seasons could be well described by the Logistic growth model. General speaking, phytoplankton community dominated by diatom and green algae may enter its exponential phase in the late February, doubling its density within 18 days, and reaching its maximum growth rate of 29.4 microg x (L x month) (-1) in the middle of March, blooming in June. Phytoplankton community dominated by blue green algae may enter its exponential phase in the middle June, doubling its density within 26 days, and reaching its maximum growth rate of 22.8 microg x (L x month) (-1) in the middle of July, blooming during August-September. The general pattern of early growth of phytoplankton community may offer sound information for early warning and prevention of algal bloom.

  1. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Prize Lecture: Phytoplankton in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, William M.

    2012-11-01

    Phytoplankton are small, unicellular organisms that form the base of the marine food web and are cumulatively responsible for half the global oxygen production. While phytoplankton live in an environment characterized by ubiquitous fluid flow, the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on their ecology remain poorly understood. In this talk, I report on two novel biophysical mechanisms based on the interaction between phytoplankton motility and fluid shear. First, I will consider ``thin phytoplankton layers,'' important hotspots of ecological activity that are found meters beneath the ocean surface and contain cell concentrations up to two orders of magnitude above ambient. Using a combination of experiments, individual-based simulations, and continuum modeling, we have shown that layers can form when the vertical migration of phytoplankton is disrupted by hydrodynamic shear. This mechanism which we call ``gyrotactic trapping'' is capable of triggering thin phytoplankton layers under hydrodynamic conditions typical of the environments that often harbor thin layers. Second, I will discuss the potential for turbulent shear to produce patchiness in the spatial distribution of motile phytoplankton. Field measurements have revealed that motile phytoplankton form aggregations at the Kolmogorov scale, whereas non-motile cells do not. We propose a new mechanism for the formation of this small-scale patchiness based on the interplay of gyrotactic motility and turbulent shear. Using laboratory experiments, an analytical model of vortical flow, and isotropic turbulence generated via Direct Numerical Simulations, we found that motile phytoplankton rapidly aggregate, whereas non-motile cells remain randomly distributed. Taken together, these two mechanisms demonstrate that the interaction of cell motility with flow plays a fundamental role in phytoplankton ecology and, as a consequence, can contribute to shape macroscale characteristics of the ocean.

  2. Title: Freshwater phytoplankton responses to global warming.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Fanesi, Andrea; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-09-20

    Global warming alters species composition and function of freshwater ecosystems. However, the impact of temperature on primary productivity is not sufficiently understood and water quality models need to be improved in order to assess the quantitative and qualitative changes of aquatic communities. On the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that the commonly used photosynthetic and water chemistry parameters alone are not sufficient for modeling phytoplankton growth under changing temperature regimes. We present some new aspects of the acclimation process with respect to temperature and how contrasting responses may be explained by a more complete physiological knowledge of the energy flow from photons to new biomass. We further suggest including additional bio-markers/traits for algal growth such as carbon allocation patterns to increase the explanatory power of such models. Although carbon allocation patterns are promising and functional cellular traits for growth prediction under different nutrient and light conditions, their predictive power still waits to be tested with respect to temperature. A great challenge for the near future will be the prediction of primary production efficiencies under the global change scenario using a uniform model for phytoplankton assemblages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic model of flexible phytoplankton nutrient uptake

    PubMed Central

    Bonachela, Juan A.; Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic machinery of marine microbes can be remarkably plastic, allowing organisms to persist under extreme nutrient limitation. With some exceptions, most theoretical approaches to nutrient uptake in phytoplankton are largely dominated by the classic Michaelis–Menten (MM) uptake functional form, whose constant parameters cannot account for the observed plasticity in the uptake apparatus. Following seminal ideas by earlier researchers, we propose a simple cell-level model based on a dynamic view of the uptake process whereby the cell can regulate the synthesis of uptake proteins in response to changes in both internal and external nutrient concentrations. In our flexible approach, the maximum uptake rate and nutrient affinity increase monotonically as the external nutrient concentration decreases. For low to medium nutrient availability, our model predicts uptake and growth rates larger than the classic MM counterparts, while matching the classic MM results for large nutrient concentrations. These results have important consequences for global coupled models of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, which lack this regulatory mechanism and are thus likely to underestimate phytoplankton abundances and growth rates in oligotrophic regions of the ocean. PMID:22143781

  4. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Paytan, Adina; Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Chen, Ying; Lima, Ivan D.; Doney, Scott C.; Mahowald, Natalie; Labiosa, Rochelle; Post, Anton F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus. We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere–ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia. PMID:19273845

  5. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K.R.M.; Chen, Y.; Lima, I.D.; Doney, S.C.; Mahowald, N.; Labiosa, R.; Post, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus.We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere-ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia.

  6. Phytoplankton and the Macondo oil spill: A comparison of the 2010 phytoplankton assemblage to baseline conditions on the Louisiana shelf.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M L; Morrison, W; Rabalais, N N; Turner, R E; Tyre, K N

    2015-12-01

    The Macondo oil spill was likely the largest oil spill to ever occur in United States territorial waters. We report herein our findings comparing the available baseline phytoplankton data from coastal waters west of the Mississippi River, and samples collected monthly from the same sampling stations, during and after the oil spill (May-October, 2010). Our results indicate that overall, the phytoplankton abundance was 85% lower in 2010 versus the baseline, and that the species composition of the phytoplankton community moved towards diatoms and cyanobacteria and away from ciliates and phytoflagellates. The results of this study reaffirm the view that phytoplankton responses will vary by the seasonal timing of the oil spill and the specific composition of the spilled oil. The trophic impacts of the purported lower abundance of phytoplankton in 2010 coupled with the observed assemblage shift remain unknown.

  7. Phytoplankton. The fate of photons absorbed by phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hanzhi; Kuzminov, Fedor I; Park, Jisoo; Lee, SangHoon; Falkowski, Paul G; Gorbunov, Maxim Y

    2016-01-15

    Solar radiation absorbed by marine phytoplankton can follow three possible paths. By simultaneously measuring the quantum yields of photochemistry and chlorophyll fluorescence in situ, we calculate that, on average, ~60% of absorbed photons are converted to heat, only 35% are directed toward photochemical water splitting, and the rest are reemitted as fluorescence. The spatial pattern of fluorescence yields and lifetimes strongly suggests that photochemical energy conversion is physiologically limited by nutrients. Comparison of in situ fluorescence lifetimes with satellite retrievals of solar-induced fluorescence yields suggests that the mean values of the latter are generally representative of the photophysiological state of phytoplankton; however, the signal-to-noise ratio is unacceptably low in extremely oligotrophic regions, which constitute 30% of the open ocean. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

    2015-03-01

    The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

  9. Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupel, P.; Matsuoka, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Gosselin, M.; Claustre, H.; Marie, D.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2014-10-01

    Phytoplankton are expected to respond to recent environmental changes of the Arctic Ocean. In terms of bottom-up control, modifying the phytoplankton distribution will ultimately affect the entire food web and carbon export. However, detecting and quantifying change in phytoplankton communities in the Arctic Ocean remains difficult because of the lack of data and the inconsistent identification methods used. Based on pigment and microscopy data sampled in the Beaufort Sea during summer 2009, we optimized the chemotaxonomic tool CHEMTAX for the assessment of phytoplankton community composition in an Arctic setting. The geographical distribution of the main phytoplankton groups was determined with clustering methods. Four phytoplankton assemblages were determined and related to bathymetry, nutrients and light availability. Surface waters across the whole survey region were dominated by prasinophytes and chlorophytes, whereas the subsurface chlorophyll maximum was dominated by the centric diatoms Chaetoceros socialis on the shelf and by two populations of nanoflagellates in the deep basin. Microscopic count showed a high contribution of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium spp. to total carbon biomass, suggesting high grazing activity at this time of the year. However, CHEMTAX was unable to detect these dinoflagellates because they lack peridinin. The inclusion in heterotrophic dinoflagellates of the pigments of their prey potentially leads to incorrect group assignments and some misinterpretation of CHEMTAX. Thanks to the high reproducibility of pigment analysis, our results can serve as a baseline to assess change and spatial or temporal variability in phytoplankton populations.

  10. Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupel, P.; Matsuoka, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Gosselin, M.; Marie, D.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2015-02-01

    Phytoplankton are expected to respond to recent environmental changes of the Arctic Ocean. In terms of bottom-up control, modifying the phytoplankton distribution will ultimately affect the entire food web and carbon export. However, detecting and quantifying changes in phytoplankton communities in the Arctic Ocean remains difficult because of the lack of data and the inconsistent identification methods used. Based on pigment and microscopy data sampled in the Beaufort Sea during summer 2009, we optimized the chemotaxonomic tool CHEMTAX (CHEMical TAXonomy) for the assessment of phytoplankton community composition in an Arctic setting. The geographical distribution of the main phytoplankton groups was determined with clustering methods. Four phytoplankton assemblages were determined and related to bathymetry, nutrients and light availability. Surface waters across the whole survey region were dominated by prasinophytes and chlorophytes, whereas the subsurface chlorophyll maximum was dominated by the centric diatoms Chaetoceros socialis on the shelf and by two populations of nanoflagellates in the deep basin. Microscopic counts showed a high contribution of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium spp. to total carbon biomass, suggesting high grazing activity at this time of the year. However, CHEMTAX was unable to detect these dinoflagellates because they lack peridinin. In heterotrophic dinoflagellates, the inclusion of the pigments of their prey potentially leads to incorrect group assignments and some misinterpretation of CHEMTAX. Thanks to the high reproducibility of pigment analysis, our results can serve as a baseline to assess change and spatial or temporal variability in several phytoplankton populations that are not affected by these misinterpretations.

  11. Phytoplankton size impact on export flux in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Barnett, Audrey; McKinley, Galen A.; Gloege, Lucas; Pilcher, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean depends largely on biologically mediated export of carbon from the surface ocean and its remineralization with depth. Global satellite studies have primarily focused on chlorophyll concentration and net primary production (NPP) to understand the role of phytoplankton in these processes. Recent satellite retrievals of phytoplankton composition now allow for the size of phytoplankton cells to be considered. Here we improve understanding of phytoplankton size structure impacts on particle export, remineralization, and transfer. A global compilation of particulate organic carbon (POC) flux estimated from sediment traps and 234Th are utilized. Annual climatologies of NPP, percent microplankton, and POC flux at four time series locations and within biogeochemical provinces are constructed. Parameters that characterize POC flux versus depth (export flux ratio, labile fraction, and remineralization length scale) are fit for time series locations, biogeochemical provinces, and times of the year dominated by small and large phytoplankton cells where phytoplankton cell size show enough dynamic range over the annual cycle. Considering all data together, our findings support the idea of high export flux but low transfer efficiency in productive regions and vice versa for oligotrophic regions. However, when parsing by dominant size class, we find periods dominated by small cells to have both greater export flux efficiency and lower transfer efficiency than periods when large cells comprise a greater proportion of the phytoplankton community.

  12. [Phytoplankton community structure and eutrophication risk assessment of Beijiang River].

    PubMed

    Gou, Ting; Ma, Qian-Li; Xu, Zhen-Cheng; Wang, Li; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xue-Min

    2015-03-01

    To study the distribution of phytoplankton and water quality of Beijiang River, the community structure of phytoplankton was investigated and analyzed in wet and dry seasons. The results showed that a total of 74 species belonging to six phyla, 29 family and 48 genera of phytoplankton were identified, including 58 species of five phyla, 23 family and 41 genera in wet season and 59 species of six phyla, 26 family and 40 genera in dry season. Phytoplankton community structure in Beijiang River was represented by Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. Bacillariophyta dominanted the phytoplankton, and the dominant species were Aulacoseira granulate, Fragilaria virescens, Surirella biseriata, Nitzschia amphibia, Navicula simplex, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra ulna, Gomphonema angustatum and Cymbella tumida. There was little difference in phytoplankton density between both seasons with the mean values being 3.54 x 10(5) and 4.87 x 10(5) cells L(-1) in dry and wet seasons, respectively. Based on the RDA results, DO, permanganate index, nitrogen and phosphorus were the important environmental factors affecting the distribution of phytoplankton in Beijiang River. The water quality of Beijiang River was classified as oligo-mesotrophic level even if this river was subjected to nitrogen and phosphorus pollution mainly from agricultural non-point source.

  13. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (p<0.01) correlated along with two of the phytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  14. Do high concentrations of microcystin prevent Daphnia control of phytoplankton?

    PubMed

    Chislock, Michael F; Sarnelle, Orlando; Jernigan, Lauren M; Wilson, Alan E

    2013-04-15

    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria have frequently been hypothesized to limit the ability of herbivorous zooplankton (such as Daphnia) to control phytoplankton biomass by inhibiting feeding, and in extreme cases, causing zooplankton mortality. Using limnocorral experiments in hyper-eutrophic ponds located in Alabama and Michigan (U.S.A.), we tested the hypothesis that high levels of cyanobacteria and microcystin, a class of hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial genera, prevent Daphnia from strongly reducing phytoplankton abundance. At the start of the first experiment (Michigan), phytoplankton communities were dominated by toxic Microcystis and Anabaena (∼96% of total phytoplankton biomass), and concentrations of microcystin were ∼3 μg L⁻¹. Two weeks after adding Daphnia pulicaria from a nearby eutrophic lake, microcystin levels increased to ∼6.5 μg L⁻¹, yet Daphnia populations increased exponentially (r = 0.24 day⁻¹). By the third week, Daphnia had suppressed phytoplankton biomass by ∼74% relative to the no Daphnia controls and maintained reduced phytoplankton biomass until the conclusion of the five-week experiment. In the second experiment (Alabama), microcystin concentrations were greater than 100 μg L⁻¹, yet a mixture of three D. pulicaria clones from eutrophic lakes in southern MI increased and again reduced phytoplankton biomass, in this case by over 80%. The ability of Daphnia to increase in abundance and suppress phytoplankton biomass, despite high initial levels of cyanobacteria and microcystin, indicates that the latter does not prevent strong control of phytoplankton biomass by Daphnia genotypes that are adapted to environments with abundant cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins.

  15. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David A.; van der Molen, Johan; Hyder, Kieran; Bacon, John; Barciela, Rosa; Creach, Veronique; McEwan, Robert; Ruardij, Piet; Forster, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structure is fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policy makers and other users require information on marine biodiversity and other aspects of the marine environment for the North Sea, a highly productive European shelf sea. This information must come from a combination of observations and models, but currently the coastal ocean is greatly under-sampled for phytoplankton data, and outputs of phytoplankton community structure from models are therefore not yet frequently validated. This study presents a novel set of in situ observations of phytoplankton community structure for the North Sea using accessory pigment analysis. The observations allow a good understanding of the patterns of surface phytoplankton biomass and community structure in the North Sea for the observed months of August 2010 and 2011. Two physical-biogeochemical ocean models, the biogeochemical components of which are different variants of the widely used European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), were then validated against these and other observations. Both models were a good match for sea surface temperature observations, and a reasonable match for remotely sensed ocean colour observations. However, the two models displayed very different phytoplankton community structures, with one better matching the in situ observations than the other. Nonetheless, both models shared some similarities with the observations in terms of spatial features and inter-annual variability. An initial comparison of the formulations and parameterizations of the two models suggests that diversity between the parameter settings of model phytoplankton functional types, along with formulations which promote a greater sensitivity to changes in light and nutrients, is key to capturing the observed phytoplankton community structure. These findings will help inform future model development, which should be coupled

  16. Phytoplankton Bloom in the Barents Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired August 31, 2010 To see a detail of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4971318856/ In this natural-color image from August 31, 2010, the ocean’s canvas swirls with turquoise, teal, navy, and green, the abstract art of the natural world. The colors were painted by a massive phytoplankton bloom made up of millions of tiny, light-reflecting organisms growing in the sunlit surface waters of the Barents Sea. Such blooms peak every August in the Barents Sea. The variations in color are caused by different species and concentrations of phytoplankton. The bright blue colors are probably from coccolithophores, a type of phytoplankton that is coated in a chalky shell that reflects light, turning the ocean a milky turquoise. Coccolithophores dominate the Barents Sea in August. Shades of green are likely from diatoms, another type of phytoplankton. Diatoms usually dominate the Barents Sea earlier in the year, giving way to coccolithophores in the late summer. However, field measurements of previous August blooms have also turned up high concentrations of diatoms. The Barents Sea is a shallow sea sandwiched between the coastline of northern Russia and Scandinavia and the islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya. Within the shallow basin, currents carrying warm, salty water from the Atlantic collide with currents carrying cold, fresher water from the Arctic. During the winter, strong winds drive the currents and mix the waters. When winter’s sea ice retreats and light returns in the spring, diatoms thrive, typically peaking in a large bloom in late May. The shift between diatoms and coccolithophores occurs as the Barents Sea changes during the summer months. Throughout summer, perpetual light falls on the waters, gradually warming the surface. Eventually, the ocean stratifies into layers, with warm water sitting on top of cooler water. The diatoms deplete most of the nutrients in the surface waters and stop growing

  17. Phytoplankton Bloom in the Barents Sea [Detail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired August 31, 2010 To see the full view of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4970549945 In this natural-color image from August 31, 2010, the ocean’s canvas swirls with turquoise, teal, navy, and green, the abstract art of the natural world. The colors were painted by a massive phytoplankton bloom made up of millions of tiny, light-reflecting organisms growing in the sunlit surface waters of the Barents Sea. Such blooms peak every August in the Barents Sea. The variations in color are caused by different species and concentrations of phytoplankton. The bright blue colors are probably from coccolithophores, a type of phytoplankton that is coated in a chalky shell that reflects light, turning the ocean a milky turquoise. Coccolithophores dominate the Barents Sea in August. Shades of green are likely from diatoms, another type of phytoplankton. Diatoms usually dominate the Barents Sea earlier in the year, giving way to coccolithophores in the late summer. However, field measurements of previous August blooms have also turned up high concentrations of diatoms. The Barents Sea is a shallow sea sandwiched between the coastline of northern Russia and Scandinavia and the islands of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaya Zemlya. Within the shallow basin, currents carrying warm, salty water from the Atlantic collide with currents carrying cold, fresher water from the Arctic. During the winter, strong winds drive the currents and mix the waters. When winter’s sea ice retreats and light returns in the spring, diatoms thrive, typically peaking in a large bloom in late May. The shift between diatoms and coccolithophores occurs as the Barents Sea changes during the summer months. Throughout summer, perpetual light falls on the waters, gradually warming the surface. Eventually, the ocean stratifies into layers, with warm water sitting on top of cooler water. The diatoms deplete most of the nutrients in the surface waters and stop growing

  18. Phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brightly colored waters in the Black Sea give evidence of the growth of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton, which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that reflect light different ways, producing the colorful displays. The very bright blue waters could be an organism called a coccolithophores, which has a highly reflective calcium carbonate coating that appears bright blue (or sometimes white) in true-color (visible) imagery. However, other organisms, such as cyanobacteria can also appear that color, and so often scientists will compare the ratios of reflectance at one wavelength of light to another to decide what organisms might be present. This series of images shows a bloom occurring in the Black Sea from May 11, 2002, to May 18.

  19. Phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brightly colored waters in the Black Sea give evidence of the growth of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton, which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that reflect light different ways, producing the colorful displays. The very bright blue waters could be an organism called a coccolithophores, which has a highly reflective calcium carbonate coating that appears bright blue (or sometimes white) in true-color (visible) imagery. However, other organisms, such as cyanobacteria can also appear that color, and so often scientists will compare the ratios of reflectance at one wavelength of light to another to decide what organisms might be present. This series of images shows a bloom occurring in the Black Sea from May 11, 2002, to May 18.

  20. Seasonal phytoplanktonic diversity of Kitham lake, Agra.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashesh; Chauhan, S V S

    2006-01-01

    Two years (Jan. 2000 - Dec. 2001) data on the seasonal studies of phytoplanktonic diversity of Kitham lake (Sur Sarovar) Agra revealed the presence of 73 algal species. A limited number of these were recorded throughout the year, while others were distributed in different seasons mainly in winter and summer seasons. During winters, Chlorophyceae was the most dominant group followed by Bacillariophyceae. On the other hand, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae were the most dominant during summers. Certain species e.g. Pandorina morum, Pediastrum tetras, Gonium sp., Chlorella vulgaris, Scendesmus quadricauda, Oedogonium cardiocum, Synedra ulna, Oscillatoria agardhii and Euglena gracillis were recorded throughout the year. Chlorella, Stigeoclonium, Pandorina, Micratinium, Oscillatoria, Anacystis, Nitzschia and Cymbella were found to be good indicators of water pollution.

  1. Genomic insights into photosynthesis in eukaryotic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Moreau, Hervé; Bowler, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The evolution of photosynthesis completely altered the biogeochemistry of our planet and permitted the evolution of more complex multicellular organisms. Curiously, terrestrial photosynthesis is carried out largely by green algae and their descendents the higher plants, whereas in the ocean the most abundant photosynthetic eukaryotes are microscopic and have red algal affiliations. Although primary productivity is approximately equal between the land and the ocean, the marine microbes represent less than 1% of the photosynthetic biomass found on land. This review focuses on this highly successful and diverse group of organisms collectively known as phytoplankton and reviews how insights from whole genome analyses have improved our understanding of the novel innovations employed by them to maximize photosynthetic efficiency in variable light environments.

  2. The uptake and bioaccumulation of PCBs by phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S.; Stange, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton play a major role in the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to their large biomass, their high lipid content, and their place as the primary step in the aquatic food web. Phytoplankton accumulate PCBs in the water column most likely as a result of water-lipid partitioning, and can pass the contaminants up through the food web by consumers or transport them to bottom waters by sedimentation. The process of PCB uptake and bioaccumulation by phytoplankton has been the focus of our study.

  3. Interactions of phytoplankton, zooplankton and microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, L. R.; Paffenhöfer, G.-A.; Yoder, J. A.

    We present evidence that there are significant interactions between heterotrophic microorganisms, doliolids and Fritillaria within intrusions of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream water stranding on the continental shelf. During the summer of 1981 cold, nutrient-rich water from below the surface of the Gulf Stream was repeatedly intruded and stranded on the continental shelf off northeastern Florida. On August 6 old, stranded Gulf Stream water depleted of nitrate occupied the lower layer on the outer shelf. The upper water was continental shelf water, older but of undefined age. On August 6 free-living bacteria were >10 6ml -1 everywhere at all depths, an order of magnitude greater than normal bacterial numbers on the northeastern Florida continental shelf. Over 10 days the numbers of free bacteria doubled while bacteria attached to particles increased by a factor of four. The adenylate/chlorophyll ratio showed that phytoplankton dominated the lower layers of intruded water, while the surface water became increasingly dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms (bacteria and protozoa) over 10 days. There were significant, negative correlations between bacteria and doliolids and between bacteria and Fritillaria. Regions of maximum bacterial numbers did not coincide with locations of salp swarms. The increased numbers of bacteria at all depths in a highly stratified system in which most phytoplankton are in the lower layer suggests a diverse source of bacterial growth substrates, some of which involve zooplankton as intermediaries. Production of autotrophs is more than twice that of microheterotrophs on average, but because of their differential distribution, microheterotrophs are the dominant biomass in much of the surface water and may be significant in energy flux to metazoan consumers as well as competitors for mutually useable sources of nutrition.

  4. A global pattern of thermal adaptation in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mridul K; Kremer, Colin T; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

    2012-11-23

    Rising ocean temperatures will alter the productivity and composition of marine phytoplankton communities, thereby affecting global biogeochemical cycles. Predicting the effects of future ocean warming on biogeochemical cycles depends critically on understanding how existing global temperature variation affects phytoplankton. Here we show that variation in phytoplankton temperature optima over 150 degrees of latitude is well explained by a gradient in mean ocean temperature. An eco-evolutionary model predicts a similar relationship, suggesting that this pattern is the result of evolutionary adaptation. Using mechanistic species distribution models, we find that rising temperatures this century will cause poleward shifts in species' thermal niches and a sharp decline in tropical phytoplankton diversity in the absence of an evolutionary response.

  5. Tidal stirring and phytoplankton bloom dynamics in an estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    In South San Francisco Bay, estuarine phytoplankton biomass fluctuates at the time scale of days to weeks; much of this variability is associated with fluctuations in tidal energy. During the spring seasons of every year from 1980-1990, episodic blooms occurred in which phytoplankton biomass rose from a baseline of 2-4mg chlorophyll a m-3, peaked at 20-40 chlorophyll a m-3, then returned to baseline values, all within several weeks. Each episode of biomass increase occurred during neap tides, and each bloom decline coincided with spring tides. This suggests that daily variations in the rate of vertical mixing by tidal stirring might control phytoplankton bloom dynamics in some estuaries. Simulation experiments with a numerical model of phytoplankton population dynamics support this hypothesis. -from Author

  6. Abrupt terminal Ordovician extinction in phytoplankton associations, southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbath, G. Kent

    1986-11-01

    Study of organic-walled phytoplankton (prasinophytes and “acritarchs”) from samples spanning the Ordovician/Silurian boundary in the southern Appalachians reveals an abrupt change in the composition of phytoplankton associations at the boundary, coincident with the extinction of several Ordovician species. The actual duration of the extinction is poorly constrained by available biostratigraphic evidence, but it apparently took place within the duration of one stage. Evidence from other regions suggests that the extinction was widespread and may have been worldwide. Within limits of resolution, the abrupt extinction among the phytoplankton was coincident with the extinction of benthic communities. Hypotheses calling upon species-area effects, evolutionary changes in the terrestrial flora, or gradual climatic deterioration to explain the terminal Ordovician extinction are not supported by evidence from the phytoplankton. A bolide impact model cannot be excluded with available evidence, nor can models calling upon threshold effects associated with changing climate.

  7. Turbulent mixing, restratification, and phytoplankton growth at a submesoscale eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution large-eddy simulations are used to study the influence of submesoscale mixed layer instability and small-scale turbulence on phytoplankton growth in light-limited conditions. Four simulations are considered with small-scale turbulence driven by varying levels of surface cooling. Significant small-scale turbulence is seen even without surface forcing, and the downward mixing of phytoplankton is sufficient to briefly delay the developing bloom. Moderate and strong values of the constant surface heat flux (Q =- 10,-100 W/m2) are sufficient to prevent a bloom. In contrast to the critical depth hypothesis, the growth rate for phytoplankton does not appear to be controlled by the mixed layer depth. Instead, a comparison between the turbulent diffusivity above the compensation depth and a critical value predicted by the critical turbulence hypothesis closely matches the timing and magnitude of phytoplankton growth.

  8. Assessing impacts of invasive phytoplankton: the Baltic Sea case.

    PubMed

    Olenina, Irina; Wasmund, Norbert; Hajdu, Susanna; Jurgensone, Iveta; Gromisz, Sławomira; Kownacka, Janina; Toming, Kaire; Vaiciūte, Diana; Olenin, Sergej

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing understanding and requirement to take into account the effects of invasive alien species (IAS) in environmental quality assessments. While IAS are listed amongst the most important factors threatening marine biodiversity, information on their impacts remains unquantified, especially for phytoplankton species. This study attempts to assess the impacts of invasive alien phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea during 1980-2008. A bioinvasion impact assessment method (BPL - biopollution level index) was applied to phytoplankton monitoring data collected from eleven sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. BPL takes into account abundance and distribution range of an alien species and the magnitude of the impact on native communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning. Of the 12 alien/cryptogenic phytoplankton species recorded in the Baltic Sea only one (the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum) was categorized as an IAS, causing a recognizable environmental effect.

  9. Ultrafast quantitative time-stretch imaging flow cytometry of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Queenie T. K.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive quantification of phytoplankton abundance, sizes and other parameters, e.g. biomasses, has been an important, yet daunting task in aquatic sciences and biofuel research. It is primarily because of the lack of effective tool to image and thus accurately profile individual microalgae in a large population. The phytoplankton species are highly diversified and heterogeneous in terms of their sizes and the richness in morphological complexity. This fact makes time-stretch imaging, a new ultrafast real-time optical imaging technology, particularly suitable for ultralarge-scale taxonomic classification of phytoplankton together with quantitative image recognition and analysis. We here demonstrate quantitative imaging flow cytometry of single phytoplankton based on quantitative asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (Q-ATOM) - a new time-stretch imaging modality for label-free quantitative phase imaging without interferometric implementations. Sharing the similar concept of Schlieren imaging, Q-ATOM accesses multiple phase-gradient contrasts of each single phytoplankton, from which the quantitative phase profile is computed. We employ such system to capture, at an imaging line-scan rate of 11.6 MHz, high-resolution images of two phytoplankton populations (scenedesmus and chlamydomonas) in ultrafast microfluidic flow (3 m/s). We further perform quantitative taxonomic screening analysis enabled by this technique. More importantly, the system can also generate quantitative phase images of single phytoplankton. This is especially useful for label-free quantification of biomasses (e.g. lipid droplets) of the particular species of interest - an important task adopted in biofuel applications. Combining machine learning for automated classification, Q-ATOM could be an attractive platform for continuous and real-time ultralarge-scale single-phytoplankton analysis.

  10. Latitudinal variation of phytoplankton communities in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min Joo, Hyoung; Lee, Sang H.; Won Jung, Seung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwan Lee, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that photosynthetic eukaryotes are an active and often dominant component of Arctic phytoplankton assemblages. In order to explore this notion at a large scale, samples were collected to investigate the community structure and biovolume of phytoplankton along a transect in the western Arctic Ocean. The transect included 37 stations at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) depths in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Canadian Basin from July 19 to September 5, 2008. Phytoplankton (>2 μm) were identified and counted. A cluster analysis of abundance and biovolume data revealed different assemblages over the shelf, slope, and basin regions. Phytoplankton communities were composed of 71 taxa representing Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Prasinophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae. The most abundant species were of pico- to nano-size at the surface and SCM depths at most stations. Nano- and pico-sized phytoplankton appeared to be dominant in the Bering Sea, whereas diatoms and nano-sized plankton provided the majority of taxon diversity in the Bering Strait and in the Chukchi Sea. From the western Bering Sea to the Bering Strait, the abundance, biovolume, and species diversity of phytoplankton provided a marked latitudinal gradient towards the central Arctic. Although pico- and nano-sized phytoplankton contributed most to cell abundance, their chlorophyll a contents and biovolumes were less than those of the larger micro-sized taxa. Micro-sized phytoplankton contributed most to the biovolume in the largely ice-free waters of the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2008.

  11. The Effect of Atrazine on Louisiana Gulf Coast Estuarine Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Starr, Alexis V; Bargu, Sibel; Maiti, Kanchan; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides may enter water bodies in areas with a high proportion of agricultural land use through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and erosion and thus negatively impact nontarget aquatic organisms. The herbicide atrazine is used extensively throughout the Midwest and enters the Mississippi River through surface runoff and groundwater discharge. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of atrazine contamination in Louisiana's estuaries from Mississippi River water under different flow and nutrient regimes (spring and summer) and its effect on the biomass and oxygen production of the local phytoplankton community. The results showed that atrazine was consistently present in these systems at low levels. Microcosm experiments exposed to an atrazine-dilution series under low and high nutrient conditions to determine the phytoplankton stress response showed that high atrazine levels greatly decreased phytoplankton biomass and oxygen production. Phytoplankton exposed to low and moderate atrazine levels under high nutrient conditions were able to recover after an extended acclimation period. Communities grown under high nutrient conditions grew more rapidly and produced greater levels of oxygen than the low nutrient treatment groups, thus indicating that atrazine exposure may induce a greater stress response in phytoplankton communities under low-nutrient conditions. The native community also experienced a shift from more sensitive species, such as chlorophytes, to potentially more resilient species such as diatoms. The phytoplankton response to atrazine exposure at various concentrations can be especially important to greater trophic levels because their growth and abundance can determine the potential productivity of the entire ecosystem.

  12. Temperature and species richness effects in phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Schabhüttl, Stefanie; Hingsamer, Peter; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas; Weigert, Achim; Striebel, Maren

    2013-02-01

    Phytoplankton play an important role as primary producers and thus can affect higher trophic levels. Phytoplankton growth and diversity may, besides other factors, be controlled by seasonal temperature changes and increasing water temperatures. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of temperature and diversity on phytoplankton growth. In a controlled laboratory experiment, monocultures of 15 freshwater phytoplankton taxa (green algae, cyanobacteria, and diatoms) as well as 25 mixed communities of different species richness (2-12 species) and taxa composition were exposed to constant temperatures of 12, 18, and 24 °C. Additionally, they were exposed to short-term daily temperature peaks of +4 °C. Increased species richness had a positive effect on phytoplankton growth rates and phosphorous content at all temperature levels, with maximum values occurring at 18 °C. Overyielding was observed at almost all temperature levels and could mostly be explained by complementary traits. Higher temperatures resulted in higher fractions of cyanobacteria in communities. This negative effect of temperature on phytoplankton diversity following a shift in community composition was most obvious in communities adapted to cooler temperatures, pointing to the assumption that relative temperature changes may be more important than absolute ones.

  13. Phytoplankton Species Richness Increases Marine Primary Productivity through Selection Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermeno, P.

    2016-02-01

    Despite half of global primary production being mediated by the activity of microscopic algae called phytoplankton, the effect of phytoplankton species richness on marine primary productivity lacks a mechanistic understanding. We show that phytoplankton species richness increases the productivity of marine ecosystems through selection effect. Using concurrent measurements of phytoplankton community structure, nitrate fluxes into the euphotic zone and productivity (measured with the 14C-uptake technique) from a temperate coastal ecosystem, we failed to predict observed productivities from monoculture growth models based on extracellular nitrate concentrations, nitrate stores uniquely assigned to rare species or random physiological parameterizations. Observed productivities were best described by a model in which the dominant species of the community approached their maximum productivities at the expense of intracellular nitrate stores. We interpret these results as evidence of species' selection in communities containing a vast repertory. This differs from the positive effect of species richness in terrestrial plants, which is mainly driven by complementarity in resource use among species. The prevalence of selection effect was supported by open ocean data that show an increase in community dominance across a gradient of nutrient availability. These results highlight fundamental differences in the way terrestrial plant communities and marine phytoplankton control resource use and sustain world food stocks. We suggest that the maintenance of phytoplankton species richness is essential to sustain marine primary productivity.

  14. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  15. Large-scale biodiversity patterns in freshwater phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Stomp, Maayke; Huisman, Jef; Mittelbach, Gary G; Litchman, Elena; Klausmeier, Christopher A

    2011-11-01

    Our planet shows striking gradients in the species richness of plants and animals, from high biodiversity in the tropics to low biodiversity in polar and high-mountain regions. Recently, similar patterns have been described for some groups of microorganisms, but the large-scale biogeographical distribution of freshwater phytoplankton diversity is still largely unknown. We examined the species diversity of freshwater phytoplankton sampled from 540 lakes and reservoirs distributed across the continental United States and found strong latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal gradients in phytoplankton biodiversity, demonstrating that microorganisms can show substantial geographic variation in biodiversity. Detailed analysis using structural equation models indicated that these large-scale biodiversity gradients in freshwater phytoplankton diversity were mainly driven by local environmental factors, although there were residual direct effects of latitude, longitude, and altitude as well. Specifically, we found that phytoplankton species richness was an increasing saturating function of lake chlorophyll a concentration, increased with lake surface area and possibly increased with water temperature, resembling effects of productivity, habitat area, and temperature on diversity patterns commonly observed for macroorganisms. In turn, these local environmental factors varied along latitudinal, longitudinal, and altitudinal gradients. These results imply that changes in land use or climate that affect these local environmental factors are likely to have major impacts on large-scale biodiversity patterns of freshwater phytoplankton.

  16. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 μm) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (<5 μm) phytoplankton varied independently of B12 concentrations. These observations were corroborated by field-based nutrient amendment experiments, in which B12 additions stimulated growth of large phytoplankton taxa 6-fold over unamended controls. In contrast, small taxa (<5 μm) were largely unaffected. This study provides the first evidence of vitamin B12's influence on phytoplankton field population dynamics based on direct chemical measurements of cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  17. Physiochemical controls on phytoplankton distributions in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Smith, Walker O.

    2012-06-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, is characterized by extreme seasonal and interannual changes in atmospheric and oceanographic processes, which result in distinct temporal patterns in phytoplankton biomass and assemblage composition. However, the environmental forcing of these variations remains uncertain, especially when a series of correlated variables are considered. Hydrological profiles, dissolved nutrients, particulate matter, and phytoplankton pigments were measured in the southern Ross Sea in austral spring and summer during four years (1996-97, 2003-04, 2004-05, and 2005-06), and a series of multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the causative mechanisms in the control of phytoplankton distributions in the Ross Sea. Our results demonstrate that the significant interannual, seasonal and spatial variability that occurs in the southern Ross Sea in hydrographic and chemical properties is highly correlated with the variability in phytoplankton distributions. Although multiple controlling mechanisms were suggested, mixed layer depths did not appear to be a dominant factor regulating phytoplankton biomass or composition; conversely, we found a significant role of water column temperature in structuring phytoplankton assemblage composition in the southern Ross Sea, in that cooler water strongly selects for Phaeocystis antarctica, which is a dominant control of carbon flux to depth, and thus of substantial biogeochemical importance.

  18. Numerical Simulation of phytoplankton productivity in partially mixed estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.H.; Festa, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady-state model of light-driven phytoplankton productivity and biomass in partially mixed estuaries has been developed. Effects of variations in river flow, suspended sediment concentration, phytoplankton sinking, self-shading and growth rates on distributions of phytoplankton biomass and productivity are investigated. Numerical simulation experiments show that biomass and productivity are particularly sensitive to variations in suspended sediment concentrations typical of natural river sources and to variations in loss rates assumed to be realistic but poorly known for real systems. Changes in the loss rate term within the range of empirical error (such as from dark bottle incubation experiments) cause phytoplankton biomass to change by a factor of two. In estuaries with adequate light penetration in the water column, it could be an advantage for phytoplankton to sink. Species that sink increase their concentration and form a phytoplankton maximum in a way similar to the formation of the estuarine turbidity maximum. When attenuation is severe, however, sinking species have more difficulty in maintaining their population. ?? 1984.

  19. Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Huertas, I Emma; Rouco, Mónica; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-12-07

    Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario.

  20. An automated platform for phytoplankton ecology and aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pomati, Francesco; Jokela, Jukka; Simona, Marco; Veronesi, Mauro; Ibelings, Bas W

    2011-11-15

    High quality monitoring data are vital for tracking and understanding the causes of ecosystem change. We present a potentially powerful approach for phytoplankton and aquatic ecosystem monitoring, based on integration of scanning flow-cytometry for the characterization and counting of algal cells with multiparametric vertical water profiling. This approach affords high-frequency data on phytoplankton abundance, functional traits and diversity, coupled with the characterization of environmental conditions for growth over the vertical structure of a deep water body. Data from a pilot study revealed effects of an environmental disturbance event on the phytoplankton community in Lake Lugano (Switzerland), characterized by a reduction in cytometry-based functional diversity and by a period of cyanobacterial dominance. These changes were missed by traditional limnological methods, employed in parallel to high-frequency monitoring. Modeling of phytoplankton functional diversity revealed the importance of integrated spatiotemporal data, including circadian time-lags and variability over the water column, to understand the drivers of diversity and dynamic processes. The approach described represents progress toward an automated and trait-based analysis of phytoplankton natural communities. Streamlining of high-frequency measurements may represent a resource for understanding, modeling and managing aquatic ecosystems under impact of environmental change, yielding insight into processes governing phytoplankton community resistance and resilience.

  1. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical–ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean−atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes. PMID:25902494

  2. Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, I. Emma; Rouco, Mónica; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario. PMID:21508031

  3. Novel basal, fungal lineages from freshwater phytoplankton and lake samples.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Seiji; Nozaki, Daiki; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Kagami, Maiko

    2015-06-01

    Zoosporic fungal parasites are known to control the extent and development of blooms of numerous phytoplankton species. Despite the obvious importance of ecological interactions between parasitic fungi and their phytoplanktonic hosts, their diversity remains largely unknown due to methodological limitations. Here, a method to genetically analyse fungi directly from single, infected colonies of the phytoplanktonic host was applied to field samples of large diatom species from mesotrophic Lake Biwa and eutrophic Lake Inba, Japan. Although previous research on interaction between lacustrine fungi and large phytoplankton has mainly focused on the role of parasitic Chytridiomycota, our results revealed that fungi attached to large diatoms included not only members of Chytridiomycota, but also members of Aphelida, Cryptomycota and yeast. The fungi belonging to Chytridiomycota and Aphelida form novel, basal lineages. Environmental clone libraries also support the occurrence of these lineages in Japanese lakes. The presented method enables us to better characterize individual fungal specimens on phytoplankton, and thus facilitate and improve the investigation of ecological relationships between fungi and phytoplankton in aquatic ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Links between phytoplankton, CO2 emissions and water properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. P.; Cabeçadas, L.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in seawater chemistry already emerging in Portuguese coastal waters and trends predicted by the end of the century, might cause shifts in current algal communities and alter the structure and biodiversity of coastal ecosystems. May 2002 sampling in Tagus and Sado estuaries adjacent coastal shelf (SW Portugal) was an example of that. This period was characterized by a moderate but persistent upwelling and low Tagus river discharge (46 m3 s-1) favouring a weak plume and elevatedpCO2 values. These conditions strongly influenced the phytoplankton community. The spring bloom occurred at Tagus plume and close to Lisbon Canyon, where large sized phytoplankton, dominated by chain-forming diatoms, reached values up to 1000cells ml-1, while dinoflagellates reached a local peak over the canyon (>20 cells ml-1). Spatially differentiated from the main phytoplankton bloom, a development of the intermediate sized species Coccolithus braarudii (up to 60 cells ml-1) occurred, associated with the thermally stratified water-mass localised in Tagus Bay. While diatoms proliferated throughout turbulent waters, coccolithophores developed under more stable conditions, being not directly affected by anthropogenic inputs and associated with relatively low nutrient levels. The same trend was also observed for the small sized phytoplankton, which abundance (>106 cells ml-1) increased from inshore to the deeper surface mixed layer offshore where light was dimmer and nutrient concentrations lower. The small sized phytoplankton was made up of cyanobacteria Synechococcus-like and eukaryotes reaching, respectively, 721 and 466 cells ml-1. Regarding the relative importance of each phytoplankton size group in terms of carbon, cocolithophores and small sized phytoplankton represented, respectively, 2% and 0.2% of the total phytoplankton biomass. Despite the low percentage in terms of particulate organic carbon, cocolithophores played an important role in terms of CaCO3 and CO2. It was

  5. Seabird guano enhances phytoplankton production in the Southern Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatova, Olga; Wing, Stephen; Hoffmann, Linn; Jack, Lucy; Gault-Ringold, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Great congregations of seabirds in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic coastal areas result in delivery of nutrient-rich guano to marine ecosystems that potentially enhances productivity and supports biodiversity in the region. Guano-derived bio-available micronutrients and macronutrients might be utilized by marine phytoplankton for photosynthetic production, however, mechanisms and significance of guano fertilization in the Southern Ocean are largely understudied. Over austral summers of 2012 and 2013 we performed a series of guano-enrichment phytoplankton incubation experiments with water samples collected from three different water masses in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic waters of the Ross sea and sub-Antarctic waters offshore the Otago Peninsula, both showing iron limitation of phytoplankton productivity in summer, and in the subtropical frontal zone offshore from the Snares Islands, which is generally micronutrient-repleted. Samples were enriched with known concentrations of guano-derived nutrients. Phytoplankton biomass increased significantly in guano-treated samples during all three incubation experiments (7-10 fold increase), while remained low in control samples. This response indicates that seabird guano provides nutrients that limit primary production in the Southern Ocean and that these nutrients are readily taken up by phytoplankton. Guano additions were compared to Fe and Macronutrient treatments (both added in quantities similar to those in the guano treatment). Phytoplankton biomass increased significantly in response to the Macronutrient treatment in the subtropical frontal zone, however, the response had a smaller magnitude compared to the guano treatment (2.8 µgL-1 vs 5.2 µgL-1) ; there was no significant effect of Fe on phytoplankton growth. This suggests the potential importance of synergistic effects of nutrients in guano. Incubation with sub-Antarctic waters showed that Fe and Macronutrients might be equally important for enhancement of

  6. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses.

