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Sample records for piama birth cohort

  1. Traffic-related air pollution, preterm birth and term birth weight in the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Ulrike; Wijga, Alet H; Fischer, Paul; de Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Maternal exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Few studies took into account the spatial and temporal variation of air pollution levels. To evaluate the impact of maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on preterm birth and term birth weight using a spatio-temporal exposure model. We estimated maternal residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and soot during pregnancy (entire pregnancy, 1st trimester, and last month) for 3853 singleton births within the Dutch PIAMA prospective birth cohort study by means of temporally adjusted land-use regression models. Associations between air pollution concentrations and preterm birth and term birth weight were analyzed by means of logistic and linear regression models with and without adjustment for maternal physical, lifestyle, and socio-demographic characteristics. We found positive, statistically non-significant associations between exposure to soot during entire pregnancy and during the last month of pregnancy and preterm birth [adj. OR (95% CI) per interquartile range increase in exposure 1.08 (0.88-1.34) and 1.09 (0.93-1.27), respectively]. There was no indication of an adverse effect of air pollution exposure on term birth weight. In this study, maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy was not associated with term birth weight. There was a tendency towards an increased risk of preterm birth with increasing air pollution exposure, but statistical power was low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Musculoskeletal complaints among 11-year-old children and associated factors: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Picavet, H Susan J; Twisk, Jos W R; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H

    2011-10-15

    Musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) are common among children, often persist into adolescence, and increase the risk of MSC in adulthood. Knowledge regarding determinants of MSC among children is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSC at age 11 years and to examine associations with sociodemographic factors, growth and development factors, mental health, tiredness, and lifestyle. Data from a Netherlands birth cohort study, the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) Study (n = 2,638), were used (1996-2009). MSC were defined as complaints about the back, an upper extremity, a lower extremity, or any of these sites. Logistic regression analyses using a forward stepwise procedure were performed on multiply imputed data. The 1-year period prevalences of back, upper extremity, and lower extremity complaints that lasted at least 1 month were 2.8%, 4.8%, and 10.9%, respectively. Only poorer mental health was consistently associated with all 3 types of complaints. Poorer mental health, daytime tiredness, early pubertal development, being physically active at age 11 years, and weight-for-height z score were associated with having any MSC. This study showed that MSC, especially lower extremity complaints, are common among 11-year old-children and that only poorer mental health status is associated with MSC at all anatomic sites.

  3. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  4. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  5. Quantification of the energy gap in young overweight children. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Saskia W; Boer, Jolanda M A; Scholtens, Salome; de Jongste, Johan C; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H

    2011-05-17

    Overweight develops gradually as a result of a long term surplus on the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Aim of this study was to quantify the positive energy balance responsible for excess body weight gain (energy gap) in young overweight children. Reported data on weight and height were used of 2190 Dutch children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Accumulated body energy was estimated from the weight gain observed between age 2 and age 5-7. Energy gap was calculated as the difference in positive energy balance between children with and without overweight assuming an energy efficiency of 50%. Ten percent of the children were overweight at the age of 5-7 years. For these children, median weight gain during 4-years follow-up was 13.3 kg, as compared to 8.5 kg in the group of children who had a normal weight at the end of the study. A daily energy gap of 289-320 kJ (69-77 kcal) was responsible for the excess weight gain or weight maintenance in the majority of the children who were overweight at the age of 5-7 years. The increase in daily energy requirement to maintain the 4.8 kilograms excess weight gain among overweight children at the end of the study was approximately 1371 kJ. An energy gap of about 289-320 kJ per day over a number of years can make the difference between normal weight and overweight in young children. Closing the energy gap in overweight children can be achieved by relatively small behavior changes. However, much more effort is required to lose the excess weight gained.

  6. Quantification of the energy gap in young overweight children. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight develops gradually as a result of a long term surplus on the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Aim of this study was to quantify the positive energy balance responsible for excess body weight gain (energy gap) in young overweight children. Methods Reported data on weight and height were used of 2190 Dutch children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Accumulated body energy was estimated from the weight gain observed between age 2 and age 5-7. Energy gap was calculated as the difference in positive energy balance between children with and without overweight assuming an energy efficiency of 50%. Results Ten percent of the children were overweight at the age of 5-7 years. For these children, median weight gain during 4-years follow-up was 13.3 kg, as compared to 8.5 kg in the group of children who had a normal weight at the end of the study. A daily energy gap of 289-320 kJ (69-77 kcal) was responsible for the excess weight gain or weight maintenance in the majority of the children who were overweight at the age of 5-7 years. The increase in daily energy requirement to maintain the 4.8 kilograms excess weight gain among overweight children at the end of the study was approximately 1371 kJ. Conclusions An energy gap of about 289-320 kJ per day over a number of years can make the difference between normal weight and overweight in young children. Closing the energy gap in overweight children can be achieved by relatively small behavior changes. However, much more effort is required to lose the excess weight gained. PMID:21586130