    PubMed

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J; Bidle, Kay D; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-05-26

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host-virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host-virus "arms race" during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean.

  7. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  8. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  9. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  10. Emergent neutrality drives phytoplankton species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Angel M.; Calliari, Danilo; Kruk, Carla; Conde, Daniel; Bonilla, Sylvia; Fort, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that drive species coexistence and community dynamics have long puzzled ecologists. Here, we explain species coexistence, size structure and diversity patterns in a phytoplankton community using a combination of four fundamental factors: organism traits, size-based constraints, hydrology and species competition. Using a ‘microscopic’ Lotka–Volterra competition (MLVC) model (i.e. with explicit recipes to compute its parameters), we provide a mechanistic explanation of species coexistence along a niche axis (i.e. organismic volume). We based our model on empirically measured quantities, minimal ecological assumptions and stochastic processes. In nature, we found aggregated patterns of species biovolume (i.e. clumps) along the volume axis and a peak in species richness. Both patterns were reproduced by the MLVC model. Observed clumps corresponded to niche zones (volumes) where species fitness was highest, or where fitness was equal among competing species. The latter implies the action of equalizing processes, which would suggest emergent neutrality as a plausible mechanism to explain community patterns. PMID:21177680

  11. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  12. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  13. Remote sensing observations of phytoplankton increases triggered by successive typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Jiayi; Devlin, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Phytoplankton blooms in the Western North Pacific, triggered by two successive typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds under different pre-existing oceanic conditions, were observed and analyzed using remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data, as well as typhoon parameters and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) profiles. Typhoon Sinlaku, with relatively weaker intensity and slower translation speed, induced a stronger phytoplankton bloom than Jangmi with stronger intensity and faster translation speed (Chl-a>0.18 mg•m‒3 versus Chla<0.15 mg•m‒3) east of Taiwan Island. Translation speed may be one of the important mechanisms that affect phytoplankton blooms in the study area. Pre-existing cyclonic circulations provided a relatively unstable thermodynamic structure for Sinlaku, and therefore cold water with rich nutrients could be brought up easily. The mixed-layer deepening caused by Typhoon Sinlaku, which occurred first, could have triggered an unfavorable condition for the phytoplankton bloom induced by Typhoon Jangmi which followed afterwards. The sea surface temperature cooling by Jangmi was suppressed due to the presence of the thick upper-ocean mixed-layer, which prevented the deeper cold water from being entrained into the upper-ocean mixed layer, leading to a weaker phytoplankton augment. The present study suggests that both wind (including typhoon translation speed and intensity) and pre-existing conditions (e.g., mixedlayer depths, eddies, and nutrients) play important roles in the strong phytoplankton bloom, and are responsible for the stronger phytoplankton bloom after Sinlaku's passage than that after Jangmi's passage. A new typhooninfluencing parameter is introduced that combines the effects of the typhoon forcing (including the typhoon intensity and translation speed) and the oceanic precondition. This parameter shows that the forcing effect of

  14. Phosphorus physiological ecology and molecular mechanisms in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Litaker, Richard Wayne; Sunda, William G

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and indeed all life forms. Current data show that P availability is growth-limiting in certain marine systems and can impact algal species composition. Available P occurs in marine waters as dissolved inorganic phosphate (primarily orthophosphate [Pi]) or as a myriad of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds. Despite numerous studies on P physiology and ecology and increasing research on genomics in marine phytoplankton, there have been few attempts to synthesize information from these different disciplines. This paper is aimed to integrate the physiological and molecular information on the acquisition, utilization, and storage of P in marine phytoplankton and the strategies used by these organisms to acclimate and adapt to variations in P availability. Where applicable, we attempt to identify gaps in our current knowledge that warrant further research and examine possible metabolic pathways that might occur in phytoplankton from well-studied bacterial models. Physical and chemical limitations governing cellular P uptake are explored along with physiological and molecular mechanisms to adapt and acclimate to temporally and spatially varying P nutrient regimes. Topics covered include cellular Pi uptake and feedback regulation of uptake systems, enzymatic utilization of DOP, P acquisition by phagotrophy, P-limitation of phytoplankton growth in oceanic and coastal waters, and the role of P-limitation in regulating cell size and toxin levels in phytoplankton. Finally, we examine the role of P and other nutrients in the transition of phytoplankton communities from early succession species (diatoms) to late succession ones (e.g., dinoflagellates and haptophytes).

  15. Phytoplankton community ecology: Principles applied in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Dufford, R.

    2005-01-01

    In his seminal 1961 paper 'The paradox of the plankton' Am Nat 95:137-147, G. E. Hutchinson asked why many species of phytoplankton can coexist while competing for a small number of limiting resources in an unstructured habitat. Hutchinson anticipated the resolution of his paradox, recognizing that communities are organized by processes beyond resource competition including species interactions, habitat variability and dispersal. Since 1961 we have made fundamental discoveries that have revolutionized our conceptual understanding of pelagic ecology, including (1) habitat heterogeneity at all scales relevant to plankton population dynamics, (2) community shifts in response to global climate cycles, (3) fast and selective predation as a powerful top-down force to shape phytoplankton communities, (4) turbulent mixing as a physical process that selects species on the basis of their size and form, (5) mixotrophy that allows some algal species to tap organic nutrient pools and function at multiple trophic levels, (6) taxon-specific life cycles including alternating vegetative and resting stages, and (7) the pelagic as an open system where communities are continually reshaped by species immigration. Here we synthesize these discoveries to show how they validate and amplify Hutchinson's hypothesis that phytoplankton communities are assembled by many processes. Our synthesis is built around observations of phytoplankton species composition from a decade of study in San Francisco Bay, used as a case study to illustrate the contemporary principles of phytoplankton community ecology. We apply these principles to address 2 central questions: (1) What processes assemble phytoplankton communities? (2) How does phytoplankton community composition influence ecosystem functions such as production in pelagic and benthic food webs?

  16. Dynamics of living phytoplankton: Implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Phytoplankton is the dominant primary producer in aquatic ecosystems and is considered a gauge of ecological condition and change. Some phytoplankton groups, namely diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophores, produce morphological or chemical fossils that can be used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to review the processes that regulate dynamics in living phytoplankton and to highlight how this knowledge is used in paleoecological studies. The distribution patterns of phytoplankton in present-day aquatic ecosystems are shaped by the interplay between processes that regulate cell growth and cell death. Cell growth and cell death are regulated by the internal environment of phytoplankton (e.g., specific environmental tolerances, resource uptake properties, cell size, density and morphology, alternative nutritional strategies such as mixotrophy or N2 uptake, motility, intracellular storage capacities, grazing resistance properties), and by its external environment. The external environment includes variables dependent on the availability of resources (e.g., light intensity, concentration of CO2 and dissolved inorganic macronutrients and micronutrients, availability of living prey in case of mixotrophs) and variables independent of resources (e.g., temperature, salinity, turbulence, ultraviolet radiation, bioactive compounds, activity of grazers, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites). The importance of recently described loss processes, such as grazing by phagotrophic protists, viral lyses, and programmed cell death, is discussed in the context of its potential impact upon phytoplankton vertical fluxes. Examples of the use of different phytoplankton metrics (e.g. abundance, species composition, species morphology, and elemental composition) to infer contemporaneous as well as past environmental and ecological conditions are critically evaluated.

  17. Algorithm development for predicting biodiversity based on phytoplankton absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Moisan, John R.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.; Steinhardt, Rachel A.

    2013-03-01

    Ocean color remote sensing has provided the scientific community with unprecedented global coverage of chlorophyll a, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass. Together, satellite-derived chlorophyll a and knowledge of Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) will improve our limited understanding of marine ecosystem responses to physiochemical climate drivers involved in carbon cycle dynamics and linkages. Using cruise data from the Gulf of Maine and the Middle Atlantic Bight (N=269 pairs of HPLC and phytoplankton absorption samples), two modeling approaches were utilized to predict phytoplankton absorption and pigments. Algorithm I predicts the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient (aph* (m2 mg chl a-1)) using inputs of temperature, light, and chlorophyll a. Modeled r2 values (400-700 nm) ranged from 0.79 to 0.99 when compared to in situ observations with ˜25% lower r2 values in the UV region. Algorithm II-a utilizes matrix inversion analysis to predict a(m-1, 400-700 nm) and r2 values ranged from 0.89 to 0.99. The prediction of phytoplankton pigments with Algorithm II-b produced r2 values that ranged from 0.40 to 0.93. When used in combination, Algorithm I, and Algorithm II-a are able to use satellite products of SST, PAR, and chlorophyll a (Algorithm I) to predict pigment concentrations and ratios to describe the phytoplankton community. The results of this study demonstrate that the spatial variation in modeled pigment ratios differ significantly from the 10-year SeaWiFS average chlorophyll a data set. Contiguous observations of chlorophyll a and phytoplankton biodiversity will elucidate ecosystem responses with unprecedented complexity.

  18. Identifying Phytoplankton Classes In California Reservoirs Using HPLC Pigment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, S.; Peacock, M. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.

    2014-12-01

    Few bodies of water are routinely monitored for phytoplankton composition due to monetary and time constraints, especially the less accessible bodies of water in central and southern California. These lakes and estuaries are important for economic reasons such as tourism and fishing. This project investigated the composition of phytoplankton present using pigment analysis to identify dominant phytoplankton groups. A total of 28 different sites with a wide range of salinity (0 - 60) in central and southern California were examined. These included 13 different bodies of water in central California: 6 in the Sierras, 7 in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, and 15 from southern California. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the pigments present (using retention time and the spectral thumbprint). Diagnostic pigments were used to indicate the phytoplankton class composition, focusing on diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria - all key phytoplankton groups indicative of the health of the sampled reservoir. Our results indicated that cyanobacteria dominated four of the seven bodies of central California water (Mono Lake, Bridgeport Reservoir, Steamboat Slough, and Pinto Lake); cryptophytes and nannoflagellates dominated two of the central California bodies of water (Mare Island Strait and Topaz Lake); and diatoms and dinoflagellates dominated one central California body of water, Oakland Inner Harbor, comprising more than 70% of the phytoplankton present. We expect the bodies of water from Southern California to be as disparate. Though this data is only a snapshot, it has significant implications in comparing different ecosystems across California, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight into the composition of phytoplankton communities.

  19. Phytoplankton Assemblage Patterns in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Carla; Moisan, Tiffany A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Wallops Coastal Oceans Observing Laboratory (Wa-COOL) Project, we sampled a time-series transect in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) biweekly. Our 2-year time-series data included physical parameters, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations. A detailed phytoplankton assemblage structure was examined in the second year. During the 2-year study, chlorophyll a concentration (and ocean color satellite imagery) indicated that phytoplankton blooms occurred in January/February during mixing conditions and in early autumn under stratified conditions. The chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.25 microgram 1(exp -1) to 15.49 microgram 1(exp -1) during the 2-year period. We were able to discriminate approximately 116 different species under phase contrast microscopy. Dominant phytoplankton included Skeletonema costatum, Rhizosolenia spp., and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. In an attempt to determine phytoplankton species competition/succession within the assemblage, we calculated a Shannon Weaver diversity index for our diatom microscopy data. Diatom diversity was greatest during the winter and minimal during the spring. Diatom diversity was also greater at nearshore stations than at offshore stations. Individual genera appeared patchy, with surface and subsurface patches appearing abruptly and persisting for only 1-2 months at a time. The distribution of individual species differed significantly from bulk variables of the assemblage (chlorophyll a ) and total phytoplankton assemblage (cells), which indicates that phytoplankton species may be limited in growth in ways that differ from those of the total assemblage. Our study demonstrated a highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage throughout the year, with opportunistic species dominating during spring and fall in response to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients in the southern MAB.

  20. Interactions between specific phytoplankton and bacteria affect lake bacterial community succession.

    PubMed

    Paver, Sara F; Hayek, Kevin R; Gano, Kelsey A; Fagen, Jennie R; Brown, Christopher T; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Crabb, David B; Rosario-Passapera, Richard; Giongo, Adriana; Triplett, Eric W; Kent, Angela D

    2013-09-01

    Time-series observations and a phytoplankton manipulation experiment were combined to test the hypothesis that phytoplankton succession effects changes in bacterial community composition. Three humic lakes were sampled weekly May-August and correlations between relative abundances of specific phytoplankton and bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in each time series were determined. To experimentally characterize the influence of phytoplankton, bacteria from each lake were incubated with phytoplankton from one of the three lakes or no phytoplankton. Following incubation, variation in bacterial community composition explained by phytoplankton treatment increased 65%, while the variation explained by bacterial source decreased 64%. Free-living bacteria explained, on average, over 60% of the difference between phytoplankton and corresponding no-phytoplankton control treatments. Fourteen out of the 101 bacterial OTUs that exhibited positively correlated patterns of abundance with specific algal populations in time-series observations were enriched in mesocosms following incubation with phytoplankton, and one out of 59 negatively correlated bacterial OTUs was depleted in phytoplankton treatments. Bacterial genera enriched in mesocosms containing specific phytoplankton assemblages included Limnohabitans (clade betI-A), Bdellovibrio and Mitsuaria. These results suggest that effects of phytoplankton on certain bacterial populations, including bacteria tracking seasonal changes in algal-derived organic matter, result in correlations between algal and bacterial community dynamics.

  1. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  2. Phytoplankton and eutrophication degree assessment of Baiyangdian Lake wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Lusan; Shu, Jianmin; Zhu, Yanzhong; Zhou, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Eight typical sampling sites were chosen to investigate the phytoplankton community structure and to assess the eutrophication degree of Baiyangdian Lake in 2009. Our results showed that among the total 133 species identified, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta dominated the phytoplankton community. In spring, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were the dominant phyla, and the dominant species included Chlorella sp., Chroomonas acuta Uterm., and Microcystis incerta Lemm.; the density of the phytoplankton ranged from 496 × 10(4) to 6256 × 10(4) cells/L with an average of 2384 × 10(4) cells/L. However, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta became the dominant phyla in summer, and the dominant species were Chlorella sp., Leptolyngbya valderiana Anagn., and Nephrocytium agardhianum Nageli.; the density of the phytoplankton varied from 318 × 10(4) to 4630 × 10(4) cells/L with an average of 1785 × 10(4) cells/L. The density of the phytoplankton has increased significantly compared to the previous investigations in 2005. The index of Carlson nutritional status (TSIM) and the dominant genus assessment indicated that the majority of Baiyangdian Lake was in eutrophic state.

  3. Phytoplankton community of Reis Lake in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise G; Moura, Ariadne N; Dantas, Enio W

    2013-01-01

    Reis Lake is located in the municipality of Caracaraí, state of Roraima (Brazil) and is subject to fluctuations in water level. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of the phytoplankton community on the nictemeral and seasonal scales and determined the influence of limnological variables. Sampling was performed in the rainy season (June/2006) and dry season (November/2006), considering two nictemeral cycles. The phytoplankton community was assessed with regard to composition and density, abiotic variables were analyzed simultaneously. The lake had low concentrations of oxygen, clinograde profile and water stratified during the day and homogenous at night, with low concentrations of nutrients and waters ranging from slightly acidic to alkaline. The phytoplankton was represented by 43 taxa, 35 species in the dry season and 29 species in the rainy season. Low densities of phytoplankton occurred in both nictemeral cycles, with accentuated vertical gradient. The highest densities were recorded in the dry season. Reis Lake exhibits characteristics that classify it as a polymythic and oligotrophic environment. The variability in the data was more important seasonally than on the nictemeral scale, supporting the hypothesis of the influence of the hydrological cycle on the dynamics of phytoplankton communities in floodplain lakes.

  4. Phytoplankton and Eutrophication Degree Assessment of Baiyangdian Lake Wetland, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Lusan; Shu, Jianmin; Zhu, Yanzhong; Zhou, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Eight typical sampling sites were chosen to investigate the phytoplankton community structure and to assess the eutrophication degree of Baiyangdian Lake in 2009. Our results showed that among the total 133 species identified, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta dominated the phytoplankton community. In spring, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were the dominant phyla, and the dominant species included Chlorella sp., Chroomonas acuta Uterm., and Microcystis incerta Lemm.; the density of the phytoplankton ranged from 496 × 104 to 6256 × 104 cells/L with an average of 2384 × 104 cells/L. However, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta became the dominant phyla in summer, and the dominant species were Chlorella sp., Leptolyngbya valderiana Anagn., and Nephrocytium agardhianum Nageli.; the density of the phytoplankton varied from 318 × 104 to 4630 × 104 cells/L with an average of 1785 × 104 cells/L. The density of the phytoplankton has increased significantly compared to the previous investigations in 2005. The index of Carlson nutritional status (TSIM) and the dominant genus assessment indicated that the majority of Baiyangdian Lake was in eutrophic state. PMID:23983633

  5. Evolutionary potential of marine phytoplankton under ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sinéad; Rost, Björn; Rynearson, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton have many obvious characters, such as rapid cell division rates and large population sizes, that give them the capacity to evolve in response to global change on timescales of weeks, months or decades. However, few studies directly investigate if this adaptive potential is likely to be realized. Because of this, evidence of to whether and how marine phytoplankton may evolve in response to global change is sparse. Here, we review studies that help predict evolutionary responses to global change in marine phytoplankton. We find limited support from experimental evolution that some taxa of marine phytoplankton may adapt to ocean acidification, and strong indications from studies of variation and structure in natural populations that selection on standing genetic variation is likely. Furthermore, we highlight the large body of literature on plastic responses to ocean acidification available, and evolutionary theory that may be used to link plastic and evolutionary responses. Because of the taxonomic breadth spanned by marine phytoplankton, and the diversity of roles they fill in ocean ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, we stress the necessity of treating taxa or functional groups individually. PMID:24454553

  6. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  7. Phytoplankton assemblages in lateral lagoons of a large tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to analyse the composition and ecological attributes of the phytoplankton assemblages in four lateral lagoons and in the main channel of Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, SE Brazil). Fieldwork was carried out in September and November/2004 and January, March, May and August/2005. A total of 283 taxa was identified. Zygnemaphyta was the most specious group, followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Higher richness, abundance and biomass were observed in the lagoons when compared with the river-reservoir sampling point, especially during the rainy period. Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae dominated numerically. Cryptomonas brasiliensis Castro, Bicudo and Bicudo was the main species of the phytoplankton in terms of abundance and frequency of occurrence. The dynamics of the most important taxa are discussed and the results showed that the phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by meteorological factors and nutrient availability (the main driving forces). Correlation analyses indicated that the assemblage abundance was limited by nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus). The phytoplankton abundance influenced positively the zooplankton abundance, what indicates the prevalence of bottom-up control routes in the lateral lagoons system. The results validate the hypotheses that lateral lagoons have a prominent ecological role on the phytoplankton diversity, as already previously demonstrated for fish and zooplankton. Therefore, the incorporation of the lateral lagoons in environmental programmes should be a target strategy for the conservation of the regional aquatic biota, minimising the negative impact of the dam.

  8. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Mincer, Tracy J.; Aicher, Athena C.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8–13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09–0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world’s oceans. PMID:26963515

  9. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2-5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11-1.60 d(-1)), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15-1.29 d(-1)), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres.

  10. Rapid evolution of metabolic traits explains thermal adaptation in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Padfield, Daniel; Yvon-Durocher, Genevieve; Buckling, Angus; Jennings, Simon; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel

    2015-11-26

    Understanding the mechanisms that determine how phytoplankton adapt to warming will substantially improve the realism of models describing ecological and biogeochemical effects of climate change. Here, we quantify the evolution of elevated thermal tolerance in the phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris. Initially, population growth was limited at higher temperatures because respiration was more sensitive to temperature than photosynthesis meaning less carbon was available for growth. Tolerance to high temperature evolved after ≈ 100 generations via greater down-regulation of respiration relative to photosynthesis. By down-regulating respiration, phytoplankton overcame the metabolic constraint imposed by the greater temperature sensitivity of respiration and more efficiently allocated fixed carbon to growth. Rapid evolution of carbon-use efficiency provides a potentially general mechanism for thermal adaptation in phytoplankton and implies that evolutionary responses in phytoplankton will modify biogeochemical cycles and hence food web structure and function under warming. Models of climate futures that ignore adaptation would usefully be revisited. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Phytoplankton productivity in a turbid buoyant coastal plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Oscar; Moline, Mark; Cahill, Brownyn; Frazer, Thomas; Kahl, Alex; Oliver, Matthew; Reinfelder, John; Glenn, Scott; Chant, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The complex dynamics associated with coastal buoyant plumes make it difficult to document the interactions between light availability, phytoplankton carbon fixation, and biomass accumulation. Using real-time data, provided by satellites and high frequency radar, we adaptively sampled a low salinity parcel of water that was exported from the Hudson river estuary in April 2005. The water was characterized by high nutrients and high chlorophyll concentrations. The majority of the low salinity water was re-circulated within a nearshore surface feature for 5 days during which nitrate concentrations dropped 7-fold, the maximum quantum yield for photosynthesis dropped 10-fold, and primary productivity rates decreased 5-fold. Associated with the decline in nitrate was an increase in phytoplankton biomass. The phytoplankton combined with the Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and non-algal particles attenuated the light so the 1% light level ranged between 3 and 10m depending on the age of the plume water. As the plume was 10-15m thick, the majority of the phytoplankton were light-limited. Vertical mixing within the plume was high as indicated by the dispersion of injected of rhodamine dye. The mixing within the buoyant plume was more rapid than phytoplankton photoacclimation processes. Mixing rates within the plume was the critical factor determining overall productivity rates within the turbid plume.

  12. Iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Barber, Richard T.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Fitzwateri, Steve E.; Greene, Richard M.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Lindley, Steven; Falkowski, Paul G.

    1994-09-01

    THE surface waters of the equatorial Pacific have unusually high nitrate and phosphate concentrations, but relatively low phyto-plankton biomass1-3. This 'high nitrate, low chlorophyll' (HNLC)4 phenomenon has been ascribed to 'top-down' grazing pressure by herbivores, which prevent the phytoplankton from fully utilizing the available nutrients5. In the late 1980s, however, Martin and co-workers proposed that iron, which is delivered to the remote open ocean in aeolean dust6, is the key factor limiting the standing crop of phytoplankton in HNLC areas7,8. Using a sensitive fluor-escence method9, we have followed changes in photochemical energy conversion efficiency9-10 of the natural phytoplankton com-munity both before and after artificial enrichment with iron of a small area (7.5 x 7.5 km) of the equatorial Pacific Ocean11. Our results show that iron limits phytoplankton photosynthesis in all size classes in this region by impairing intrinsic photochemical energy conversion, thereby supporting the hypothesis of physiologi-cal ('bottom up') limitation by this element.

  13. Climate Change Effects on Iron Availability to Arctic Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Maria Teresa; Li, Jingxuan; Semeniuk, David; Schuback, Nina; Hoppe, Clara; AWI/UBC Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Phytoplankton, unicellular algae, are responsible for 50% of earth's photosynthesis, and for a significant consumption of atmospheric CO2. Iron (Fe) is essential for phytoplankton, but is extremely depleted in seawater, limiting photosynthesis in 30% of the global ocean. Oceanic Fe bioavailability is determined by physical and chemical processes. The Arctic Ocean is experiencing the greatest decrease in seawater pH (termed ocean acidification). Simultaneously, ice retreat is promoting higher light intensity in Arctic Ocean. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification and high light on Fe availability to Arctic phytoplankton. Iron uptake rates by plankton, using the radionuclide 55Fe, were used as a proxy for Fe bioavailability. In an Arctic summer research cruise, we measured Fe uptake by two phytoplankton populations subjected to two light levels, as well as present CO2 levels (400ppm) or those expected by 2100 (1100 ppm). Our results demonstrated that high CO2 decreases Fe availability, while high light increases it, suggesting that future Fe bioavailability might be similar to present day. However, the detrimental effects of high CO2 were more pronounced in the plankton population exposed to higher seawater temperature. Future studies should investigate the interaction among light, CO2 and temperature on the Fe physiology of Arctic phytoplankton.

  14. Saccharides enhance iron bioavailability to Southern Ocean phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Hassler, Christel S.; Nichols, Carol Mancuso; Butler, Edward C. V.; Boyd, Philip W.

    2011-01-01

    Iron limits primary productivity in vast regions of the ocean. Given that marine phytoplankton contribute up to 40% of global biological carbon fixation, it is important to understand what parameters control the availability of iron (iron bioavailability) to these organisms. Most studies on iron bioavailability have focused on the role of siderophores; however, eukaryotic phytoplankton do not produce or release siderophores. Here, we report on the pivotal role of saccharides—which may act like an organic ligand—in enhancing iron bioavailability to a Southern Ocean cultured diatom, a prymnesiophyte, as well as to natural populations of eukaryotic phytoplankton. Addition of a monosaccharide (>2 nM of glucuronic acid, GLU) to natural planktonic assemblages from both the polar front and subantarctic zones resulted in an increase in iron bioavailability for eukaryotic phytoplankton, relative to bacterioplankton. The enhanced iron bioavailability observed for several groups of eukaryotic phytoplankton (i.e., cultured and natural populations) using three saccharides, suggests it is a common phenomenon. Increased iron bioavailability resulted from the combination of saccharides forming highly bioavailable organic associations with iron and increasing iron solubility, mainly as colloidal iron. As saccharides are ubiquitous, present at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations, and produced by biota in surface waters, they also satisfy the prerequisites to be important constituents of the poorly defined “ligand soup,” known to weakly bind iron. Our findings point to an additional type of organic ligand, controlling iron bioavailability to eukaryotic phytoplankton—a key unknown in iron biogeochemistry. PMID:21169217

  15. Phytoplankton Growth and Microzooplankton Grazing in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2–5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11–1.60 d−1), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15–1.29 d−1), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres. PMID:23935946

  16. Iron, phytoplankton growth, and the carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Street, Joseph H; Paytan, Adina

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. Iron is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and of several photosynthetic electron transport proteins and for the reduction of CO2, SO4(2-), and NO3(-) during the photosynthetic production of organic compounds. Iron concentrations in vast areas of the ocean are very low (<1 nM) due to the low solubility of iron in oxic seawater. Low iron concentrations have been shown to limit primary production rates, biomass accumulation, and ecosystem structure in a variety of open-ocean environments, including the equatorial Pacific, the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean and even in some coastal areas. Oceanic primary production, the transfer of carbon dioxide into organic carbon by photosynthetic plankton (phytoplankton), is one process by which atmospheric CO2 can be transferred to the deep ocean and sequestered for long periods of time. Accordingly, iron limitation of primary producers likely plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. It has been suggested that variations in oceanic primary productivity, spurred by changes in the deposition of iron in atmospheric dust, control atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and hence global climate, over glacial-interglacial timescales. A contemporary application of this "iron hypothesis" promotes the large-scale iron fertilization of ocean regions as a means of enhancing the ability of the ocean to store anthropogenic CO2 and mitigate 21st century climate change. Recent in situ iron enrichment experiments in the HNLC regions, however, cast doubt on the efficacy and advisability of iron fertilization schemes. The experiments have confirmed the role of iron in regulating primary productivity, but resulted in only small carbon export fluxes to the depths necessary for long-term sequestration. Above all, these experiments and other studies of iron biogeochemistry over the last two decades have begun to illustrate the great complexity of the ocean system. Attempts to

  17. Phytoplankton Temperature Adaptation: Upstream or Local Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, E.; Hellweger, F. L.; Calfee, B. C.; Chandler, J. W.; Zinser, E. R.; Fredrick, N. D.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeography studies that aim to understand the role of environmental variables are typically based on local conditions. However, in cases with substantial translocation, like for planktonic organisms carried by ocean currents, selection may happen upstream and the local environmental factors may not be representative of those that shaped the local population. Here we use an agent-based model of microbes in the global surface ocean to explore this effect for temperature. We simulate up to 25 million individual cells belonging to up to 50 species with different temperature optima. Microbes are moved around the globe based on a hydrodynamic model, and grow and die based on local temperature. The optimum temperature at each location and time is defined as the optimum temperature of the most abundant species. This allows us to quantify the role of currents using the "advective temperature differential" metric, which is the optimum temperature of the model with advection minus that from the model without advection. Our results suggest that the differential depends on the location and growth rate. Poleward-flowing currents, like the Gulf Stream, generally experience cooling and the differential is positive. For slow-growing microbes like heterotrophic bacteria, the differential can be up to 4 °C in these areas. In other words, ignoring currents introduces an error of up to 4 °C in a biogeographic analysis. We compare our model to observations of optimum growth temperature for phytoplankton. Accounting for the effect of currents leads to a slightly better agreement with observations, but there is large variability in the observations and the improvement is not statistically significant. Image Description: Advective temperature differential (DTopt) across the global ocean, defined as the difference between optimum temperatures from simulation with and without advective transport. Population average growth rate = 0.14/d.

  18. Estimating phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.; Kolber, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthesis can be described by target theory, At low photon flux densities, photosynthesis is a linear function of irradiance (I), The number of reaction centers (n), their effective absorption capture cross section {sigma}, and a quantum yield {phi}. As photosynthesis becomes increasingly light saturated, an increased fraction of reaction centers close. At light saturation the maximum photosynthetic rate is given as the product of the number of reaction centers (n) and their maximum electron transport rate (I/{tau}). Using active fluorometry it is possible to measure non-destructively and in real time the fraction of open or closed reaction centers under ambient irradiance conditions in situ, as well as {sigma} and {phi} {tau} can be readily, calculated from knowledge of the light saturation parameter, I{sub k} (which can be deduced by in situ by active fluorescence measurements) and {sigma}. We built a pump and probe fluorometer, which is interfaced with a CTD. The instrument measures the fluorescence yield of a weak probe flash preceding (f{sub 0}) and succeeding (f{sub 0}) a saturating pump flash. Profiles of the these fluorescence yields are used to derive the instantaneous rate of gross photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton communities without any incubation. Correlations with short-term simulated in situ radiocarbon measurements are extremely high. The average slope between photosynthesis derived from fluorescence and that measured by radiocarbon is 1.15 and corresponds to the average photosynthetic quotient. The intercept is about 15% of the maximum radiocarbon uptake and corresponds to the average net community respiration. Profiles of photosynthesis and sections showing the variability in its composite parameters reveal a significant effect of nutrient availability on biomass specific rates of photosynthesis in the ocean.

  19. Estimating phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.; Kolber, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Photosynthesis can be described by target theory, At low photon flux densities, photosynthesis is a linear function of irradiance (I), The number of reaction centers (n), their effective absorption capture cross section {sigma}, and a quantum yield {phi}. As photosynthesis becomes increasingly light saturated, an increased fraction of reaction centers close. At light saturation the maximum photosynthetic rate is given as the product of the number of reaction centers (n) and their maximum electron transport rate (I/{tau}). Using active fluorometry it is possible to measure non-destructively and in real time the fraction of open or closed reaction centers under ambient irradiance conditions in situ, as well as {sigma} and {phi} {tau} can be readily, calculated from knowledge of the light saturation parameter, I{sub k} (which can be deduced by in situ by active fluorescence measurements) and {sigma}. We built a pump and probe fluorometer, which is interfaced with a CTD. The instrument measures the fluorescence yield of a weak probe flash preceding (f{sub 0}) and succeeding (f{sub 0}) a saturating pump flash. Profiles of the these fluorescence yields are used to derive the instantaneous rate of gross photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton communities without any incubation. Correlations with short-term simulated in situ radiocarbon measurements are extremely high. The average slope between photosynthesis derived from fluorescence and that measured by radiocarbon is 1.15 and corresponds to the average photosynthetic quotient. The intercept is about 15% of the maximum radiocarbon uptake and corresponds to the average net community respiration. Profiles of photosynthesis and sections showing the variability in its composite parameters reveal a significant effect of nutrient availability on biomass specific rates of photosynthesis in the ocean.

  20. Phytoplankton Community Structure, Biomass and Diversity on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton communities on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) respond to nutrient loading from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB). Enhanced phytoplankton biomass is a source of organic matter contributing to the development of seasonal hypoxia. Samples were ...

  1. REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENTS IN THE PAMLICO SOUND, NC USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of phytoplankton concentrations in estuarine environments is important for managing both recreational and commercial fishery resources. Impacts on estuarine areas from phytoplankton blooms include neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; fish, bird, and vegetation kills; and p...

  2. Phytoplankton Community Structure, Biomass and Diversity on the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton communities on the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) respond to nutrient loading from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB). Enhanced phytoplankton biomass is a source of organic matter contributing to the development of seasonal hypoxia. Samples were ...

  3. REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENTS IN THE PAMLICO SOUND, NC USING HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of phytoplankton concentrations in estuarine environments is important for managing both recreational and commercial fishery resources. Impacts on estuarine areas from phytoplankton blooms include neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; fish, bird, and vegetation kills; and p...

  4. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-10-03

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk.

  5. Diversity of coastal phytoplankton assemblages - Cross ecosystem comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olli, Kalle; Paerl, Hans W.; Klais, Riina

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton plays a massively important role in the oceanic carbon cycling and biogeochemistry. Despite its far-reaching importance, regional cross-ecosystem comparisons remain incomplete because the data sets are often scattered and fragmented. Here we compiled and harmonized decadal scale phytoplankton monitoring data sets from seven geographic regions of the world ocean, covering ca 45 thousand quantitative samples from European, North- and South American coastal waters. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed clear regional clustering of sampling locations, both when using compositional relatedness or phylogenetic turnover of communities. Compositional and phylogenetic relatedness of phytoplankton communities had a strong correlation with salinity and temperature gradients (R2 = 0.6-0.8). The regional taxon richness (S) varied by almost an order of magnitude, and scaled with the ecosystem size (A) according to a power law: S = 62 × A0.35. The compositional turnover of species (beta-diversity) was also positively related to ecosystem size, but also to mean regional salinity.

  6. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tubay, Jerrold M.; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P.; Casareto, Beatriz E.; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk. PMID:24089056

  7. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and wind forcing off central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Barksdale, Brett

    1991-01-01

    Mesoscale variability in phytoplankton pigment distributions of central California during the spring-summer upwelling season are studied via a 4-yr time series of high-resolution coastal zone color scanner imagery. Empirical orthogonal functions are used to decompose the time series of spatial images into its dominant modes of variability. The coupling between wind forcing of the upper ocean and phytoplankton distribution on mesoscales is investigated. Wind forcing, in particular the curl of the wind stress, was found to play an important role in the distribution of phytoplankton pigment in the California Current. The spring transition varies in timing and intensity from year to year but appears to be a recurrent feature associated with the rapid onset of the upwelling-favorable winds. Although the underlying dynamics may be dominated by processes other than forcing by wind stress curl, it appears that curl may force the variability of the filaments and hence the pigment patterns.

  8. Phytoplankton photocompensation from space-based fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, J. Ruairidh; Goodwin, Deborah S.

    2010-03-01

    Recent satellite-derived observations linked global scale phytoplankton fluorescence variability with iron stress and hinted at photophysiological responses associated with changing light levels. These photocompensation reactions, the sum of photoacclimation and photoadaptation, were examined with climatological data for the Gulf of Maine. Significant seasonal variability was observed in the fluorescence quantum yield that was unrelated to patterns of biomass. Up to 89% of the variability in the fluorescence quantum yield was explained by a physiology-based photocompensation model. Spatial variability in seasonal patterns was associated with differing hydrodynamic regimes. This variability in the quantum yield demonstrates that satellite-based fluorescence is inappropriate for phytoplankton biomass determinations. More importantly, the work presented here provides the modeling foundation for fluorescence-based investigations of temporal and spatial variability in phytoplankton physiology associated with growth irradiance. These space-based physiological observations have the potential to decrease uncertainties in future ocean color derived primary productivity estimates.

  9. Global patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paerl, H.; Yin, Kedong; Cloern, J.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Committee on Ocean Research Working Group 137 Meeting; Hangzhou, China, 17-21 October 2010; Phytoplankton biomass and community structure have undergone dramatic changes in coastal ecosystems over the past several decades in response to climate variability and human disturbance. These changes have short- and long-term impacts on global carbon and nutrient cycling, food web structure and productivity, and coastal ecosystem services. There is a need to identify the underlying processes and measure the rates at which they alter coastal ecosystems on a global scale. Hence, the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) formed Working Group 137 (WG 137), "Global Patterns of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Coastal Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis of Time Series Observations" (http://wg137.net/). This group evolved from a 2007 AGU-sponsored Chapman Conference entitled "Long Time-Series Observations in Coastal Ecosystems: Comparative Analyses of Phytoplankton Dynamics on Regional to Global Scales.".

  10. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and wind forcing off central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Barksdale, Brett

    1991-01-01

    Mesoscale variability in phytoplankton pigment distributions of central California during the spring-summer upwelling season are studied via a 4-yr time series of high-resolution coastal zone color scanner imagery. Empirical orthogonal functions are used to decompose the time series of spatial images into its dominant modes of variability. The coupling between wind forcing of the upper ocean and phytoplankton distribution on mesoscales is investigated. Wind forcing, in particular the curl of the wind stress, was found to play an important role in the distribution of phytoplankton pigment in the California Current. The spring transition varies in timing and intensity from year to year but appears to be a recurrent feature associated with the rapid onset of the upwelling-favorable winds. Although the underlying dynamics may be dominated by processes other than forcing by wind stress curl, it appears that curl may force the variability of the filaments and hence the pigment patterns.

  11. Analysis of Phytoplankton Communities Using Hyperspectral Absorption Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, J.; Röttgers, R.

    2016-02-01

    Methods based on optical measurements are well suited for phytoplankton observation. They are rapid, require comparably low effort, and are often automatable. Besides fluorescence, also the absorption of the water is influenced by the concentration and type of the phytoplankton present. With instruments based on integrating cavities like the point source integrating cavity absorption meter (PSICAM), it is possible to analyze natural water samples in situ. Due to its design, the PSICAM has a long optical path length and the sample has not to be concentrated on a filter prior to analysis. Additionally, light scattered by particles present in the sample has no effect on the absorption measurements. Since the hyperspectral measurements are of high quality, efforts have been made to adapt this approach also for continuous and automated measurement (flow-through-PSICAM). Absorption coefficient data were obtained using both instruments on research cruises in the German Bight and along the Norwegian coast. In case of the discrete measurements, the water samples were filtered through various pore sizes to separate the bulk absorption into the absorption of the different phytoplankton size classes (micro-, nano-, and picophytoplankton). A proxy for chl-a concentration was derived from the data which was used to characterize phytoplankton biomass distributions in the area of investigation. Furthermore, in order to obtain additional information about the phytoplankton community beyond biomass distributions, also the spectral shape of the absorption spectra was analyzed. Attempts were made to attribute different spectral shapes to different phytoplankton groups and find similarities or differences between the cruises stations, respectively.

  12. Grazing impact of copepods on phytoplankton in the Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaolun; Wang, Rong; Sun, Song

    2003-11-01

    During spring (April/May 1999) and autumn (September/October 1998) cruises in the Bohai Sea, China, copepods were the dominant components of mesozooplankton, the most abundant species being Calanus sinicus, Centropages mcmurrichi, Paracalanus parvus, Acartia bifilosa and Oithona similis. Pigment ingestion rates by three size classes of copepods (200-500, 500-1000 and >1000 μm) were measured. In the south of the investigation area, gut pigment content (GPC), individual pigment-specific ingestion rates and grazing impacts on phytoplankton were lower in spring than in autumn. In the central area, GPC and individual pigment-specific ingestion rates were higher in spring than in autumn. The grazing impact on phytoplankton by the copepod assemblages was lower in spring than in autumn, however, because of the relatively smaller biomass in spring. In the western area where the Bohai Sea joins the Yellow Sea, GPC, individual pigment-specific ingestion rates and grazing impacts on phytoplankton were higher in spring than in autumn. Among the three size groups, the small-sized animals (200-500 μm) contributed more than 50% (range 38-98%) of the total copepod grazing during both cruises. The grazing impact on phytoplankton by copepods was equivalent to 11.9% (range 3.0-37.1%) of the chlorophyll- a standing stock and 53.3% (range 21.4-91.4%) of the primary production during the spring cruise. Grazing impact was equivalent to 6.3% (range 2.0-11.6%) of the chlorophyll- a standing stock and >100% (range 25.7-141.6%) of the primary production during the autumn cruise. The copepod community apparently consumed only a modest proportion of the standing stock of phytoplankton during spring and autumn blooms. They did, however, sometimes graze a significant proportion of daily primary production and hence were presumably able to limit the rate of further accumulation of phytoplankton, or even to prevent it.

  13. Distributional shifts in size structure of phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waga, H.; Hirawake, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Increased understanding on how marine species shift their distribution is required for effective conservation of fishery resources under climate change. Previous studies have often predicted distributional shifts of fish using satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST). However, SST may not fully represent the changes in species distribution through food web structure and as such this remains an open issue due to lack of ecological perspective on energy transfer process in the earlier studies. One of the most important factors in ecosystem is composition of phytoplankton community, and its size structure determines energy flow efficiency from base to higher trophic levels. To elucidate spatiotemporal variation in phytoplankton size structure, chlorophyll-a size distribution (CSD) algorithm was developed using spectral variance of phytoplankton absorption coefficient through principal component analysis. Slope of CSD (CSD slope) indicates size structure of phytoplankton community where, strong and weak magnitudes of CSD slope indicate smaller and larger phytoplankton structure, respectively. Shifts in CSD slope and SST were derived as the ratio of temporal trend over the 12-year period (2003-2014) to 2-dimensional spatial gradient and the resulting global median velocity of CSD slope and SST were 0.361 and 0.733 km year-1, respectively. In addition, the velocity of CSD slope monotonically increases with increasing latitude, while relatively complex latitudinal pattern for SST emerged. Moreover, angle of shifts suggest that species are required to shift their distribution toward not limited to simple pole-ward migration, and some regions exhibit opposite direction between the velocity of CSD slope and SST. These findings further imply that combined phytoplankton size structure and SST may contribute for more accurate prediction of species distribution shifts relative to existing studies which only considering variations in thermal niches.

  14. Macromolecular compositions of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jang Han; Joo, HuiTae; Song, Ho Jung; Yang, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    The biochemical compositions (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) of phytoplankton provide useful information for their environmental growth conditions and nutritional status as a basic food source for upper trophic consumers. Concentrations of these compositions were assessed at 100, 30, and 1% light penetration depths within the euphotic zone in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, using colorimetric techniques. The major inorganic nutrients were generally abundant throughout the study area. The average chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentration was 49.2 mg m-2 (S.D.=±27.6 mg m-2) and large phytoplankton (>20 μm) accounted for 64.1% of the total chl-a concentration. The biochemical compositions of the phytoplankton were not significantly different among different light depths or productivity stations. The overall compositions of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids from all stations averaged 65.9% (S.D.=±12.5%), 22.4% (S.D.=±10.9%), and 11.7% (S.D.=±6.5%), respectively. Regardless of dominant phytoplankton species, nitrogen-abundant conditions sustained high protein compositions of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea during the cruise period. Based on the macromolecular compositions, the average food material (FM) concentration was 219.4 μg L-1 (S.D.=±151.1 μg L-1) and correlated positively with the primary productivity in the Amundsen Sea. High protein/carbohydrate ratios (>1) and large proportions of proteins suggest that phytoplankton provide nitrogen-sufficient foods to higher trophic consumers through a higher efficiency of protein carbon incorporated into herbivores.

  15. Phytoplankton ingestion by appendicularians in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, José Luis; Deibel, Don; Saunders, Patricia A.; Booth, Beatrice; Hatfield, Elizabeth; Klein, Bert; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Rivkin, Richard

    We investigated the abundance, body-size distribution, diet, and ingestion rates of appendicularian tunicates at 8 stations in the North Water polynya, northern Baffin Bay, during late June and July 1998. Abundance of appendicularians in the chlorophyll-rich surface layer (40-125 m) ranged from 38 to 11248 m -2. Body size of individuals ranged from 0.21 to 4.8 mm. Gut chlorophyll content varied from 0 to 84 ng ind -1 and increased with increasing body size. Gut passage time varied from 42 to 104 min (mean±SD: 58±18 min). Phytoplankton ingestion rates ranged from 0.007 to 2.083 mg chlorophyll m -2 d -1, with a median of 0.49 mg chlorophyll m -2 d -1. The median daily grazing impact of the oikopleurid populations was 0.42% and 5.4% of total phytoplankton biomass and primary production, respectively. Since this represents ingested phytoplankton and does not include cells trapped within the mucous houses, the contribution of appendicularian populations to phytoplankton mortality could be 2-fold higher (i.e. ca. 10% of primary production). The faecal pellets of animals incubated onboard in water from the subsurface chlorophyll maximum contained primarily small diatoms at the northern stations, and a mixture of diatoms, dinoflagellates, flagellates, and ciliates at southern stations. The median, daily flow of biogenic carbon from phytoplankton to appendicularian faecal pellets was 8 mg C m -2, which represents 4% of biogenic carbon export during the month of July. Because the phytoplankton was dominated by small Chaetoceros cells, appendicularian ingestion rates were not inhibited by the clogging of the filtration mechanism at high Chl a concentrations. Thus, the impact of appendicularians on daily primary production during this season was a simple function of appendicularian abundance, population size structure, and gut throughput rate.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton community in a tropical wetland.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Najeeb Ahmad; Wanganeo, Ashwani; Raina, Rajni

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton species composition and seasonal changes were investigated in the Bhoj wetland Bhopal. Taxonomic composition, diversity, and abundance of phytoplankton were studied at nine stations from March 2008 to February 2010, in relation to various physico-chemical factors. Total phytoplankton species composition in the Bhoj wetland was represented by 360 species. Among phytoplankton, diversity belonged to seven groups. Chlorophyceae was the dominant group (48%) followed by Bacillariophyceae (26%), Cyanophyceae (15%), and Euglenophyceae (9%), while Pyrophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Xanthophyceae contributed 2% of the population. Phytoplankton on the basis of seasonal studies recorded 1651 units l(-1) during summer season which was contributed mainly by Chlorophyceae (39.3%), with Spirogyra sp. (14.2%) and Closteriopsis sp. (9.1%) contributing maximum to the total group in the first year, while during the second year of summer period, a total of 2095 units l(-1) was recorded which was contributed mainly by group Pyrophyceae (51%) with the main dominant species represented by Ceratium hirundinella (98.46%). The highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') value (4.27) was recorded. Simpson values are approaching 1, signifying that sites have high relative diversity due to its supporting surrounding components. The trend of variation in evenness values was more or less the same as Shannon diversity index. Thus, the highest diversity indices recoded at all the stations in the present study justify the diverse nature of species inhabiting the different ecological niches in the ecosystem. The very high phosphate and nitrate concentrations in the wetland are indicators of pollution which may be due to the discharge of agricultural and sewage wastes enriched with nutrients as well as the human activities there. Our recommendation is to avoid as far as possible the discharge of sewage and agriculture wastes into the Bhoj wetland. The effects of various physicochemical

  17. Temporal organization of phytoplankton communities linked to physical forcing.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Hunter, Deborah A

    2008-05-01

    The performance of individual phytoplankton species is strongly governed by the thermal stratification's impact on vertical mixing within the water column, which alters the position of phytoplankton relative to nutrients and light. The present study documents shifts in phytoplankton structure and vertical positioning that have accompanied intensified long-term stratification in a natural ecosystem. Ordination analysis is used to extract gradients in phytoplankton composition in Lake Tahoe, an extremely nutrient-poor lake, over a 23-year period of records. Community structure in the 1980s was associated most strongly with resource availability (low nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, deeper euphotic zone depth), while intensified stratification dominated the phytoplankton structure since the late 1990s. Within diatoms, small-sized cells increased with reduced mixing, suggesting that suppressed turbulence provides them with a competitive advantage over large-sized cells. Among the morphologically diverse chlorophytes, filamentous and coenobial forms were favored under intensified stratification. The selection for small-sized diatoms is accompanied by a shoaling trend in their vertical position in the water column. In contrast, the motile flagellates displayed a deeper vertical positioning in recent years, indicating that optimal growth conditions shifted likely due to reduced upwelling of nutrients. As the thermal stratification of lakes and oceans is strongly linked to climate variables, the present study confirms that climate warming will alter phytoplankton structure and dynamics largely through effects on nutrient availability and sinking velocities. Intensified stratification should favor the expansion of small-sized species and species with the capability of buoyancy regulation, which may alter primary productivity, nutrient recycling, and higher trophic productivity.

  18. Do marine phytoplankton follow Bergmann's rule sensu lato?

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ulrich; Peter, Kalista H; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-03-30

    Global warming has revitalized interest in the relationship between body size and temperature, proposed by Bergmann's rule 150 years ago, one of the oldest manifestations of a 'biogeography of traits'. We review biogeographic evidence, results from clonal cultures and recent micro- and mesocosm experiments with naturally mixed phytoplankton communities regarding the response of phytoplankton body size to temperature, either as a single factor or in combination with other factors such as grazing, nutrient limitation, and ocean acidification. Where possible, we also focus on the comparison between intraspecific size shifts and size shifts resulting from changes in species composition. Taken together, biogeographic evidence, community-level experiments and single-species experiments indicate that phytoplankton average cell sizes tend to become smaller in warmer waters, although temperature is not necessarily the proximate environmental factor driving size shifts. Indirect effects via nutrient supply and grazing are important and often dominate. In a substantial proportion of field studies, resource availability is seen as the only factor of relevance. Interspecific size effects are greater than intraspecific effects. Direct temperature effects tend to be exacerbated by indirect ones, if warming leads to intensified nutrient limitation or copepod grazing while ocean acidification tends to counteract the temperature effect on cell size in non-calcifying phytoplankton. We discuss the implications of the temperature-related size trends in a global-warming context, based on known functional traits associated with phytoplankton size. These are a higher affinity for nutrients of smaller cells, highest maximal growth rates of moderately small phytoplankton (ca. 10(2)  µm(3) ), size-related sensitivities for different types of grazers, and impacts on sinking rates. For a phytoplankton community increasingly dominated by smaller algae we predict that: (i) a higher

  19. Variability in global ocean phytoplankton distribution over 1979-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotti, I.; Alvain, S.; Moulin, C.; Antoine, D.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, reanalysis of long-term ocean color data (CZCS and SeaWiFS; Antoine et al., 2005) has shown that world ocean average phytoplankton chlorophyll levels show an increase of 20% over the last two decades. It is however unknown whether this increase is associated with a change in the distribution of phytoplankton groups or if it simply corresponds to an increase of the productivity. Within the framework of the GLOBPHY project, the distribution of the phytoplankton groups was monitored by applying the PHYSAT method (Alvain et al., 2005) to the historical ocean color data series from CZCS, OCTS and SeaWiFS sensors. The PHYSAT algorithm allows identification of several phytoplankton, like nanoeucaryotes, prochlorococcus, synechococcus and diatoms. Because both sensors (OCTS-SeaWiFS) are very similar, OCTS data were processed with the standard PHYSAT algorithm to cover the 1996-1997 period during which a large El Niño event occurred, just before the SeaWiFS era. Our analysis of this dataset (1996-2006) evidences a strong variability in the distribution of phytoplankton groups at both regional and global scales. In the equatorial region (0°-5°S), a three-fold increase of nanoeucaryotes frequency was detected in opposition to a two-fold decrease of synechococcus during the early stages of El Niño conditions (May-June 1997, OCTS). The impact of this El Niño is however not confined to the Equatorial Pacific and has affected the global ocean. The processing of CZCS data with PHYSAT has required several adaptations of this algorithm due to the lower performances and the reduced number of spectral bands of the sensor. Despites higher uncertainties, the phytoplankton groups distribution obtained with CZCS is globally consistent with that of SeaWiFS. A comparison of variability in global phytoplankton distribution between 1979-1982 (CZCS) and 1999-2002 (SeaWiFS) suggests an increase in nanoeucaryotes at high latitudes (>40°) and in the equatorial region (10°S-10

  20. Remote sensing of oceanic phytoplankton - Present capabilities and future goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of current work in the development of sensors, and their integration into increasingly powerful systems, for oceanic phytoplankton abundance estimation. Among the problems relevant to such work are phytoplankton ecology, the spatial and temporal domains, available sensor platforms, and sensor combinations. Among the platforms considered are satellites, aircraft, tethered balloons, helicopters, ships, and the Space Shuttle. Sensors discussed include microwave radiometers, laser fluorosensors, microwave scatterometers, multispectral scanners, Coastal Ocean Dynamics Radar (CODAR), and linear array detectors. Consideration is also given to the prospects for such future sensor systems as the National Oceanic Satellite System (NOSS) and the Airborne Integrated Mapping System (AIMS).

  1. Physiological Ecology of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Dimethylsulfide (DMS) Production by Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of the previously funded work were: (1) to determine the rates of DMSP and DMS production as a function of phytoplankton growth rate; (2) to determine the light dependence (quantity and quality) of DiMethylSulfonioPropionate (DMSP) and DiMethylSulfide (DMS) production by phytoplankton; and (3) to study intraspecific differences in DMSP and DMS production by phytoplankton.

  2. Seasonal variations of group-specific phytoplankton cell death in Xiamen Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaozhou; Liu, Xin; Chen, Jixin; Xiao, Wupeng; Cao, Zhen; Huang, Bangqin

    2017-03-01

    The importance of phytoplankton cell death is being increasingly recognized, however, there are still no published reports on this in Xiamen Bay. In this study, the proportion of dead phytoplankton cells associated with environmental factors was assessed at a station in Xiamen Bay from December 2012 to December 2013, using a cell digestion assay, which is an effective method to analyze dead/ living cells in complex natural phytoplankton communities. The percentages of dead cells (% DC) in the total phytoplankton in summer (16%±6%) were lower than those in winter (27%±16%). Six groups of phytoplankton (G1-G6) were categorized by flow cytometry. These phytoplankton communities with diverse seasonal variations in % DC had different responses to environmental constraints. The main factors affecting mortality were temperature and salinity, while nutrient concentration showed little influence on phytoplankton death. Additionally, our results provide evidence that chlorophyll a concentrations had an inverse relationship with total phytoplankton % DC and viable cell abundance was more meaningful than total cells to explain variations in environmental parameters (such as Chl a). Moreover, the lowest mean % DC in total phytoplankton was 16%±6% at our sample site, which is in a subtropical area with high water temperatures, full solar radiation, and rich nutrients. This indicates that phytoplankton cell death is a process that cannot be ignored. In summary, phytoplankton cell death is important in understanding the dynamics of phytoplankton communities and the functioning of subtropical ecosystems.

  3. Seasonal variations of group-specific phytoplankton cell death in Xiamen Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaozhou; Liu, Xin; Chen, Jixin; Xiao, Wupeng; Cao, Zhen; Huang, Bangqin

    2016-05-01

    The importance of phytoplankton cell death is being increasingly recognized, however, there are still no published reports on this in Xiamen Bay. In this study, the proportion of dead phytoplankton cells associated with environmental factors was assessed at a station in Xiamen Bay from December 2012 to December 2013, using a cell digestion assay, which is an eff ective method to analyze dead/ living cells in complex natural phytoplankton communities. The percentages of dead cells (% DC) in the total phytoplankton in summer (16%±6%) were lower than those in winter (27%±16%). Six groups of phytoplankton (G1-G6) were categorized by flow cytometry. These phytoplankton communities with diverse seasonal variations in % DC had different responses to environmental constraints. The main factors aff ecting mortality were temperature and salinity, while nutrient concentration showed little influence on phytoplankton death. Additionally, our results provide evidence that chlorophyll a concentrations had an inverse relationship with total phytoplankton % DC and viable cell abundance was more meaningful than total cells to explain variations in environmental parameters (such as Chl a ). Moreover, the lowest mean % DC in total phytoplankton was 16%±6% at our sample site, which is in a subtropical area with high water temperatures, full solar radiation, and rich nutrients. This indicates that phytoplankton cell death is a process that cannot be ignored. In summary, phytoplankton cell death is important in understanding the dynamics of phytoplankton communities and the functioning of subtropical ecosystems.

  4. Remote-sensing-based measurement of phytoplankton size spectrum and cell diameter in the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Sathyendranath, S.; Bouman, H. A.; Platt, T.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic phytoplankton regulate the spectral quality of the submarine light field because light absorption by phytoplankton is spectrally structured, with a maximum in the blue and a secondary maximum in the red. The spectral characteristics of absorption are variable with phytoplankton taxa, and also with cell size and growth conditions. The intra-cellular concentration of light-absorbing pigments varies with phytoplankton size, which in turn modulates its specific absorption. The changes in phytoplankton cell size alter not only the bio-optical properties of the water column, but also the trophic interactions within the ecosystem. It is thus important to study the time evolution of phytoplankton size structure over the global ocean. We have developed a novel model that uses the light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton to retrieve quantitative information about phytoplankton size structure from satellite-derived ocean-colour data. The application of the method to satellite remote sensing at any given spatial location depends on the estimates of the concentration of chlorophyll-a, which is an operational index of phytoplankton biomass, and the remote sensing reflectance at different wavelengths in the visible domain. Using our method we have computed the equivalent spherical diameter of phytoplankton cells and the exponent of particle-size spectrum of phytoplankton, and thereby estimated the chlorophyll distribution in different phytoplankton size classes on a global scale. The spatial distribution of the size-spectrum exponent and the biomass fractions of pico-, nano- and micro-phytoplankton estimated are consistent with our current understanding of phytoplankton functional types in the global oceans. The study will enhance our understanding of the distribution and time evolution of phytoplankton size structure in the global oceans.

  5. LOCO: Characterization of Phytoplankton in Thin Optical Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    specific properties of phytoplankton such as size, shape, pigment composition, biomineralization and toxin production are known to play important...Layers, accepted, refereed. McFarland, M., Rines, J., Donaghay, P. Use of automated image analysis to quantify the distribution of photosynthetic

  6. What Regulates Spatial Gradients in Marine Phytoplankton Diversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A. D.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Bragg, J.

    2008-12-01

    A global, three-dimensional self-assembling model of marine phytoplankton communities, initialized with many tens of plausible physiologies, shows a pronounced equator-to-pole decrease in the diversity of phytoplankton species. This pattern is common among many marine taxa. Regions of enhanced phytoplankton diversity also occur in association with areas of energetic flow including western boundary currents. In the three-dimensional model, the most abundant phytoplankton types in the stable, warm waters tend to have similar, low R* values, which indicate a strong ability to compete for scarce nutrients. We use a highly idealized, zero-dimensional model to interpret and illustrate mechanisms causing the broad meridional diversity gradient in terms of the variability of the environment. We demonstrate that in stable, oligotrophic conditions there are very long exclusion timescales (hundreds to thousands of years) for organisms with similar and low R* values if temporal variability in resource supply is either long (inter-annual or longer) or short (comparable to the growth period or shorter). High amplitude variability in resource supply, with seasonal timescales, leads to rapid competitive exclusion.

  7. Hydrologic controls of phytoplankton blooms in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, C. S.; Barnard, A. H.; Pettigrew, N. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Maine is a marginal sea adjacent to the subpolar North Atlantic gyre. It similarly exhibits canonical seasonal phytoplankton blooms. An array of moorings was deployed on the shelf and deep basins in the Gulf of Maine in 2001 with real-time hydrographic and optical sensor packages. Daily climatologies of calibrated chlorophyll fluorescence (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), temperature and salinity provide quantitative models for the spatial progression of seasonal patterns in stratification and bloom development. Anomaly time series indicate an abrupt change in the seasonal patterns beginning in 2005. Prior to 2005, seasonal blooms were triggered by the onset of thermally-driven stratification, the timing of which was primarily determined by latitude without influence of location on the shelf or deep basins. Spring blooms propagated from southwest to northeast, while fall blooms propagated from northeast to southwest following autumnal cooling and destratification. Beginning in 2005, an increase in the amount and intensity of precipitation yielded significant changes in river discharge patterns, particularly associated with the spring freshet. Springtime stratification patterns , and hence spring phytoplankton blooms, appeared much earlier and synoptically across the Gulf, in some locations up to 2 months earlier than observed prior to 2005. The consequences of such large variations in the timing and spatial patterns of spring phytoplankton blooms include large variations in specific growth rates, mismatch with grazing populations, and cascading changes in ecosystem structure throughout the Gulf of Maine.

  8. An empirical model for estimating phytoplankton productivity in estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, B.E.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    e have previously shown that primary productivity in San Francisco Bay, USA, is highly correlated with phytoplankton biomass B (chlorophyll a concentration) and an index of light avallability in the photic zone, 2, I, (photic depth times surface irradiance). To test the generality of this relation, we compiled data from San Francisco Bay and 5 other USA estuarine systems (Neuse and South Rivers, Puget Sound, Delaware Bay and Hudson River Plume), and regressed daily produclvity J' P (mg C m-2 d-') against the composite parameter B Z, I,. Regressions for each estuary were significant and typically over 80 % of the varialon in P was correlated with variations in B Z,I,. Moreover, the pooled data (n = 211) from 4 estuaries where methodologies were comparable fell along one regression line (r2= 0.82), indicating that primary productivity can be estimated in a diversity of estuarine waters from simple measures of phytoplankton biomass and hght availability. This implies that physiological variabhty (e. g. responses to variations in nutrient availabhty, temperature, sahnity, photoperiod) is a secondary control on phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich estuaries, and that one empirical function can be used to estimate seasonal variations in productivity or to map productivity along estuarine gradients of phytoplankton biomass and turbidity.

  9. Observations and Models of Highly Intermittent Phytoplankton Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Sandip; Locke, Christopher; Tanaka, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of phytoplankton distributions in ocean ecosystems provides the basis for elucidating the influences of physical processes on plankton dynamics. Technological advances allow for measurement of phytoplankton data to greater resolution, displaying high spatial variability. In conventional mathematical models, the mean value of the measured variable is approximated to compare with the model output, which may misinterpret the reality of planktonic ecosystems, especially at the microscale level. To consider intermittency of variables, in this work, a new modelling approach to the planktonic ecosystem is applied, called the closure approach. Using this approach for a simple nutrient-phytoplankton model, we have shown how consideration of the fluctuating parts of model variables can affect system dynamics. Also, we have found a critical value of variance of overall fluctuating terms below which the conventional non-closure model and the mean value from the closure model exhibit the same result. This analysis gives an idea about the importance of the fluctuating parts of model variables and about when to use the closure approach. Comparisons of plot of mean versus standard deviation of phytoplankton at different depths, obtained using this new approach with real observations, give this approach good conformity. PMID:24787740

  10. DNA Analyses of Phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Gonzalez, M. F.; Bench, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is experiencing the fastest climate warming of any marine environment on Earth, with a 6°C rise in mean winter temperature over the past 60 years (Vaughan et al., 2003). Though poorly understood, these changes may have profound effects on local Antarctic ecosystems. This research project aims to identify these changes through the compositional analysis of Antarctic phytoplankton using DNA sequencing supported by fluorescent microscopy. During the 2013 and 2014 blooming seasons, December to March, water samples were obtained from Palmer Station (located on the WAP) and filtered through 3 μm/0.8 μm filters. DNA was extracted from the water samples using the Qiagen Plant Kit, quantified through use of both Nanodrop and Picogreen technology, quality-checked by gel electrophoresis, and sent to be sequenced. Additionally, major phytoplankton species were identified through microscope imaging and preliminary counts were made for four important dates, two located at the peaks of phytoplankton blooms. From these four samples alone, it appeared that cryptomonads dominated the primary bloom whereas diatoms, both centric and pennate, were more abundant during the second bloom. In the future, these results will be tested against sequencing data. Through continued year-by-year analysis of Antarctic phytoplankton abundance levels, it will be possible to identify trends that may be crucial to understanding the dynamic Antarctic ecosystem.

  11. Phytoplankton Productivity numerical model: calibration via laboratory cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavatarelli, Marco; fiori, Emanuela; Carolina, Amadio

    2017-04-01

    The primary production module of the "Biogeochemical Flux Model" (BFM) has been used to replicate results from laboratory phytoplankton cultures of diatoms, dinoflagellates and picophytoplankton. The model explicitly solve for the phytoplankton, chlorophyll, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and (diatoms only) silicon content. Simulations of the temporal evolution of the cultured phytoplankton biomass, have been carried out in order to provide a correct parameterization of the temperature role in modulating the growth dynamics, and to gain insight in the process of chlorophyll turnover, with particular reference to the phytoplankton biomass decay in condition of nutrient stress. Results highligthed some limitation of the Q10 approach in defining the temperature constraints on the primary production (particularly at relatively high temperature) This required a modification of such approach. Moreover, the decay of the chlorophyll concentration under nutrient stress, appeared (as expected) significantly decoupled from the evolution of the carbon content. The implementation of a specific procedure (based on the laboratory culture results) adressing such decoupling, allowed for the achievement of better agreement between model and observations.

  12. The Molecular Ecophysiology of Programmed Cell Death in Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidle, Kay D.

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic photoautotrophs (phytoplankton) share a diverse and ancient evolutionary history, during which time they have played key roles in regulating marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. Because phytoplankton represent the basis of marine ecosystems, the manner in which they die critically determines the flow and fate of photosynthetically fixed organic matter (and associated elements), ultimately constraining upper-ocean biogeochemistry. Programmed cell death (PCD) and associated pathway genes, which are triggered by a variety of nutrient stressors and are employed by parasitic viruses, play an integral role in determining the cell fate of diverse photoautotrophs in the modern ocean. Indeed, these multifaceted death pathways continue to shape the success and evolutionary trajectory of diverse phytoplankton lineages at sea. Research over the past two decades has employed physiological, biochemical, and genetic techniques to provide a novel, comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling this key process. Here, I discuss the current understanding of the genetics, activation, and regulation of PCD pathways in marine model systems; how PCD evolved in unicellular photoautotrophs; how it mechanistically interfaces with viral infection pathways; how stress signals are sensed and transduced into cellular responses; and how novel molecular and biochemical tools are revealing the impact of PCD genes on the fate of natural phytoplankton assemblages.

  13. The evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Antonietta; Finkel, Zoe V; Irwin, Andrew J; Rosenthal, Yair; Ho, Tung-Yuan; Reinfelder, John R; Schofield, Oscar; Morel, Francois M M; Falkowski, Paul G

    2003-09-18

    Phytoplankton is a nineteenth century ecological construct for a biologically diverse group of pelagic photoautotrophs that share common metabolic functions but not evolutionary histories. In contrast to terrestrial plants, a major schism occurred in the evolution of the eukaryotic phytoplankton that gave rise to two major plastid superfamilies. The green superfamily appropriated chlorophyll b, whereas the red superfamily uses chlorophyll c as an accessory photosynthetic pigment. Fossil evidence suggests that the green superfamily dominated Palaeozoic oceans. However, after the end-Permian extinction, members of the red superfamily rose to ecological prominence. The processes responsible for this shift are obscure. Here we present an analysis of major nutrients and trace elements in 15 species of marine phytoplankton from the two superfamilies. Our results indicate that there are systematic phylogenetic differences in the two plastid types where macronutrient (carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus) stoichiometries primarily reflect ancestral pre-symbiotic host cell phenotypes, but trace element composition reflects differences in the acquired plastids. The compositional differences between the two plastid superfamilies suggest that changes in ocean redox state strongly influenced the evolution and selection of eukaryotic phytoplankton since the Proterozoic era.

  14. Revisiting the Chesapeake Bay phytoplankton index of biotic integrity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacqueline M; Buchanan, Claire

    2014-03-01

    In 2006, a phytoplankton index of biotic integrity (PIBI) was published for Chesapeake Bay Lacouture et al. (Estuaries 29(4):598-616, 2006). The PIBI was developed from data collected during the first 18 years (1985-2002) of the Chesapeake Bay Program long-term phytoplankton and water quality monitoring programs. Combinations of up to nine phytoplankton metrics were selected to characterize bay habitat health according to plankton community condition in spring and summer seasons across four salinity zones. The independent data available at the time for index validation was not sufficient to test the PIBI because they lacked critical index parameters (pheophytin and dissolved organic carbon) and reference samples for some seasons and salinity zones. An additional 8 years of monitoring data (2003-2010) are now available to validate the original index, reassess index performance and re-examine long-term trends in PIBI conditions in the Bay. The PIBI remains sensitive to changes in nutrient and light conditions. Evaluation of the PIBI results over the entire 1985-2010 time period shows no discernible trends in the overall health of Bay habitat based on phytoplankton community conditions. This lack of overall PIBI trend appears to be a combined response to declines in water clarity and improvements in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved phosphorus conditions in the bay.

  15. Patchiness of phytoplankton and primary production in Liaodong Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Edward A.; Zhang, Haibo; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Liu, Haiyue

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive study of water quality, phytoplankton biomass, and photosynthetic rates in Liaodong Bay, China, during June and July of 2013 revealed two large patches of high biomass and production with dimensions on the order of 10 km. Nutrient concentrations were above growth-rate-saturating concentrations throughout the bay, with the possible exception of phosphate at some stations. The presence of the patches therefore appeared to reflect the distribution of water temperature and variation of light penetration restricted by water turbidity. There was no patch of high phytoplankton biomass or production in a third, linear patch of water with characteristics suitable for rapid phytoplankton growth; the absence of a bloom in that patch likely reflected the fact that the width of the patch was less than the critical size required to overcome losses of phytoplankton to turbulent diffusion. The bottom waters of virtually all of the eastern half of the bay were below the depth of the mixed layer, and the lowest bottom water oxygen concentrations, 3–5 mg L–1, were found in that part of the bay. The water column in much of the remainder of the bay was within the mixed layer, and oxygen concentrations in both surface and bottom waters exceeded 5 mg L–1. PMID:28235070

  16. Lake Superior Phytoplankton Characterization from the 2006 Probability Based Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a late summer probability based survey of Lake Superior in 2006 which consisted of 52 sites stratified across 3 depth zones. As part of this effort, we collected composite phytoplankton samples from the epilimnion and the fluorescence maxima (Fmax) at 29 of the site...

  17. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  18. Competing phytoplankton undermines allelopathy of a bloom-forming dinoflagellate

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Emily K; Myers, Tracey L; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Biotic interactions in the plankton can be both complex and dynamic. Competition among phytoplankton is often chemically mediated, but no studies have considered whether allelopathic compounds are modified by biotic interactions. Here, we show that compounds exuded during Karenia brevis blooms were allelopathic to the cosmopolitan diatom Skeletonema costatum, but that bloom allelopathy varied dramatically among collections and years. We investigated several possible causes of this variability and found that neither bloom density nor concentrations of water-borne brevetoxins correlated with allelopathic potency. However, when we directly tested whether the presence of competing phytoplankton influenced bloom allelopathy, we found that S. costatum reduced the growth-inhibiting effects of bloom exudates, suggesting that S. costatum has a mechanism for undermining K. brevis allelopathy. Additional laboratory experiments indicated that inducible changes to K. brevis allelopathy were restricted to two diatoms among five sensitive phytoplankton species, whereas five other species were constitutively resistant to K. brevis allelopathy. Our results suggest that competitors differ in their responses to phytoplankton allelopathy, with S. costatum exhibiting a previously undescribed method of resistance that may influence community structure and alter bloom dynamics. PMID:18713720

  19. Competing phytoplankton undermines allelopathy of a bloom-forming dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Prince, Emily K; Myers, Tracey L; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia

    2008-12-07

    Biotic interactions in the plankton can be both complex and dynamic. Competition among phytoplankton is often chemically mediated, but no studies have considered whether allelopathic compounds are modified by biotic interactions. Here, we show that compounds exuded during Karenia brevis blooms were allelopathic to the cosmopolitan diatom Skeletonema costatum, but that bloom allelopathy varied dramatically among collections and years. We investigated several possible causes of this variability and found that neither bloom density nor concentrations of water-borne brevetoxins correlated with allelopathic potency. However, when we directly tested whether the presence of competing phytoplankton influenced bloom allelopathy, we found that S. costatum reduced the growth-inhibiting effects of bloom exudates, suggesting that S. costatum has a mechanism for undermining K. brevis allelopathy. Additional laboratory experiments indicated that inducible changes to K. brevis allelopathy were restricted to two diatoms among five sensitive phytoplankton species, whereas five other species were constitutively resistant to K. brevis allelopathy. Our results suggest that competitors differ in their responses to phytoplankton allelopathy, with S. costatum exhibiting a previously undescribed method of resistance that may influence community structure and alter bloom dynamics.

  20. LOCO: Characterization of Phytoplankton in Thin Optical Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    P. Donaghay & J. Sullivan. Fine scale distribution and abundance of large and small phytoplankton in Monterey Bay, CA. Phycological Society of...award at the 2007 Northeast Algal Society meeting for presentation of his methodology. This award carried a prize of $500 toward the cost of attending the 2007 Phycological Society of America meeting. 9

  1. LOCO: Characterization of Phytoplankton in Thin Optical Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Donaghay & J. Sullivan. Fine scale distribution and abundance of large and small phytoplankton in Monterey Bay, CA. Phycological Society of America...2007 Northeast Algal Society meeting for presentation of his methodology. This award carried a prize of $500 toward the cost of attending the 2007 Phycological Society of America meeting. 9

  2. Coherent assembly of phytoplankton communities in diverse temperate ocean ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Li, William K.W; Glen Harrison, W; Head, Erica J.H

    2006-01-01

    The annual cycle of phytoplankton cell abundance is coherent across diverse ecosystems in the temperate North Atlantic Ocean. In Bedford Basin, on the Scotian Shelf and in the Labrador Sea, the numerical abundance of phytoplankton is low in spring and high in autumn, thus in phase with the temperature cycle. Temperature aligns abundance on a common basis, effectively adjusting apparent cell discrepancies in waters that are colder or warmer than the regional norm. As an example of holistic simplicity arising from underlying complexity, the variance in a community variable (total abundance) is explained by a single predictor (temperature) to the extent of 75% in the marginal seas. In the estuarine basin, weekly averages of phytoplankton and temperature computed from a 13 year time-series yield a predictive relationship with 91% explained variance. Temperature-directed assembly of individual phytoplankton cells to form communities is statistically robust, consistent with observed biomass changes, amenable to theoretical analysis, and a sentinel for long-term change. Since cell abundance is a community property in the same units for all marine microbes at any trophic level and at any phylogenetic position, it promises to integrate biological oceanography into general ecology and evolution. PMID:16822757

  3. High protein production of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung Song, Ho; Jung Kang, Jae; Kyung Kim, Bo; Joo, HuiTae; Jin Yang, Eun; Park, Jisoo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Heon Lee, Sang

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea polynya is one of the largest and most productive polynyas in the Southern Ocean and has recently experienced a rapid change in sea ice coverage. However, very little is known about current physiological status of phytoplankton and its quality as food for pelagic herbivores and consequently higher trophic levels in the Amundsen Sea. Using a 13C isotope tracer technique, macromolecular production measurements of phytoplankton at eleven stations were conducted at three light depths (100, 30, and 1%) onboard R/V ARAON in the Amundsen Sea, 2012. The concentrations of major inorganic nutrients were replete at all the productivity stations and no substantial difference in macromolecular production was found between polynya and non-polynya regions. Distinct vertical trends were not observed in low-molecular-weight metabolites (LMWM) and polysaccharide productions, but weak vertical patterns in lipid and protein productions were found during our cruise period. The vertical patterns of lipids slightly increased with depth whereas decreased for protein synthesis in this study, and these vertical trends were not consistent with the results reported previously in the Arctic Ocean. Overall, phytoplankton allocated more photosynthetic carbon into proteins (60.0%) than other macromolecules in the Amundsen Sea, which is markedly higher than those reported previously in the Antarctic Ocean, ranging from 7 to 23%. The high protein synthesis appears to be sustained by high concentrations of major nutrients, which might be a strong factor for general patterns of macromolecular productions of phytoplankton in polar oceans, even under potential iron limitation.

  4. How Phytoplankton Membranes Cope With Steep Ionic Strength (Salinity) Gradient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparovic, B.; Sesar, T.; Cankovic, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Hrustić, E.; Zhu, Z.; Zhang, R.; Du, J.

    2016-02-01

    We report on phytoplankton accommodation on stressful conditions being steep ionic strength, i.e. salinity, changes, the conditions regularly found in the estuaries. We aimed defining how lipid composition of phytoplankton membrane structure is accommodated to prevent spontaneous osmosis. Salinity-dependent lipid profiles for particulate lipid extracts from blooming periods of the two opposing estuaries: eutrophic and polluted Wenchang River Estuary and pristine oligotrophic/mesotrophic Krka River Estuary were characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The composition of phytoplankton pigments which was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Domination of pigment Fucoxanthin in both estuaries indicates diatoms were major blooming group. While total particulate lipid concentration was almost an order of magnitude higher in the Wenchang River estuary (on average 238 µg/L) than in the Krka River Estuary (on average 36 µg/L), the lipid composition was similar. This implies that salinity stress is the main influential factor on phytoplankton lipid composition rather than availability of nutrients. Details on the lipid composition that follow salinity changes will be discussed.

  5. Isolation by Time During an Arctic Phytoplankton Spring Bloom.

    PubMed

    Tammilehto, Anna; Watts, Phillip C; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-03-01

    The arctic phytoplankton spring bloom, which is often diatom-dominated, is a key event that provides the high latitude communities with a fundamental flux of organic carbon. During a bloom, phytoplankton may increase its biomass by orders of magnitude within days. Yet, very little is known about phytoplankton bloom dynamics, including for example how blooming affects genetic composition and diversity of a population. Here, we quantified the genetic composition and temporal changes of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, which is one of the most important primary producers in the Arctic, during the spring bloom in western Greenland, using 13 novel microsatellite markers developed for this study. We found that genetic differentiation (quantified using sample-specific FST ) decreased between time points as the bloom progressed, with the most drastic changes in FST occurring at the start of the bloom; thus the genetic structure of the bloom is characterized by isolation by time. There was little temporal variation in genetic diversity throughout the bloom (mean HE  = 0.57), despite marked fluctuations in F. cylindrus cell concentrations and the temporal change in sample-specific FST . On the basis of this novel pattern of genetic differentiation, we suggest that blooming behavior may promote genetic diversity of a phytoplankton population.

  6. The evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigg, Antonietta; Finkel, Zoe V.; Irwin, Andrew J.; Rosenthal, Yair; Ho, Tung-Yuan; Reinfelder, John R.; Schofield, Oscar; Morel, Francois M. M.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2003-09-01

    Phytoplankton is a nineteenth century ecological construct for a biologically diverse group of pelagic photoautotrophs that share common metabolic functions but not evolutionary histories. In contrast to terrestrial plants, a major schism occurred in the evolution of the eukaryotic phytoplankton that gave rise to two major plastid superfamilies. The green superfamily appropriated chlorophyll b, whereas the red superfamily uses chlorophyll c as an accessory photosynthetic pigment. Fossil evidence suggests that the green superfamily dominated Palaeozoic oceans. However, after the end-Permian extinction, members of the red superfamily rose to ecological prominence. The processes responsible for this shift are obscure. Here we present an analysis of major nutrients and trace elements in 15 species of marine phytoplankton from the two superfamilies. Our results indicate that there are systematic phylogenetic differences in the two plastid types where macronutrient (carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus) stoichiometries primarily reflect ancestral pre-symbiotic host cell phenotypes, but trace element composition reflects differences in the acquired plastids. The compositional differences between the two plastid superfamilies suggest that changes in ocean redox state strongly influenced the evolution and selection of eukaryotic phytoplankton since the Proterozoic era.

  7. Ocean Biogeochemistry and Phytoplankton Ecology in a Global Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. K.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, K.

    2005-05-01

    A coupled Biogeochemistry/Ecosystem/Circulation (BEC) model is used to examine ocean biogeochemistry and phytoplankton ecology at the global scale. Phytoplankton groups represented in the model include diatoms, diazotrophs, coccolithophores and picoplankton. The groups experience differential grazing pressure and compete for light and the potentially growth-limiting nutrients iron, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, and silicate. The model includes several key aspects of the global nitrogen cycle including nitrogen fixation (by the diazotrophs), water column denitrification under low oxygen conditions, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the oceans. We examine how these nitrogen fluxes influence ecosystem structure and also how light and nutrient availability restrict phytoplankton growth rates over seasonal timescales. Atmospheric deposition of mineral dust also inputs dissolved iron to the ocean model. These iron additions modify phytoplankton community composition, and rates of production and export in the iron-limited High Nitrate, Low Chlorophyll regions, and indirectly modify ecosystem dynamics by altering rates of nitrogen fixation in nitrogen-depleted, tropical and subtropical regions. We will examine the links between dust/iron deposition and nitrogen cycling in the oceans.

  8. Observations and models of highly intermittent phytoplankton distributions.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sandip; Locke, Christopher; Tanaka, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of phytoplankton distributions in ocean ecosystems provides the basis for elucidating the influences of physical processes on plankton dynamics. Technological advances allow for measurement of phytoplankton data to greater resolution, displaying high spatial variability. In conventional mathematical models, the mean value of the measured variable is approximated to compare with the model output, which may misinterpret the reality of planktonic ecosystems, especially at the microscale level. To consider intermittency of variables, in this work, a new modelling approach to the planktonic ecosystem is applied, called the closure approach. Using this approach for a simple nutrient-phytoplankton model, we have shown how consideration of the fluctuating parts of model variables can affect system dynamics. Also, we have found a critical value of variance of overall fluctuating terms below which the conventional non-closure model and the mean value from the closure model exhibit the same result. This analysis gives an idea about the importance of the fluctuating parts of model variables and about when to use the closure approach. Comparisons of plot of mean versus standard deviation of phytoplankton at different depths, obtained using this new approach with real observations, give this approach good conformity.

  9. Investigations of the uptake of dimethylsulfoniopropionate by phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Spielmeyer, Astrid; Gebser, Björn; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-10-17

    No change here: Analysis with doubly labeled [(13)C(2)D(6)]DMSP and LC/MS revealed that dissolved DMSP is taken up and stored intracellularly by diverse phytoplankton species without transformation. This is even true for species that produce no quantifiable amounts of DMSP themselves.

  10. Optimization of phytoplankton monitoring in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaanus, Andres; Kuprijanov, Ivan; Kaljurand, Kaire; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Enke, Annely

    2017-07-01

    Since water quality monitoring can be rather costly, it is important to properly design the monitoring network so that maximum information can be received with moderate effort. One component of monitoring is measuring the phytoplankton community composition and detecting whether that has changed. From April to October 2012, by using ships-of-opportunity (SOOP), we collected simultaneous samples from 15 stations in the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper to study the spatial variability in the phytoplankton species composition and biomass throughout the growing season. The analysis was performed with 10 dominant taxa constituting 83-97% of the total phytoplankton biomass. We set the criterion of the statistically significant (p < 0.05) Bray-Curtis similarity for the station pairs to be mutually representative according to the species composition and biomass. Our results indicated that in areas of similar hydrological conditions, it is sufficient to have sampling stations in 50-65 km distance between one another, but in the areas with varying hydrographical conditions, i.e. coastal areas, higher spatial coverage may be needed. Whenever possible, it is recommended to combine monitoring efforts between the Baltic Sea countries in the offshore areas, including SOOP. The need for further harmonization of phytoplankton analysis between countries is addressed in order to have comparable data sets by different countries.

  11. [The phytoplankton community of Punta Morales, Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica ].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli Olivera, E; Morales Ramirez, A

    2001-12-01

    Three daily samplings of the phytoplankton community were made at two consecutive days in March, April, May, September, October, November and December 1997, at Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Samples were collected during each tide at depths of 50% and 10% of light penetration using a Niskin bottle. A total of 43 taxa were identified. Centric diatoms, pennates and flagellates represented 90% of total phytoplankton abundance. In the phytoplankton fraction (cells > 30 microm), diatoms were the most abundant group, and Skeletonema costatum (32%) dominated. In nannophytoplankton (cells < 30 microm), Chaetoceros (23.7%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by flagellates (23%) and Cylindrotheca closterium (13.1%). These results agree with previous surveys and suggest that a typical net phytoplankton community persist through time in the Punta Morales zone. The number of nannophytoplankton fraction cells varied seasonally and suggests quantitative changes in species abundance, with possible modifications of cellular size or chain length in filamentous species. The codominance between S. costatum and Chaetoceros spp. during the rainy season suggested the ocurrence of an early ecological sucession, and nutrients could be the factor generating such population changes.

  12. A turbulence-induced switch in phytoplankton swimming behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Francesco; Sengupta, Anupam; Stocker, Roman

    2015-11-01

    Phytoplankton, unicellular photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of life in aquatic environments, are frequently exposed to turbulence, which has long been known to affect phytoplankton fitness and species succession. Yet, mechanisms by which phytoplankton may adapt to turbulence have remained unknown. Here we present a striking behavioral response of a motile species - the red-tide-producing raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo - to hydrodynamic cues mimicking those experienced in ocean turbulence. In the absence of turbulence, H. akashiwo exhibits preferential upwards swimming (`negative gravitaxis'), observable as a strong accumulation of cells at the top of an experimental container. When cells were exposed to overturning in an automated chamber - representing a minimum experimental model of rotation by Kolmogorov-scale turbulent eddies - the population robustly split in two nearly equi-abundant subpopulations, one swimming upward and one swimming downward. Microscopic observations at the single-cell level showed that the behavioral switch was accompanied by a rapid morphological change. A mechanistic model that takes into account cell shape confirms that modulation of morphology can alter the hydrodynamic stress distribution over the cell body, which, in turn, triggers the observed switch in phytoplankton migration direction. This active response to fluid flow, whereby microscale morphological changes influence ocean-scale migration dynamics, could be part of a bet-hedging strategy to maximize the chances of at least a fraction of the population evading high-turbulence microzones.