  7. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity) were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance) and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings) were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-1.49), poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60), more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83), more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73), and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41). The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio

  8. Proximity to agricultural fields as proxy for environmental exposure to pesticides among children: The PIAMA birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Bukalasa, Joseph S; Brunekreef, Bert; Brouwer, Maartje; Vermeulen, Roel; de Jongste, Johan C; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M; Wijga, Alet; Huss, Anke; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural pesticides are frequently used for crop protection. Residents living in close proximity to treated fields may be exposed to these pesticides. There is some indication that children living near agricultural fields have an increased risk of developing asthma and decreased lung function. The aim of this study was to assess the proximity of participants' homes to fields likely treated with pesticides as proxy for environmental exposure to agricultural pesticides among participants of a Dutch birth cohort study, and to combine acreage of fields with farmer-reported pesticide use. Potential pesticide exposure at the home address at the time of the 14-year follow-up was estimated for 2291 participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. We used spatial data on the presence of crops during the year 2012 to calculate the surface area of specific crops relevant for pesticide use in The Netherlands cultivated within 50, 100, 500 and 1000m of the study homes. Farmer-reported pesticides use on specific crops from a national survey performed in 2012 was used to estimate the amount of all pesticides and pesticides with known irritant properties for the respiratory system applied within the aforementioned distances of the study homes. For 3%, 7%, 40%, and 65% of the homes, any relevant crops were present within 50, 100, 500 and 1000m, respectively. Among these, the most frequent crops were corn, cereals, and potatoes. For almost the same percentages of homes, it was estimated that pesticides with known irritant properties for the respiratory system were potentially applied within these distances. We observed that a small proportion of the study participants lived in close proximity (<50 or <100m) to agricultural fields with crops relevant for pesticide use in The Netherlands. The percentage of study homes within 500 or 1000m of agricultural fields with these crops was much larger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, S; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Kerkhof, M; Hoekstra, M O; Gerritsen, J; Aalberse, R; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear how the association between breast feeding and asthma develops with age of the child and how this association over time is influenced by maternal or paternal allergy. These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting results observed in cross-sectional studies. The study population consisted of 3115 Dutch children born in 1996/1997 who participated in the PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort study. Data on breast feeding and asthma (based on wheeze, dyspnoea and prescription of inhaled steroids) were collected by yearly questionnaires. At 8 years, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to airborne allergens and bronchial responsiveness were measured. Data were analysed by logistic regression and generalised estimating equations (GEEs), and stratified by maternal and paternal allergic status. 35% (n = 1081) of the children were breast fed for >16 weeks. At 8 years of age, 12.6% (n = 392) had asthma. Breast feeding (>16 weeks vs no breast feeding) was significantly associated with a lower asthma prevalence from 3 to 8 years of age, in children of both non-allergic and allergic mothers. The inverse association between breast feeding and sensitisation to airborne allergens at 8 years was non-significant. Breast feeding was not associated with bronchial hyper-responsiveness. No interaction between breast feeding and gender, maternal allergy or paternal allergy was observed in any of the associations. Breast feeding is associated with a lower asthma risk in children until 8 years of age without evidence of attenuation and regardless of the family history of allergy.