  13. The molecular ecophysiology of programmed cell death in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bidle, Kay D

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic photoautotrophs (phytoplankton) share a diverse and ancient evolutionary history, during which time they have played key roles in regulating marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. Because phytoplankton represent the basis of marine ecosystems, the manner in which they die critically determines the flow and fate of photosynthetically fixed organic matter (and associated elements), ultimately constraining upper-ocean biogeochemistry. Programmed cell death (PCD) and associated pathway genes, which are triggered by a variety of nutrient stressors and are employed by parasitic viruses, play an integral role in determining the cell fate of diverse photoautotrophs in the modern ocean. Indeed, these multifaceted death pathways continue to shape the success and evolutionary trajectory of diverse phytoplankton lineages at sea. Research over the past two decades has employed physiological, biochemical, and genetic techniques to provide a novel, comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling this key process. Here, I discuss the current understanding of the genetics, activation, and regulation of PCD pathways in marine model systems; how PCD evolved in unicellular photoautotrophs; how it mechanistically interfaces with viral infection pathways; how stress signals are sensed and transduced into cellular responses; and how novel molecular and biochemical tools are revealing the impact of PCD genes on the fate of natural phytoplankton assemblages.

  14. Lake Superior Phytoplankton Characterization from the 2006 Probability Based Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a late summer probability based survey of Lake Superior in 2006 which consisted of 52 sites stratified across 3 depth zones. As part of this effort, we collected composite phytoplankton samples from the epilimnion and the fluorescence maxima (Fmax) at 29 of the site...

  15. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  16. Light utilization and photoinhibition of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G., Greene, R., Kolber, Z.

    1993-12-31

    Introduction to Phytoplankton. Based on the record of the oldest identifiable fossils, the first oxygenic photosynthetic organisms appeared about 2 {times} l0{sup 9} years ago in the form of marine single celled, planktonic procaryotes (Riding, 1992; Sarmiento and Bender, 1993). In the intervening eons, phytoplankton have evolved and diversified; presently they represent at least 11 classes of procaryotic and euacaryotic photoautotrophs. While the carbon of these organisms cumulatively amounts to only 1 to 2% of the global plant biomass, they fix between 35 and 50 gigatonnes ({times} 10{sup 9} metric tons) of carbon annually, about 40% of the global total (Falkowski and Woodhead, 1992). On average, each gram of phytoplankton chlorophyll converts about 6% of the photosynthetically active radiation (440 to 700 nm) incident on the sea surface to photochemical energy (Morel, 1978). Despite a great deal of variability in ocean environments, this photosynthetic conversion efficiency is relatively constant for integrated water column production (Morel, 1978; Falkowski, 1981; Platt, 1986; Morel, 1991). Here we review the factors determining light utilization efficiency of phytoplankton in the oceans, and the physiological acclimations which have evolved to optimize light utilization efficiency.

  17. Physicochemical conditions in affecting the distribution of spring phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuqiu; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xue, Bing; Munir, Sonia; Sun, Jun

    2017-03-01

    To better understand the physicochemical conditions in affecting regional distribution of phytoplankton community, one research cruise was carried out in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea during 3rd and 23th May, 2010. The phytoplankton community, including Bacillariophyta (105 taxa), Pyrrophyta (54 taxa), Chrysophyta (1 taxon) and Chlorophyta (2 taxa), had been identified and clearly described from six ecological provinces. And, the six ecological provinces were partitioned based on the top twenty dominant species related with notable physicochemical parameters. In general, the regional distributions of phytoplankton ecological provinces were predominantly influenced by the physicochemical properties induced by the variable water masses and circulations. The predominant diatoms in most of water samples showed well adaptability in turbulent and eutrophic conditions. However, several species of dinoflagellates e.g., Protoperidinium conicum, Protoperidinium triestinum, Protoperidinium sp. and Gymnodinium lohmanni preferred warmer, saltier and nutrient-poor environment. Moreover, the dinoflagellates with high frequency in the Yellow Sea might be transported from the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The horizontal distribution of phytoplankton was depicted by diatoms and controlled by phosphate concentration, while the vertical distribution was mainly supported by light and nutrients availability in the subsurface and bottom layers, respectively.

  18. Direct Heme Uptake by Phytoplankton-Associated Roseobacter Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brahamsha, Bianca; Barbeau, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron is an essential micronutrient and can limit the growth of both marine phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of heme transport, an organic iron acquisition pathway, in phytoplankton-associated Roseobacter bacteria and explored the potential role of bacterial heme uptake in the marine environment. We searched 153 Roseobacter genomes and found that nearly half contained putative complete heme transport systems with nearly the same synteny. We also examined a publicly available coculture transcriptome and found that Roseobacter strain Sulfitobacter sp. strain SA11 strongly downregulated a putative heme transport gene cluster during mutualistic growth with a marine diatom, suggesting that the regulation of heme transport might be influenced by host cues. We generated a mutant of phytoplankton-associated Roseobacter strain Ruegeria sp. strain TM1040 by insertionally inactivating its homolog of the TonB-dependent heme transporter hmuR and confirmed the role of this gene in the uptake of heme and hemoproteins. We performed competition experiments between iron-limited wild-type and mutant TM1040 strains and found that the wild type maintains a growth advantage when competing with the mutant for iron compounds derived solely from lysed diatom cells. Heme transport systems were largely absent from public marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes, suggesting that marine bacteria with the potential for heme transport likely have small standing populations in the free-living bacterioplankton. Heme transport is likely a useful strategy for phytoplankton-associated bacteria because it provides direct access to components of the host intracellular iron pool after lysis. IMPORTANCE Ecosystem productivity in large regions of the surface ocean is fueled by iron that has been microbially regenerated from biomass. Currently, the specific microbes and molecules that mediate the transfer of recycled iron between

  19. Phytoplankton dynamics studying using observation and biophysical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi

    Continental shelf phytoplankton bloom dynamics are associated with meteorological, oceanographic and coastal forcing mechanisms. Mixing related to stratification and de-stratification is a key process of the physical environment that can control the timing and magnitude of blooms. Using data from satellite, coastal ocean observatory and bio-physical model, this study investigated the seasonal and decadal variability of chlorophyll in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and how different forcing mechanisms affect the phytoplankton bloom. The temporal and spatial distribution of chlorophyll a in the MAB was quantified using satellite data collected by the Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The MAB undergoes a fall-winter bloom in the middle-outer shelf region and spring bloom in the shelf-break region. The interannual variability of bloom magnitude is associated with wind-induced mixing. Mixing has been recognized as having an important role in influencing underwater light and nutrient budgets and thus regulating phytoplankton bloom. The ratio of light over mixed layer depth (MLD) was used to determine the trade-off effects of mixing on phytoplankton bloom activity. We find that a critical light value around 60 (W m-2) for the shelf region and 150 (W m-2) for the shelf-break front region in promoting maximum phytoplankton biomass and there is a predictable linear regression relationship between the critical light value and depth. The bio-physical model identified the wind-induced mixing, net heat flux and river run-off are the most important factors influencing water column stability. Sensitivity studies showed that the timing of the destratification and initiation of fall bloom was closely related to the wind forcing. The river's role in bringing buoyancy was significant in increasing phytoplankton bloom. The decadal declines in the seasonal satellite estimates of chlorophyll a&barbelow; concentrations have been observed in the fall and winter in the MAB and are

  20. The role of phytoplankton photosynthesis in global biogeochemical cycles.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, P G

    1994-03-01

    Phytoplankton biomass in the world's oceans amounts to only ∽1-2% of the total global plant carbon, yet these organisms fix between 30 and 50 billion metric tons of carbon annually, which is about 40% of the total. On geological time scales there is profound evidence of the importance of phytoplankton photosynthesis in biogeochemical cycles. It is generally assumed that present phytoplankton productivity is in a quasi steady-state (on the time scale of decades). However, in a global context, the stability of oceanic photosynthetic processes is dependent on the physical circulation of the upper ocean and is therefore strongly influenced by the atmosphere. The net flux of atmospheric radiation is critical to determining the depth of the upper mixed layer and the vertical fluxes of nutrients. These latter two parameters are keys to determining the intensity, and spatial and temporal distributions of phytoplankton blooms. Atmospheric radiation budgets are not in steady-state. Driven largely by anthropogenic activities in the 20th century, increased levels of IR- absorbing gases such as CO2, CH4 and CFC's and NOx will potentially increase atmospheric temperatures on a global scale. The atmospheric radiation budget can affect phytoplankton photosynthesis directly and indirectly. Increased temperature differences between the continents and oceans have been implicated in higher wind stresses at the ocean margins. Increased wind speeds can lead to higher nutrient fluxes. Throughout most of the central oceans, nitrate concentrations are sub-micromolar and there is strong evidence that the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II is impaired by nutrient stress. Higher nutrient fluxes would lead to both an increase in phytoplankton biomass and higher biomass-specific rates of carbon fixation. However, in the center of the ocean gyres, increased radiative heating could reduce the vertical flux of nutrients to the euphotic zone, and hence lead to a reduction in phytoplankton

  1. Effects of UV radiation on phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond C.; Cullen, John J.

    1995-07-01

    et al., 1986; Worrest, 1986; NOAA, 1987; Smith, 1989; Smith and Baker, 1989; Voytek, 1990; Häder, 1993; Acevedo and Nolan, 1993; Holm-Hansen et al., 1993; Vincent and Roy, 1993; Biggs and Joyner, 1994; Williamson and Zagarese, 1994; Karentz, 1994; Cullen and Neale, 1993; Cullen and Neale, 1994]. As Hader et al. have summarized [UNEP, 1989; UNEP, 1991], "UV-B radiation in aquatic systems: 1) affects adaptive strategies (e.g., motility, orientation); 2) impairs important physiological functions (e.g., photosynthesis and enzymatic reactions); and 3) threatens marine organisms during their developmental stages (e.g., the young of finfish, shrimp larvae, crab larvae)". Possible consequences to aquatic systems include: reduced biomass production; changes in species composition and biodiversity; and alterations of aquatic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles associated with the above changes. Within the past four years, our knowledge with respect to the environmental effects of ozone-related increased levels of UV-B has increased significantly, and numerous efforts have been directed toward process-oriented studies of UV responses in plants and animals. Consensus is building toward the view that current levels of UV play a major role as an ecological determinant, influencing both survival and distribution, and are thus deserving of increased study independent of ozone-related UV-B increases. This review outlines U.S. research subsequent to 1991 and emphasizes studies concerned with phytoplankton.

  2. Foraging in Turbulent Flow: Bridging Individual Motility and Meter-Scale Phytoplankton Patchiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essink, S.; Mahadevan, A.

    2016-02-01

    In the ocean, turbulent motions stir phytoplankton layers into complex spatial structures, increasing patchiness and gradients of phytoplankton biomass. At scales of a few meters, the patchiness of phytoplankton affects the efficiency by which motile zooplankton are able to forage. Defining patchiness as the slope of the phytoplankton variance spectrum, a simple numerical ecosystem model was used to generate phytoplankton of constant, prescribed patchiness. Individual zooplankton are then modeled to forage on phytoplankton distributions with tactic and kinetic behavioral responses. For a given motility pattern, a level of patchiness can be identified for which zooplankton foraging is optimal. With increasing patchiness, gradients in phytoplankton increase and typical length scales of patches decrease. Phytoplanktonic features become too small to be exploited by zooplankton of certain perceptive and motoric ranges. With decreasing patchiness, gradients in phytoplankton weaken and typical length scales of patches increase. Tactic zooplankton travel along phytoplankton gradients and if those gradients weaken, the directionality of movement is lost. Zooplankton grazing itself modifies phytoplankton distributions such that patchiness and gradients can be intensified as well as derogated. Grazers therefore shape their food environment and influence their own grazing efficiency. Patchiness-motiliy coupling is an important mechanism that is necessary to better constrain carbon fluxes from primary producers toward higher trophic levels and needs to be considered as a subgrid-scale process in biogeochemical models.

  3. Phytoplankton community structure defined by key environmental variables in Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Brogueira, Maria José; Oliveira, Maria do Rosário; Cabeçadas, Graça

    2007-12-01

    In this work, we analyze environmental (physical and chemical) and biological (phytoplankton) data obtained along Tagus estuary during three surveys, carried out in productive period (May/June/July) at ebb tide. The main objective of this study was to identify the key environmental factors affecting phytoplankton structure in the estuary. BIOENV analysis revealed that, in study period, temperature, salinity, silicate and total phosphorus were the variables that best explained the phytoplankton spatial pattern in the estuary (Spearman correlation, rho=0.803). A generalized linear model (GLM) also identified salinity, silicate and phosphate as having a high explanatory power (63%) of phytoplankton abundance. These selected nutrients appear to be consistent with the requirements of the dominant phytoplankton group, Baccilariophyceae. Apparently, phytoplankton community is adapted to fluctuations in light intensity, as suspended particulate matter did not come out as a key factor in shaping phytoplankton structure along Tagus estuary.

  4. The dynamics of temperature and light on the growth of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Fan, Meng; Liu, Rui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Xing; Zhu, Huaiping

    2015-11-21

    Motivated by some lab and field observations of the hump shaped effects of water temperature and light on the growth of phytoplankton, a bottom-up nutrient phytoplankton model, which incorporates the combined effects of temperature and light, is proposed and analyzed to explore the dynamics of phytoplankton bloom. The population growth model reasonably captures such observed dynamics qualitatively. An ecological reproductive index is defined to characterize the growth of the phytoplankton which also allows a comprehensive analysis of the role of temperature and light on the growth and reproductive characteristics of phytoplankton in general. The model provides a framework to study the mechanisms of phytoplankton dynamics in shallow lake and may even be employed to study the controlled phytoplankton bloom.

  5. Regional species pools control community saturation in lake phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Ptacnik, Robert; Andersen, Tom; Brettum, Pål; Lepistö, Liisa; Willén, Eva

    2010-12-22

    Recent research has highlighted that positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships hold for all groups of organisms, including microbes. Yet, we still lack understanding regarding the drivers of microbial diversity, in particular, whether diversity of microbial communities is a matter of local factors, or whether metacommunities are of similar importance to what is known from higher organisms. Here, we explore the driving forces behind spatial variability in lake phytoplankton diversity in Fennoscandia. While phytoplankton biovolume is best predicted by local phosphorus concentrations, phytoplankton diversity (measured as genus richness, G) only showed weak correlations with local concentrations of total phosphorus. By estimating spatial averages of total phosphorus concentrations on various scales from an independent, spatially representative lake survey, we found that close to 70 per cent of the variability in local phytoplankton diversity can be explained by regionally averaged phosphorus concentrations on a scale between 100 and 400 km. Thus, the data strongly indicate the existence of metacommunities on this scale. Furthermore, we show a strong dependency between lake productivity and spatial community turnover. Thus, regional productivity affects beta-diversity by controlling spatial community turnover, resulting in scale-dependent productivity-diversity relationships. As an illustration of the interaction between local and regional processes in shaping microbial diversity, our results offer both empirical support and a plausible mechanism for the existence of common scaling rules in both the macrobial and the microbial worlds. We argue that awareness of regional species pools in phytoplankton and other unicellular organisms may critically improve our understanding of ecosystems and their susceptibility to anthropogenic stressors.

  6. Modelling the production of dimethylsulfide during a phytoplankton bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabric, Albert; Murray, Nicholas; Stone, Lewi; Kohl, Manfred

    1993-12-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important sulfur-containing atmospheric trace gas of marine biogenic origin. DMS emitted from the oceans may be a precursor of tropospheric aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby affecting the Earth's radiative balance and possibly constituting a negative feedback to global warming, although this hypothesis is still somewhat controversial. The revised conceptual model of the marine pelagic food web gives a central role to planktonic bacteria. Recent experiments have shown that consumption of dissolved DMS by microbial metabolism may be more important than atmospheric exchange in controlling its concentration in surface waters and hence its ventilation to the atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the effect of the marine food web on cycling of dissolved DMS in surface waters during a phytoplankton bloom episode. A nitrogen-based flow network simulation model has been used to analyze the relative importance of the various biological and chemical processes involved. The model predictions suggest that the concentration of DMS in marine surface waters is indeed governed by bacterial metabolism. Environmental factors that affect the bacterial compartment are thus likely to have a relatively large influence on dissolved DMS concentrations. The ecological succession is particularly sensitive to the ratio of phytoplankton to bacterial nutrient uptake rates as well the interaction between herbivore food chain and the microbial loop. Importantly for the design of field studies, the model predicts that peak DMS concentrations are achieved during the decline of the phytoplankton bloom with a typical time lag between peak DMS and peak phytoplankton biomass of 1 to 2 days. Significantly, the model predicts a relatively high DMS concentration persisting after the phytoplankton bloom due to excretion from large protozoa and zooplankton, which may be an additional explanation for the lack of correlation between DMS and chlorophyll a

  7. Characterizing the Phytoplankton Community of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleman, M.; Subramaniam, A.; Hay, I.

    2016-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is a semi-enclosed tropical basin that receives nutrients from two main sources: coastal upwelling and river runoff from the surrounding countries. The southwest (SW) summer monsoon that occurs between March and September drives upwelling off the coast of Vietnam, a rarity compared to most upwelling systems that are driven by eastern boundary current systems. The upwelling in the SCS and the intensity of the SW monsoon are sensitive to climate variability and are affected by phenomenon such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The size and location of the Mekong River plume also varies from year to year due to the variation in rainfall and wind strength of the monsoon. The riverine input is also influenced by anthropogenic activity such as agriculture, damming, and land-use changes. Different nutrients are supplied from these two main sources and in different quantities, and affect the structure of the phytoplankton community. Phytoplankton comprise the base of the food web, supporting the growth of higher organisms and ultimately support fisheries. We need to understand how the supply of different nutrients alters the phytoplankton community of the SCS. We sampled 22 stations along the coast of Vietnam aboard the R/V Falkor of the Schmidt Ocean Institute during the pre-monsoon season. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow cytometric techniques will be used to characterize the phytoplankton community. The relationship between the different water masses, nutrient sources, and phytoplankton community found in the SCS will be presented.

  8. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  9. On the relationship between Southern Ocean eddies and phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, Ivy; Münnich, Matthias; Gruber, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Effects on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean are crucial for the global ocean nutrient and carbon cycles. Such effects potentially arise from mesoscale eddies which are omnipresent in the region. Eddies are known to affect phytoplankton through either advection and mixing, or the stimulation/suppression of growth. Yet, the climatological relationship between Southern Ocean eddies and phytoplankton has not been quantified in detail. To provide an estimate of this relationship, we identified more than100,000 eddies in the Southern Ocean and determined associated phytoplankton anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll-a (chl) measurements. The eddies have a very substantial impact on the chl levels, with eddy associated chl differing by more than 10% from the background over wide areas. The structure of these anomalies is largely zonal, with positive anomalies north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and negative anomalies within the circumpolar belt of the ACC for cyclonic eddies. The pattern is similar but of opposite sign for anticyclonic eddies. The seasonality of this signal is weak north to the ACC, but pronounced in the vicinity of the ACC. The spatial structure and seasonality of the signal can be explained largely by advection, i.e., the eddy-circulation driven lateral transport of anomalies across large-scale gradients. We conclude this based on the shape of local chl anomalies of eddies and ambient chl gradients. In contrast, ACC winter anomalies are consistent with an effect of eddies on the light exposure of phytoplankton. The clear impact of eddies on chl implies a downstream effect on Southern Ocean biogeochemical properties.

  10. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  11. Sensitivity in forward modeled hyperspectral reflectance due to phytoplankton groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bassani, Cristiana; Pinardi, Monica; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    Phytoplankton is an integral part of the ecosystem, affecting trophic dynamics, nutrient cycling, habitat condition, and fisheries resources. The types of phytoplankton and their concentrations are used to describe the status of water and the processes inside of this. This study investigates bio-optical modeling of phytoplankton functional types (PFT) in terms of pigment composition demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to recognize freshwater phytoplankton. In particular, a sensitivity analysis of simulated hyperspectral water reflectance (with band setting of HICO, APEX, EnMAP, PRISMA and Sentinel-3) of productive eutrophic waters of Mantua lakes (Italy) environment is presented. The bio-optical model adopted for simulating the hyperspectral water reflectance takes into account the reflectance dependency on geometric conditions of light field, on inherent optical properties (backscattering and absorption coefficients) and on concentrations of water quality parameters (WQPs). The model works in the 400-750nm wavelength range, while the model parametrization is based on a comprehensive dataset of WQP concentrations and specific inherent optical properties of the study area, collected in field surveys carried out from May to September of 2011 and 2014. The following phytoplankton groups, with their specific absorption coefficients, a*Φi(λ), were used during the simulation: Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria with phycocyanin, Cyanobacteria and Cryptophytes with phycoerythrin, Diatoms with carotenoids and mixed phytoplankton. The phytoplankton absorption coefficient aΦ(λ) is modelled by multiplying the weighted sum of the PFTs, Σpia*Φi(λ), with the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a). To highlight the variability of water reflectance due to variation of phytoplankton pigments, the sensitivity analysis was performed by keeping constant the WQPs (i.e., Chl-a=80mg/l, total suspended matter=12.58g/l and yellow substances=0.27m-1). The sensitivity analysis was

  12. Observing phytoplankton physiology and ocean ecosystem structure from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Patrick

    Changes in ocean circulation in response to anthropogenic climate change affect ocean biology on a global scale. Based on a previously published empirical model that links ocean circulation to chlorophyll and chlorophyll to primary production, I predict an increase in primary production of 10--27% at the end of the 23rd century under four times pre-industrial atmospheric CO 2. The uncertainty in this prediction largely stems from the reliance on chlorophyll as the only model constraint. Chlorophyll concentrations are difficult to interpret, as they depend on phytoplankton biomass and cellular pigmentation, which adjusts to growth conditions. The objective of this thesis is to bridge the gap between laboratory-based knowledge of physiological adjustments to growth conditions and global satellite observations to reduce ambiguities in the interpretation of chlorophyll concentrations on a global scale. Satellite estimates of phytoplankton carbon and the chlorophyll to carbon ratio (Chl:C), a measure of pigmentation, are the foundation of this work. My main contribution is a re-evaluation of chlorophyll variability in the eastern subarctic Pacific, which updates the old paradigm for seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in this iron-limited region. In contrast to previous studies, I conclude that the consistently low chlorophyll concentrations are caused by a suppression of Chl:C by iron stress, rather than by reduced accumulation of phytoplankton biomass. Field observations during iron enrichment experiments and model simulations confirm that the satellite-observed suppression of Chl:C is consistent with physiological adjustments to low iron. On a global scale, I analyze how phytoplankton biomass and pigmentation interact to yield the spatial structure in surface chlorophyll and I employ a mechanistic photoacclimation model to diagnose the contributions of light, nutrients and temperature to the spatial structure in Chl:C. I further argue that the temporal variability of

  13. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (<75°W), and South (<76°N). Phytoplankton biomass and production were low during April throughout the North Water. Biomass first increased in the East during April. From there, the biomass spread north- and westwards during May-June, when the bloom culminated (chlorophyll a concentrations up to 19.8 mg m -3). The large-sized (>5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end

  14. Phytoplankton succession affects the composition of Polynucleobacter subtypes in humic lakes.

    PubMed

    Paver, Sara F; Youngblut, Nicholas D; Whitaker, Rachel J; Kent, Angela D

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton influence the composition of bacterial communities, but the taxonomic specificity of algal-bacterial interactions is unclear due to the aggregation of ecologically distinct bacterial populations by community characterization methods. Here we examine whether phytoplankton seasonal succession affects the composition of subtypes within the cosmopolitan freshwater bacterial genus Polynucleobacter. Changes in the composition of Polynucleobacter subtypes were characterized in samples collected weekly from May to August in 2003 and 2008 from three humic lakes using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of the protein-encoding cytochrome c oxidase ccoN gene. Changes in phytoplankton population abundances explained, on average, 30% of temporal variation in the composition of Polynucleobacter subtypes and the interaction between phytoplankton and the environment explained an additional 18% of temporal variation. The effect of phytoplankton on specific Polynucleobacter subtypes was experimentally confirmed by changes in Polynucleobacter subtype composition following incubation with different phytoplankton assemblages or a no-phytoplankton control. Phytoplankton-associated subtypes and differentiation in substrate use among subtypes likely contribute to the effects of phytoplankton on Polynucleobacter subtype composition. Interactions between unique Polynucleobacter populations and phytoplankton highlight the ecological significance and specificity of species interactions in freshwater communities.

  15. Do phytoplankton communities evolve through a self-regulatory abundance-diversity relationship?

    PubMed

    Roy, Shovonlal

    2009-02-01

    A small group of phytoplankton species that produce toxic or allelopathic chemicals has a significant effect on plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems. The species of non-toxic phytoplankton, which are large in number, are affected by the toxin-allelopathy of those species. By analysis of the abundance data of marine phytoplankton collected from the North-West coast of the Bay of Bengal, an empirical relationship between the abundance of the potential toxin-producing species and the species diversity of the non-toxic phytoplankton is formulated. A change-point analysis demonstrates that the diversity of non-toxic phytoplankton increases with the increase of toxic species up to a certain level. However, for a massive increase of the toxin-producing species the diversity of phytoplankton at species level reduces gradually. Following the results, a deterministic relationship between the abundance of toxic phytoplankton and the diversity of non-toxic phytoplankton is developed. The abundance-diversity relationship develops a unimodal pathway through which the abundance of toxic species regulates the diversity of phytoplankton. These results contribute to the current understanding of the coexistence and biodiversity of phytoplankton, the top-down vs. bottom-up debate, and to that of abundance-diversity relationship in marine ecosystems.

  16. Identifying the factors affecting phytoplankton abundance dynamics in Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chuang, Illy; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-04-01

    Investigations of multiple temporal distributions of phytoplankton dynamics through environmental variables in water bodies over extensive areas remain relatively scarce. This study focused on the determination of the key factors regulating temporal and spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance at three monitoring sites in Shihmen Reservoir within five years (2006-2010). Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was designed to identify the underlying latent effects in multiple time series and interactions between explanatory variables (i.e., environmental variables) and the response variable (phytoplankton abundance). The optimal DFA model successfully described the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance in the Shihmen Reservoir. The results demonstrated that water temperature, water level, COD, BOD, and DO considerably affected phytoplankton abundance at most of the monitoring sites. Among them, water temperature, water level, and COD significantly affected phytoplankton abundance at all three sites, indicating that these variables contributed more to the long-term dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than other variables at the surface water of Shihmen Reservoir. The influx and efflux of Reservoir altering hydrological conditions in Shihmen Reservoir may attenuate the nutrients effects on phytoplankton abundance. In this study, BOD and DO are the other crucial water quality factors that control variations of phytoplankton. The explanatory variables mainly explain the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than common trends do. In the future, the water manager may consider these variables to propose strategies to manage water quality in Shihmen Reservoir.

  17. Community stoichiometry in a changing world: combined effects of warming and eutrophication on phytoplankton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Domis, Lisette N De Senerpont; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Helmsing, Nico R; Van Donk, Ellen; Mooij, Wolf M

    2014-06-01

    The current changes in our climate will likely have far-reaching consequences for aquatic ecosystems. These changes in the climate, however, do not act alone, and are often accompanied by additional stressors such as eutrophication. Both global warming and eutrophication have been shown to affect the timing and magnitude of phytoplankton blooms. Little is known about the combined effects of rising temperatures and eutrophication on the stoichiometry of entire phytoplankton communities. We exposed a natural phytoplankton spring community to different warming and phosphorus-loading scenarios using a full-factorial design. Our results demonstrate that rising temperatures promote the growth rate of an entire phytoplankton community. Furthermore, both rising temperatures and phosphorus loading stimulated the maximum biomass built up by the phytoplankton community. Rising temperatures led to higher carbon: nutrient stoichiometry of the phytoplankton community under phosphorus-limited conditions. Such a shift towards higher carbon: nutrient ratios, in combination with a higher biomass buildup, suggests a temperature-driven increase in nutrient use efficiency, the phytoplankton community. Importantly, with higher carbon: nutrient stoichiometry, phytoplankton is generally of poorer nutritional value for zooplankton. Thus, although warming may result in higher phytoplankton biomass, this may be accompanied by a stoichiometric mismatch between phytoplankton and their grazers, with possible consequences for the entire aquatic food web.

  18. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  19. Marine phytoplankton and the changing ocean iron cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Boyd, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The availability of the micronutrient iron governs phytoplankton growth across much of the ocean, but the global iron cycle is changing rapidly due to accelerating acidification, stratification, warming and deoxygenation. These mechanisms of global change will cumulatively affect the aqueous chemistry, sources and sinks, recycling, particle dynamics and bioavailability of iron. Biological iron demand will vary as acclimation to environmental change modifies cellular requirements for photosynthesis and nitrogen acquisition and as adaptive evolution or community shifts occur. Warming, acidification and nutrient co-limitation interactions with iron biogeochemistry will all strongly influence phytoplankton dynamics. Predicting the shape of the future iron cycle will require understanding the responses of each component of the unique biogeochemistry of this trace element to many concurrent and interacting environmental changes.

  20. Competition drives clumpy species coexistence in estuarine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Segura, A M; Kruk, C; Calliari, D; García-Rodriguez, F; Conde, D; Widdicombe, C E; Fort, H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology. Competition is thought to reduce diversity, but hundreds of microbial aquatic primary producers species coexist and compete for a few essential resources (e.g., nutrients and light). Here, we show that resource competition is a plausible mechanism for explaining clumpy distribution on individual species volume (a proxy for the niche) of estuarine phytoplankton communities ranging from North America to South America and Europe, supporting the Emergent Neutrality hypothesis. Furthermore, such a clumpy distribution was also observed throughout the Holocene in diatoms from a sediment core. A Lotka-Volterra competition model predicted position in the niche axis and functional affiliation of dominant species within and among clumps. Results support the coexistence of functionally equivalent species in ecosystems and indicate that resource competition may be a key process to shape the size structure of estuarine phytoplankton, which in turn drives ecosystem functioning.

  1. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  2. Assessment of phytoplankton diversity as an indicator of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Yergeau, S.E.; Lang, A.; Teeters, R.

    1997-08-01

    For the measurement of water quality in freshwater systems, there are established indices using macroinvertebrate larvae. There is no such comparable measure for marine and estuarine environments. A phytoplankton diversity index (PDI), whose basic form was conceived by Dr. Ruth Gyure of Save the Sound, Inc., is being investigated as a possible candidate to rectify this situation. Phytoplankton were chosen as the indicators of water quality since algae have short generation times and respond quickly to changing water quality conditions. The methodologies involved in this initial assessment of the PDI are incorporated into the Adopt-a-Harbor water quality monitoring program and its associated laboratory. The virtues of the procedures are that they are simple and quick to use, suitable for trained volunteers to carry out, easily reproducible, and amenable to quality assurance checks.

  3. The case against climate regulation via oceanic phytoplankton sulphur emissions.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P K; Bates, T S

    2011-11-30

    More than twenty years ago, a biological regulation of climate was proposed whereby emissions of dimethyl sulphide from oceanic phytoplankton resulted in the formation of aerosol particles that acted as cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer. In this hypothesis--referred to as CLAW--the increase in cloud condensation nuclei led to an increase in cloud albedo with the resulting changes in temperature and radiation initiating a climate feedback altering dimethyl sulphide emissions from phytoplankton. Over the past two decades, observations in the marine boundary layer, laboratory studies and modelling efforts have been conducted seeking evidence for the CLAW hypothesis. The results indicate that a dimethyl sulphide biological control over cloud condensation nuclei probably does not exist and that sources of these nuclei to the marine boundary layer and the response of clouds to changes in aerosol are much more complex than was recognized twenty years ago. These results indicate that it is time to retire the CLAW hypothesis.

  4. What is causing the phytoplankton increase in San Francisco Bay?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Schraga, T.S.; Dallas, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    The largest living component of San Francisco Bay is the phytoplankton, a suspension of microscopic cells that convert sunlight energy into new living biomass through the same process of photosynthesis used by land plants. This primary production is the ultimate source of food for clams, zooplankton, crabs, sardines, halibut, sturgeon, diving ducks, pelicans, and harbor seals. From measurements made in 1980, we estimated that phytoplankton primary production in San Francisco Bay was about 200,000 tons of organic carbon per year (Jassby et al. 1993). This is equivalent to producing the biomass of 5500 adult humpback whales, or the calories to feed 1.8 million people. These numbers may seem large, but primary production in San Francisco Bay is low compared to many other nutrient-enriched estuaries.

  5. On the "hidden" phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Jochen; Kavi, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    Phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves are revisited using satellite-derived monthly data of chlorophyll a concentrations for the period 2003-2015. It is known that the region hosts a seasonal coastal upwelling system that develops in austral summer (January-March) with chlorophyll a concentrations of >2 mg/m3. While this summer upwelling is spatially limited to a few hot spots, here we show that widespread phytoplankton blooms of moderate ( 1 mg/m3) chlorophyll a concentrations develop during autumn and early winter on most of Australia's extensive southern shelves—from the vast shelves of the Great Australian Bight (GAB) in the west to Bass Strait in the east. This surprising finding disproves the widespread belief that shelf waters of the GAB are generally oligotrophic and may explain the relatively high abundance of both forage fish (sardines) and upper trophic-level predators (e.g., tuna and whales) in the region.

  6. Lidar investigations of phytoplankton distribution on the north Norwegian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, S.; Wassmann, P.

    1997-08-01

    The results of field studies of the small-scale spatial variability and seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton on the north Norwegian shelf are presented. The remote sensing has been carried out on board of RV {open_quotes}Jan Mayen{close_quotes} in May, June and September 1995. The tuneable lidar FLS-S based on excimer and dye-lasers has been used to measure the horizontal and vertical profiles of phytoplankton abundance. The data were collected in underway sensing along the tracks of 20 - 30 n.m. with horizontal spatial resolution of 100 m. In stratification measurements the lidar consistently sensed the water layers shifted to the depth with the step of 3 m.

  7. Ocean color observations of phytoplankton distributions and primary productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W.

    1988-01-01

    The primary goal of this activity is to develop the means to assess the mean and variability of phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity on global scales. There are three major approaches whose goals are to provide global scale observations. These are processing and analysis of the complete CZCS data set in a consistent manner; preparing science mission and project implementation plans for the SeaWiFS sensor to be launched on LANDSAT 6 in 1991; and providing guidance to EOS flight projects for ocean color observations using the MODIS sensor planned for the Polar Platform in the mid 1990's. This processing presents the first consistent view of phytoplankton pigments on global scales, and analysis of this temporally undersampled data set is proving very instructive in specifying mission requirements for SeaWiFS and future algorithm development.

  8. Effect of ocean acidification on iron availability to marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dalin; Xu, Yan; Hopkinson, Brian M; Morel, François M M

    2010-02-05

    The acidification caused by the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ocean changes the chemistry and hence the bioavailability of iron (Fe), a limiting nutrient in large oceanic regions. Here, we show that the bioavailability of dissolved Fe may decline because of ocean acidification. Acidification of media containing various Fe compounds decreases the Fe uptake rate of diatoms and coccolithophores to an extent predicted by the changes in Fe chemistry. A slower Fe uptake by a model diatom with decreasing pH is also seen in experiments with Atlantic surface water. The Fe requirement of model phytoplankton remains unchanged with increasing CO2. The ongoing acidification of seawater is likely to increase the Fe stress of phytoplankton populations in some areas of the ocean.

  9. Effect of Ocean Acidification on Iron Availability to Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dalin; Xu, Yan; Hopkinson, Brian M.; Morel, François M. M.

    2010-02-01

    The acidification caused by the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ocean changes the chemistry and hence the bioavailability of iron (Fe), a limiting nutrient in large oceanic regions. Here, we show that the bioavailability of dissolved Fe may decline because of ocean acidification. Acidification of media containing various Fe compounds decreases the Fe uptake rate of diatoms and coccolithophores to an extent predicted by the changes in Fe chemistry. A slower Fe uptake by a model diatom with decreasing pH is also seen in experiments with Atlantic surface water. The Fe requirement of model phytoplankton remains unchanged with increasing CO2. The ongoing acidification of seawater is likely to increase the Fe stress of phytoplankton populations in some areas of the ocean.

  10. Phytoplankton Blooms Near the Cape of Good Hope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Different phytoplankton communities color the ocean different shades of blue and green off the southern coast of South Africa in the December 22, 2000, Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) pass over the area. The convergence of two currents-the cold Benguela flowing North along the west coast of Africa, and a branch of the warm Agulhas heading west along the southern tip of the continent-causes upwelling cold, nutrient-rich water which feeds. The phytoplankton. The mixing cam also generate huge waves, making these waters very treacherous to sail. To learn more about the Benguela and Algulhas Currents, read A Clear Day Over the Agulhas Retroflection Image courtesy SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Calcifying phytoplankton biomass and CO2: A striking balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, Jorijntje; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2010-05-01

    Calcifying phytoplankton play a fundamental role in marine ecosystems and global biogeochemical cycles. Their cell size and abundance modulate the strength of the biological carbon and carbonate 'pumps', which represent important feedbacks in the Earth System. Phytoplankton biomass is thus coupled to climate variability, but the behavior of this coupling on geological time scales remains unknown. We compared fossil time series of coccolithophore relative abundance and cell size to geochemical proxy records of global climate change over much of the Cenozoic (~45-5 million years ago). We show that the Cenozoic decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (pCO2) caused a reduction in calcifying phytoplankton biomass. Our results demonstrate that long-term variation in CO2 availability and concomitant shifts in ocean carbonate chemistry have been important drivers of planktonic ecosystems beyond their association with ocean temperature and stratification. This supports the hypothesis that large-celled coccolithophores lacking a carbon concentrating mechanism were disadvantaged in a low-pCO2 world (Henderiks & Pagani 2008). In addition, decreasing biomass of calcifying phytoplankton may have represented a negative feedback during global cooling by reducing carbon drawdown and burial fluxes, potentially contributing to the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the past 24 million years (Pagani et al. 2009). References Henderiks, J. and M. Pagani (2008), Coccolithophore cell size and the Paleogene decline in atmospheric CO2, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 269, 575-583. Pagani, M., K. Caldeira, R. Berner and D. J. Beerling (2009), The role of terrestrial plants in limiting atmospheric CO2 decline over the past 24 million years, Nature, 460, 85-88.

  12. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  13. Variability of phytoplankton light absorption in Canadian Arctic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelle, Corinne B.; Larouche, Pierre; Gosselin, Michel

    Phytoplankton light absorption spectra (aϕ(λ)) were measured in the Canadian Arctic (i.e., the Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, northern Baffin Bay and the Hudson Bay system) to improve algorithms used in remote-sensing models of primary production. The absorption by algae, dominated by picophytoplankton (<5 μm), was not the major light absorption factor in the four provinces; the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed up to 70% of total light absorption. During the fall, the low total chlorophyll a-specific aϕ*(443) (aϕ(443)/TChl a) coefficients of the Canadian High Arctic were associated with photoacclimation processes (i.e., the package effect) occurring in light-limited environments. Low light availability and high proportion of CDOM (absorbing strongly the ultraviolet) seem to allow the growth of phytoplankton with accessory pigments absorbing light at longer wavelengths. The ratio of photoprotective and photosynthetic carotenoids (PPC:PSC) was inversely proportional with the salinity and the cell size, and mostly decreases throughout the Canadian High Arctic during fall. In return, the highest TChl a-specific phytoplankton light absorption coefficients at the blue peak (aϕ*(443)) were observed in the Hudson Bay system from September to October (i.e., fall) as well as in the Amundsen Gulf from May to July (i.e., spring/summer). These results will ultimately allow the accurate monitoring of phytoplankton biomass and productivity evolution that is likely to take place as a result of the fast-changing Arctic environment.

  14. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  16. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. The Use of HPLC for the Characterization of Phytoplankton Pigments.

    PubMed

    Garrido, José L; Roy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    HPLC is still the technique of choice for the analysis and characterization of phytoplankton pigments. In this chapter we describe procedures for sample preparation and pigment extraction, and the use of octyl silica columns and pyridine-containing mobile phases to separate chlorophylls and carotenoids. The identification of pigments on the basis of their retention times and visible spectra, the preparation of pigment standards, and the quantitative analysis by either external or internal standard procedures are also described.

  18. Study on the phytoplankton · in a large reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yicheng; Kuang, Qijun

    1992-12-01

    A comprehensive study on the community structure and function of the phytoplankton in Taipinghu Reservoir, the largest reservoir (9400 ha) in Anhui Province, China, was carried out during 1985 1986. A total of 175 species of algae belonging to 8 phyla and 87 genera was noted. The composition of phytoplankton was dominated by species of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. The species number, cell density and biomass of the three groups were respectively 88%, 86.5% and 78.9% of the total phytoplankton. The weighted annual average biomass was 1.52 mg/L and cell density was 1.43×106 ind/L. The growth maximum was observed in summer. Diatoms were abundant in the region adjoining a river. A large number of flagellated algae such as Euglena and Chromulina occurred in the artificial fish culture bay. It can be inferred from the algal composition and total nitrogen concentration (1.48 mg/L) that this reservoir is a mesotrophic water body that had undergone slight natural eutrophication. Presented are an equation for the relation between cell density and biomass of algae and a newly developed method based on the energy flow principle in ecology for theoretically estimating algal fishery potential. The algae volumes of 128 species were measured for calculating the biomass.

  19. Climatic Perturbations of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Mid-Atlantic Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, L. W.; Li, M.; Paerl, H.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic perturbations by drought-flood cycles, tropical storms, and hurricanes are increasingly important in Mid-Atlantic estuaries, leading to ecosystem-scale responses of the plankton system that have significant trophic implications. Recent observations support an emerging paradigm that climate dominates nutrient enrichment in these ecosystems, explaining seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton floral composition, biomass (chl-a), and primary productivity (PP). We present historical and recent data for the Chesapeake Bay and Albemarle-Pamlico Sound - Neuse River estuaries to quantify long-term trends against a backdrop of strong climatic forcing that evokes a high degree of interannual variability in these dynamic estuaries. Data sources include historical observations, monitoring cruises, individual research programs, and aircraft remote sensing of chlorophyll biomass. We describe climatic forcing of phytoplankton dynamics that principally reflects variability of freshwater flow and commensurate variability of nutrient loading and light availability. Analyses consist of spatial/temporal variability of chl-a; interannual variability of PP; statistical methods to classify regional climate; coincident forcing of floral composition, biomass, and PP by flow/climate. Data from these sources are being combined with climate analysis and biogeochemical modeling to support our current understanding, leading to predictive capabilities for phytoplankton dynamics in these rich ecosystems.

  20. Does atmospheric deposition support phytoplankton productivity in Monterey Bay, CA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazloom, S.; Mackey, K. R.; Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosol deposition has been shown to enhance phytoplankton productivity in nutrient-deplete open ocean environments, by providing phosphorus and iron to stimulate production in general and nitrogen fixation in particular. This project was designed to determine the importance of atmospheric aerosol deposition's ability to support phytoplankton in Monterey Bay, a productive upwelling region, and in waters surrounding coastal California. To conduct this experiment, MODIS satellite images of the Bay were taken from the years 2002- 2008 and were then grouped into eight day time intervals. The three factors tested in the experiment were correlations between sea surface temperature, the amount of aerosol (as determined by optical thickness), and the amount of chlorophyll. Aerosols correlated positively with chlorophyll concentrations offshore of Monterey Bay in the summer, but not within the Bay itself. No significant correlations were found for any locations in the winter months. The trends found in the experiment will be shown and the importance of atmospheric aerosol in supporting phytoplankton production in Monterey Bay will be highlighted.

  1. Phytoplankton dynamics in three Rocky Mountain lakes, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Smith, R.L.; Bradbury, J.P.; Baron, J.S.; Spaulding, S.

    1990-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985 seasonal changes in phytoplankton were studied in a system of three lakes in Loch Vale, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Three periods were evident: (1) A spring bloom, during snowmelt, of the planktonic diatom Asterionella formosa, (2) a mid-summer period of minimal algal abundance, and (3) a fall bloom of the blue-green alga Oscillatoria limnetica. Seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in these lakes are controlled partially by the rapid flushing rate during snowmelt and the transport of phytoplankton from the highest lake to the lower lakes by the stream, Icy Brook. During snowmelt, the A. formosa population in the most downstream lake has a net rate of increase of 0.34 d-1, which is calculated from the flushing rate and from the A. formosa abundance in the inflow from the upstream lake and in the downstream lake. Measurement of photosynthetic rates at different depths during the three periods confirmed the rapid growth of A. formosa during the spring. The decline in A. formosa after snowmelt may be related to grazing by developing zooplankton populations. The possible importance of the seasonal variations in nitrate concentrations were evaluated in situ enrichment experiments. For A. formosa and O. limnetica populations, growth stimulation resulted from 8- or 16-micromolar amendments of calcium nitrate and sulfuric acid, but the reason for this stimulation could not be determined from these experiments.

  2. Turbulence increases the average settling velocity of phytoplankton cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Javier; Macías, Diego; Peters, Francesc

    2004-12-01

    It is a well known fact that stirring keeps particles suspended in fluids. This is apparent, for instance, when shaking medicine flasks, when agitating tea deposits in a mug, or when heavy winds fill the air with dust particles. The commonplace nature of such observations makes it easy to accept that this feature will apply to any natural phenomenon as long as the flow is turbulent enough. This has been the case for phytoplankton in the surface mixed layers of lakes and oceans. The traditional view assumes that an increase in turbulence bears ecological advantages for nonmotile groups like diatoms that, otherwise, would settle in deep and unlit waters. However, this assumption has no theoretical ground, and the experimental results we present here point in the opposite direction. Phytoplankton settling velocity increases when turbulence intensifies from the low to the higher values recorded in the upper mixed layers of lakes and oceans. Consequently, turbulence does not favor phytoplankton remaining in lit waters but is rather an environmental stress that can only be avoided through morphological and/or physiological adaptations.

  3. Nutrients and phytoplankton in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, Antonio; Velasquez, Zoila R.

    1990-09-01

    The mostly oligotrophic character of the Mediterranean Sea is altered drastically in areas receiving the outflow from large rivers. The Gulf of Lions, receiving discharges from the Rhoˆne River, has nutrient and phytoplankton concentration much higher than the adjacent open northwestern Mediterranean Sea. A surface layer of freshwater, with thickness that varies with the meteorological conditions between 2 and 40 m, overlies the deeper open seawater; this is advected onto the shelf and influences an area that covers the eastern half of the Gulf of Lions. Most of the waters affected by the river discharges show property relationships indicating conservative behaviour, with very little or no loss of nutrients through phytoplankton uptake, particularly in winter. Phytoplankton populations in winter are sparse, with maximum densities just above and below the boundary between the fresh- and seawater. Diatoms are the main group of organisms, although dinoflagellates, coceolithophorids and cyanobacteria are abundant. Small heterotrophs (cilliates, tintinnids, etc.) are also abundant and are positively correlated with the diatoms. A water balance model, linking the river discharge to the advective fluxes of water and nutrients, is proposed. The primary productivity supported by such fluxes is estimated.

  4. Variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Lawrence W., Jr.; Mallonee, Michael E.; Perry, Elgin S.; Miller, W. David; Adolf, Jason E.; Gallegos, Charles L.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2016-03-01

    Variable climatic conditions strongly influence phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries globally. Our study area is Chesapeake Bay, a highly productive ecosystem providing natural resources, transportation, and recreation for nearly 16 million people inhabiting a 165,000-km2 watershed. Since World War II, nutrient over-enrichment has led to multiple ecosystem impairments caused by increased phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll-a (chl-a). Doubled nitrogen (N) loadings from 1945–1980 led to increased chl-a, reduced water clarity, and low dissolved oxygen (DO), while decreased N loadings from 1981–2012 suggest modest improvement. The recent 30+ years are characterized by high inter-annual variability of chl-a, coinciding with irregular dry and wet periods, complicating the detection of long-term trends. Here, we synthesize time-series data for historical and recent N loadings (TN, NO2 + NO3), chl-a, floral composition, and net primary productivity (NPP) to distinguish secular changes caused by nutrient over-enrichment from spatio-temporal variability imposed by climatic conditions. Wet years showed higher chl-a, higher diatom abundance, and increased NPP, while dry years showed lower chl-a, lower diatom abundance, and decreased NPP. Our findings support a conceptual model wherein variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics against a backdrop of nutrient over-enrichment, emphasizing the need to separate these effects to gauge progress toward improving water quality in estuaries.

  5. Phytoplankton and the balance of nature: An opinion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, Richard J.; Tett, Paul; Smayda, Theodore J.

    2012-11-01

    Recent European Court rulings in the context of eutrophication viewed proliferation of a particular species of algae as a disturbance to the balance of aquatic ecosystems and the proliferation of one or more species as a cause of a reduction in other species. We discuss the scientific basis for this opinion in relation to the growth of marine primary producers and current debates about ecosystem stability. Opposing views in this debate are those of (a) the 'balance of nature' paradigm, in which communities of organisms tend towards a stable climax composition, and (b) communities as dynamic systems that may be governed by 'basins of attraction' in state space. We use data from the Irish Sea and Narragansett Bay, together with a review of the literature, to show that: the dynamics of temperate marine phytoplankton, with seasonal successions, corresponds more to (b) than to (a); the temporary dominance of any one species of micro-alga or cyanobacterium is part of the natural dynamics of phytoplankton communities and does not permanently impact on other species. Understanding the phytoplankton as a dynamic system suggests its status should not be assessed against a 'climax' model and that eutrophication should be diagnosed from fundamental (nutrient-induced) perturbations of ecosystem state and function rather than from changes in fixed assemblages of species and thresholds of abundance.

  6. The physiology of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) production in phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.D.; Bellows, W.K. )

    1990-06-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is the precursor of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the primary volatile organic sulfur compound released from the world's oceans. DMS flux from the oceans is estimated currently at {approximately}1.2 Tmol S.y{sup {minus}1}, or about half the amount of sulfur resulting from anthroprogenic activities, and has been implicated in important global atmospheric processes. Significant production of DMSP is confined to a few classes of marine phytoplankton, primarily the Dinophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae. In these groups, DMSP can account for up to 80% of total organic sulfur. DMSP remains intracellular and fairly constant over the growth cycle until late stationary phase when extracellular levels begin to rise, suggesting leakage. We have examined the effects of a number of environmental variables on DMSP production and release in several marine phytoplankton. In particular the effects of perturbations in light, temperature and nutrient status have been determined. These results will be discussed in relation to marine sulfur chemistry, with ancillary comments on freshwater phytoplankton.

  7. Self-sedimentation of phytoplankton blooms in the geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Kurt A.; Lange, Carina B.; Gill, Amarpal S.

    1997-06-01

    Understanding the formation of laminated, organic-rich sediments is an essential topic for researchers interested in fossil fuels, biogeochemical cycles, Earth's environmental history and global change. Biologists have very recently demonstrated that some marine phytoplankton blooms actively govern their own sedimentation by the formation of sticky transparent gels that facilitate rapid aggregation, accelerated sinking and efficient export flux. Here we present fossil evidence of unfragmented, low-diversity phytoplankton assemblages preserved as sedimentary laminae and irregular flocs that are attributable to a similar phytoplankton-driven sedimentary mechanism we term 'self-sedimentation'. The geological evidence suggests that self-sedimentation precludes significant heterotrophic grazing, propels the formation of some conspicuous hemipelagic sedimentary laminae and results in efficient carbon and opal flux to the sediments. We suggest that the self-sedimentation phenomenon may have broad implications for the geological history of biogeochemical cycling, oceanic ecological dynamics, and abrupt atmospheric/environmental change. Broader recognition of the self-sedimentation phenomenon as explicitly defined here is a prerequisite to testing these unconventional hypotheses.

  8. Variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Harding, Lawrence W; Mallonee, Michael E; Perry, Elgin S; Miller, W David; Adolf, Jason E; Gallegos, Charles L; Paerl, Hans W

    2016-03-30

    Variable climatic conditions strongly influence phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries globally. Our study area is Chesapeake Bay, a highly productive ecosystem providing natural resources, transportation, and recreation for nearly 16 million people inhabiting a 165,000-km(2) watershed. Since World War II, nutrient over-enrichment has led to multiple ecosystem impairments caused by increased phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll-a (chl-a). Doubled nitrogen (N) loadings from 1945-1980 led to increased chl-a, reduced water clarity, and low dissolved oxygen (DO), while decreased N loadings from 1981-2012 suggest modest improvement. The recent 30+ years are characterized by high inter-annual variability of chl-a, coinciding with irregular dry and wet periods, complicating the detection of long-term trends. Here, we synthesize time-series data for historical and recent N loadings (TN, NO2 + NO3), chl-a, floral composition, and net primary productivity (NPP) to distinguish secular changes caused by nutrient over-enrichment from spatio-temporal variability imposed by climatic conditions. Wet years showed higher chl-a, higher diatom abundance, and increased NPP, while dry years showed lower chl-a, lower diatom abundance, and decreased NPP. Our findings support a conceptual model wherein variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics against a backdrop of nutrient over-enrichment, emphasizing the need to separate these effects to gauge progress toward improving water quality in estuaries.

  9. Variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Jr., Lawrence W.; Mallonee, Michael E.; Perry, Elgin S.; Miller, W. David; Adolf, Jason E.; Gallegos, Charles L.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Variable climatic conditions strongly influence phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries globally. Our study area is Chesapeake Bay, a highly productive ecosystem providing natural resources, transportation, and recreation for nearly 16 million people inhabiting a 165,000-km2 watershed. Since World War II, nutrient over-enrichment has led to multiple ecosystem impairments caused by increased phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll-a (chl-a). Doubled nitrogen (N) loadings from 1945–1980 led to increased chl-a, reduced water clarity, and low dissolved oxygen (DO), while decreased N loadings from 1981–2012 suggest modest improvement. The recent 30+ years are characterized by high inter-annual variability of chl-a, coinciding with irregular dry and wet periods, complicating the detection of long-term trends. Here, we synthesize time-series data for historical and recent N loadings (TN, NO2 + NO3), chl-a, floral composition, and net primary productivity (NPP) to distinguish secular changes caused by nutrient over-enrichment from spatio-temporal variability imposed by climatic conditions. Wet years showed higher chl-a, higher diatom abundance, and increased NPP, while dry years showed lower chl-a, lower diatom abundance, and decreased NPP. Our findings support a conceptual model wherein variable climatic conditions dominate recent phytoplankton dynamics against a backdrop of nutrient over-enrichment, emphasizing the need to separate these effects to gauge progress toward improving water quality in estuaries. PMID:27026279

  10. Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Boss, Emmanuel; Siegel, David A.; Shea, Donald M.

    2005-03-01

    Ocean biogeochemical and ecosystem processes are linked by net primary production (NPP) in the ocean's surface layer, where inorganic carbon is fixed by photosynthetic processes. Determinations of NPP are necessarily a function of phytoplankton biomass and its physiological status, but the estimation of these two terms from space has remained an elusive target. Here we present new satellite ocean color observations of phytoplankton carbon (C) and chlorophyll (Chl) biomass and show that derived Chl:C ratios closely follow anticipated physiological dependencies on light, nutrients, and temperature. With this new information, global estimates of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and carbon-based NPP are made for the first time. Compared to an earlier chlorophyll-based approach, our carbon-based values are considerably higher in tropical oceans, show greater seasonality at middle and high latitudes, and illustrate important differences in the formation and demise of regional algal blooms. This fusion of emerging concepts from the phycological and remote sensing disciplines has the potential to fundamentally change how we model and observe carbon cycling in the global oceans.

  11. Multispectral tracking of phytoplankton in the Colombian Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda Caicedo, V. V.; Plata, Arturo

    2004-10-01

    In a quantitative research study, the concentration and circulation of group of micro-organisms "phytoplankton" have been found through the images of the ocean color in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. These images have been observed through the Sea Star satellite. The method logical procedure was to collect a number of ocean images at the 1A level of the sensor SeaWifs. This only covered the geographical area of study and the seasons of the year. The selection criterion was to give priority to the absence of clouds in the area. Afterwards, the images were analyzed to create mosaics in convenient periods to visualize the periodical changes of the micro-organisms. Thus, places with higher concentration of phytoplankton in the study site were identified. This led to quantitative analyses of the concentration level of the subject of study. To analyze the images analytic algorithms were used to fit the sensor. The atmospheric correction of the SeaWifs images was made with the SeaDas software to obtain levels two and three of the images. This was done to calculate the primary production of phytoplankton.

  12. Photosynthetic efficiency predicts toxic effects of metal nanomaterials in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Muller, Erik B; Cole, Bryan; Martin, Tyronne; Nisbet, Roger; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Keller, Arturo A; Cherr, Gary; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2017-02-01

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) using in vitro assessments at the subcellular level has great promise for screening new chemicals and emerging contaminants to identify high-risk candidates, but their linkage to ecological impacts has seldom been evaluated. We tested whether a battery of subcellular HTS tests could be used to accurately predict population-level effects of engineered metal nanoparticles (ENPs) on marine phytoplankton, important primary producers that support oceanic food webs. To overcome well-known difficulties of estimating ecologically meaningful toxicity parameters, we used novel Dynamic Energy Budget and Toxicodynamic (DEBtox) modeling techniques to evaluate impacts of ENPs on population growth rates. Our results show that population growth was negatively impacted by all four ENPs tested, but the HTS tests assessing many cell/physiological functions lacked predictive power at the population level. However, declining photosynthetic efficiency, a traditional physiological endpoint for photoautotrophs, was a good predictor of population level effects in phytoplankton. DEBtox techniques provided robust estimates of EC10 for population growth rates in exponentially growing batch cultures of phytoplankton, and should be widely useful for ecotoxicological testing. Adoption of HTS approaches for ecotoxicological assessment should carefully evaluate the predictive power of specific assays to minimize the risk that effects at higher levels of biological organization may go undetected.

  13. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  14. Phytoplankton distribution and productivity in a highly turbid, tropical coastal system (Bach Dang Estuary, Vietnam).

    PubMed

    Rochelle-Newall, E J; Chu, V T; Pringault, O; Amouroux, D; Arfi, R; Bettarel, Y; Bouvier, T; Bouvier, C; Got, P; Nguyen, T M H; Mari, X; Navarro, P; Duong, T N; Cao, T T T; Pham, T T; Ouillon, S; Torréton, J-P

    2011-11-01

    Phytoplankton diversity, primary and bacterial production, nutrients and metallic contaminants were measured during the wet season (July) and dry season (March) in the Bach Dang Estuary, a sub-estuary of the Red River system, Northern Vietnam. Using canonical correspondence analysis we show that phytoplankton community structure is potentially influenced by both organometallic species (Hg and Sn) and inorganic metal (Hg) concentrations. During March, dissolved methylmercury and inorganic mercury were important factors for determining phytoplankton community composition at most of the stations. In contrast, during July, low salinity phytoplankton community composition was associated with particulate methylmercury concentrations, whereas phytoplankton community composition in the higher salinity stations was more related to dissolved inorganic mercury and dissolved mono and tributyltin concentrations. These results highlight the importance of taking into account factors other than light and nutrients, such as eco-toxic heavy metals, in understanding phytoplankton diversity and activity in estuarine ecosystems.

  15. Cyanobacteria dominance influences resource use efficiency and community turnover in phytoplankton and zooplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Filstrup, Christopher T; Hillebrand, Helmut; Heathcote, Adam J; Harpole, W Stanley; Downing, John A

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater biodiversity loss potentially disrupts ecosystem services related to water quality and may negatively impact ecosystem functioning and temporal community turnover. We analysed a data set containing phytoplankton and zooplankton community data from 131 lakes through 9 years in an agricultural region to test predictions that plankton communities with low biodiversity are less efficient in their use of limiting resources and display greater community turnover (measured as community dissimilarity). Phytoplankton resource use efficiency (RUE = biomass per unit resource) was negatively related to phytoplankton evenness (measured as Pielou's evenness), whereas zooplankton RUE was positively related to phytoplankton evenness. Phytoplankton and zooplankton RUE were high and low, respectively, when Cyanobacteria, especially Microcystis sp., dominated. Phytoplankton communities displayed slower community turnover rates when dominated by few genera. Our findings, which counter findings of many terrestrial studies, suggest that Cyanobacteria dominance may play important roles in ecosystem functioning and community turnover in nutrient-enriched lakes.

  16. The search for phytoplankton applied remote sensing to the Barataria basin

    SciTech Connect

    Massasati, A.S.; Marstall, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    Mapping phytoplankton has been and still is an important issue in determining the productivity of major water bodies in the United States and around the world. While traditional procedures require an immense amount of time and manpower, remote sensing/GIS technology shows promise for a more cost effective and comprehensive solution for the mapping problem. Satellite Thematic Mapper and airborne CAMS data are used to identify and delineate phytoplankton. The physical properties of phytoplankton represented per pixel are measured and characterized into classes so that objective and statistically significant statements are made at the most elementary level. On this qualitative foundation, pixels are aggregated into units of phytoplankton concentration. These pixels are characterized by class groups and compared to well known facts and field observations of phytoplankton to determine its concentration. The procedure has been applied to the Barataria Bay drainage basin in Southern Louisiana and showed strong possibilities in mapping phytoplankton concentrations.

  17. Flood pulse influence on phytoplankton community of the Aksu Stream, Giresun, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Elif Neyran

    2015-01-01

    Flood pulse influence on phytoplankton communities of the Aksu Stream, Giresun, Turkey were studied between December 2008 and December 2009. The phytoplankton communities consisted of 54 species. The number of species and diversity of phytoplankton showed seasonal variation, being high in rainy season. As a consequence of the flood which occurred twice in July 2009, phytoplankton environment changed physically and chemically, which resulted in an alteration in the composition of phytoplankton community. The phytoplankton community that existed previous to the flood event, had been dominated by Hantzschia amphioxys but was replaced by Nitzschia palea and a teratological form of Fragilaria sp. Presence of teratological form of diatom in the stream indicated unfavourable conditions in this region.

  18. Water quality, phytoplankton and zooplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Volume 2. Phytoplankton. Final report, January 1984-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chimney, M.J.; Cody, W.R.; Starkel, W.M.

    1985-08-01

    This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B phytoplankton community. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the biological communities and environmental conditions in Par Pond and Pond B; (2) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of plankton at the Par Pond pumphouse; (3) assess the impact of heated discharge on the biotic communities throughout the reservoir; and (4) help determine if Par Pond maintains an indigenous balanced biological community as defined in state and federal regulations. A total of 368 phytoplankton taxa, representing all the major taxonomic groups characteristic of North American freshwaters, were identified from Par Pond and Pond B during this study (73 Bacillariophyta, 166 Chlorophyta, 30 Chrysophyta, 5 Cryptophyta, 47 Cyanophyta, 18 Euglenophyta, 11 phytoflaggelates and 18 Pyrrophyta).

  19. Controls on marine carbon fluxes via phytoplankton-mesoplankton interactions in continental shelf waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Sherr, B.F.; Sherr, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    The project is an in-depth evaluation of the phytoplankton [yields] phagotrophic protist trophic link. The principal goals of the first year are to develop methods for the second phase of the Ocean Margins Program: investigations in the field. Our project is focused on: impact of grazing by phagotrophic protists on phytoplankton; impact of grazing by phagotrophic protists on bacterioplankton; taxon-specific growth rates of phytoplankton in situ, as they are affected by phagotrophy rates.

  20. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  1. Temporal and spatial variations in phytoplankton: correlations with environmental factors in Shengjin Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Chao; Deng, Daogui; Zhao, Xiuxia; Zhou, Zhongze

    2015-09-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in the phytoplankton community and environmental variables were investigated from February to July 2014, in the upper lake of Shengjin Lake, China. We identified 192 species of phytoplankton belonging to 8 phyla and 84 genera, of which 46.4% of Chlorophyta, 29.2% of Bacillariophyta, and 12.5% of Cyanophyta. There were 14 predominant species. Marked temporal and spatial variations were observed in the phytoplankton community. The total abundance of phytoplankton ranged from 3.66 × 10(5) to 867.93 × 10(5) cells/L and total biomass ranging from 0.40 to 20.89 mg/L. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index varied from 3.50 to 8.35 with an average of 5.58, revealing high biodiversity in the phytoplankton community. There were substantial temporal changes in the dominant species, from Bacillariophyta and Cryptophyta to Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta. Phytoplankton biomass and abundance showed a similar increasing trend from February to July. Pearson correlations and Redundancy analysis revealed that the most significant environmental factors influencing phytoplankton community were water temperature (T), transparency (SD), and nutrient concentration. The positive correlation between the key water bird areas and phytoplankton biomass indicated that the droppings of wintering water birds had an important influence on the phytoplankton community in the upper lake of Shengjin Lake.

  2. Synchronous dynamics and correlations between bacteria and phytoplankton in a subtropical drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun; Lv, Hong; Yu, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Both phytoplankton and bacteria are key and abundant components of aquatic ecosystems and play pivotal roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and function. However, the extent to which phytoplankton community succession influences changes in bacterial community composition (BCC) is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the correlations between bacteria and phytoplankton communities and determined the relative contribution of phytoplankton community succession to temporal variation of BCC in a subtropical drinking water reservoir (Tingxi Reservoir, southeast China). Bacterial communities were investigated by quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while phytoplankton communities were analyzed by light microscopy. A remarkable seasonal succession from Cyanophyta to Bacillariophyta was observed during the study period, and this succession can accurately predict the distribution and abundance of the bacterial OTUs based on the discriminant function analysis. Association networks revealed that 38 of the 46 abundant bacterial OTUs exhibited significant correlations with phytoplankton. More interestingly, the positive correlations dominated the associated network, which may suggest that facilitative correlations between phytoplankton and bacteria are more important than inhibitory correlations in the Tingxi Reservoir. In addition, some bacterial OTUs were closely correlated with the dynamics of Microcystis, and they were affiliated with the divisions Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Structural equation model showed that succession of phytoplankton community explained the largest part of temporal variation in BCC. Therefore, our data suggest that the distinct succession of phytoplankton community may mediate the temporal dynamics of bacterial community in the Tingxi Reservoir.

  3. Phytoplankton Diversity Effects on Community Biomass and Stability along Nutrient Gradients in a Eutrophic Lake.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Feifan; Huang, Hai

    2017-01-20

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology, but how this relationship is affected by nutrient stress is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the phytoplankton diversity effects on community biomass and stability along nutrient gradients in an artificial eutrophic lake. Four nutrient gradients, varying from slightly eutrophic to highly eutrophic states, were designed by adjusting the amount of polluted water that flowed into the lake. Mean phytoplankton biomass, species richness, and Shannon diversity index all showed significant differences among the four nutrient gradients. Phytoplankton community biomass was correlated with diversity (both species richness and Shannon diversity index), varying from positive to negative along the nutrient gradients. The influence of phytoplankton species richness on resource use efficiency (RUE) also changed from positive to negative along the nutrient gradients. However, the influence of phytoplankton Shannon diversity on RUE was not significant. Both phytoplankton species richness and Shannon diversity had a negative influence on community turnover (measured as community dissimilarity), i.e., a positive diversity-stability relationship. Furthermore, phytoplankton spatial stability decreased along the nutrient gradients in the lake. With increasing nutrient concentrations, the variability (standard deviation) of phytoplankton community biomass increased more rapidly than the average total biomass. Results in this study will be helpful in understanding the phytoplankton diversity effects on ecosystem functioning and how these effects are influenced by nutrient conditions in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Phytoplankton Diversity Effects on Community Biomass and Stability along Nutrient Gradients in a Eutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Feifan; Huang, Hai

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology, but how this relationship is affected by nutrient stress is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the phytoplankton diversity effects on community biomass and stability along nutrient gradients in an artificial eutrophic lake. Four nutrient gradients, varying from slightly eutrophic to highly eutrophic states, were designed by adjusting the amount of polluted water that flowed into the lake. Mean phytoplankton biomass, species richness, and Shannon diversity index all showed significant differences among the four nutrient gradients. Phytoplankton community biomass was correlated with diversity (both species richness and Shannon diversity index), varying from positive to negative along the nutrient gradients. The influence of phytoplankton species richness on resource use efficiency (RUE) also changed from positive to negative along the nutrient gradients. However, the influence of phytoplankton Shannon diversity on RUE was not significant. Both phytoplankton species richness and Shannon diversity had a negative influence on community turnover (measured as community dissimilarity), i.e., a positive diversity–stability relationship. Furthermore, phytoplankton spatial stability decreased along the nutrient gradients in the lake. With increasing nutrient concentrations, the variability (standard deviation) of phytoplankton community biomass increased more rapidly than the average total biomass. Results in this study will be helpful in understanding the phytoplankton diversity effects on ecosystem functioning and how these effects are influenced by nutrient conditions in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:28117684

  5. Exploring the Link between Micronutrients and Phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during the 2007 Austral Summer

    PubMed Central

    Hassler, Christel S.; Sinoir, Marie; Clementson, Lesley A.; Butler, Edward C. V.

    2012-01-01

    Bottle assays and large-scale fertilization experiments have demonstrated that, in the Southern Ocean, iron often controls the biomass and the biodiversity of primary producers. To grow, phytoplankton need numerous other trace metals (micronutrients) required for the activity of key enzymes and other intracellular functions. However, little is known of the potential these other trace elements have to limit the growth of phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean. This study, investigates whether micronutrients other than iron (Zn, Co, Cu, Cd, Ni) need to be considered as parameters for controlling the phytoplankton growth from the Australian Subantarctic to the Polar Frontal Zones during the austral summer 2007. Analysis of nutrient disappearance ratios, suggested differential zones in phytoplankton growth control in the study region with a most intense phytoplankton growth limitation between 49 and 50°S. Comparison of micronutrient disappearance ratios, metal distribution, and biomarker pigments used to identify dominating phytoplankton groups, demonstrated that a complex interaction between Fe, Zn, and Co might exist in the study region. Although iron remains the pivotal micronutrient for phytoplankton growth and community structure, Zn and Co are also important for the nutrition and the growth of most of the dominating phytoplankton groups in the Subantarctic Zone region. Understanding of the parameters controlling phytoplankton is paramount, as it affects the functioning of the Southern Ocean, its marine resources and ultimately the global carbon cycle. PMID:22787456

  6. The percentage of living bacterial cells related to organic carbon release from senescent oceanic phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasternas, S.; Agustí, S.

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria recycle vast amounts of organic carbon, playing key biogeochemical and ecological roles in the ocean. Bacterioplankton dynamics are expected to be dependent on phytoplankton primary production, but there is a high diversity of processes (e.g., sloppy feeding, cell exudation, viral lysis) involved in the transfer of primary production to dissolved organic carbon available to bacteria. Here, we show the percentage of living heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean in relation to phytoplankton extracellular carbon release (PER). PER represents the fraction of primary production released as dissolved organic carbon. PER variability was explained by phytoplankton cell death, with communities experiencing higher phytoplankton cell mortality showing a larger proportion of phytoplankton extracellular carbon release. Both PER and the percentage of dead phytoplankton cells increased from eutrophic to oligotrophic waters, while abundance of heterotrophic bacteria was highest in the intermediate waters. The percentage of living heterotrophic bacterial cells (range: 60-95%) increased with increasing phytoplankton extracellular carbon release from productive to oligotrophic waters in the subtropical NE Atlantic. The lower PERs, observed at the upwelling waters, have resulted in a decrease in the flux of phytoplankton dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per bacterial cell. The results highlight phytoplankton cell death as a process influencing the flow of dissolved photosynthetic carbon in this region of the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean, and suggest a close coupling between the fraction of primary production released and heterotrophic bacterial cell survival.

  7. PHYTOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN A GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARY: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHOTO-PHYSIOLOGY AND ALGAL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY TO PREDICT NUTRIENT STATUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of rapid techniques to determine in situ phytoplankton nutrient status could facilitate understanding of phytoplankton growth and species succession. Variable fluorescence parameters of phytoplankton communities can be easily and rapidly measured, and changes in param...

  8. Global change and the biogeochemistry of the North Sea: the possible role of phytoplankton and phytoplankton grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Diel-Christiansen, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Phytoplankton plays a dominant role in shelf biogeochemistry by producing the major part of organic matter. Part of the organic matter will reach the sediment where diagenetic processes like denitrification, apatite formation or burial will remove nutrients from the biogeochemical cycle. In this article current knowledge on the decadal plankton variability in the North Sea is summarized and possible implications of these changes for the biogeochemistry of the North Sea are discussed. Most of the observed interdecadal dynamics seem to be linked to large-scale oceanographic and atmospheric processes. Prominent changes in the North Sea ecosystem have taken place around 1979 and 1988. In general, the phytoplankton color (CPRS indicator of phytoplankton biomass) reached minimum values during the end of the 1970s and has increased especially since the mid 1980s. Changes with a similar timing have been identified in many time series from the North Sea through the entire ecosystem and are sometimes referred to as regime shifts. It is suggested that the impact of global change on the local biogeochemistry is largely driven by the phyto- and zooplankton dynamics during spring and early summer. At that time the extent of zooplankton-phytoplankton interaction either allows that a large part of the new production is settling to the sediment, or that a significant part of the new production including the fixed nutrients is kept within the pelagic system. The origin of the extent of the phytoplankton-zooplankton interaction in spring is probably set in the previous autumn and winter. In coastal areas, both large-scale atmospheric and oceanographic changes as well as anthropogenic factors influence the long-term dynamics. Due to eutrophication, local primary production nowadays still is up to five times higher than during pre-industrial conditions, despite a decreasing trend. Recently, introduced species have strengthened the filter feeder component of coastal ecosystems

  9. Seasonal distribution of phytoplankton assemblages and nutrient-enriched bioassays as indicators of nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in Gwangyang Bay, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Dongseon; Son, Moonho; Yun, Suk Min; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-09-01

    To assess the effect of nutrient limitation on phytoplankton growth, and its influence on seasonal variation in phytoplankton community structure, we investigated abiotic and biotic factors in surface and bottom waters at 20 stations in inner and offshore areas of Gwangyang Bay, Korea. Algal bioassay experiments were also conducted using surface water, to assess the effects of nutrient addition on the phytoplankton assemblages. The fate of major nutrients in the bay was strongly dependent on the discharge of freshwater from the Seomjin River. River flow during the rainy season provides a high nitrogen (N) influx, pushing the system toward stoichiometric phosphorus (P) limitation. However, at some times during the rainy season there was insufficient N to maintain phytoplankton growth because it was rapidly consumed through nutrient uptake by phytoplankton under stratified environmental conditions. Diatoms made a relatively large contribution to total phytoplankton biomass. The dominant diatoms, particularly in winter and summer, were Skeletonema marinoi-dohrnii complex and Skeletonema tropicum, respectively, while Eucampia zodiacus and the cryptophyte Cryptomonas spp. dominated in spring and autumn, respectively, comprising more than 75% of the community at most stations. In the bioassay experiments the phytoplankton biomass increased by 30-600% in the +N (added nitrogen) and +NP (added nitrogen and phosphorus) treatments relative to the control and the +P (added phosphorus) treatments, indicating that phytoplankton growth can respond rapidly to pulsed nitrate loading events. Based on the algal bioassay and the field survey, the abrupt input of high nutrient levels following rainfall stimulated the growth of diatom assemblages including the Skeletonema genus. Our results demonstrate that the growth of centric diatoms was enhanced by inputs of N and Si, and that the concentrations of these nutrients may be among the most important factors controlling phytoplankton

  10. Small phytoplankton contribution to the standing stocks and the total primary production in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang H.; Kim, Bo Kyung; Lim, Yu Jeong; Joo, HuiTae; Kang, Jae Joong; Lee, Dabin; Park, Jisoo; Ha, Sun-Yong; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-08-01

    Small phytoplankton are anticipated to be more important in a recently warming and freshening ocean condition. However, little information on the contribution of small phytoplankton to overall phytoplankton production is currently available in the Amundsen Sea. To determine the contributions of small phytoplankton to total biomass and primary production, carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of total and small phytoplankton were obtained from 12 productivity stations in the Amundsen Sea. The daily carbon uptake rates of total phytoplankton averaged in this study were 0.42 g C m-2 d-1 (SD = ± 0.30 g C m-2 d-1) and 0.84 g C m-2 d-1 (SD = ± 0.18 g C m-2 d-1) for non-polynya and polynya regions, respectively, whereas the daily total nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) uptake rates were 0.12 g N m-2 d-1 (SD = ± 0.09 g N m-2 d-1) and 0.21 g N m-2 d-1 (SD = ± 0.11 g N m-2 d-1), respectively, for non-polynya and polynya regions, all of which were within the ranges reported previously. Small phytoplankton contributed 26.9 and 27.7 % to the total carbon and nitrogen uptake rates of phytoplankton in this study, respectively, which were relatively higher than the chlorophyll a contribution (19.4 %) of small phytoplankton. For a comparison of different regions, the contributions for chlorophyll a concentration and primary production of small phytoplankton averaged from all the non-polynya stations were 42.4 and 50.8 %, which were significantly higher than those (7.9 and 14.9 %, respectively) in the polynya region. A strong negative correlation (r2 = 0. 790, p<0. 05) was found between the contributions of small phytoplankton and the total daily primary production of phytoplankton in this study. This finding implies that daily primary production decreases as small phytoplankton contribution increases, which is mainly due to the lower carbon uptake rate of small phytoplankton than large phytoplankton.

  11. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea

    PubMed Central

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C.; Daniels, Chris J.; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  12. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  13. Phytoplankton response to whole lake inorganic N fertilization along a gradient in dissolved organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Deininger, A; Faithfull, C L; Bergström, A-K

    2017-04-01

    Global change has increased inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC; i.e., "browning") inputs to northern hemisphere boreal lakes. However, we do not know how phytoplankton in nutrient poor lake ecosystems of different DOC concentration respond to increased N availability. Here, we monitored changes in phytoplankton production, biomass and community composition in response to whole lake inorganic N fertilization in six boreal unproductive Swedish lakes divided into three lake pairs (control, N enriched) at three DOC levels (low, medium, high), with one reference year (2011) and 2 impact yr (2012, 2013). We found that phytoplankton biomass and production decreased with DOC concentration before N fertilization. Further, phytoplankton community composition also differed with respect to DOC, with a dominance of non-flagellated autotrophs at low DOC towards an increasing dominance of flagellated autotrophs with increased lake DOC concentration. The N fertilization increased phytoplankton biomass and production in all lakes, but did not affect phytoplankton community composition. However, the net response in biomass and production to N fertilization declined with increasing DOC, implying that the lake DOC concentration is critical in order to infer phytoplankton responses to N fertilization, and that the system switches from being primarily nutrient limited to becoming increasingly light limited with increased DOC concentration. In conclusion, our results show that browning will reduce phytoplankton production and biomass and influence phytoplankton community composition, whereas increased inorganic N loadings from deposition, forestry or other land use will primarily enhance phytoplankton biomass and production. Together, any change in the landscape that enhances inorganic N availability will increase phytoplankton production and biomass, but the positive effects of N will be much weaker or even neutralized in browner lakes as caused by light limitation.

  14. Phytoplankton community structure and dynamics in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Rivera, Antonella; González, Sonia; Anadón, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Phytoplankton fuel epipelagic ecosystems and affect global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of quantitative information about the factors that determine both phytoplankton community structure and dynamics, particularly in subtropical gyres. Here, we estimated size fractionated phytoplankton growth (μ) and microzooplankton grazing rates (m) along a transect in the subtropical North Atlantic, from the island of Hispaniola to the Iberian Peninsula, by conducting dilution experiments and fitting mixed models. We also examined the relationship between nutrient availability and the differences in both phytoplankton community structure and size fractionated phytoplankton growth rates at two spatial scales (i.e. subtropical gyre and within-province spatial scale). Our results revealed high values for both phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. Phytoplankton growth (0.00-1.19 d-1) displayed higher variability among stations, biogeochemical provinces and size fractions than the microzooplankton grazing rate (0.32-0.74 d-1). Differences in phytoplankton community structure were associated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (0.72-5.85 μM; R2 = 0.19) and squared Brunt-Väisälä frequency (R2 = 0.21) at the whole gyre scale. Conversely, the differences in phytoplankton growth rate showed a weak relationship with those properties (R2 ⩽ 0.05) at that scale, but a stronger relationship at the within province scale (R2 ⩾ 0.07). These results support the idea that phytoplankton grow at high rates in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, this is likely due to the selection of phytoplankton groups with functional traits suited to exploit low nutrient availability. Thus, shedding new, multi-scale knowledge on the commonly misunderstood "ocean deserts".

  15. Biodiversity increases the productivity and stability of phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Alina A; Boeing, Wiebke J

    2012-01-01

    Global biodiversity losses provide an immediate impetus to elucidate the relationships between biodiversity, productivity and stability. In this study, we quantified the effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity and stability of phytoplankton communities subject to predation by a single rotifer species. We also tested one mechanism of the insurance hypothesis: whether large, slow-growing, potentially-defended cells would compensate for the loss of small, fast-growing, poorly-defended cells after predation. There were significant effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity, relative yield, and stability of phytoplankton cultures, but the relative importance of species richness and combination varied with the response variables. Species combination drove patterns of productivity, whereas species richness was more important for stability. Polycultures containing the most productive single species, Dunaliella, were consistently the most productive. Yet, the most species rich cultures were the most stable, having low temporal variability in measures of biomass. Polycultures recovered from short-term negative grazing effects, but this recovery was not due to the compensation of large, slow-growing cells for the loss of small, fast-growing cells. Instead, polyculture recovery was the result of reduced rotifer grazing rates and persisting small species within the polycultures. Therefore, although an insurance effect in polycultures was found, this effect was indirect and unrelated to grazing tolerance. We hypothesize that diverse phytoplankton assemblages interfered with efficient rotifer grazing and that this "interference effect" facilitated the recovery of the most productive species, Dunaliella. In summary, we demonstrate that both species composition and species richness are important in driving patterns of productivity and stability, respectively, and that stability in biodiverse communities can result from an

  16. Remote Sensing the Phytoplankton Seasonal Succession of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  17. Detection of climate change-driven trends in phytoplankton phenology.

    PubMed

    Henson, Stephanie A; Cole, Harriet S; Hopkins, Jason; Martin, Adrian P; Yool, Andrew

    2017-09-04

    The timing of the annual phytoplankton spring bloom is likely to be altered in response to climate change. Quantifying that response has, however, been limited by the typically coarse temporal resolution (monthly) of global climate models. Here, we use higher resolution model output (maximum 5 days) to investigate how phytoplankton bloom timing changes in response to projected 21st century climate change, and how the temporal resolution of data influences the detection of long-term trends. We find that bloom timing generally shifts later at mid-latitudes and earlier at high and low latitudes by ~5 days per decade to 2100. The spatial patterns of bloom timing are similar in both low (monthly) and high (5 day) resolution data, although initiation dates are later at low resolution. The magnitude of the trends in bloom timing from 2006 to 2100 is very similar at high and low resolution, with the result that the number of years of data needed to detect a trend in phytoplankton phenology is relatively insensitive to data temporal resolution. We also investigate the influence of spatial scales on bloom timing and find that trends are generally more rapidly detectable after spatial averaging of data. Our results suggest that, if pinpointing the start date of the spring bloom is the priority, the highest possible temporal resolution data should be used. However, if the priority is detecting long-term trends in bloom timing, data at a temporal resolution of 20 days are likely to be sufficient. Furthermore, our results suggest that data sources which allow for spatial averaging will promote more rapid trend detection. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Remote sensing the phytoplankton seasonal succession of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Raitsos, Dionysios E; Pradhan, Yaswant; Brewin, Robert J W; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems, primarily due to coral reefs. However, knowledge on large-scale phytoplankton dynamics is limited. Analysis of a 10-year high resolution Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) dataset, along with remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and wind, provided a detailed description of the spatiotemporal seasonal succession of phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea. Based on MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, four distinct Red Sea provinces and seasons are suggested, covering the major patterns of surface phytoplankton production. The Red Sea Chl-a depicts a distinct seasonality with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time (attributed to vertical mixing in the north and wind-induced horizontal intrusion of nutrient-rich water in the south), and minimum concentrations during the summer (associated with strong seasonal stratification). The initiation of the seasonal succession occurs in autumn and lasts until early spring. However, weekly Chl-a seasonal succession data revealed that during the month of June, consistent anti-cyclonic eddies transfer nutrients and/or Chl-a to the open waters of the central Red Sea. This phenomenon occurs during the stratified nutrient depleted season, and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province appears to be the most oligotrophic area (opposed to southern and northern domains). This is likely due to the absence of strong mixing, which is apparent at the northern end of the Red Sea, and low nutrient intrusion in comparison with the southern end. Although the Red Sea is considered an oligotrophic sea, sporadic blooms occur that reach mesotrophic levels. The water temperature and the prevailing winds control the nutrient concentrations within the euphotic zone

  19. Biodiversity Increases the Productivity and Stability of Phytoplankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Alina A.; Boeing, Wiebke J.

    2012-01-01

    Global biodiversity losses provide an immediate impetus to elucidate the relationships between biodiversity, productivity and stability. In this study, we quantified the effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity and stability of phytoplankton communities subject to predation by a single rotifer species. We also tested one mechanism of the insurance hypothesis: whether large, slow-growing, potentially-defended cells would compensate for the loss of small, fast-growing, poorly-defended cells after predation. There were significant effects of species richness and species combination on the productivity, relative yield, and stability of phytoplankton cultures, but the relative importance of species richness and combination varied with the response variables. Species combination drove patterns of productivity, whereas species richness was more important for stability. Polycultures containing the most productive single species, Dunaliella, were consistently the most productive. Yet, the most species rich cultures were the most stable, having low temporal variability in measures of biomass. Polycultures recovered from short-term negative grazing effects, but this recovery was not due to the compensation of large, slow-growing cells for the loss of small, fast-growing cells. Instead, polyculture recovery was the result of reduced rotifer grazing rates and persisting small species within the polycultures. Therefore, although an insurance effect in polycultures was found, this effect was indirect and unrelated to grazing tolerance. We hypothesize that diverse phytoplankton assemblages interfered with efficient rotifer grazing and that this “interference effect” facilitated the recovery of the most productive species, Dunaliella. In summary, we demonstrate that both species composition and species richness are important in driving patterns of productivity and stability, respectively, and that stability in biodiverse communities can result

  20. Iron, nutrient, and phytoplankton distributions in Oregon coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Zanna; van Geen, Alexander; Kosro, P. Michael; Marra, John; Wheeler, Patricia A.