  11. Particulate matter composition and respiratory health: the PIAMA Birth Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Ulrike; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; de Jongste, Johan C; Keuken, Menno; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Postma, Dirkje S; van Rossem, Lenie; Wang, Meng; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-05-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with children's respiratory health. Little is known about the importance of different PM constituents. We investigated the effects of PM constituents on asthma, allergy, and lung function until the age of 11-12 years. For 3,702 participants of a prospective birth cohort study, questionnaire-reported asthma and hay fever and measurements of allergic sensitization and lung function were linked with annual average concentrations of copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc in particles with diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10) at birth addresses and current addresses from land-use regression models. Exposure-health relations were analyzed by multiple (repeated measures) logistic and linear regressions. Asthma incidence and prevalence of asthma symptoms and rhinitis were positively associated with zinc in PM10 at the birth address (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per interquartile range increase in exposure 1.13 [1.02, 1.25], 1.08 [1.00, 1.17], and 1.16 [1.04, 1.30], respectively). Moreover, asthma symptoms were positively associated with copper in PM10 at the current address (1.06 [1.00, 1.12]). Allergic sensitization was positively associated with copper and iron in PM10 at the birth address (relative risk [95% confidence interval] 1.07 [1.01, 1.14] and 1.10 [1.03, 1.18]) and current address. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was negatively associated with copper and iron in PM2.5 (change [95% confidence interval] -2.1% [-1.1, -0.1%] and -1.0% [-2.0, -0.0%]) and FEF75-50 with copper in PM10 at the current address (-2.3% [-4.3, -0.3%]). PM constituents, in particular iron, copper, and zinc, reflecting poorly regulated non-tailpipe road traffic emissions, may increase the risk of asthma and allergy in schoolchildren.

  12. Associations of sugar-containing beverages with asthma prevalence in 11-year-old children: the PIAMA birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Berentzen, N E; van Stokkom, V L; Gehring, U; Koppelman, G H; Schaap, L A; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a few studies have linked soft drink consumption to increased asthma risk, but the contribution of different types of soft drinks is unknown. We investigated cross-sectional associations between six different types of soft drinks and asthma in 11-year-old children. We analyzed data of 2406 children participating in the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort. At age 11, children self-reported consumption of sugar-added drinks, diet drinks, sweetened milk drinks, 100% fruit juice, energy drinks and sport drinks. The definition of asthma was based on parental reports of wheezing, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids and doctor's diagnosis of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in this study was 5.8%. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, asthma risk was increased for high (⩾10 glasses/week (gl/wk) versus low (<4 gl/wk) consumption of 100% fruit juice (odds ratio (OR): 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-3.60), sugar-added drinks (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 0.95-2.56) and for very high (>21.5 gl/wk) versus low (<12.5 gl/wk) total sugar-containing beverage (SCB) consumption (OR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.04-3.48). Consumption of other beverages and consumption of fruit were not associated with increased asthma risk. No evidence for mediation of the observed associations by body mass index was found. This study indicates that high consumption of 100% fruit juice and total SCBs is associated with increased asthma risk in children. The positive association between consumption of 100% fruit juice and asthma is an unexpected finding that needs confirmation in future studies.

  13. Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre-school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, A; Smit, H; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, H; Boshuizen, H; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978 children participating in a prospective birth cohort study were used. Food frequency data were collected at the age of 2 years and related to asthma symptoms reported at the age of 3 years. Results: The prevalence of recent asthma at age 3 was lower in children who consumed (at age 2) full cream milk daily (3.4%) than in those who did not (5.6%) and in those who consumed butter daily (1.5%) than in those who did not (5.1%). The prevalence of recent wheeze was lower in children who consumed milk products daily (13.7%) than in those who did not (18.4%) and in children who consumed butter daily (7.7%) than in those who did not (15.4%). These effects remained in a logistic regression model including different foods and confounders (adjusted odds ratio (CI) for recent asthma: full cream milk daily v rarely 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88), butter daily v rarely 0.28 (0.09 to 0.88)). Daily consumption of brown bread was also associated with lower rates of asthma and wheeze, whereas no associations were observed with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, margarine, and fish. Conclusions: In pre-school children, frequent consumption of products containing milk fat is associated with a reduced risk of asthma symptoms. PMID:12832666