    2002-10-01

    The relationship between iron and nitrate concentrations was examined off the coast of Oregon during the upwelling season. Surface Fe and N (nitrate + nitrite) concentrations measured underway by flow injection analysis ranged from <0.3 to 20 nmol L-1 and <0.1 to 30 μmol L-1, respectively. Total dissolvable Fe concentrations, measured in unfiltered, acidified samples in surface waters and in vertical profiles, ranged from <0.3 to 300 nmol L-1. Surface water Fe and N concentrations were highly variable and uncoupled. Our observations indicate two dominant sources of Fe to Oregon coastal waters: Slope or shelf sediments and the Columbia River. Sedimentary iron, probably largely in the particulate form, appears to be added to surface waters through wind-induced vertical mixing during strong winds, through thickening of the bottom mixed layer during relaxation or downwelling favorable wind conditions, and through outcropping of shelf bottom waters during upwelling events. The existence of multiple iron sources and the generally high iron concentrations may explain why the distribution of phytoplankton, measured both remotely (by Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) and underway (by in vivo fluorescence), appeared to be driven primarily by physical dynamics and was not strongly linked to the distribution of iron. Nevertheless, at some offshore stations where underway Fe concentrations were <0.3 nmol L-1, underway measurements of the physiological state of phytoplankton by fast repetition rate fluorometry were consistent with mild iron stress, and cross-shelf nutrient distributions were consistent with iron regulation of the magnitude of phytoplankton blooms.

  1. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton in an Amazon lake, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise de Goreth; Moura, Ariadne do Nascimento; Dantas, Enio Wocyli; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2010-12-01

    Natural lake systems represent important reservoirs for residential water supply, fish production, recreational activities and enjoyment of their natural beauty. Nevertheless, human impacts may affect their health status resulting in degradation and loss of biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the health status of a natural lake located in an indigenous reservation in the Brazilian Amazon, using the phytoplankton community changes along the rainy (June) and dry (November) seasons of 2006. We collected water (temperature, pH, Secchi depth and conductivity) and phytoplankton samples from the subsurface, middle of the water column, and approximately 30 cm above the bottom, over 24-hour sampling periods, from a central station in the lake. Samples taken from biotic and abiotic variables were correlated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Results showed that the lake exhibited high temperatures in both seasons, and showed thermal stratification only during the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen exhibited a clinograde pattern in the rainy season and high oxygen in the hypolimnion in the dry season. In the rainy season, the water near the bottom was acidic, turbid and had a greater concentration of phosphorus. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, nitrite, total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited diel variations in the rainy season, whereas water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus exhibited significant differences between hours of the day in the dry season. The phytoplankton was represented by 39 taxa, and Chlorophyta showed the greatest species richness, totaling 25 taxa. Among Chlorophyta, desmids were the most diverse, accounting 52%. Bacillariophyta (nine species) was the second most diverse group. Cyanophyta was represented by three species, including Merismopedia tenuissima, the most abundant taxon. Despite the occurrence of taxa that indicate organic pollution, their biomass

  2. Hydrodynamics and light climate structure alongshore phytoplankton blooms in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, G.; Wirtz, K. W.

    2009-05-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are a recurring phenomenon that have significant impact on annual biogeochemistry and food-web dynamics in many aquatic ecosystems. The causes for their variability, which is high especially in coastal seas, remain poorly understood. We present an example for distinct differences in the spatio-temporal chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) distribution on an interannual scale, integrating high-frequency data from an autonomous measuring device (FerryBox), which operated on an alongshore route in the coastal North Sea. While in one year CHL-a was spatially homogeneous (2004), a bloom only developed in one part of the transect in the following spring period (2005). In this study, we use a one-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking model, which operates along the mean current direction, combined with a NPZ-model to identify the mechanisms controlling interannual bloom variability on an alongshore transect. The model results clearly indicate that in 2004, the local light climate triggered phytoplankton growth, whereas in the following year, advective transport determined the spatial structure of the spring bloom. A pronounced eastward inflow event in 2005 imported a high CHL-a patch into the western half of the study area from the adjacent Southern Bight. It did, however, not last long enough to also spread the bloom into the eastern part, where high turbidity prevented local phytoplankton growth. The model identified two interacting mechanisms, light climate and hydrodynamics that control the alongshore dynamics. Especially the occurrence of a pronounced spring bloom despite unfavourable light conditions in 2005 underlines the need to carefully consider hydrodynamics to understand ecosystem functioning in coastal environments.

  3. Environmental Conditions Determine the Course and Outcome of Phytoplankton Chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Haande, Sigrid; Molversmyr, Åge

    2015-01-01

    Chytrid fungi are highly potent parasites of phytoplankton. They are thought to force phytoplankton organisms into an evolutionary arms race with high population diversity as the outcome. The underlying selection regime is known as Red Queen dynamics. However, our study suggests a more complex picture for chytrid parasitism in the cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Laboratory experiments identified a “cold thermal refuge”, inside which Planktothrix can grow without chytrid infection. A field study in two Norwegian lakes underlined the ecological significance of this finding. The study utilized sediment DNA as a biological archive in combination with existing monitoring data. In one lake, temperature and light conditions forced Planktothrix outside the thermal refuge for most of the growing season. This probably resulted in Red Queen dynamics as suggested by a high parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids, an increase in Planktothrix genotype diversity over time, and a correlation between Planktothrix genotype diversity and duration of bloom events. In the second lake, a colder climate allowed Planktothrix to largely stay inside the thermal refuge. The parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids and Planktothrix genotype diversity remained low, indicating that Planktothrix successfully evaded the Red Queen dynamics. Episodic Planktothrix blooms were observed during spring and autumn circulation, in the metalimnion or under the ice. Interestingly, both lakes were dominated by the same or related Planktothrix genotypes. Taken together, our data suggest that, depending on environmental conditions, chytrid parasitism can impose distinct selection regimes on conspecific phytoplankton populations with similar genotype composition, causing these populations to behave and perhaps to evolve differently. PMID:26714010

  4. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    PubMed

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  5. Probabilistic analysis of phytoplankton biomass at the Frisian Inlet (NL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Lixia; Van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Guan, Yiqing; Zhang, Changkuan; Vrijling, J. K.

    2015-03-01

    The BLOOM II model is applied in this study to interrogate the variation of phytoplankton biomass (in terms of chlorophyll a) at the Frisian Inlet (NL), located in the north of the Netherlands. The validation results of the model show that more than 90% of the comparisons between model results and observations have a good agreement, while only 3.1% are classified as poor. Chlorophyll a is significantly correlated with the ecological indicators of Si and NH4 by observational analysis. The modelled chlorophyll a is fitted well by a normal distribution function (μ = 3.95 mg m-3, σ = 2.96 mg m-3). Relationships between the modelled ecological indicators are investigated. Secchi depth as another important indicator is closely linked with chlorophyll a, PAR and Kd . Moreover, particular attention is paid to the phytoplankton biomass in response to nutrient availability. The decrease rate of chlorophyll a is from 16.8% to 19.2% for N-reduction, 17.4%-21.3% for P-reduction and 21.7%-28.0% for both N- and P-reduction. In the presence of uncertainty, the improved prediction of chlorophyll a is derived by Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) in this study. The improved prediction of chlorophyll a concentrations vary from 0.147 to 15.34 mg m-3 within the 95% confidence interval. This study emphasises the use of an ecological model to predict the variation of phytoplankton biomass, and improves the prediction with the integration of uncertainty analysis.

  6. Cellular partitioning of nanoparticulate versus dissolved metals in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Miller, Robert J

    2014-11-18

    Discharges of metal oxide nanoparticles into aquatic environments are increasing with their use in society, thereby increasing exposure risk for aquatic organisms. Separating the impacts of nanoparticle from dissolved metal pollution is critical for assessing the environmental risks of the rapidly growing nanomaterial industry, especially in terms of ecosystem effects. Metal oxides negatively affect several species of marine phytoplankton, which are responsible for most marine primary production. Whether such toxicity is generally due to nanoparticles or exposure to dissolved metals liberated from particles is uncertain. The type and severity of toxicity depends in part on whether phytoplankton cells take up and accumulate primarily nanoparticles or dissolved metal ions. We compared the responses of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii, exposed to ZnO, AgO, and CuO nanoparticles with the responses of T. weissflogii cells exposed to the dissolved metals ZnCl2, AgNO3, and CuCl2 for 7 d. Cellular metal accumulation, metal distribution, and algal population growth were measured to elucidate differences in exposure to the different forms of metal. Concentration-dependent metal accumulation and reduced population growth were observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides, as well as dissolved metals. Significant effects on population growth were observed at the lowest concentrations tested for all metals, with similar toxicity for both dissolved and nanoparticulate metals. Cellular metal distribution, however, markedly differed between T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides versus those exposed to dissolved metals. Metal concentrations were highest in the algal cell wall when cells were exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles, whereas algae exposed to dissolved metals had higher proportions of metal in the organelle and endoplasmic reticulum fractions. These results have implications for marine plankton communities as well as higher trophic levels, since

  7. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  8. Phytoplankton, not allochthonous carbon, sustains herbivorous zooplankton production.

    PubMed

    Brett, Michael T; Kainz, Martin J; Taipale, Sami J; Seshan, Hari

    2009-12-15

    Terrestrial organic matter inputs have long been thought to play an important role in aquatic food web dynamics. Results from recent whole lake (13)C addition experiments suggest terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC) inputs account for a disproportionate portion of zooplankton production. For example, several studies concluded that although t-POC only represented approximately 20% of the flux of particulate carbon available to herbivorous zooplankton, this food source accounted for approximately 50% of the C incorporated by zooplankton. We tested the direct dietary impact of t-POC (from the leaves of riparian vegetation) and various phytoplankton on Daphnia magna somatic growth, reproduction, growth efficiency, and lipid composition. By itself, t-POC was a very poor quality resource compared to cryptophytes, diatoms, and chlorophytes, but t-POC had similar food quality compared to cyanobacteria. Small additions of high quality Cryptomonas ozolinii to t-POC-dominated diets greatly increased Daphnia growth and reproduction. When offered alone, t-POC resulted in a Daphnia growth efficiency of 5 +/- 1%, whereas 100% Cryptomonas and Scenedesmus obliquus diets resulted in growth efficiencies of 46 +/- 8% (+/- SD) and 36 +/- 3%, respectively. When offered in a 50:50 mixed diet with Cryptomonas or Scenedesmus, the t-POC fraction resulted in a partial growth efficiency of 22 +/- 9% and 15 +/- 6%, respectively. Daphnia that obtained 80% of their available food from t-POC assimilated 84% of their fatty acids from the phytoplankton component of their diet. Overall, our results suggest Daphnia selectively allocate phytoplankton-derived POC and lipids to enhance somatic growth and reproduction, while t-POC makes a minor contribution to zooplankton production.

  9. MODEL OF PHYTOPLANKTON COMPETITION FOR LIMITING AND NONLIMITING NUTRIENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ESTUARINE AND NEARSHORE MANAGEMENT SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global increase of noxious bloom occurrences has increased the need for phytoplankton management schemes. Such schemes require the ability to predict phytoplankton succession. Equilibrium Resources Competition theory, which is popular for predicting succession in lake systems...

  10. MODEL OF PHYTOPLANKTON COMPETITION FOR LIMITING AND NONLIMITING NUTRIENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ESTUARINE AND NEARSHORE MANAGEMENT SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global increase of noxious bloom occurrences has increased the need for phytoplankton management schemes. Such schemes require the ability to predict phytoplankton succession. Equilibrium Resources Competition theory, which is popular for predicting succession in lake systems...

  11. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlson, Robert J.; Warren, Stephen G.; Lovelock, James E.; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1987-04-01

    The major source of cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans appears to be dimethylsulphide, which is produced by planktonic algae in sea water and oxidizes in the atmosphere to form a sulphate aerosol. Because the reflectance (albedo) of clouds (and thus the earth's radiation budget) is sensitive to CCN density, biological regulation of the climate is possible through the effects of temperature and sunlight on phytoplankton population and dimethylsulphide production. To counteract the warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO2, an approximate doubling of CCN would be needed.

  12. Phytoplankton of the North Sea and its dynamics: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, P. C.; Lancelot, C.; Gieskes, W. W. C.; Hagmeier, E.; Weichart, G.

    Phytoplankton is the major contributor to algal biomass and primary production of the North Sea, although crops of macroalgae can locally be up to 2000 g C.m -2 along the coast of the U.K. and Norway, and microphytobenthos dominates production in the shallow tidal flat areas bordering the coasts of England, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Data collected since 1932 during the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey show consistent patterns of geographical, seasonal and annual variation in the distribution of phytoplankton and its major taxonomic components. There is a trend of increased colouration in Recorder silks in the southern North Sea until approximately 1975 since when Colour levels (assumed to be indicative of algal biomass) have declined. In the eutrophic Dutch Wadden Sea the algal crop continued to increase; in Dutch coastal North Sea waters a trend of biomass increase reversed since 1984, apparently due to a reduction in Rhine river outflow. Long-term observations made at Helgoland since the 60's also show trends of increasing nutrients and phytoplankton biomass only to 1984. Adverse effects such as deoxygenation, foam formation and toxin production have been linked to mass concentrations of algae known as blooms. There is no evidence from existing reports for an increase in their frequency, although some years stand out with larger numbers. Occurrence of blooms can partly be explained by hydrographic conditions. More than 30 taxa are recognised as occurring in bloom proportions in the North Sea, approximately one third of which can be toxic. The crop of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) is not likely to increase with eutrophication due to silicate limitation. An extensive subsurface maximum of armoured dinoflagellates, its abundance gouverned by hydrographic conditions, is the most characteristic feature of the central and northern North Sea in the summer months. Abundance, sometimes dominance, of picoplankton and of species that are not readily detected by

  13. Phosphate and iron limitation of phytoplankton biomass in Lake Tahoe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Pasilis, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Bioassays were carried out to assess the response of inoculated, single-species diatom populations (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Aulocosiera italica) to additions of synthetic chelators and phosphate. A chemical speciation model along with the field data was also used to predict how trace metal speciation, and hence bioavailability, was affected by the chelator additions. Results suggest that phosphate was limiting to phytoplankton biomass. Other solutes, Fe in particular, may also exert controls on biomass. Nitrate limitation seems less likely, although Fe-limiting conditions may have led to an effective N limitation because algae require Fe to carry out nitrate reduction. -from Authors

  14. Three color laser fluorometer for studies of phytoplankton fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, David A.; Yentsch, C. S.; Rohrer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A three-color laser fluorometer has been developed for field work operations. Using two tunable dye lasers (excitation wavelengths at 440 nm and 530 nm), broadband wavelength optical filters were selected to obtain maximum fluorescence sensitivity at wavelengths greater than 675 nm (chlorophyll) and 575 + or - 15 nm (phycoerythrin). The laser fluorometer permits the measurement of phytoplankton pigments under static or flowing conditions and more closely resembles the time scales (ns) and energy levels (mW) of other laser-induced fluorescence instruments.

  15. Coastal phytoplankton productivity associated with different stability and nutrient patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabeçadas, G.; Brogueira, M. J.; Nogueira, M.; Cabeçadas, L.; Cavaco, H.; Nogueira, P.

    2003-04-01

    In order to assess the ecological status of the adjacent coastal zone of Tagus estuary (western Portugal) three cruises were carried out in 1994, 2000 and 2002. Coastal upwelling conditions prevailed during summer cruise (May/June 2002) and, also exceptionally, in winter (February/March 1994), and were absent in May 2000. The impact of such conditions on the chemical and biological properties of the coastal waters is examined. In March 1994, one week after the occurrence of upwelling favourable winds and under intense freshwater input from Tagus river (monthly mean 350 m^3/s), nutrient levels reached values up to 16.0 μmol/l NO_3, 1.0 μmol/l PO_4 and 14.0 μmol/l Si(OH)_4 in the estuarine plume, and an exceptional bloom of phytoplankton (chlorophyll \\underline{a} up to 40 mg/m^3) developed in the adjacent waters. In May/June 2002, during an upwelling event and when Tagus river inflow was reduced, nutrient levels did not surpass 9.0 μmol/l NO_3, 0.8 μmol/l PO_4 and 2.0 μmol/l Si(OH)_4, and phytoplankton biomass attained chlorophyll \\underline{a} levels of only 6 mg/m^3. By contrast, in May 2000 in a calm period and under moderate river discharge (190 m^3/s), nutrients reached values of NO_3 17.0 μmol/l, PO_4 1.0 μmol/l and Si(OH)_4 8.9 μmol/l and chlorophyll \\underline{a} exhibited values of 8.0 mg/m^3 in the Tagus estuarine plume. The results obtained in these different occasions point out to potential enhancement of phytoplankton growth when a shift on the upwelling pattern occurs in the region. Actually, in winter, the combined effect of maximum freshwater runoff and upwelling episodes is responsible for an extra supply of nutrients to the surface layers. Further, the intensification of the frontal boundary established between the river plume stratified water and the mixed upwelled water, is likely to promote the development of phytoplankton blooms over the coastal area.

  16. Variability of chromophytic phytoplankton in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binglin; Karl, David M.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Church, Matthew J.

    2013-09-01

    Eukaryotic phytoplankton play important roles in regulating productivity and material export in oligotrophic ocean ecosystems. In this study, we examined the vertical and temporal variability in planktonic Chromalveolate (hereafter chromophyte) assemblages over a 2-year period (2007-2009) at Station ALOHA (22°45'N, 158°W) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning, and sequencing of form ID rbcL genes from samples collected at nearly monthly intervals provided information on the diversity, abundances, and variability associated with chromophytic phytoplankton. Despite persistently oligotrophic conditions, the euphotic zone of this habitat supported a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of chromophytic algae, including representatives of various genera of diatoms, pelagophytes, prymnesiophytes, and dinoflagellates. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of diatom, prymnesiophyte, and pelagophyte rbcL phylotypes revealed that the population structure of these assemblages was highly variable in time, with gene abundances often varying more than an order of magnitude between successive months. Diatom rbcL genes were typically the most abundant in both the upper and lower regions of the euphotic zone, while rbcL gene abundances of the prymnesiophytes and pelagophytes were significantly greater (One-way ANOVA, P<0.05) in the lower regions of the euphotic zone (75-125 m) than in the upper euphotic zone (5-45 m). Similarly, we observed elevated concentrations of 19-hexanoxyfucoxanthin and 19-butanoxyfucoxanin (diagnostic pigments of prymnesiophytes and pelagophytes, respectively) in the lower euphotic zone, while concentrations of fucoxanthin (a diagnostic diatom pigment) demonstrated less vertical structure. Analyses of samples collected using sediment traps deployed at 150 m revealed that members of diatoms, prymnesiophytes, and pelagophytes all contributed to material export out of the upper ocean. None of the

  17. Shallow water processes govern system-wide phytoplankton bloom dynamics: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Lucas, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Prior studies of the phytoplankton dynamics in South San Francisco Bay, California, USA have hypothesized that bivalve filter-feeders are responsible for the limited phytoplankton blooms in the system. This study was designed to examine the effects of benthic grazing and light attenuation on this shallow, turbid, and nutrient replete system. We found that grazing by shallow water bivalves was important in determining phytoplankton bloom occurrence throughout the system and that above a shallow water bivalve grazing threshold, phytoplankton biomass did not exceed bloom levels. Wind speed, used as a proxy for light attenuation in the shallow water, was similarly important in determining bloom development in the shallow water. Environmental conditions and benthic grazing in the deep water channel had a less discernible effect on system-wide phytoplankton blooms although persistent water column stratification did increase bloom magnitude. The shallow water bivalves, believed to be preyed upon by birds and fish that migrate through the system in fall and winter, disappear each year prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. Because growth of the phytoplankton depends so strongly on shallow water processes, any change in the shallow-water benthic filter-feeders or their predators has great potential to change the phytoplankton bloom dynamics in this system. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms and Factors Regulating the Uptake and Toxicity of Heavy Metals in Phytoplankton

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Science of the Total Environment 219: 95-115. Sunda, W. G., and S. A. Huntsman. 1996...Huntsman. 1998. Processes regulating cellular metal accumulation and physiological effects: Phytoplankton as model systems. Science of the Total Environment 219...and physiological effects: Phytoplankton as model systems. Science of the Total Environment 219: 165-181. 4. Sunda, W.G. and S.A. Huntsman.

  19. Combatting cyanobacteria with hydrogen peroxide: a laboratory study on the consequences for phytoplankton community and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Weenink, Erik F. J.; Luimstra, Veerle M.; Schuurmans, Jasper M.; Van Herk, Maria J.; Visser, Petra M.; Matthijs, Hans C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with different phytoplankton densities in lake samples showed that a high biomass increases the rate of hydrogen peroxide (HP) degradation and decreases the effectiveness of HP in the selective suppression of dominant cyanobacteria. However, selective application of HP requires usage of low doses only, accordingly this defines the limits for use in lake mitigation. To acquire insight into the impact of HP on other phytoplankton species, we have followed the succession of three phytoplankton groups in lake samples that were treated with different concentrations of HP using a taxa-specific fluorescence emission test. This fast assay reports relatively well on coarse changes in the phytoplankton community; the measured data and the counts from microscopical analysis of the phytoplankton matched quite well. The test was used to pursue HP application in a Planktothrix agardhii-dominated lake sample and displayed a promising shift in the phytoplankton community in only a few weeks. From a low-diversity community, a change to a status with a significantly higher diversity and increased abundance of eukaryotic phytoplankton species was established. Experiments in which treated samples were re-inoculated with original P. agardhii-rich lake water demonstrated prolonged suppression of cyanobacteria, and displayed a remarkable stability of the newly developed post-HP treatment state of the phytoplankton community. PMID:26257710

  20. Annual and interannual variations of phytoplankton pigment concentration and upwelling along the Pacific equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Feldman, Gene C.

    1994-01-01

    The following variables along the Pacific equator from 145 deg E to 95 deg W were employed: surface layer phytoplankton pigment concentrations derived from Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) measurements of ocean color radiances; vertical velocities simulated at the 90-m bottom of the euphotic layer from a wind-driven ocean general circulation model; and nitrate concentrations estimated from model-simulated temperature. The upward flux of nitrate into the euphotic layer was calculated from the simulated vertical motion and nitrate concentration. The CZCS-derived phytoplankton pigment concentration was uniform from 175 deg to 95 deg W. Longitudinal profiles of upwelling, phytoplankton biomass, and 90-m nitrate flux were of different shapes. The small annual cycles of the phytoplankton pigment and nitrate flux were in phase: increased phytoplankton biomass was associated with increased upward nitrate flux, but the phase was not consistent with the annual cycles of the easterly wind or of the upwelling intensity. Variation of phytoplankton pigment concentration was greater during El Nino than during the annual cycle. The substantially reduced phytoplankton pigment concentration observed during El Nino was associated with smaller upward nitrate flux. Phytoplankton biomass during non-El Nino conditions was not related to nitrate flux into the euphotic layer.

  1. Variation of phytoplankton community structure from the Pearl River estuary to South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-10-01

    The Pearl River is located in the northern part of South China Sea. The environment of the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is significantly impacted by nutrients from anthropogenic activities. Along the anthropogenic pollution gradient from the PRE to South China Sea, the phylogenetic diversity and biomass of phytoplankton was examined in relation to physic-chemical variables. The richness of rbcL gene was higher in the open sea than the estuary, while the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in the estuary than in the open sea. The cluster analysis of the sequences data resulted in seven phytoplankton community types and the dominant species of phytoplankton changed from Cryptophytes and Diatoms to Prymnesiophytes and Diatoms along the gradient. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by nutrients and salinity. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus, nitrite and ammonium (P < 0.01) but negatively by salinity (P < 0.05); the phytoplankton diversity was highly positively affected by salinity (P < 0.05) but negatively by silicate and nitrate (P < 0.01; P < 0.05, respectively). Anthropogenic activities played a critical role in the phytoplankton distribution and biomass of the study area. Further research is necessary to reveal the influence mechanism of environmental factors on the phytoplankton.

  2. Tidal Prism Modeling of Phytoplankton and Nitrogen Concentrations in Narragansett Bay and its Sub-Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tidal prism model was developed to calculate temporal changes in the spatially averaged concentration of three state variables: phytoplankton, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and detritus. Our main objective was to develop a model to help us understand the causes of phytoplankton...

  3. Phytoplankton Pigment Degradation Patterns in the Oxic and Hypoxic Regions of a Lake Water-Column

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Degradation of senescent phytoplankton occurs as cells sink through the water-column. Once below the photic zone or buried in the sediments, pigment degradation products may be used in paleolimnological studies to elucidate past phytoplankton community composition. Interpretation of the sediment pig...

  4. Zooplankton grazing dynamics: top-down control of phytoplankton and its relationship to an estuarine habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Sandra L.; Rippingale, Robert J.

    2001-09-01

    Top-down control of algal blooms was investigated in the Swan-Canning Estuary, to determine whether the resident zooplankton community was able to substantially reduce phytoplankton biomass through grazing, or whether high phytoplankton biomass effectively inhibited grazing. In situ grazing by zooplankton at two depths in the water column was measured over a diel period on six occasions and examined in relation to the biotic and abiotic habitat conditions.Measured weight-specific ingestion rates varied with phytoplankton and zooplankton species composition, but were significantly greater at the surface than at 5 m, close to the bottom (ranges of 1·59 to 252·41 and 0·51 to 28·99 µg phytoplankton C µg zooplankton C-1 day-1, respectively). There was no evidence of significant diel changes in ingestion rates of zooplankton. Phytoplankton biomass removed by in situ community grazing ranged between 0·9 and 45·0% of standing stock per hour. The maximum loss occurred when phytoplankton biomass ranged from 249·0 to 320·8 µg phytoplankton C l-1. Zooplankton grazing impact was negatively associated with high phytoplankton and low dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. The implications of, and mechanisms associated with, top-down control of algal biomass in this estuary are discussed in relation to plankton succession and the physical environment.

  5. A FIVE YEAR RECORD OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENT PATTERNS IN ESCAMBIA/PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton pigments were monitored quarterly at over 50 stations in Escambia/Pensacola Bay System (Pensacola, FL) from spring of 1996 to fall 2000. HPLC accessory pigments were used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure. HPLC data suggest a dominance of blue-green a...

  6. NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY (PENSACOLA BAY, FL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton nutrient limitation was studied in a sub-estuary of lower Pensacola Bay using several techniques. Results for <5 um and . 5 um phytoplankton were similar. Nutrient-addition bioassays indicated year-round nutrient limitation, in contrast to seasonal patterns often ...

  7. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  8. AUV Measured Variability in Phytoplankton Fluorescence within the ETM of the Columbia River during Summer 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, C. L.; Shcherbina, A.; Litchendorf, T. M.; Sanford, T. B.; Martin, D.; Baptista, A. M.; Lopez, J.; Crump, B. C.; Peterson, T. D.; Prahl, F. G.; Cravo, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present highly resolved observations of fluorescence and optical backscatter taken in the estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) of the North Channel of the Columbia River estuary (USA) during summer 2013. Measurements were made using two REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with ECO Puck triplets. Concentrations of three phytoplankton pigments were measured by fluorescence emission at wavelengths of 695 nm for chlorophyll, 570 nm for phycoerythrin, and 680 nm for phycocyanin. We use phycocyanin to indicate the presence of freshwater phytoplankton. Optical backscatter at wavelengths of 700 nm and 880 nm are used to characterize turbidity. During flood tide, high phycocyanin concentrations were associated with a strong ETM event which had relatively low salinity waters of approximately 6 psu. These data indicate that this low salinity ETM event contained large concentrations of freshwater phytoplankton. Since freshwater phytoplankton are known to lyse in saltwater, the brackish ETM event may have formed by the accumulation of lysed freshwater phytoplankton that settled out from the river as it mixed in the lower estuary. As the flood tide proceeded, it brought high concentrations of marine phytoplankton into the north channel at mid-depth as indicated by high chlorophyll levels with significantly lower phycoerythrin concentrations in high salinity waters of approximately 30 psu. The data set highlights the potential for large variability in phytoplankton species composition and concentrations within the ETM depending on mixing rates and phytoplankton bloom dynamics. Visualization of the 4-D data is aided by generating interpolated data movies.

  9. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  10. PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, Michael C. and Emile M. Lores. 2004. Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Seasonal Dynamics in a Subtropical Estuary: Importance of Cyanobacteria. J. Plankton Res. 26(3):371-382. (ERL,GB 1190).

    A seasonal study of phytoplankton and zooplankton was conducted from 1999-20...

  11. Tidal Prism Modeling of Phytoplankton and Nitrogen Concentrations in Narragansett Bay and its Sub-Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tidal prism model was developed to calculate temporal changes in the spatially averaged concentration of three state variables: phytoplankton, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and detritus. Our main objective was to develop a model to help us understand the causes of phytoplankton...

  12. PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON SEASONAL DYNAMICS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, Michael C. and Emile M. Lores. 2004. Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Seasonal Dynamics in a Subtropical Estuary: Importance of Cyanobacteria. J. Plankton Res. 26(3):371-382. (ERL,GB 1190).

    A seasonal study of phytoplankton and zooplankton was conducted from 1999-20...

  13. The method of multispectral image processing of phytoplankton processing for environmental control of water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Yasynska, Victoria; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Askarova, Nursanat

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents improvement of the method of environmental monitoring of water bodies based on bioindication by phytoplankton, which identify phytoplankton particles carried out on the basis of comparison array multispectral images using Bayesian classifier of solving function based on Mahalanobis distance. It allows to evaluate objectively complex anthropogenic and technological impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Single Cell Fluorescence Action Spectra for the Targeted Study and Isolation of Phytoplankton Within Complex Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    Discerning the diversity, abundance, and functional role of distinct phytoplankton groups is essential to the study of aquatic systems. The diversity and ecological roles of phytoplankton are still understudied relative to their importance in the ocean system. Here, we present a new flow cytometry method that uses up to five excitation colors to determine the relative fluorescence action spectra of phytoplankton within complex assemblages, thus leveraging the precise and high-throughput capabilities of flow cytometry and the unique combinations of photosynethetic pigments in phylogenetically related groups of phytoplankton. We tested the method on cultivated Synechococcus of known pigment composition and genotype then applied the method to a natural phytoplankton assemblage from several coastal and open ocean environments. We determined the relative fluorescence action spectra of up to 8 distinct phytoplankton populations. By coupling multi-laser flow cytometry to cell sorting we demonstrated that natural phytoplankton populations with similar relative fluorescence action spectra belonged to the same taxonomic classes based on 18S rRNA gene phylogeny. Based on these results, we suggest that multi-laser flow cytometry could be applied to enumeration and isolation of Class-level genotypically distinct phytoplankton groups for improved genome assembly from metagenomes, metabolic analysis including nutrient uptake, and targeted isolation for cultivation.

  15. Phytoplankton in the cooling pond of a nuclear fuel plant. II. Spectral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Smagin, A.I.; Ryzhkov, E.G.; Nikitina, L.V.

    1995-09-01

    This study continues investigations into the development dynamics of phytoplankton and hydrochemical and meteorological factors over a periods of 26 years in the cooling pond of the Mayak Production Association in the Kyzyl-Trash Lake. The aim is to evaluate the long-term oscillations in phytoplankton owing to changes in hydrochemical and meteorological factors. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. NUTRIENT LIMITATION OF PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY (PENSACOLA BAY, FL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton nutrient limitation was studied in a sub-estuary of lower Pensacola Bay using several techniques. Results for <5 um and . 5 um phytoplankton were similar. Nutrient-addition bioassays indicated year-round nutrient limitation, in contrast to seasonal patterns often ...

  17. A FIVE YEAR RECORD OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENT PATTERNS IN ESCAMBIA/PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton pigments were monitored quarterly at over 50 stations in Escambia/Pensacola Bay System (Pensacola, FL) from spring of 1996 to fall 2000. HPLC accessory pigments were used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure. HPLC data suggest a dominance of blue-green a...

  18. Annual and interannual variations of phytoplankton pigment concentration and upwelling along the Pacific equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Feldman, Gene C.

    1994-01-01

    The following variables along the Pacific equator from 145 deg E to 95 deg W were employed: surface layer phytoplankton pigment concentrations derived from Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) measurements of ocean color radiances; vertical velocities simulated at the 90-m bottom of the euphotic layer from a wind-driven ocean general circulation model; and nitrate concentrations estimated from model-simulated temperature. The upward flux of nitrate into the euphotic layer was calculated from the simulated vertical motion and nitrate concentration. The CZCS-derived phytoplankton pigment concentration was uniform from 175 deg to 95 deg W. Longitudinal profiles of upwelling, phytoplankton biomass, and 90-m nitrate flux were of different shapes. The small annual cycles of the phytoplankton pigment and nitrate flux were in phase: increased phytoplankton biomass was associated with increased upward nitrate flux, but the phase was not consistent with the annual cycles of the easterly wind or of the upwelling intensity. Variation of phytoplankton pigment concentration was greater during El Nino than during the annual cycle. The substantially reduced phytoplankton pigment concentration observed during El Nino was associated with smaller upward nitrate flux. Phytoplankton biomass during non-El Nino conditions was not related to nitrate flux into the euphotic layer.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls may alter marine trophic pathways by reducing phytoplankton size and production.

    PubMed

    O'Connors, H B; Wurster, C F; Powers, C D; Biggs, D C; Rowland, R G

    1978-08-25

    Polychlorinated biphenyls at concentrations of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter reduced phytoplankton biomass and size in natural estuarine phytoplankton communities grown within dialysis bags in situ in an estuarine marsh. In polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated waters, these changes could increase the number of trophic levels and divert the flow of biomass from harvestable fish to jellyfish and other gelatinous predators.

  20. Phytoplankton composition of Euphrates River in Al-Hindiya barrage and Kifil City region of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fikrat M; Taylor, William D; Al-Taee, Mayson M S; Al-Fatlawi, Hassan J J

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal variations in phytoplankton abundance and their composition were studied at five stations in the middle region (between Al-Hindiya barrage to Kifil City) of the Euphrates River in Iraq between March, 2004, and February, 2005. A total 151 taxa of phytoplankton were identified, belonging to Bacillariophyceae (98), Chlorophyceae (33), Cyanophyceae (14), Euglenophyceae (2), Xanthophyceae (2), and Dinophyceae (2). The total abundance of phytoplankton cells varied from 136 to 5312 cells l(-1) with maxima in spring and fall. Bacillariophyceae were the most abundant group at all stations. Some species of phytoplankton occurred continuously during the study period (Cyclotella ocellata, C. meneghiana, Cocconeis placentula, Nitzchia spp, Meringosphaera spinosa). The study recorded four species as new records for Iraqi. The phytoplankton was indicative of oligotrophic conditions although it showed some signs of organic pollution near cities.

  1. Effects of a coastal power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton community structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li

    2014-04-15

    The effects of a thermal discharge from a coastal power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scenarios of nutrient alterations and responses of phytoplankton in a changing Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wang, Yu-Tu; Yin, Jian-Ping; Dong, Jun-De; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Fu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The coastal ecosystem in the Daya Bay is sensitive to the environmental changes induced by highly intensive human activities. We obtained and compiled the recent 30 years' field observational data on nutrients and phytoplankton communities to explore the changing ecosystem. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration (DIN) has significantly increased, while phosphate concentration (DIP) dramatically decreased because of costal anthropogenic influence. The limited factors for phytoplankton have changed from nitrogen in the 1980s to phosphate in the mid-1990s. The net-collected phytoplankton communities has the miniaturized trend, while there is drastic increase of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Even though the diatoms still dominate in phytoplankton community, the dominant species have slightly changed. The alga bloom greatly changed from diatoms dominated to dinoflagellates due to changes of nutrient structure. All these changes on nutrients and phytoplankton communities appear to be closely associated with human activities along the coast of the Daya Bay.

  3. Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton communities of a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R; Bhadury, Punyasloke; Muduli, Pradipta R; Pattnaik, Ajit K; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2015-12-15

    One of the main challenges in phytoplankton ecology is to understand their variability at different spatiotemporal scales. We investigated the interannual and cyclone-derived variability in phytoplankton communities of Chilika, the largest tropical coastal lagoon in Asia and the underlying mechanisms in relation to environmental forcing. Between July 2012 and June 2013, Cyanophyta were most prolific in freshwater northern region of the lagoon. A category-5 very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Phailin struck the lagoon on 12th October 2013 and introduced additional variability into the hydrology and phytoplankton communities. Freshwater Cyanophyta further expanded their territory and occupied the northern as well as central region of the lagoon. Satellite remote sensing imagery revealed that the phytoplankton biomass did not change much due to high turbidity prevailing in the lagoon after Phailin. Modeling analysis of species-salinity relationship identified specific responses of phytoplankton taxa to the different salinity regime of lagoon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into eukaryotic phytoplankton and CO2 uptake in the marine biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately half of global photosynthetic fixation of CO2 occurs in the marine biosphere. Development of more predictive mechanistic carbon cycle models is currently limited by the lack of understanding of physiological growth controls and quantitative information on the forces of mortality that act on the phytoplankton responsible for this CO2 uptake. A complication for research in this area is the fact that phytoplankton are exceptionally diverse. Primary productivity is not only partitioned between cyanobacterial and eukaryotic phytoplankton, but groups within the latter also have very different evolutionary histories and only some are represented in culture. Here, we will explore the advances and challenges in studying eukaryotic phytoplankton and factors that limit their growth in nature. Specifically, we will discuss ecosystems biology approaches that involve iteration between the lab and field and are proving most successful for gaining insight to environmental parameters that structure phytoplankton communities and growth.

  5. The effect of seasonality in phytoplankton community composition on CO2 uptake on the Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Susanne E.; Thomas, Helmuth; Jones, Chris T.; Li, William K. W.; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Burt, William J.

    2015-07-01

    We characterise seasonal patterns in phytoplankton community composition on the Scotian Shelf, northwest Atlantic Ocean, through a study of the numerical abundance of different cell sizes - pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton. Cell abundances of each size class were converted to cellular carbon and their seasonal patterns compared with the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) also measured at the study site. We observed a persistent drawdown of CO2 throughout the summer months, despite nutrient depleted conditions and apparent low biomass suggested by the chlorophyll record. This drawdown was associated with a summertime phytoplankton assemblage numerically dominated by small phytoplankton that reach their peak abundance during this period. It was found that phytoplankton carbon during this period accounted for approximately 10% of spring bloom phytoplankton carbon and pointed to the importance role that small cells play in annual CO2 uptake.

  6. Impact of climate change on phytoplankton dynamics in an oligotrophic Mediterranean coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffart, A.; Legendre, L.; Hecq, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    A long-term phytoplankton study was initiated in 1979 in an oligotrophic coastal station of the Western Mediterranean, at one fixed station. The sampling station (42^o34'85N, 08^o43'60E) is situated near the coast, in the northern part of the Bay of Calvi (Western Corsica, France). Purposes of the study are to establish baseline data on phytoplankton population in relation with water masses characteristics, and to determine patterns and trends in phytoplankton populations. Observations of the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi evidenced a drastic reduction of phytoplankton biomass and biodiversity over the last two decades. Between 1979 and 1998, the monthly averaged chlorophyll α concentrations at 1 m decreased by about 80% during February, March and April. Simultaneously, major changes to hydrodynamic conditions include warmer water, overall decrease of salinity at 10 m depth, longer periods of bright sunshine and lower wind stress. The changes in environmental conditions were large enough to reduce nutrient replenishment of the surface layer prior to the usual period of phytoplankton growth. Decreasing Si availability led to Si limitation, which caused a reduction in diatom abundance. This resulted in the disappearance of the diatom-dominated pulses and in lower phytoplankton biomass and was accompanied by a shift toward non-siliceous phytoplankton (Goffart et al., 2002). Other, associated changes in benthos assemblages are presented. Relationships between phytoplankton fluctuations and NAO index are examined. Reference Goffart A., Hecq J.H., Legendre L. (2002). Changes in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi (Northwestern Mediterranean) over the last two decades: a response to the changing climate? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 236: 45-60.

  7. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Aaron W E; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  8. Taxon-specific growth and selective microzooplankton grazing of phytoplankton in the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Wilhelm; Antia, Avan N.

    2001-10-01

    Taxon-specific microzooplankton dynamics were studied along a transect through the North Atlantic Drift from 70°N 04°E to 40°N 20°W during July 1997 using serial dilution and nutrient-enrichment experiments. Nutrient concentrations and microzooplankton composition indicated postbloom conditions at 40°N, 47°N, and 50°N, a transitional system at 54°N, and bloom conditions at 62°N and 70°N. The ratio of microzooplankton to phytoplankton biomass was inversely related to nitrate and phosphate concentrations. Potential grazing thresholds were observed in four of nine experiments at 40-66% of the initial phytoplankton concentration. Grazing losses were determined for six pigment-specific classes of phytoplankton. Selective grazing losses of phytoplankton taxa ranged from 73% to 248% of the nonselective grazing losses predicted according to their biomass contributions. The grazing selectivity varied considerably between communities, with the microherbivores showing positive selection for cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates and predominantly avoidance of chlorophyta and bacillariophyceae. Microzooplankton did not show a preference for the dominant phytoplankton taxa, but grazed preferentially on fast-growing phytoplankton with minor contributions (<15%) to the phytoplankton biomass. However, bacillariophyceae were the major contributors to phytoplankton biomass and accounted for major fractions of the total losses through microzooplankton grazing. Microzooplankton consumed the equivalent of 0.12-5.5 times their own biomass daily on a carbon basis, amounting to 65-197% of gross phytoplankton production. With the conservative assumption that 20% of the consumed phytoplankton was converted to microzooplankton biomass, the latter was estimated to contribute 27-381% to the net production of the entire microzooplankton community. We therefore conclude that the taxonomic structure and the net production of the microzooplankton communities were significantly affected by the

  9. Predator-induced fleeing behaviors in phytoplankton: a new mechanism for harmful algal bloom formation?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth L; Menden-Deuer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In the plankton, heterotrophic microbes encounter and ingest phytoplankton prey, which effectively removes >50% of daily phytoplankton production in the ocean and influences global primary production and biochemical cycling rates. Factors such as size, shape, nutritional value, and presence of chemical deterrents are known to affect predation pressure. Effects of movement behaviors of either predator or prey on predation pressure, and particularly fleeing behaviors in phytoplankton are thus far unknown. Here, we quantified individual 3D movements, population distributions, and survival rates of the toxic phytoplankton species, Heterosigma akashiwo in response to a ciliate predator and predator-derived cues. We observed predator-induced defense behaviors previously unknown for phytoplankton. Modulation of individual phytoplankton movements during and after predator exposure resulted in an effective separation of predator and prey species. The strongest avoidance behaviors were observed when H. akashiwo co-occurred with an actively grazing predator. Predator-induced changes in phytoplankton movements resulted in a reduction in encounter rate and a 3-fold increase in net algal population growth rate. A spatially explicit population model predicted rapid phytoplankton bloom formation only when fleeing behaviors were incorporated. These model predictions reflected field observations of rapid H. akashiwo harmful algal bloom (HAB) formation in the coastal ocean. Our results document a novel behavior in phytoplankton that can significantly reduce predation pressure and suggests a new mechanism for HAB formation. Phytoplankton behaviors that minimize predatory losses, maximize resource acquisition, and alter community composition and distribution patterns could have major implications for our understanding and predictive capacity of marine primary production and biochemical cycling rates.

  10. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  11. Generalized receptor law governs phototaxis in the phytoplankton Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-06-02

    Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis' phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller-Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized "receptor law," a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells' accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors.

  12. Global relationship between phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Vallina, S M; Follows, M J; Dutkiewicz, S; Montoya, J M; Cermeno, P; Loreau, M

    2014-07-01

    The shape of the productivity-diversity relationship (PDR) for marine phytoplankton has been suggested to be unimodal, that is, diversity peaking at intermediate levels of productivity. However, there are few observations and there has been little attempt to understand the mechanisms that would lead to such a shape for planktonic organisms. Here we use a marine ecosystem model together with the community assembly theory to explain the shape of the unimodal PDR we obtain at the global scale. The positive slope from low to intermediate productivity is due to grazer control with selective feeding, which leads to the predator-mediated coexistence of prey. The negative slope at high productivity is due to seasonal blooms of opportunist species that occur before they are regulated by grazers. The negative side is only unveiled when the temporal scale of the observation captures the transient dynamics, which are especially relevant at highly seasonal latitudes. Thus selective predation explains the positive side while transient competitive exclusion explains the negative side of the unimodal PDR curve. The phytoplankton community composition of the positive and negative sides is mostly dominated by slow-growing nutrient specialists and fast-growing nutrient opportunist species, respectively.

  13. Impact of ocean phytoplankton diversity on phosphate uptake.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Michael W; Bonachela, Juan A; Levin, Simon A; Martiny, Adam C

    2014-12-09

    We have a limited understanding of the consequences of variations in microbial biodiversity on ocean ecosystem functioning and global biogeochemical cycles. A core process is macronutrient uptake by microorganisms, as the uptake of nutrients controls ocean CO2 fixation rates in many regions. Here, we ask whether variations in ocean phytoplankton biodiversity lead to novel functional relationships between environmental variability and phosphate (Pi) uptake. We analyzed Pi uptake capabilities and cellular allocations among phytoplankton groups and the whole community throughout the extremely Pi-depleted western North Atlantic Ocean. Pi uptake capabilities of individual populations were well described by a classic uptake function but displayed adaptive differences in uptake capabilities that depend on cell size and nutrient availability. Using an eco-evolutionary model as well as observations of in situ uptake across the region, we confirmed that differences among populations lead to previously uncharacterized relationships between ambient Pi concentrations and uptake. Supported by novel theory, this work provides a robust empirical basis for describing and understanding assimilation of limiting nutrients in the oceans. Thus, it demonstrates that microbial biodiversity, beyond cell size, is important for understanding the global cycling of nutrients.

  14. TiO2 Nanoparticles Are Phototoxic to Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert J.; Bennett, Samuel; Keller, Arturo A.; Pease, Scott; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO2. Because TiO2 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO2 has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO2 is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiments demonstrating cytotoxicity of TiO2 have used exposure to strong artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In vivo tests of TiO2 toxicity with aquatic organisms have typically shown low toxicity, and results across studies have been variable. No work has demonstrated that photoactivity causes environmental toxicity of TiO2 under natural levels of UVR. Here we show that relatively low levels of ultraviolet light, consistent with those found in nature, can induce toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to marine phytoplankton, the most important primary producers on Earth. No effect of TiO2 on phytoplankton was found in treatments where UV light was blocked. Under low intensity UVR, ROS in seawater increased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. These increases may lead to increased overall oxidative stress in seawater contaminated by TiO2, and cause decreased resiliency of marine ecosystems. Phototoxicity must be considered when evaluating environmental impacts of nanomaterials, many of which are photoactive. PMID:22276179

  15. Influence of mineral suspension on the phytoplankton growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schure, L. A.; Aponasenko, A. D.; Postnikova, P. V.; Filimonov, V. S.; Lopatin, V. N.

    2006-02-01

    Effect of organomineral suspension on development of plankton community which are included in microbial food web has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. In the course of the model experiment it was found that in samples with adding suspension the chlorophyll concentration (C chl) increase runs more intensively and the longer time period. Increase C chl in the control ran up to 67 days with the following going out to the stationary level at maximum value 220 mkg/l. In samples with adding 100 mg/l suspension the stationary level was not reached to the 80 days of the experiment and the maximum chlorophyll concentration made 520 mkg/l. In field studies it was ascertained that all the parameters related to production characteristics of bacterioplankton as well as to organic matter adsorbed on mineral suspension greatly influence the production characteristics of phytoplankton. The multiplicative model of dependence of a primary production from primary factors of environment: the content of chlorophyll, specific absorption coefficient of light by the dissolved organic matter, content of adsorbed organic matter, bacterial production and destruction, mean size of phytoplankton cells is offered. It would follow from this model that if bacterioplankton production increases twice (at remaining other parameters constant) then primary production will be 2.5 times larger in the Khanka Lake, 1.9 times in the Yenisei River and 1.4 times in Krasnoyarsk water storage.

  16. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  17. Interaction and signalling between a cosmopolitan phytoplankton and associated bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, S. A.; Hmelo, L. R.; van Tol, H. M.; Durham, B. P.; Carlson, L. T.; Heal, K. R.; Morales, R. L.; Berthiaume, C. T.; Parker, M. S.; Djunaedi, B.; Ingalls, A. E.; Parsek, M. R.; Moran, M. A.; Armbrust, E. V.

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape ecosystem diversity. In marine ecosystems, these interactions are difficult to study partly because the major photosynthetic organisms are microscopic, unicellular phytoplankton. Coastal phytoplankton communities are dominated by diatoms, which generate approximately 40% of marine primary production and form the base of many marine food webs. Diatoms co-occur with specific bacterial taxa, but the mechanisms of potential interactions are mostly unknown. Here we tease apart a bacterial consortium associated with a globally distributed diatom and find that a Sulfitobacter species promotes diatom cell division via secretion of the hormone indole-3-acetic acid, synthesized by the bacterium using both diatom-secreted and endogenous tryptophan. Indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan serve as signalling molecules that are part of a complex exchange of nutrients, including diatom-excreted organosulfur molecules and bacterial-excreted ammonia. The potential prevalence of this mode of signalling in the oceans is corroborated by metabolite and metatranscriptome analyses that show widespread indole-3-acetic acid production by Sulfitobacter-related bacteria, particularly in coastal environments. Our study expands on the emerging recognition that marine microbial communities are part of tightly connected networks by providing evidence that these interactions are mediated through production and exchange of infochemicals.

  18. Generalized receptor law governs phototaxis in the phytoplankton Euglena gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Maritan, Amos; Stocker, Roman; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Phototaxis, the process through which motile organisms direct their swimming toward or away from light, is implicated in key ecological phenomena (including algal blooms and diel vertical migration) that shape the distribution, diversity, and productivity of phytoplankton and thus energy transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems. Phototaxis also finds important applications in biofuel reactors and microbiopropellers and is argued to serve as a benchmark for the study of biological invasions in heterogeneous environments owing to the ease of generating stochastic light fields. Despite its ecological and technological relevance, an experimentally tested, general theoretical model of phototaxis seems unavailable to date. Here, we present accurate measurements of the behavior of the alga Euglena gracilis when exposed to controlled light fields. Analysis of E. gracilis’ phototactic accumulation dynamics over a broad range of light intensities proves that the classic Keller–Segel mathematical framework for taxis provides an accurate description of both positive and negative phototaxis only when phototactic sensitivity is modeled by a generalized “receptor law,” a specific nonlinear response function to light intensity that drives algae toward beneficial light conditions and away from harmful ones. The proposed phototactic model captures the temporal dynamics of both cells’ accumulation toward light sources and their dispersion upon light cessation. The model could thus be of use in integrating models of vertical phytoplankton migrations in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the design of bioreactors. PMID:25964338

  19. In situ measurements of phytoplankton fluorescence using low cost electronics.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S; Wright, Dana L

    2013-06-19

    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  20. Studies on phytoplankton characteristics in Ayyampattinam coast, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Santhosh; Perumal, P

    2012-05-01

    Physico-chemical variables in the marine environment are subjected to wide spatio-temporal variations. The various physico-chemical parameters viz: temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and nutrients of the environment are the factors which mainly influence the production and successful propagation of planktonic life in the coastal biotopes. The ranges of values of surface water temperature (0 degrees C), salinity (per thousand), pH and dissolved oxygen (ml l(-1)) were: 25.5 - 33.4; 23 - 35; 7.8 - 8.2; 3.6 - 5.2, respectively. The values (microg l(-1)) of nutrients were: nitrate 3.21 - 6.34, nitrite 0.74 - 0.896, phosphate 0.22 and 1.16, silicate 24.85 - 61.92 and ammonia 0.05 - 0.32. The recorded values of primary productivity (mgcm(-3)hr(1)) ranged between 16 - 116 and the chlorophyll "a" varied from 3.74 - 8.52. A total number of 51 species of phytoplankton representing different classes viz: Bacillariophyceae (40); Dinophyceae (8); Chlorophyceae (1) and Cyanophyceae (2) was recorded. Among the four classes, Bacillariophyceae appeared to be the dominant group in respect of total species and cell numbers. The population density of phytoplankton was high during summer season and quite low during monsoon season.

  1. TiO2 nanoparticles are phototoxic to marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Bennett, Samuel; Keller, Arturo A; Pease, Scott; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO(2). Because TiO(2) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO(2) has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO(2) is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiments demonstrating cytotoxicity of TiO(2) have used exposure to strong artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In vivo tests of TiO(2) toxicity with aquatic organisms have typically shown low toxicity, and results across studies have been variable. No work has demonstrated that photoactivity causes environmental toxicity of TiO(2) under natural levels of UVR. Here we show that relatively low levels of ultraviolet light, consistent with those found in nature, can induce toxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles to marine phytoplankton, the most important primary producers on Earth. No effect of TiO(2) on phytoplankton was found in treatments where UV light was blocked. Under low intensity UVR, ROS in seawater increased with increasing nano-TiO(2) concentration. These increases may lead to increased overall oxidative stress in seawater contaminated by TiO(2), and cause decreased resiliency of marine ecosystems. Phototoxicity must be considered when evaluating environmental impacts of nanomaterials, many of which are photoactive.

  2. Plastids of Marine Phytoplankton Produce Bioactive Pigments and Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Poirier, Isabelle; Loizeau, Damien; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Schoefs, Benoît; Bertrand, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton is acknowledged to be a very diverse source of bioactive molecules. These compounds play physiological roles that allow cells to deal with changes of the environmental constrains. For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. Identically, lipid composition of cell membranes can vary according to environmental factors. This, together with the heterogenous evolutionary origin of taxa, makes the chemical diversity of phytoplankton compounds much larger than in terrestrial plants. This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts with a short review of cyanobacteria and microalgae phylogeny. Then the bioactivity of pigments and lipids (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-allergic activities, and cardio- neuro-, hepato- and photoprotective effects), alone or in combination, is detailed. To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light intensity, nitrogen starvation). Regardless of the progress made in blue biotechnologies, the production of bioactive compounds is still limited. However, some examples of large scale production are given, and perspectives are suggested in the final section. PMID:24022731

  3. Paleolatitudinal Gradients in Marine Phytoplankton Composition and Cell Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, J.; Bordiga, M.; Bartol, M.; Šupraha, L.

    2014-12-01

    Coccolithophores, a prominent group of marine calcifying unicellular algae, are widely studied in context of current and past climate change. We know that marine phytoplankton are sensitive to climatic changes, but the complex interplay of several processes such as warming, changes in nutrient content, and ocean acidification, makes future scenarios difficult to predict. Some taxa may be more susceptible to environmental perturbations than others, as evidenced by significantly different species-specific sensitivities observed in laboratory experiments. However, short-term plastic responses may not translate into longer-term climatic adaptation, nor should we readily extrapolate the behavior of single strains in the laboratory to natural, multi-species assemblages and their interactions in the ocean. The extensive fossil record of coccolithophores (in the form of coccoliths) reveals high morphological and taxonomic diversity and allows reconstructing the cell size of individual taxonomic groups. In a suite of deep-sea drilling sites from the Atlantic Ocean, we document distinct latitudinal gradients in phytoplankton composition and cell size across major climate transitions of the late Eocene - earliest Oligocene, and the middle - late Miocene. With these data we test hypotheses of species migration, phenotypic evolution, as well as the rates of species extinction and speciation in relation to concurrent paleoenvironmental changes during the Cenozoic.

  4. Network of Interactions Between Ciliates and Phytoplankton During Spring

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Pomati, Francesco; Pernthaler, Jakob; Pitsch, Gianna; Eckert, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    The annually recurrent spring phytoplankton blooms in freshwater lakes initiate pronounced successions of planktonic ciliate species. Although there is considerable knowledge on the taxonomic diversity of these ciliates, their species-specific interactions with other microorganisms are still not well understood. Here we present the succession patterns of 20 morphotypes of ciliates during spring in Lake Zurich, Switzerland, and we relate their abundances to phytoplankton genera, flagellates, heterotrophic bacteria, and abiotic parameters. Interspecific relationships were analyzed by contemporaneous correlations and time-lagged co-occurrence and visualized as association networks. The contemporaneous network pointed to the pivotal role of distinct ciliate species (e.g., Balanion planctonicum, Rimostrombidium humile) as primary consumers of cryptomonads, revealed a clear overclustering of mixotrophic/omnivorous species, and highlighted the role of Halteria/Pelagohalteria as important bacterivores. By contrast, time-lagged statistical approaches (like local similarity analyses, LSA) proved to be inadequate for the evaluation of high-frequency sampling data. LSA led to a conspicuous inflation of significant associations, making it difficult to establish ecologically plausible interactions between ciliates and other microorganisms. Nevertheless, if adequate statistical procedures are selected, association networks can be powerful tools to formulate testable hypotheses about the autecology of only recently described ciliate species. PMID:26635757

  5. Plastids of marine phytoplankton produce bioactive pigments and lipids.

    PubMed

    Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Poirier, Isabelle; Loizeau, Damien; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Schoefs, Benoît; Bertrand, Martine

    2013-09-09

    Phytoplankton is acknowledged to be a very diverse source of bioactive molecules. These compounds play physiological roles that allow cells to deal with changes of the environmental constrains. For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. Identically, lipid composition of cell membranes can vary according to environmental factors. This, together with the heterogenous evolutionary origin of taxa, makes the chemical diversity of phytoplankton compounds much larger than in terrestrial plants. This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts with a short review of cyanobacteria and microalgae phylogeny. Then the bioactivity of pigments and lipids (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-allergic activities, and cardio- neuro-, hepato- and photoprotective effects), alone or in combination, is detailed. To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light intensity, nitrogen starvation). Regardless of the progress made in blue biotechnologies, the production of bioactive compounds is still limited. However, some examples of large scale production are given, and perspectives are suggested in the final section.

  6. Impact of ocean phytoplankton diversity on phosphate uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, Michael W.; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the consequences of variations in microbial biodiversity on ocean ecosystem functioning and global biogeochemical cycles. A core process is macronutrient uptake by microorganisms, as the uptake of nutrients controls ocean CO2 fixation rates in many regions. Here, we ask whether variations in ocean phytoplankton biodiversity lead to novel functional relationships between environmental variability and phosphate (Pi) uptake. We analyzed Pi uptake capabilities and cellular allocations among phytoplankton groups and the whole community throughout the extremely Pi-depleted western North Atlantic Ocean. Pi uptake capabilities of individual populations were well described by a classic uptake function but displayed adaptive differences in uptake capabilities that depend on cell size and nutrient availability. Using an eco-evolutionary model as well as observations of in situ uptake across the region, we confirmed that differences among populations lead to previously uncharacterized relationships between ambient Pi concentrations and uptake. Supported by novel theory, this work provides a robust empirical basis for describing and understanding assimilation of limiting nutrients in the oceans. Thus, it demonstrates that microbial biodiversity, beyond cell size, is important for understanding the global cycling of nutrients. PMID:25422472

  7. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Wright, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. PMID:23783738

  8. Episodic Dust Passage and Phytoplankton Blooms in North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Chameides, W. L.; Nenes, A.

    2003-12-01

    Bioavailability of iron (Fe) has been hypothesized to play a key role in limiting phytoplankton productivity in much of the world's ocean, particularly in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions such as the subarctic North Pacific. The transport and deposition of mineral dust from arid and semi-arid continental regions is believed to be a major mechanism by which Fe is delivered to the surface waters of the remote ocean. This source of oceanic Fe is particularly vital for HNLC waters of subarctic North Pacific; therefore, it is an appropriate region for examining the effects of episodic dust deposition from the Asian continent on phytoplankton blooms. In this work, satellite imagery is used to identify specific mineral dust events from East Asia, track their trajectories across the Pacific Ocean and determine if the passage of these dust plumes across the North Pacific Ocean can be correlated with the occurrence of a chlorophyll a pulse. Lagrangian box model calculations are also used to estimate the likely input of bioavailable Fe to the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean during these dust events.

  9. Global relationship between phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Vallina, S. M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Montoya, J. M.; Cermeno, P.; Loreau, M.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of the productivity–diversity relationship (PDR) for marine phytoplankton has been suggested to be unimodal, that is, diversity peaking at intermediate levels of productivity. However, there are few observations and there has been little attempt to understand the mechanisms that would lead to such a shape for planktonic organisms. Here we use a marine ecosystem model together with the community assembly theory to explain the shape of the unimodal PDR we obtain at the global scale. The positive slope from low to intermediate productivity is due to grazer control with selective feeding, which leads to the predator-mediated coexistence of prey. The negative slope at high productivity is due to seasonal blooms of opportunist species that occur before they are regulated by grazers. The negative side is only unveiled when the temporal scale of the observation captures the transient dynamics, which are especially relevant at highly seasonal latitudes. Thus selective predation explains the positive side while transient competitive exclusion explains the negative side of the unimodal PDR curve. The phytoplankton community composition of the positive and negative sides is mostly dominated by slow-growing nutrient specialists and fast-growing nutrient opportunist species, respectively. PMID:24980772

  10. Seasonal Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monger, Bruce; McClain, Charles; Murtugudde, Ragu

    1997-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) that operated aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite provided extensive coverage of phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the surface waters of the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) from March 1979 to February 1980 and coincided with four major research cruises to this region. Total primary production within the ETA (5 deg N-10 deg S, 25 deg W-10 deg E) was determined from CZCS pigment estimates and an empirical algorithm derived from concurrent in situ data taken along 4 deg W that relates near-surface chlorophyll concentration and integrated primary production. We estimated an average annual production for the ETA of 2.3 Gt C/yr with an associated 3.5-fold seasonal variation in the magnitude of this production. We describe the principal physical mechanisms controlling seasonal phytoplankton dynamics within the ETA and propose that in addition to seasonal change in the thermocline depth, one must also consider changes in the depth of the equatorial under current. An extensive validation effort indicates that the standard CZCS global products are a conservative estimate of pigment concentrations in ETA surface waters. Significant underestimates by the CZCS global products were observed in June and July which we attributed, in part, to aerosol correction errors and, more importantly, to errors caused by a significant reduction in the concentration of near-surface dissolved organic matter that resulted from strong equatorial upwelling.

  11. Factors Limiting Phytoplankton Production in a Tropical Continental Shelf Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burford, M. A.; Rothlisberg, P. C.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of light and nutrients on phytoplankton production were examined during both the south-east monsoon (winter) and north-west monsoon (summer) in the northern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Integrated production and chlorophyll values were similar between summer and winter in Albatross Bay in the north-east Gulf over 4 years where shallow waters within the coastal boundary layer (<20m) were well-mixed year-round. Integrated production in well-mixed, deeper (>20m) waters of the Gulf was low (winter, 557±351mgCm -2day -1) compared with waters which were stratified during the north-west monsoon (summer, 955±129mgCm -2day -1). The lower production was due to high turbidity and light attenuation in the water column; coccoliths from algal detritus were the main cause. However, chlorophyll a concentrations were higher in winter (32·9±6·4mgm -2) than in summer (16·8±3·4mgm -2). While molar N:P ratios were low (2·9), which is indicative of nitrogen limitation, nutrient addition and 15N-nitrogen uptake experiments showed no such limitation. There was also little or no indication of silicate or phosphate deficiency. This contrasts with many other continental shelf systems that are nitrogen-limited. It is concluded that light, rather than nutrients, limited phytoplankton production during the south-east monsoon in offshore waters.

  12. Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; Chekalyuk, A.M.; Sosik, H.M.

    1996-09-01

    Saturating-flash fluorescence techniques, which can provide information about the physiological state of phytoplankton, at present measure bulk water samples and so provide {open_quotes}averaged{close_quotes} values for all the fluorescent particles present. In analyzing natural samples, however, more detailed information about the distribution of photosynthetic characteristics among different cell types and(or) individual cells is desirable. Therefore we developed two methods for applying a {open_quotes}pump-during-probe{close_quotes} technique on a cell-by-cell basis. We used either an epifluorescence microscope or a flow cytometer to make time-resolved measurements of the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence induced by a rectangular excitation pulse of 100-{mu}s duration. We used a biophysical model of fluorescence induction to obtain information about the quantum yield of photochemistry in photosystem 2 (PS2) and the functional absorption cross-section for PS2. For several species (including the smallest phytoplankton, Prochlorococcus, which are 0.7 {mu}m in diameter), the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry in PS2 obtained by averaging data from many individual cells agreed well with estimates derived from bulk measurements of DCMU enhancement of Chl fluorescence. 40 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Light-mediated release of dissolved organic carbon by phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherrier, Jennifer; Valentine, SarahKeith; Hamill, Barbara; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Marra, John F.

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to examine the effects of irradiance variability on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracellular release by phytoplankton (ER) and the response of natural bacteria assemblages. In axenic laboratory cultures, ER was 3× greater in cultures shifted to 330 μmol photons m-2 s-1 compared to cultures kept at their cultured irradiance, 110 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Natural bacterial assemblages incubated in the dark for 24 h in algal-free culture filtrate generated from both light treatments consumed the DOC from the high-light treatment at a faster rate than that for the low-light treatment. Field measurements in the coastal waters of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Eastern North Pacific (ENP) mirrored the laboratory findings, with short-term increases in DOC concentrations occurring concurrently with short-term increases in irradiance, followed by rapid consumption by bacteria. Where no diurnal irradiance increase was observed (overcast skies), no increase in DOC concentration was observed. An experiment using 14C as a tracer for plankton interactions (GOM) was consistent with data on bulk DOC concentrations. For all the field measurements, the rate of irradiance change was correlated with the quantity of DOC released. Collectively these results indicated that release of DOC by phytoplankton populations as a function of incident irradiance can be significant and may have important implications for estimates of ocean carbon flux.

  14. Cell-associated proteolytic enzymes from marine phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, J.A.; Falkowski, P.G.

    1996-08-01

    Despite their central importance in cell metabolism, little is known about proteases in marine phytoplankton. Caseinolytic and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities was surveyed in log-phase cultures of the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii Fryxell et Hasle, the chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana Parke, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi Hay et Mohler, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. LAP activity was very low at pH < 6 and peaked between pH 7.5 and 8.5 in all species, whereas caseinolytic activity in most species showed only minor peaks in the pH 4-5 range and broad maxima above pH 8. Acidic vacuolar proteases apparently represented only a small fraction of total protease activity. Attempts to classify protease using selective inhibitors were inconclusive. Caserinolytic activities were remarkably stable. Casein zymograms were used to identify >200-and <20-kDa proteases in homogenates of log-phase T. weissflogii; only the smaller protease was found in D. tertiolecta. Antibodies in the ATPase subunit (C) of the conserved, chloroplastic Clp protease from Pisum cross-reacted with proteins in Synechococcus, D. tertiolecta, and I. galbana, but no cross-reactions were found for any species with antibodies against the ClpP subunit from either E. coli or Nicotiana. Our results show that phytoplankton contain a diverse complement of proteases with novel characteristics. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Southern Ocean phytoplankton physiology in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Katherina; Kranz, Sven A; Trimborn, Scarlett; Hassler, Christel S; Ameijeiras, Sonia Blanco; Sackett, Olivia; Ralph, Peter J; Davidson, Andrew T

    2016-09-20

    The Southern Ocean (SO) is a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), potentially harbouring even greater potential for additional sequestration of CO2 through enhanced phytoplankton productivity. In the SO, primary productivity is primarily driven by bottom up processes (physical and chemical conditions) which are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Due to a paucity of trace metals (such as iron) and high variability in light, much of the SO is characterised by an ecological paradox of high macronutrient concentrations yet uncharacteristically low chlorophyll concentrations. It is expected that with increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the coincident warming, the major physical and chemical process that govern the SO will alter, influencing the biological capacity and functioning of the ecosystem. This review focuses on the SO primary producers and the bottom up processes that underpin their health and productivity. It looks at the major physico-chemical drivers of change in the SO, and based on current physiological knowledge, explores how these changes will likely manifest in phytoplankton, specifically, what are the physiological changes and floristic shifts that are likely to ensue and how this may translate into changes in the carbon sink capacity, net primary productivity and functionality of the SO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monger, Bruce; McClain, Charles; Murtugudde, Ragu

    1997-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) that operated aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite provided extensive coverage of phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the surface waters of the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) from March 1979 to February 1980 and coincided with four major research cruises to this region. Total primary production within the ETA (5 deg N-10 deg S, 25 deg W-10 deg E) was determined from CZCS pigment estimates and an empirical algorithm derived from concurrent in situ data taken along 4 deg W that relates near-surface chlorophyll concentration and integrated primary production. We estimated an average annual production for the ETA of 2.3 Gt C/yr with an associated 3.5-fold seasonal variation in the magnitude of this production. We describe the principal physical mechanisms controlling seasonal phytoplankton dynamics within the ETA and propose that in addition to seasonal change in the thermocline depth, one must also consider changes in the depth of the equatorial under current. An extensive validation effort indicates that the standard CZCS global products are a conservative estimate of pigment concentrations in ETA surface waters. Significant underestimates by the CZCS global products were observed in June and July which we attributed, in part, to aerosol correction errors and, more importantly, to errors caused by a significant reduction in the concentration of near-surface dissolved organic matter that resulted from strong equatorial upwelling.

  17. In situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in summer 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junlei; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zheng, Shan

    2016-08-01

    In situ studies on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton were important for the analysis of changes in community structure and for the prediction and control of algal blooms, but such studies of phytoplankton in offshore China were few. In this study, the detailed distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the summer of 2013 in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was measured using Phyto-PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation). The phytoplankton community structure and the environmental parameters were also investigated to estimate the relationship between the distribution of the photochemical competence of phytoplankton and ecological factors. The total average Fv/Fm (the potential maximum quantum yield) value of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in summer 2013 was less than 0.5, reflecting that the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton was relatively low. Fv/Fm of phytoplankton in summer was significantly positively associated with nitrate content (NO2-), which reflects relationship between metabolism and photosynthesis of phytoplankton: accompanied by NO2- metabolism, photosynthesis and photosynthetic capacity may be enhanced simultaneously, so the Fv/Fm value would increase with the NO2- released by phytoplankton. Through the in situ study on photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, we come to the conclusion that photosynthetic characteristics and activity of phytoplankton are influenced by its biological characteristics and surrounding ecological factors, such as irradiance, nutrients and phytoplankton community. Meanwhile, the thermally stratified structure and the movement of water masses, such as the Yangtze River diluted water, the Yellow Sea cold water mass and other different water system, also have an important impact on phytoplankton photosynthetic activity and characteristics. Greater understanding of the detailed photosynthetic characteristics of phytoplankton

  18. Phytoplankton diversity and productivity in a highly turbid, tropical coastal system (Bach Dang Estuary, Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochelle-Newall, E. J.; Chu, V. T.; Pringault, O.; Amouroux, D.; Arfi, R.; Bettarel, Y.; Bouvier, T.; Bouvier, C.; Got, P.; Nguyen, T. M. H.; Mari, X.; Navarro, P.; Duong, T. N.; Cao, T. T. T.; Pham, T. T.; Ouillon, S.; Torréton, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    The factors controlling estuarine phytoplankton diversity and production are relatively well known in temperate systems. Less however is known about the factors affecting phytoplankton community distribution in tropical estuaries. This is surprising given the economic and ecological importance of these large, deltaic ecosystems, such as are found in South East Asia. Here we present the results from an investigation into the factors controlling phytoplankton distribution and phytoplankton-bacterial coupling in the Bach Dang Estuary, a sub-estuary of the Red River system, in Northern Vietnam. Phytoplankton diversity and primary and bacterial production, nutrients and metallic contaminants (mercury and organotin) were measured during two seasons: wet (July 2008) and dry (March 2009). Phytoplankton community composition differed between the two seasons with only a 2% similarity between July and March. The large spatial extent and complexity of defining the freshwater sources meant that simple mixing diagrams could not be used in this system. We therefore employed multivariate analyses to determine the factors influencing phytoplankton community structure. Salinity and suspended particulate matter were important factors in determining phytoplankton distribution, particularly during the wet season. We also show that phytoplankton community structure is probably influenced by the concentrations of mercury species (inorganic mercury and methyl mercury in both the particulate and dissolved phases) and of tri-, di, and mono-butyl tin species found in this system. Freshwater phytoplankton community composition was associated with dissolved methyl mercury and particulate inorganic mercury concentrations during the wet season, whereas, during the dry season, dissolved methyl mercury and particulate butyl tin species were important factors for the discrimination of the phytoplankton community structure. Phytoplankton-bacterioplankton coupling was also investigated during both

  19. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton community structure in the Sanggou, Ailian, and Lidao Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mingli; Zhang, Cuixia; Jiang, Zengjie; Guo, Shujin; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal variations in phytoplankton community structure were investigated for the Sanggou Bay (SGB) and the adjacent Ailian Bay (ALB) and Lidao Bay (LDB) in Shandong Peninsula, eastern China. The species composition and cell abundance of phytoplankton in the bay waters in spring (April 2011), summer (August 2011), autumn (October 2011), and winter (January 2012) were examined using the Utermöhl method. A total of 80 taxa of phytoplankton that belong to 39 genera of 3 phyla were identified. These included 64 species of 30 genera in the Phylum Bacillariophyta, 13 species of 8 genera in the Phylum Dinophyta, and 3 species of 1 genus in the Phylum Chrysophyta. During the four seasons, the number of phytoplankton species (43) was the highest in spring, followed by summer and autumn (40), and the lowest number of phytoplankton species (35) was found in winter. Diatoms, especially Paralia sulcata (Ehrenberg) Cleve and Coscinodiscus oculus-iridis Ehrenberg, were predominant in the phytoplankton community throughout the study period, whereas the dominance of dinoflagellate appeared in summer only. The maximum cell abundance of phytoplankton was detected in summer (average 8.08 × 103 cells L-1) whereas their minimum abundance was found in autumn (average 2.60 × 103 cells L-1). The phytoplankton abundance was generally higher in the outer bay than in the inner bay in spring and autumn. In summer, the phytoplankton cells were mainly concentrated in the south of inner SGB, with peak abundance observed along the western coast. In winter, the distribution of phytoplankton cells showed 3 patches, with peak abundance along the western coast as well. On seasonal average, the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices of phytoplankton community ranged from 1.17 to 1.78 (autumn > summer > spring > winter), and the Pielou's evenness indices of phytoplankton ranged from 0.45 to 0.65 (autumn > spring > summer > winter). According to the results of canonical correspondence analysis

  20. Are phytoplankton and bacteria coupled within an aquatic oligotrophic system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Benítez, N.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    The degree of coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria was estimated within the Bay of Palma during summer 2002 at four stations (Posidonia, Bahía, Cap Enderrocat and Station 4), by comparing the relative proportions of particulate (POC-pr) and dissolved (DOC-pr) primary production with bacterial carbon demand (BCD). The Bay of Palma showed a remarkable degree of spatial variability during summer. We observed two contrasting regions. Rates of carbon fixation (DOC-pr + POC-pr) were on average fourfold higher at Bahía and Posidonia stations (1.50 ± 0.30 mg C m-3 h-1) than at the Cap Enderrocat and St4 stations (0.35 ± 0.09 mg C m-3 h-1). The slope of the positive correlation between DOC-pr and POC-pr production (r2 = 0.57, p< 0.001) was significantly lower than 1 suggesting that the relative contribution of the dissolved fraction to the total primary production (PER=DOC/[DOC+POC]) increases as the productivity of the system decreases. The PER was lower in the most productive area (37 ± 4%) than in the less productive area (69 ± 4%). Bacterial respiration (BR) was significantly lower than total community respiration (unfiltered samples) and averaged 66 % after 12 h of incubation. These results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria are the major contributors to bulk community respiration during summer. Bacterial production (BP) was positively correlated with POC (r2 = 0.53, p< 0.05) but was inversely correlated with PER (r2 = 0.70, p< 0.001). Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE = BP/[BP+BR]) showed also an important spatial variability, being higher within the most productive area (44 ± 4%) than within the less productive area (6 ± 1%). On the other hand, BCD amounted to 88 ± 21% (higher productive area) and 211 ± 43% (lower productive area) of total primary production. On the whole, BP and BGE responds to changes in phytoplankton production, increasing as the primary production increases whereas PER decreases. In addition, there is clear evidence of the

  1. Fluorometric discrimination technique of phytoplankton population based on wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Su, Rongguo; Duan, Yali; Zhang, Cui; Song, Zhijie; Wang, Xiulin

    2012-09-01

    The discrete excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMS) at 12 excitation wavelengths (400, 430, 450, 460, 470, 490, 500, 510, 525, 550, 570, and 590 nm) and emission wavelengths ranging from 600-750 nm were determined for 43 phytoplankton species. A two-rank fluorescence spectra database was established by wavelet analysis and a fluorometric discrimination technique for determining phytoplankton population was developed. For laboratory simulatively mixed samples, the samples mixed from 43 algal species (the algae of one division accounted for 25%, 50%, 75%, 85%, and 100% of the gross biomass, respectively), the average discrimination rates at the level of division were 65.0%, 87.5%, 98.6%, 99.0%, and 99.1%, with average relative contents of 18.9%, 44.5%, 68.9%, 73.4%, and 82.9%, respectively; the samples mixed from 32 red tide algal species (the dominant species accounted for 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of the gross biomass, respectively), the average correct discrimination rates of the dominant species at the level of genus were 63.3%, 74.2%, 78.8%, 83.4%, and 79.4%, respectively. For the 81 laboratory mixed samples with the dominant species accounting for 75% of the gross biomass (chlorophyll), the discrimination rates of the dominant species were 95.1% and 72.8% at the level of division and genus, respectively. For the 12 samples collected from the mesocosm experiment in Maidao Bay of Qingdao in August 2007, the dominant species of the 11 samples were recognized at the division level and the dominant species of four of the five samples in which the dominant species accounted for more than 80% of the gross biomass were discriminated at the genus level; for the 12 samples obtained from Jiaozhou Bay in August 2007, the dominant species of all the 12 samples were recognized at the division level. The technique can be directly applied to fluorescence spectrophotometers and to the developing of an in situ algae fluorescence auto-analyzer for phytoplankton

  2. Estuarine Phytoplankton Monitoring to Meet Undergraduate and Faculty Research Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C. J.; Wilson, J. J.; Butterbaugh, T.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoplankton monitoring is being used at Savannah State University to provide research experience for all upper-level marine science majors, to provide in-depth senior research projects, to engage lower-level students in marine science activities beyond the classroom, and to collect baseline data for faculty research proposals. The framework is built around a commitment to maintain a tidal creek monitoring site for larger phytoplankton (diatoms and dinoflagellates >20 microns) as part of the Southeast Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (SEPMN). Field supplies and on-going training are supported by SEPMN. Marine science majors monitor a series of Wilmington River estuary sites as part of a group research project in an upper-level course offered each spring. The group research assignment includes the writing of a full research report with citations from the primary literature and peer review of drafts. A few students are encouraged to pursue their senior research project in this field and maintain sampling over the remainder of the year. They have freedom to design their own project in the broader context of eutrophication, high frequency temporal variability, seasonality, drought/flood cycles, comparisons between estuaries of differing river discharge or extension of sampling offshore. Senior researchers help to train freshmen/sophomore field assistants to insure consistency in the monitoring from one year to the next. Student data from the Wilmington River estuary cover the greatest portion of an annual cycle. Diatoms far outnumbered dinoflagellates at all estuarine sampling locations under both winter and summer conditions. There is a seasonal transition in this estuary from dominance of Asterionella sp. in February to Chaetoceros sp. in June. Chaetoceros sp. were also dominant in the lower Savannah River estuary in June. Dominance of diatoms in these estuaries rather than dinoflagellates is a sign of a relatively healthy ecosystem. These diatoms, however, did

  3. Response of phytoplankton to an experimental fish culture in net cages in a subtropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bartozek, E C R; Bueno, N C; Feiden, A; Rodrigues, L C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate nutrients concentration and spatial-temporal changes in phytoplankton biovolume during an experimental fish culture in net cages in a lateral arm of Salto Caxias reservoir, Brazil. Two sampling stations were placed in the affected lateral arm and other two in a cageless lateral arm. Neither abiotic variables nor phytoplankton biovolume presented significant differences between the treatments. Only temporal changes were confirmed by the analysis performed. Both lateral arms were classified as oligotrophic, reflecting low influence of the net cages. Phytoplankton growth seems to be limited by nitrogen. Biovolume values were, in general, low and five major functional groups were recognized (E, F, G, K and P). In summer higher biovolume values were observed and representatives of Chlorophyceae and Cyanobacteria belonging to the functional groups F and K, respectively, were the most important. In winter phytoplankton was mainly composed by Bacillariophyceae taxa from P group. G group was also restricted to winter and E group occurred in winter and summer. The variations recorded in phytoplankton structure appear to have been mainly influenced by seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation and nutrients availability. The effects of net cages on the abiotic variables and phytoplankton biovolume appear to have been small, probably due to the small number of net cages employed and the system dilution capacity. However, a permanent monitoring of phytoplankton is recommended, since this environment has a carrying capacity, from which the trophic state may increase.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton and its relationship with the environmental factors in Dongping Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Lu, Xuetang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xie, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Dongping Lake is the final adjusting and storing lake in the east route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China, and there has been serious concern regarding the water quality. Understanding the process of phytoplankton variation can be particularly useful in water quality improvement and management decisions. In this study, the phytoplankton taxonomic composition, abundance, temporal variations, spatial distribution, and diversity were studied based on a monthly sampling campaign from three sampling stations between May 2010 and May 2011. A total of 132 species (8 phyla, 72 genera), including 64 species of Chlorophyta, 26 species of Bacillariophyta, 21 species of Cyanophyta, 12 species of Euglenophyta, 3 species of Cryptophyta, 2 species of Xanthophyta, 1 species of Pyrrophyta, and 3 species of Chrysophyta were identified. Average phytoplankton diversity index and evenness values were 3.83 and 0.77, respectively, revealing a high biodiversity of phytoplankton community. The phytoplankton abundance averaged 5.11 × 10(6) cells/L, with Bacillariophyta dominant in winter and spring, but Cyanophyta in summer and autumn. There were 14 predominant species including Pseudanabaena limnetica, Chlamydomonas simplex, Cyclotella stelligera, and Chroomonas acuta. Phytoplankton community structure and water quality variables changed substantially over the survey period; redundancy analysis, Pearson correlations, and regression analysis as an integrated approach were applied to analyze the relationships among them. Total phosphorus and ammonium played governing roles in the phytoplankton dynamics of Dongping Lake during all periods investigated.

  5. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level.

  6. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jamie W.; Berube, Paul M.; Follett, Christopher L.; Waterbury, John B.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a vast quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between organic and inorganic forms, directly impacting global cycles of these biologically important elements. Details regarding the chemical composition of DOM produced by marine phytoplankton are sparse, and while often assumed, it is not currently known if phylogenetically distinct groups of marine phytoplankton release characteristic suites of DOM. To investigate the relationship between specific phytoplankton groups and the DOM they release, hydrophobic phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter (DOMP) from eight axenic strains was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Identification of DOM features derived from Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Thalassiosira, and Phaeodactylum revealed DOMP to be complex and highly strain dependent. Connections between DOMP features and the phylogenetic relatedness of these strains were identified on multiple levels of phylogenetic distance, suggesting that marine phytoplankton produce DOM that in part reflects its phylogenetic origin. Chemical information regarding the size and polarity ranges of features from defined biological sources was also obtained. Our findings reveal DOMP composition to be partially conserved among related phytoplankton species, and implicate marine DOM as a potential factor influencing microbial diversity in the sea by acting as a link between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial community structures. PMID:24748874

  7. Effects of tidal shallowing and deepening on phytoplankton production dynamics: A modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, L.V.; Cloern, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Processes influencing estuarine phytoplankton growth occur over a range of time scales, but many conceptual and numerical models of estuarine phytoplankton production dynamics neglect mechanisms occurring on the shorter (e.g., intratidal) time scales. We used a numerical model to explore the influence of short time-scale variability in phytoplankton sources and sinks on long-term growth in an idealized water column that shallows and deepens with the semidiurnal tide. Model results show that tidal fluctuations in water surface elevation can determine whether long-term phytoplankton growth is positive or negative. Hourly-scale interactions influencing weekly-scale to monthly-scale phytoplankton dynamics include intensification of the depth-averaged benthic grazing effect by water column shallowing and enhancement of water column photosynthesis when solar noon coincides with low tide. Photosynthesis and benthic consumption may modulate over biweekly time scales due to spring-neap fluctuations in tidal range and the 15-d cycle of solar noon-low tide phasing. If tidal range is a large fraction of mean water depth, then tidal shallowing and deepening may significantly influence net phytoplankton growth. In such a case, models or estimates of long-term phytoplankton production dynamics that neglect water surface fluctuations may overestimate or underestimate net growth and could even predict the wrong sign associated with net growth rate.

  8. Phytoplankton and water quality in a Mediterranean drinking-water reservoir (Marathonas Reservoir, Greece).

    PubMed

    Katsiapi, Matina; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplankton and water quality of Marathonas drinking-water Reservoir were examined for the first time. During the study period (July-September 2007), phytoplankton composition was indicative of eutrophic conditions although phytoplankton biovolume was low (max. 2.7 mm³ l⁻¹). Phytoplankton was dominated by cyanobacteria and diatoms, whereas desmids and dinoflagellates contributed with lower biovolume values. Changing flushing rate in the reservoir (up to 0.7% of reservoir's water volume per day) driven by water withdrawal and occurring in pulses for a period of 15-25 days was associated with phytoplankton dynamics. Under flushing pulses: (1) biovolume was low and (2) both 'good' quality species and the tolerant to flushing 'nuisance' cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa dominated. According to the Water Framework Directive, the metrics of phytoplankton biovolume and cyanobacterial percentage (%) contribution indicated a moderate ecological water quality. In addition, the total biovolume of cyanobacteria as well as the dominance of the known toxin-producing M. aeruginosa in the reservoir's phytoplankton indicated a potential hazard for human health according to the World Health Organization.