  14. Lifetime secondhand smoke exposure and childhood and adolescent asthma: findings from the PIAMA cohort.

    PubMed

    Milanzi, Edith B; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-02-23

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a modifiable risk factor associated with childhood asthma. Associations with adolescent asthma and the relevance of the timing and patterns of exposure are unclear. Knowledge of critical windows of exposure is important for targeted interventions. We used data until age 17 from 1454 children of the Dutch population-based PIAMA birth cohort. Residential SHS exposure was assessed through parental questionnaires completed at ages 3 months, 1-8 (yearly), 11, 14, and 17 years. Lifetime exposure was determined as; a) time window-specific exposure (prenatal, infancy, preschool, primary school, and secondary school); b) lifetime cumulative exposure; c) longitudinal exposure patterns using latent class growth modeling (LCGM). Generalized estimation equations and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between exposure and asthma at ages 4 to 17 years, adjusting for potential confounders. With all three methods, we consistently found no association between SHS exposure and asthma at ages 4 to 17 years e.g. adjusted overall odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.67 (0.41-1.12), 1.00 (0.66-1.51) and 0.67 (0.41-1.11) for prenatal maternal active smoking, infancy, and preschool school time window exposures, respectively. We assessed lifetime SHS exposure using different methods. Different timing and patterns of SHS exposure were not associated with an increased risk of asthma in childhood and adolescence in our study. More longitudinal studies could investigate effects of lifetime SHS exposure on asthma in adolescence and later life.

  15. Births and cohort size.

    PubMed

    de Beer, J

    1991-01-01

    Ahlburg (1983, 1986) tested a simple version of Easterlin's relative-cohort-size model of fertility on the basis of U.S. and Canadian post-war data. His conclusion was that the Easterlin model fits the data very well and can therefore be used for calculating forecasts. However, the model he estimated is oversimplified. In this paper an alternative specification is presented. The model is applied to Dutch fertility data. The Easterlin effect is found to affect the movement of births in the Netherlands during the period 1950-85, but a declining long-term trend in average family size proves far more important in explaining post-war births. The model forecasts a rise of births until 2000.

  16. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2015-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997–98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6–12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  17. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up.

  18. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  19. The 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S; Kaufman, Jay S; Sheppard, Amanda J; Wilkins, Russell

    2016-01-20

    Evidence on socioeconomic and ethnocultural disparities in perinatal health in Canada tends to be limited to analyses by neighbourhood or for selected provinces. In 2010, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research awarded funding for a project on perinatal outcomes. This article describes the resulting 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort Database. From the Canadian Live Birth, Infant Death and Stillbirth Database, 687,340 records of children born in Canada from May 16, 2004 through May 15, 2006 to mothers whose usual place of residence was Canada were selected as in-scope births. Deterministic rules were applied to link each person on the birth record-child, mother, father-to 2006 Census data.The cohort was restricted to records linked to a long-form questionnaire, and a cohort weight was developed. Cohort rates (unweighted and weighted) for five birth outcomes-preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, large-for-gestational age, stillbirth, and infant mortality-were compared with rates for all in-scope births across birth characteristics. Cohort rates for these birth outcomes were examined across selected census characteristics. Linkage rates were 91% for births surviving to age 1, 76% for stillbirths, and 80% for infant deaths matched to a birth registration. The cohort estimates were similar to those for all in-scope births, particularly after the cohort weight was applied. The cohort data produced plausible estimates of selected birth outcomes across maternal ethnocultural categories and levels of education. The 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort data can help inform perinatal surveillance and research in Canada.

  20. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, <2500g; normal range; high birth weight, ≥4000g) and as a continuous variable. Separate analyses were carried out to determine the impact of birth weight and the other predictors on stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277

  2. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  3. A Chinese Birth Cohort: Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Paul C.; Ren, Xin; Weitekamp, Elmar; Kerner, Hans-Jurgen; Taylor, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    Research on delinquency has shown consistent results across Western industrialized countries. Few studies have been done in non-Western cultures. This study reports on the results of a birth cohort study in China, which was started by Marvin Wolfgang but never completed. The cohort, born in 1973, was traced through official and community files.…

  4. Sleep in children with asthma: results of the PIAMA study.

    PubMed

    van Maanen, Annette; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Smit, Henriëtte A; Oort, Frans J; Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-04-01

    Children with asthma are thought to have impaired sleep quality and quantity. In this study, we investigated which of the many sleep aspects are associated with asthma. Our sample consisted of 2529 children (aged 11 years) who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study. Parents reported about asthma symptoms (wheezing, dyspnoea, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids and asthma diagnosis) and children reported about different aspects of sleep (bedtime, rise time, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness/tiredness). Results were analysed with (logistic) regression analysis. Children with frequent asthma symptoms significantly more often reported that they felt sleepy or tired during the day (34.4% experienced daytime sleepiness/tiredness at least once a week) than children without asthma symptoms (22.2%) and children with infrequent asthma symptoms (21.9%). This association was not confounded by sex, age of the child, parental educational level or smoking inside the house; the effect was also not modified by sex. There were no associations between asthma and bedtime, time spent in bed or sleep quality. Children with frequent asthma symptoms experienced daytime sleepiness/tiredness more often than children with infrequent or no asthma symptoms. Otherwise, children with asthma did not differ much from children without asthma with regard to sleep.