  9. Linking phytoplankton community composition to seasonal changes in f-ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bess B; Rees, Andrew P; Somerfield, Paul J; Joint, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in nitrogen assimilation have been studied in the western English Channel by sampling at approximately weekly intervals for 12 months. Nitrate concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. Available nitrogen in the winter was dominated by nitrate but this was close to limit of detection from May to September, after the spring phytoplankton bloom. The 15N uptake experiments showed that nitrate was the nitrogen source for the spring phytoplankton bloom but regenerated nitrogen supported phytoplankton productivity throughout the summer. The average annual f-ratio was 0.35, which demonstrated the importance of ammonia regeneration in this dynamic temperate region. Nitrogen uptake rate measurements were related to the phytoplankton responsible by assessing the relative abundance of nitrate reductase (NR) genes and the expression of NR among eukaryotic phytoplankton. Strong signals were detected from NR sequences that are not associated with known phylotypes or cultures. NR sequences from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were highly represented in gene abundance and expression, and were significantly correlated with f-ratio. The results demonstrate that analysis of functional genes provides additional information, and may be able to give better indications of which phytoplankton species are responsible for the observed seasonal changes in f-ratio than microscopic phytoplankton identification. PMID:21544101

  10. Carbon budget of a marine phytoplankton-herbivore system with carbon-14 as a tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, A.E.; Lorenzen, C.J.

    1980-09-01

    Adult female and stage V Calanus pacificus were fed /sup 14/C-labeled phytoplankton in the laboratory in the form of monospecific cultures and natural populations. A carbon budget was constructed by following the /sup 14/C activity and the specific activity, over 48 h, in the phytoplankton, copepod, dissolved organic, dissolved inorganic, and fecal carbon compartments. The average incorporation of carbon into the copepod's body was 45% of the phytoplankton carbon available. Of the phytoplankton carbon, 27% appeared as dissolved organic carbon, 24% as dissolved inorganic carbon, and 3 to 4% in the form of fecal pellets. All of the tracer was recovered at the end of the experiments. The specific activity of the phytoplankton compartment was constant throughout each experiment. The other compartments had initial specific activities of zero, or close to zero, and increased throughout the experiment. In most experiments, the copepod specific activity equalled that of the phytoplankton at the end of 48 h, while the dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, and fecal specific activities remained well below that of the phytoplankton.

  11. Phytoplankton dynamics of the fresh, tidal Potomac River, Maryland, for the summers of 1979 to 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Ronald R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of phytoplankton in the fresh, tidal Potomac River, Md., was different during 1979-81 from that observed in the 1960's and 1970's. Concentrations of phytoplankton in the 1960's and 1970's reached maximum attainable levels that were limited only by self-shading. A sag in phytoplankton abundance, apparent during the summers of 1980 and 1981 between Rosier Bluff and Marshall Hall, appears to have been caused by the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea. Reduced abundance of phytoplankton throughout the entire fresh, tidal river during the summers of 1980 and 1981 may have been due to grazing by Corbicula, high discharge, and perhaps phosphorus limitation in late August at and downstream of Hallowing Point. Phytoplankton growth rates and chlorophyll-to-cell ratios were highest at Hatton Point and Marshall Hall (the sag reach). A model was constructed that predicted phytoplankton growth rates by varying only chlorophyll a concentration and light penetration. Nutrient concentrations were not required to make the model fit the data. Primary productivity was highest for the year during August 1980 and August 1981. Productivity-per-unit chlorophyll was highest at Hatton Point, where reduced concentrations of phytoplankton permitted the deepest light penetration in the fresh, tidal river.

  12. [Yearly Changes of Phytoplankton Community in the Ecology-monitoring Area of Changli, Hebei in Summer].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-lin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yue-ming; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Han, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Jian-da; Gao, Wei-ming

    2015-04-01

    Based on the investigation of phytoplankton and water body nutrient concentration in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in summer from 2005 to 2013, the phytoplankton community structure was analyzed. The result showed that in recent 9 years, 3 phyla including 23 families, 39 genera and 105 species of phytoplankton were identified, in which 85.7% were diatoms and 13.3% were dinoflagellate. Only one species was found belonging to golden algae. There was great difference in dominant species among different years. According to the value of dominance, there were Coscinodiscus radiatus, Coscinodiscus debilis, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Cerataulina bergoni, Coscinodiscus wailesii, Thalassiosira sp., Ceratium tripos, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Skeletonema costatum. The cell abundance was decreased yearly. The Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton community ranged from 0.015 to 3.889, and the evenness index ranged from 0.009 to 1, which showed little yearly change. And phytoplankton species were unevenly distributed among the 19 sites, there were relatively low amount of dominant species, but the dominance was relatively high. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results of the phytoplankton community and its environmental factors showed that the environmental factors influencing the change of phytoplankton community structure in summer included water temperature, nutrients (TP, TN and NO3(-) -N, NH4(+)-N) and salinity, and the structural change was the result of the interactions of different environmental factors.

  13. Winds and the distribution of nearshore phytoplankton in a stratified lake.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton in lakes is notoriously patchy and dynamic, but wind-driven currents and algal buoyancy/motility are thought to determine where algae accumulate. In this study, nearshore phytoplankton were sampled from different parts of a lake basin twice a day for 4-5 consecutive days, in the spring and in late summer, to test whether short-term changes in phytoplankton biomass and community composition can be predicted from wind-driven currents. On windy days, phytoplankton biomass was higher at downwind than at upwind nearshore sites, and the magnitude of this difference increased linearly with increasing wind speed. However, contrary to the generally assumed downwind phytoplankton aggregations, these differences were mostly due to upwelling activity and the dilution of phytoplankton at upwind nearshore sites. The distribution of individual taxa was also related to wind speed, but only during late stratification (except for cryptophytes), and these relationships were consistent with the buoyancy and motility of each group. On windy days, large diatoms and cyanobacteria concentrated upwind, neutrally buoyant taxa (green algae, small diatoms) were homogeneously distributed, and motile taxa (cryptophytes, chrysophytes, dinoflagellates) concentrated downwind. Predictable differences in the biomass and composition of phytoplankton communities could affect the efficiency of trophic transfers in nearshore areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The chronic effects of oil pollution on marine phytoplankton in a subtropical bay, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Bing; Zeng, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Quan-Zhen; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Liao, Yi-bo; Shou, Lu; Xu, Xiao-qun

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) on marine phytoplankton community, natural phytoplankton collected seasonally from the Yueqing bay were exposed to eight groups of crude oil WAF for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Chlorophyll a and cell density were measured, and species of phytoplankton were identified every 24 h to reflect the change of phytoplankton community. The results showed that (1) High concentrations (≥ 2.28 mg l(-1)) of oil pollution would greatly restrain phytoplankton growth (p<0.001), decrease chlorophyll a content and cell density, whereas low concentrations (≤ 1.21 mg l(-1)) did not restrain its growth but rather promoted the phytoplankton growth. (2) The biodiversity, evenness, and species number of phytoplankton were all significantly influenced by crude oil WAF in all seasons (p<0.001). (3) The dominant species changes were different under different pollutant concentrations in different seasons. Different species had different tolerances to the oil pollution, thus leading to abnormal succession.

  15. Resource supply overrides temperature as a controlling factor of marine phytoplankton growth.

    PubMed

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated.

  16. Nitrogen deposition and warming - effects on phytoplankton nutrient limitation in subarctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Faithfull, Carolyn; Karlsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the combined effects of enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition and warming on phytoplankton development in high latitude and mountain lakes. Consequently, we assessed, in a series of enclosure experiments, how lake water nutrient stoichiometry and phytoplankton nutrient limitation varied over the growing season in 11 lakes situated along an altitudinal/climate gradient with low N-deposition (<1 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) in northern subarctic Sweden. Short-term bioassay experiments with N- and P-additions revealed that phytoplankton in high-alpine lakes were more prone to P-limitation, and with decreasing altitude became increasingly N- and NP-colimited. Nutrient limitation was additionally most obvious in midsummer. There was also a strong positive correlation between phytoplankton growth and water temperature in the bioassays. Although excess nutrients were available in spring and autumn, on these occasions growth was likely constrained by low water temperatures. These results imply that enhanced N-deposition over the Swedish mountain areas will, with the exception of high-alpine lakes, enhance biomass and drive phytoplankton from N- to P-limitation. However, if not accompanied by warming, N-input from deposition will stimulate limited phytoplankton growth due to low water temperatures during large parts of the growing season. Direct effects of warming, allowing increased metabolic rates and an extension of the growing season, seem equally crucial to synergistically enhance phytoplankton development in these lakes.

  17. Using photopigment biomarkers to quantify sub-lethal effects of petroleum pollution on natural phytoplankton assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Swistak, J.; Pinckney, J.; Piehler, M.; Paerl, H.

    1995-12-31

    Although much work has been undertaken to determine the toxicity of petroleum pollutants to phytoplankton, most studies have used pure cultures to monitor growth of selected phytoplankton species. Fewer have considered the net effect on entire microalgal communities. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize diagnostic microalgal pigments, the authors were able to simultaneously assess sub-lethal pollutant effects on entire communities as well as on individual phytoplankton functional groups. Incubations of natural water samples with diesel fuel, an important contributor to coastal petroleum pollution, revealed significant changes in photopigments and relative abundance of taxonomic groups at sub-lethal concentrations. Differential rates of change of indicator pigment concentrations suggest a range of sensitivity among phytoplankton groups. In preliminary experiments, cyanobacteria exhibited the greatest overall tolerance to the diesel fuel concentrations tested, while cryptomonads displayed the most sensitivity. The authors are currently evaluating the responses of seasonal phytoplankton populations from 3 sites exposed to varied levels of petroleum pollution. HPLC will be used to characterize phytoplankton populations and to determine if the most abundant groups are also the most tolerant of diesel fuel. Preliminary experiments indicate that diesel fuel pollution may modify the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and subsequently alter the trophodynamics of impacted systems.

  18. Effects of Nutrients, Temperature and Their Interactions on Spring Phytoplankton Community Succession in Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jianming; Qin, Boqiang; Paerl, Hans W.; Zhang, Yunlin; Wu, Pan; Ma, Jianrong; Chen, Yuwei

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential effects of environmental variables, and their interaction, on phytoplankton community succession in spring using long-term data from 1992 to 2012 in Lake Taihu, China. Laboratory experiments were additionally performed to test the sensitivity of the phytoplankton community to nutrient concentrations and temperature. A phytoplankton community structure analysis from 1992 to 2012 showed that Cryptomonas (Cryptophyta) was the dominant genus in spring during the early 1990s. Dominance then shifted to Ulothrix (Chlorophyta) in 1996 and 1997. However, Cryptomonas again dominated in 1999, 2000, and 2002, with Ulothrix regaining dominance from 2003 to 2006. The bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis dominated in 1995, 2001 and 2007–2012. The results of ordinations indicated that the nutrient concentration (as indicated by the trophic state index) was the most important factor affecting phytoplankton community succession during the past two decades. In the laboratory experiments, shifts in dominance among phytoplankton taxa occurred in all nutrient addition treatments. Results of both long term monitoring and experiment indicated that nutrients exert a stronger control than water temperature on phytoplankton communities during spring. Interactive effect of nutrients and water temperature was the next principal factor. Overall, phytoplankton community composition was mediated by nutrients concentrations, but this effect was strongly enhanced by elevated water temperatures. PMID:25464517

  19. Impact of contaminated-sediment resuspension on phytoplankton in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafabrie, Céline; Garrido, Marie; Leboulanger, Christophe; Cecchi, Philippe; Grégori, Gérald; Pasqualini, Vanina; Pringault, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    In shallow human-impacted systems, sediment resuspension events can result in pulsed exposures of pelagic organisms to multiple contaminants. Here, we examined the impact of the resuspension of contaminated sediment on phytoplankton in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea), by conducting an in situ microcosm experiment over a 96-h period. Natural phytoplankton was exposed to elutriates prepared from a contaminated-sediment resuspension simulating process, and its functional and structural responses were compared with those of non-exposed phytoplankton. The elutriates displayed moderate multiple contamination by trace metals and PAHs. Our results show that elutriate exposure induced both functional and structural phytoplankton changes. Elutriates strongly stimulated phytoplankton growth after 24 h of exposure. They also enhanced phytoplankton photosynthetic performance during the first hours of exposure (up to 48 h), before reducing it toward the end of the experiment. Elutriates were also found to slightly stimulate Bacillariophyceae and conversely to slightly inhibit Dinophyceae in the short term. Additionally, they were found to stimulate phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria in the short term (8-48 h) before inhibiting it in the longer term (72-96 h), and to inhibit eukaryotic nanophytoplankton in the short term (8-48 h) before stimulating it in the longer term (72-96 h). Sediment resuspensions are thus likely to have significant effects on the global dynamics and functions of phytoplankton in contaminated coastal environments.

  20. Effects of nutrients, temperature and their interactions on spring phytoplankton community succession in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianming; Qin, Boqiang; Paerl, Hans W; Zhang, Yunlin; Wu, Pan; Ma, Jianrong; Chen, Yuwei

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential effects of environmental variables, and their interaction, on phytoplankton community succession in spring using long-term data from 1992 to 2012 in Lake Taihu, China. Laboratory experiments were additionally performed to test the sensitivity of the phytoplankton community to nutrient concentrations and temperature. A phytoplankton community structure analysis from 1992 to 2012 showed that Cryptomonas (Cryptophyta) was the dominant genus in spring during the early 1990s. Dominance then shifted to Ulothrix (Chlorophyta) in 1996 and 1997. However, Cryptomonas again dominated in 1999, 2000, and 2002, with Ulothrix regaining dominance from 2003 to 2006. The bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis dominated in 1995, 2001 and 2007-2012. The results of ordinations indicated that the nutrient concentration (as indicated by the trophic state index) was the most important factor affecting phytoplankton community succession during the past two decades. In the laboratory experiments, shifts in dominance among phytoplankton taxa occurred in all nutrient addition treatments. Results of both long term monitoring and experiment indicated that nutrients exert a stronger control than water temperature on phytoplankton communities during spring. Interactive effect of nutrients and water temperature was the next principal factor. Overall, phytoplankton community composition was mediated by nutrients concentrations, but this effect was strongly enhanced by elevated water temperatures.

  1. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    PubMed Central

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  2. [Phytoplankton Light Absorption Properties During the Blooms in Adjacent Waters of the Changjiang Estuary].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-yang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2015-06-01

    Phytoplankton dominant species and their light absorption properties during the blooms occurred in August 2013 in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were analyzed. The results showed that phytoplankton blooms broke out in 10 out of 34 investigation stations, among which diatom blooms occurred in 6 stations while 3 stations were predominated by dinoflagellate. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients of both bloom and non-bloom waters exhibited large variations, with respective ranges of 0.199-0.832 m(-1) and 0.012-0.109 m(-1), while phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients spanned much narrower range, with the average values of bloom and non-bloom waters being 0.023 and 0.035 m2 x mg(-1), respectively. When transitioned from bloom to non-bloom waters, the proportion of phytoplankton with larger cell size lowered while that of smaller phytoplankton elevated, causing a less extent of package effect and thus higher specific absorption coefficients. Distinctive absorption spectra were observed between different types of bloom (such as diatom and dinoflagellate blooms) with similar phytoplankton cell size, mostly attributed to distinctive accessory pigment composition. The ratios of diadinoxanthin and chlorophyll-c2 concentrations to chlorophyll-a concentration in dinoflagellate blooms were higher than those in diatom blooms, which largely contributed to the shoulder peaks at 465 nm in dinoflagellate blooms.

  3. Population dynamics of sinking phytoplankton in light-limited environments: simulation techniques and critical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Jef; Sommeijer, Ben

    2002-10-01

    Phytoplankton use light for photosynthesis, and the light flux decreases with depth. As a result of this simple light dependence, reaction-advection-diffusion models describing the dynamics of phytoplankton species contain an integral over depth. That is, models that simulate phytoplankton dynamics in relation to mixing processes generally have the form of an integro-partial differential equation (integro-PDE). Integro-PDEs are computationally more demanding than standard PDEs. Here, we outline a reliable and efficient technique for numerical simulation of integro-PDEs. The simulation technique is illustrated by several examples on the population dynamics of sinking phytoplankton, using both single-species models and competition models with several phytoplankton species. Our results confirm recent findings that Sverdrup's critical-depth theory breaks down if turbulent mixing is reduced below a critical turbulence. In fact, our results show that suitable conditions for bloom development of sinking phytoplankton depend on a number of critical parameters, including a minimal depth of the thermocline, a maximal depth of the thermocline, a minimal turbulence, and a maximal turbulence. We therefore conclude that models that do not carefully consider the population dynamics of phytoplankton in relation to the turbulence structure of the water column may easily lead to erroneous predictions.

  4. Net-phytoplankton communities in the Western Boundary Currents and their environmental correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunyan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhun, Mingliang

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated net-phytoplankton biomass, species composition, the phytoplankton abundance horizontal distribution, and the correlations between net-phytoplankton communities and mesoscale structure that were derived from the net samples taken from the Western Boundary Currents during summer, 2014. A total of 199 phytoplankton species belonging to 61 genera in four phyla were identified. The dominant species included Climacodium frauenfeldianum, Thalassiothrix longissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis var. styliformis, Pyrocystis noctiluca, Ceratium trichoceros, and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Four phytoplankton communities were divided by cluster analysis and the clusters were mainly associated with the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Subtropical Counter Current (STCC), and the Luzon Current (LC), respectively. The lowest phytoplankton cell abundance and the highest Trichodesmium filament abundance were recorded in the STCC region. The principal component analysis showed that T. thiebautii preferred warm and nutrient poor water. There was also an increase in phytoplankton abundance and biomass near 5°N in the NECC region, where they benefit from upwellings and eddies.

  5. The Effect of ENSO on Phytoplankton Composition in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p less than 0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (p<0.01) correlated along with two of the phytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Ni a events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  6. [Temporal and spatial pattern of phytoplankton community and its biodiversity indices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang; Xia, Xiao-Ling; Cheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Quan-Fa

    2011-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of phytoplankton community and their associated influencing factors using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were analyzed in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. Water quality of the reservoir was also assessed using phytoplankton cell density and biodiversity indices. Results showed that Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta accounted for 51.08% and 18.39% of all the species, respectively. There was great seasonal variation in phytoplankton assemblage composition, cell density and biodiversity index. In summer, Cyanophyta was dominant and composed of 42.24% of the phytoplankton composition, whereas Bacillariophyta was dominant in spring, summer and winter, and accounted for 77.13%, 61.29% and 50.91% of all species, respectively. The phytoplankton density reached the maximum of 1.76 x 10(6) cells/L in summer, while the lowest value was 2.32 x 10(5) cells/L in autumn. Seasonal variability was the same for the indices of Shannon-Wiener, Simpson and Pielou, and they were 2.08, 0.77, 0.65 in autumn, and decreased to 0.85, 0.32, 0.28 in winter, respectively. Though the spatial variability was not significant in indices H', D, D(m) and J, the difference was significant between the Dan and the Han Reservoirs in terms of phytoplankton composition. The dominant phytoplankton was Bacillariophyta in Dan Reservoir and Cyanophyta in Han Reservoir. The results also indicated that conductivity was the main environmental factor influencing variation in phytoplankton composition except in autumn. The reservoir could be classified as oligotrophication by cell density and the middle level between beta-mesosaprobic zone and oligosaprobic zone using biodiversity indices. The research demonstrated the potential to use phytoplankton community and its biodiversity indices to monitor water quality in the Danjingkou Reservoir.

  7. [Phytoplankton assemblages on the continental shelf of East China Sea in autumn 2006].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Sun, Jun; An, Bai-zheng; Ni, Xiao-bo; Liu, Su-mei

    2008-11-01

    Based on the survey from November 19 to December 24, 2006, the species composition, assemblage structure, and cell abundance of phytoplankton on the continental shelf of East China Sea (24.0 degrees N- 32.0 degrees N, 120.0 degrees - 128.0 degrees E) were studied. The phytoplankton flora in the survey area included 145 taxa, belonging to 64 genera of 4 classes (including uncertain species). Bacillariophyta was the dominant functional group, followed by Pyrrophyta. The dominant species in turn were Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassiosira rotula, Leptocylindrus danicus, Guinardia striata, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, and Trichodesmium thiebautii. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton ranged from 0.09 to 35.11 cells x ml(-1), with an average of 4.92 cells x ml(-1). In the autumn, Bacillariophyta abundance discriminated the surface pattern of the phytoplankton, and the higher abundance area was located at the northeast part of offshore regions, with the cell abundance reached 30 cells x ml(-1). On the whole, the cell abundance of Bacillariophyta and Pyrrophyta was concentrated in surface water, and it reduced rapidly from surface layer down to the bottom. According to the section distribution, the phytoplankton mainly concentrated in surface water, and also, in the middle and bottom layers for some stations. The average of Shannon-Wiener indices of phytoplankton assemblage was 2.80, with the higher values occurred in the northeast and southeast of the survey area. The average of Pielou' s evenness of phytoplankton assemblage was 0.81, and the higher value was located at the middle of the survey area. The surface horizontal distribution of Shannon-Wiener indices was coincided with that of phytoplankton cell abundance. According to the Pearson correlation analysis, the factors that significantly affected the growth of the phytoplankton were nitrite, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and temperature.

  8. Impacts of inorganic nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton community structure and function in Pamlico Sound, NC, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piehler, Michael F.; Twomey, Luke J.; Hall, Nathan S.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2004-10-01

    Human activities in the watersheds of the tributaries of Pamlico Sound (PS) in North Carolina have resulted in increased riverine loading of nutrients. Pamlico Sound is a regionally important aquatic resource, and provides crucial foraging and nursery habitats for Southeast Atlantic fisheries. Changes in phytoplankton community composition that may result from increased frequency and quantity of inorganic nutrient inputs could have negative ecological effects on PS. In this study we conducted a series of nutrient bioassays to assess the relationship between increased inorganic nutrient concentration and phytoplankton community structure and function. Experiments were conducted on the native phytoplankton community of the southwest basin of PS. We utilized nutrient addition treatments and all-but-one nutrient treatments in bioassays. This allowed the comparison of the effect of adding one potentially growth-limiting nutrient (e.g. nitrogen) to adding all potentially limiting nutrients except one (e.g. all except nitrogen). Data from these bioassays indicated that the phytoplankton community in PS is primarily nitrogen (N) limited. Dissolved inorganic N concentrations in PS were relatively stable during this study. The biology of its estuarine tributaries, as has been shown for the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), acted as an effective filter for most of the nutrients transported from upstream. We found stoichiometric predictors of phytoplankton community nutrient limitations to be reliable in some instances, but inaccurate in others. Some taxa-specific responses to nutrient additions were observed, however there were no consistent patterns throughout the experiments. Results indicated that changes in the PS phytoplankton community could result from changes in nutrient regime, and changes may not be consistent across phytoplankton taxonomic groups. Unlike the NRE where pulses of riverine N have significant effects on phytoplankton community structure, the PS phytoplankton

  9. Effects of spatial and temporal variability of turbidity on phytoplankton blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Christine L.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2003-01-01

    A central challenge of coastal ecology is sorting out the interacting spatial and temporal components of environmental variability that combine to drive changes in phytoplankton biomass. For 2 decades, we have combined sustained observation and experimentation in South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) with numerical modeling analyses to search for general principles that define phytoplankton population responses to physical dynamics characteristic of shallow, nutrient-rich coastal waters having complex bathymetry and influenced by tides, wind and river flow. This study is the latest contribution where we investigate light-limited phytoplankton growth using a numerical model, by modeling turbidity as a function of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). The goal was to explore the sensitivity of estuarine phytoplankton dynamics to spatial and temporal variations in turbidity, and to synthesize outcomes of simulation experiments into a new conceptual framework for defining the combinations of physical-biological forcings that promote or preclude development of phytoplankton blooms in coastal ecosystems. The 3 main conclusions of this study are: (1) The timing of the wind with semidiurnal tides and the spring-neap cycle can significantly enhance spring-neap variability in turbidity and phytoplankton biomass; (2) Fetch is a significant factor potentially affecting phytoplankton dynamics by enhancing and/or creating spatial variability in turbidity; and (3) It is possible to parameterize the combined effect of the processes influencing turbidity‹and thus affecting potential phytoplankton bloom development‹with 2 indices for vertical and horizontal clearing of the water column. Our conceptual framework is built around these 2 indices, providing a means to determine under what conditions a phytoplankton bloom can occur, and whether a potential bloom is only locally supported or system-wide in scale. This conceptual framework provides a tool for exploring the inherent light

  10. Effect of local hydroclimate on phytoplankton groups in the Charente estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesdon, Stéphane; Stachowski-Haberkorn, Sabine; Lambert, Christophe; Beker, Beatriz; Brach-Papa, Christophe; Auger, Dominique; Béchemin, Christian

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to describe seasonal variations of phytoplankton abundances in relation to the physical and chemical (nutrients and metals) environment under the influence of freshwater input in the Charente river estuary (Marennes-Oléron bay, France) over three years, from 2011 to 2014. Phytoplankton abundances were determined using microscopy and flow cytometry. Considering high frequency temperature and salinity data, breakpoints in each series led to the identification of two local hydroclimatic periods: the first (2011 and early 2012) being warmer and higher in salinity than the second (from spring 2012 to the beginning of 2014). A multiblock PLS analysis highlighted the significant contribution of the physical environment (temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)) on phytoplankton abundances. Two partial triadic analyses (PTA) were run in order to visualize seasonal variations of i) phytoplankton groups and ii) nutrients and trace elements, irrespective of spatial gradient: picoeukaryote occurrence showed a difference between year 2011 and the years 2012 and 2013 (as did cadmium, nickel and silica levels). However, both PTA revealed greater differences between year 2013 and the years 2011 and 2012, as shown by occurrences of cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and nanoeukaryotes, as well as copper and phosphate levels. These results showed a shift between the hydroclimate breakpoint and some phytoplankton responses, suggesting that their development and succession might depend on conditions early in the year. Finally, a STATICO analysis was performed on the paired PTA in order to examine the relations of phytoplankton with nutrients and metals more closely. Most phytoplankton groups were represented on the first axis, together with cadmium on the one hand, and nitrates, silica and nickel on the other. This analysis revealed the separation of phytoplankton groups on the second axis that represented phosphates and copper. Hydroclimatic

  11. Impact of phytoplankton community structure and function on marine particulate optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Malcolm Neil

    Phytoplankton are an ecologically important and diverse group of organisms whose distribution, abundance, and population dynamics vary significantly over small spatial (cm) and temporal (minutes) scales in the coastal ocean. Our inability to observe phytoplankton community structure and function at these small scales has severely limited our understanding of the fundamental ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive phytoplankton growth, mortality, adaptation and speciation. The goal of this dissertation was to enhance our understanding of phytoplankton ecology by improving in situ observational techniques based on the optical properties of cells, colonies, populations, and communities. Field and laboratory studies were used to determine the effects of phytoplankton species composition, morphology, and physiology on the inherent optical properties of communities and to explore the adaptive significance of bio-optically important cellular characteristics. Initial field studies found a strong association between species composition and the relative magnitude and shape of particulate absorption, scattering, and attenuation coefficient spectra. Subsequent field studies using scanning flow cytometry to directly measure optically important phytoplankton and non-algal particle characteristics demonstrated that the size and pigment content of large (>20 microm) phytoplankton cells and colonies vary significantly with the slope of particulate attenuation and absorption spectra, and with the ratio of particulate scattering to absorption. These relationships enabled visualization of phytoplankton community composition and mortality over small spatial and temporal scales derived from high resolution optical measurements acquired with an autonomous profiling system. Laboratory studies with diverse uni-algal cultures showed that morphological and physiological characteristics of cells and colonies can account for ˜30% of the optical variation observed in natural

  12. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis.

  13. Recognition of key regions for restoration of phytoplankton communities in the Huai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Changsen; Liu, Changming; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong; Yu, Qiang; Eamus, Derek

    2012-02-01

    SummaryHealthy phytoplankton communities are the basis of healthy water ecosystems, and form the foundation of many freshwater food webs. Globally many freshwater ecosystems are degraded because of intensive human activities, so water ecosystem restoration is a burning issue worldwide. Selection of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration is crucial for an effective aquatic eco-restoration. This paper presents a practical method for identification of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration, using random forests (RFs) method to cluster sites based on dominance, biodiversity, water chemistry and ecological niche. We sampled phytoplankton for species richness and relative abundance and water quality in the Huai River basin (HRB), China to determine the phytoplankton communities' composition and structure and characterize of their ecological niches. A wider mean niche breadth of a species usually leads to a greater overlap with the niche of other species. Using these data and water quality indices, we identified the key regions for phytoplankton-related river restoration activities. Results indicate that our method for recognition of key regions is effective and practical and its application to the HRB identified the Northern Plain area as the key region for restoration. This area is severely polluted and contributes significantly to the HRB phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton in this region is highly adaptable to environmental change and therefore will be relatively unharmed by environmental instability induced by restoration measures. During restoration, indices of water temperature, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand can be altered with little negative influence on phytoplankton communities, but measures that increase ammonia-nitrogen concentration would be highly detrimental. These results will provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water ecosystem restoration and sustainable basin management in the HRB.

  14. Vertical distribution of motile phytoplankton in density currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zeng, L.; Wu, Y. H.; Baoligao, B.; Chen, X.

    2017-08-01

    Frequently occurred algal blooms in the tributary areas of Three Gorges Reservoir have been demonstrated to be closely related to the density currents in earlier studies. This paper aims at studying the vertical distribution of motile phytoplankton in density currents. To achieve this objective, particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence techniques were used to measure the velocity filed and the algal distribution in lock-exchange density currents. The vertical distribution of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells was gained, which was characterized by a lower concentration region above the interface and a higher concentration region below the interface. Moreover, the mechanism of this vertical concentration profile was discussed. The results are essential to understand the mechanisms of the appearance and disappearance of algal blooms in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.

  15. Nutrient control of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Harrison, William G.; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Goes, Joaquim

    1992-01-01

    Results from several years of oceanographic cruises are reported which show that the parameters of the photosynthesis-light curve of the flora of the North Sargasso Sea are remarkably constant in magnitude, except during the spring phytoplankton bloom when their magnitudes are noticeably higher. These results are interpreted as providing direct evidence for nutrient control of photosynthesis in the open ocean. The findings also reinforce the plausibility of using biogeochemical provinces to partition the ocean into manageable units for basin- or global-scale analysis. They show that seasonal changes in critical parameter should not be overlooked if robust carbon budgets are to be constructed, and illustrate the value of attacking the parameters that control the key fluxes, rather than the fluxes themselves, when investigating the ocean carbon cycle.

  16. Ozone depletion - Ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Prezelin, B. B.; Baker, K. S.; Bidigare, R. R.; Boucher, N. P.; Coley, T.; Karentz, D.; Macintyre, S.; Matlick, H. A.; Menzies, D.

    1992-01-01

    The near-50-percent thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer over the Antarctic, with increased passage of mid-UV radiation to the surface of the Southern Ocean, has prompted concern over possible radiation damage to the near-surface phytoplankton communities that are the bases of Antarctic marine ecosystems. As the ozone layer thinned, a 6-week study of the marginal ice zone of the Bellingshousen Sea in the austral spring of 1990 noted sea-surface and depth-dependent ratios of mid-UV irradiance to total irradiance increased, and mid-UV inhibition of photosynthesis increased. A 6-12 percent reduction in primary production associated with ozone depletion was estimated to have occurred over the course of the present study.

  17. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J.; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal `bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ~0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity.

  18. Mid Pleistocene foraminiferal mass extinction coupled with phytoplankton evolution.

    PubMed

    Kender, Sev; McClymont, Erin L; Elmore, Aurora C; Emanuele, Dario; Leng, Melanie J; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the interaction between climate and biotic evolution is crucial for deciphering the sensitivity of life. An enigmatic mass extinction occurred in the deep oceans during the Mid Pleistocene, with a loss of over 100 species (20%) of sea floor calcareous foraminifera. An evolutionarily conservative group, benthic foraminifera often comprise >50% of eukaryote biomass on the deep-ocean floor. Here we test extinction hypotheses (temperature, corrosiveness and productivity) in the Tasman Sea, using geochemistry and micropalaeontology, and find evidence from several globally distributed sites that the extinction was caused by a change in phytoplankton food source. Coccolithophore evolution may have enhanced the seasonal 'bloom' nature of primary productivity and fundamentally shifted it towards a more intra-annually variable state at ∼0.8 Ma. Our results highlight intra-annual variability as a potential new consideration for Mid Pleistocene global biogeochemical climate models, and imply that deep-sea biota may be sensitive to future changes in productivity.

  19. Spring Phytoplankton Production in the Western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; McClain, Charles R.

    1994-10-01

    Coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery of the western Ross Sea revealed the presence of an intense phytoplankton bloom covering >106,000 square kilometers in early December 1978. This bloom developed inside the Ross Sea polynya, within 2 weeks of initial polynya formation in late November. Primary productivity calculated from December imagery (3.9 grams of carbon per square meter per day) was up to four times the values measured during in situ studies in mid-January to February 1979. Inclusion of this early season production yields a spring-to-summer estimate of 141 to 171 grams of carbon per square meter, three to four times the values previously reported for the western Ross Sea.

  20. Phytoplankton succession during acidification with and without increasing aluminum levels.

    PubMed

    Havens, K E; Heath, R T

    1990-01-01

    An in situ mesocosm experiment was performed to investigate the role of aluminum in controlling phytoplankton community succession during lake acidification. Large (2000 liter) mesocosms were suspended in mesotrophic East Twin Lake, Ohio, USA. Duplicates were either untreated controls (pH 8.8), acidified to pH 4.5 over 23 days, or acidified and spiked with 200 microg/liter Al in incremental additions. Filamentous blue greens, diatoms and other chrysophytes became extinct in both acid treatments, but declined most rapidly where Al levels were also increased. The large desmid Closterium and the filamentous chlorophyte Mougoetia became dominant in the Acid treatment. In the Acid + Al treatment, these algae also became dominant, but the species with greatest biomass was the dinoflagellate Peridinium inconspicuum. Acidification (with or without added Al) also resulted in a significant shift in the algal size spectrum to larger (> 20 microm) cells.

  1. Hierarchical clusters of phytoplankton variables in dammed water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Gonçalves, A. Manuela

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a dataset containing biological variables of the water column of several Portuguese reservoirs is analyzed. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to obtain clusters of phytoplankton variables of the phylum Cyanophyta, with the objective of validating the classification of Portuguese reservoirs previewly presented in [1] which were divided into three clusters: (1) Interior Tagus and Aguieira; (2) Douro; and (3) Other rivers. Now three new clusters of Cyanophyta variables were found. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests are used to compare the now obtained Cyanophyta clusters and the previous Reservoirs clusters, in order to validate the classification of the water quality of reservoirs. The amount of Cyanophyta algae present in the reservoirs from the three clusters is significantly different, which validates the previous classification.

  2. Nutrient control of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Harrison, William G.; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Goes, Joaquim

    1992-01-01

    Results from several years of oceanographic cruises are reported which show that the parameters of the photosynthesis-light curve of the flora of the North Sargasso Sea are remarkably constant in magnitude, except during the spring phytoplankton bloom when their magnitudes are noticeably higher. These results are interpreted as providing direct evidence for nutrient control of photosynthesis in the open ocean. The findings also reinforce the plausibility of using biogeochemical provinces to partition the ocean into manageable units for basin- or global-scale analysis. They show that seasonal changes in critical parameter should not be overlooked if robust carbon budgets are to be constructed, and illustrate the value of attacking the parameters that control the key fluxes, rather than the fluxes themselves, when investigating the ocean carbon cycle.

  3. Increased exposure of Southern Ocean phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Dan; Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing of both surface solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and chlorophyll over two decades shows that biologically significant ultraviolet radiation increases began to occur over the Southern Ocean three years before the ozone ``hole'' was discovered. Beginning in October 1983, the most frequent occurrences of enhanced UVR over phytoplankton-rich waters occurred in the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean, impacting 60% of the surface biomass by the late 1990s. These results suggest two reasons why more serious impacts to the base of the marine food web may not have been detected by field experiments: (1) the onset of UVR increases several years before dedicated field work began may have impacted the most sensitive organisms long before such damage could be detected, and (2) most biological field work has so far not taken place in Antarctic waters most extensively subjected to enhanced UVR.

  4. Diatom aggregation and dimethylsulfide production in phytoplankton blooms

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are crucial links in many of the earth's biogeochemical cycles. Blooms take up atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis, and sequester it on the ocean floor by sinking. Aggregation of single cells into [open quote]marine snow[close quote] particles speeds up the sinking of algal cells. Laboratory studies investigating the process of aggregation show that some species have a higher probability of aggregating than others, and that there exist several mechanisms for causing aggregation. Field studies confirm that some species are more likely to be found in aggregates than in the surrounding seawater. High latitude Premnesiophyte blooms are found to produce large amounts of dimethylsulflde (DMS), believed to be an important chemical in global thermoregulation. DMS is found to vary diurnally, possibly due to photooxidation by ultraviolet light. This possibility links the effects of DMS on cloud formation with the effects of increased ultraviolet light penetrating the earths ozone layer.

  5. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; II, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, July 1977-December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Raymond L. J.; Cloern, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from July 1977 through December 1979. Phytoplankton identification and enumerations were made at selected stations. Sample collections were made at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River to Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported, from October 1978 through December 1979, are the calculated phytoplankton carbon and percent nondiatom carbon, and the species list. This study is one component of an ongoing interdisciplinary study of San Francisco Bay. (USGS)

  6. Entrainment of cell division in phytoplankton with dynamic energy budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Erik B.; Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Klanjšček, Tin; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    We explore the entrainment behavior of cell division in phytoplankton in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. In particular, we explore the range of DEB and environmental parameter values within which a cell divides at regular intervals in a periodic light environment with abundant nutrients and investigate the impact of parameter values on the phase of cell division. We consider three types of cells that differ in the evolution of surface area to volume ratio during the cell cycle: cells with a constant shape (isomorphs), cells with a constant surface area (V0-morphs) and cells with a constant surface area to volume ratio (V1-morphs), the latter being the default choice in studies on the population dynamics of unicellular organisms because of its desirable mathematical implications. Only in isomorphs and V0-morphs, however, cell division can be entrained to a periodic light. Regular cell division in V1 is purely coincidental, as it depends on exact choices for parameter values. We attribute this to the fact that V1-morphs lack the negative feedback of size on the dynamics of reserves in V0-morphs and isomorphs. Because entrained isomorphs and V0-morphs divide during the dark hours in our simulations, these two shapes can represent the division behavior of phytoplankton species that complete the cell cycle during the night, such as dinoflagellates and coccolithophores. A description of the division behavior of species completing the cell cycle during the day, such as silicon dependent diatoms and cyanobacteria, requires a more complex model than used in this paper. Furthermore, we explore the robustness of our findings by randomizing model parameters and introducing unevenness in biomass separation between daughter cells during cell division. We conclude that especially the entrainment in V0-morphs is relatively insensitive to perturbations.

  7. Climate effects on phytoplankton floral composition in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, L. W.; Adolf, J. E.; Mallonee, M. E.; Miller, W. D.; Gallegos, C. L.; Perry, E. S.; Johnson, J. M.; Sellner, K. G.; Paerl, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Long-term data on floral composition of phytoplankton are presented to document seasonal and inter-annual variability in Chesapeake Bay related to climate effects on hydrology. Source data consist of the abundances of major taxonomic groups of phytoplankton derived from algal photopigments (1995-2004) and cell counts (1985-2007). Algal photopigments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed using the software CHEMTAX to determine the proportions of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) in major taxonomic groups. Cell counts determined microscopically provided species identifications, enumeration, and dimensions used to obtain proportions of cell volume (CV), plasma volume (PV), and carbon (C) in the same taxonomic groups. We drew upon these two independent data sets to take advantage of the unique strengths of each method, using comparable quantitative measures to express floral composition for the main stem bay. Spatial and temporal variability of floral composition was quantified using data aggregated by season, year, and salinity zone. Both time-series were sufficiently long to encompass the drought-flood cycle with commensurate effects on inputs of freshwater and solutes. Diatoms emerged as the predominant taxonomic group, with significant contributions by dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria, depending on salinity zone and season. Our analyses revealed increased abundance of diatoms in wet years compared to long-term average (LTA) or dry years. Results are presented in the context of long-term nutrient over-enrichment of the bay, punctuated by inter-annual variability of freshwater flow that strongly affects nutrient loading, chl-a, and floral composition. Statistical analyses generated flow-adjusted diatom abundance and showed significant trends late in the time series, suggesting current and future decreases of nutrient inputs may lead to a reduction of the proportion of biomass comprised by diatoms in an increasingly diverse

  8. The Ecological History of Lake Ontario According to Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allinger, L. E.; Reavie, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Ontario's water quality has fluctuated since European settlement and our understanding of the cause-and-effect linkages between observed ecosystem shifts and stressors are evolving and improving. Changes in the physical and chemical environment of the lake due to non-indigenous species, pollution, sedimentation, turbidity and climate change altered the pelagic primary producers, so algal assessments have been valuable for tracking long-term conditions. We present a chronological account of pelagic algal assessments and some nearshore areas to summarize past and present environmental conditions in Lake Ontario. This review particularly focuses on diatom-based assessments as their fossils in sediments have revealed the combined effects of environmental insults and recovery. This review recaps the long-term trends according to three unique regions: Hamilton Harbor, the main lake basin and the Bay of Quinte. We summarize pre-European settlement, eutrophication throughout most of the 20th century, subsequent water quality improvement due to nutrient reductions and filter-feeding dreissenid colonization and contemporary pelagic, shoreline and embayment impairments. Recent pelagic phytoplankton data suggest that although phytoplankton biovolume remains stable, species composition has shifted to an increase in spring eutrophic diatoms and summer blue-green algae. Continued monitoring and evaluation of historical data will assist in understanding and responding to the natural and anthropogenic drivers of Lake Ontario's environmental conditions. As such we have initiated a new paleolimnological investigation, supported by the Environmental Protection Agency-Great Lakes National Program Office, to reconstruct the long-term environmental history of Lake Ontario and will present preliminary results.

  9. Iron-mediated changes in phytoplankton photosynthetic competence during SOIREE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, P. W.; Abraham, E. R.

    Active fluorescence (fast repetition rate fluorometry, FRRF) was used to follow the photosynthetic response of the phytoplankton community during the 13-day Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE). This in situ iron enrichment was conducted in the polar waters of the Australasian-Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in February 1999. Iron fertilisation of these high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters resulted in an increase in the photosynthetic competence ( Fv/ Fm) of the resident cells from around 0.20 to greater than 0.60 (i.e. close to the theoretical maximum) by 10/11 days after the first enrichment. Although a significant iron-mediated response in Fv/ Fm was detected as early as 24 h after the initial fertilisation, the increase in Fv/ Fm to double ambient levels took 6 days. This response was five-fold slower than observed in iron enrichments (in situ and in vitro) in the HNLC waters of the subarctic and equatorial Pacific. Although little is known about the relationship between water temperature and Fv/ Fm, it is likely that low water temperatures — and possibly the deep mixed layer — were responsible for this slow response time. During SOIREE, the photosynthetic competence of the resident phytoplankton in iron-enriched waters increased at dissolved iron levels above 0.2 nM, suggesting that iron limitation was alleviated at this concentration. Increases in Fv/ Fm of cells within four algal siz