  5. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012-13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome.

  6. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  7. Meta-analysis of air pollution exposure association with allergic sensitization in European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Gruzieva, Olena; Gehring, Ulrike; Aalberse, Rob; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Behrendt, Heidrun; Bellander, Tom; Birk, Matthias; de Jongste, Johan C; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoek, Gerard; Klümper, Claudia; Koppelman, Gerard; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lindley, Sarah; Mölter, Anna; Simpson, Angela; Standl, Marie; van Hage, Marianne; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran

    2014-03-01

    Evidence on the long-term effects of air pollution exposure on childhood allergy is limited. We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and allergic sensitization to common allergens in children followed prospectively during the first 10 years of life. Five European birth cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project were included: BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and GINIplus (Germany), MAAS (Great Britain), and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Land-use regression models were applied to assess the individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), the mass concentration of particles between 2.5 and 10 μm in size, and levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), as well as measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters and nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide levels. Blood samples drawn at 4 to 6 years of age, 8 to 10 years of age, or both from more than 6500 children were analyzed for allergen-specific serum IgE against common allergens. Associations were assessed by using multiple logistic regression and subsequent meta-analysis. The prevalence of sensitization to any common allergen within the 5 cohorts ranged between 24.1% and 40.4% at the age of 4 to 6 years and between 34.8% and 47.9% at the age of 8 to 10 years. Overall, air pollution exposure was not associated with sensitization to any common allergen, with odds ratios ranging from 0.94 (95% CI, 0.63-1.40) for a 1 × 10(-5) ∙ m(-1) increase in measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters to 1.26 (95% CI, 0.90-1.77) for a 5 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure at birth address. Further analyses did not provide consistent evidence for a modification of the air pollution effects by sex, family history of atopy, or moving status. No clear associations between air pollution exposure and development of allergic sensitization in children up to 10 years of age

  8. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  9. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings.

  10. Patterns of Crime in a Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Collins, L M; Cliff, N; Cudeck, R A; McCormik, D J; Zatkin, J L

    1983-07-01

    Most attempts at developing typologies of criminal behavior have not involved empirical research. This paper describes an exploratory empirical approach to identifying patterns in criminal behavior. Two data-reduction techniques, factor analysis and cluster analysis, are applied to the official arrest records of a Danish birth cohort of 28,879 men. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis: GENERAL CRIME, TRAFFIC OFFENSES, WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, and SEX OFFENSES. The cluster analysis revealed GENERAL CRIME and TRAFFIC OFFENSES clusters. A substantial number of offenses are shown by both analyses to be independent of any pattern. The results show good split-sample cross-validation and for the most part are robust across the two analytic approaches.

  11. Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Elaine; MacIntyre, Elaina; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Bucci, Simone; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cirach, Marta; Cyrys, Josef; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Hoffmann, Barbara; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Mölter, Anna; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Pershagen, Göran; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje S; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriette A; Sugiri, Dorothea; Sunyer, Jordi; Wang, Meng; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (N total=15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20 ng/m(3) increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health.

  12. Grandmothers’ Smoking in Pregnancy and Grandchildren’s Birth Weight: Comparisons by Grandmother Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether grandmothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers’ generation. Methods The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n=397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904–1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929–1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Results Forty-six (5%) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49%) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95% confidence interval: 64 to 628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929–1945. For grandmothers born from 1904–1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Conclusions Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered. PMID:24337862

  13. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    PubMed Central

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective The objective was to investigate BMI development to assess at what ages essential differences between normal weight and overweight children occur, and to assess which age intervals the most strongly influence the risk of overweight at 8 years of age. Methods Longitudinal weight and height data were collected by annual questionnaires in a population of 3963 children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. BMI and BMI standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated for every year from birth until 8 years of age. BMI, BMI SDS and BMI SDS change in each 1-year-age interval were compared between children with and without overweight at 8 years of age, using t-tests, logistic regression analysis and the analysis of response profiles method. Results At 8 years of age, 10.5% of the children were overweight. Already at the age of 1 year, these children had a significantly higher mean BMI SDS than normal weight 8-year-olds, (0.53 vs 0.04). In each 1-year-age interval the change in BMI SDS was significantly associated with overweight at 8 years with odds ratios increasing from 1.14 (95% CI 1.04–1.24) per 1 SDS increase at 0–1 year to 2.40 (95% CI 2.09–2.76) at 7–8 years. Conclusion At every age, starting already in the first year of life, a rapid increase in BMI SDS was significantly associated with overweight risk at the age of 8 years. There was no evidence for a specific critical period for the development of overweight. Prevention of overweight should start early in life and be continued with age-specific interventions throughout childhood. PMID:22761811

  14. Childhood cancer mortality and birth characteristics in Korea: a national population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2011-03-01

    To examine the relationship between birth characteristics and childhood cancer mortality, a retrospective cohort study of Korean children was conducted using data collected by the national birth register between 1995 and 2006, which were then individually linked to death data. A cohort of 6,479,406 children was followed from birth until their death or until December 31, 2006. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate rate ratios of childhood cancer deaths according to birth characteristics. A total of 1,469 cancer deaths were noted and the childhood cancer mortality rate was found to be 3.43 per 100,000 person-years in Korea during the period of 1995-2006. The birth characteristics examined in this study (i.e. , birth weight, gestational age, multiple births, parental ages, and number of siblings) were generally found to be not significantly associated with childhood cancer mortality, and the associations did not vary meaningfully with gender nor with cancer sites. However, among children aged 5-11 yr, higher birth weight was associated with elevated childhood cancer mortality (rate ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.58). Our results offer no overall associations between childhood cancer mortality and birth characteristics, but suggest that the association may be specific to age group.

  15. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  17. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102

  18. Breastfeeding and Snoring: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brew, Bronwyn K.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A.; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. Methods In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Results Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Conclusions Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:24416321

  19. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  20. Air Pollution and Respiratory Infections during Early Childhood: An Analysis of 10 European Birth Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Elaina A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Mölter, Anna; Fuertes, Elaine; Klümper, Claudia; Krämer, Ursula; Quass, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Gascon, Mireia; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Birk, Matthias; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, H.A.; Cyrys, Josef; Gruzieva, Olena; Korek, Michal; Bergström, Anna; Agius, Raymond M.; de Vocht, Frank; Simpson, Angela; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lerxundi, Aitana; Sunyer, Jordi; Cirach, Marta; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Pershagen, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated traffic-related air pollution as a risk factor for respiratory infections during early childhood. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and pneumonia, croup, and otitis media in 10 European birth cohorts—BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), MAAS (United Kingdom), PIAMA (the Netherlands), and four INMA cohorts (Spain)—and to derive combined effect estimates using meta-analysis. Methods: Parent report of physician-diagnosed pneumonia, otitis media, and croup during early childhood were assessed in relation to annual average pollutant levels [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, PM2.5–10 (coarse PM)], which were estimated using land use regression models and assigned to children based on their residential address at birth. Identical protocols were used to develop regression models for each study area as part of the ESCAPE project. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted effect estimates for each study, and random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate combined estimates. Results: For pneumonia, combined adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated and statistically significant for all pollutants except PM2.5 (e.g., OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.65 per 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 and OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.00, 3.09 per 10-μg/m3 PM10). For otitis media and croup, results were generally null across all analyses except for NO2 and otitis media (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16 per 10-μg/m3). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis of 10 European birth cohorts within the ESCAPE project found consistent evidence for an association between air pollution and pneumonia in early childhood, and some evidence for an association with otitis media. Citation: MacIntyre EA, Gehring U, Mölter A, Fuertes E, Klümper C, Krämer U, Quass U, Hoffmann B, Gascon M, Brunekreef B, Koppelman GH, Beelen R, Hoek G

  1. Perinatal health in the Danube region - new birth cohort justified.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Zorana J; Sram, Radim J; Braun Kohlová, Markéta; Gurzau, Eugen S; Fucic, Aleksandra; Gribaldo, Laura; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Máca, Vojtěch; Zvěřinová, Iva; Gajdosova, Dagmar; Moshammer, Hanns; Rudnai, Peter; Ščasný, Milan

    2017-03-01

    In 2013-2015, a consortium of European scientists - NEWDANUBE - was established to prepare a birth cohort in the Danube region, including most of the countries with the highest air pollution in Europe, the area being one-fifth of the European Union's (EU's) territory, including 14 countries (nine EU member states), over 100 million inhabitants, with numerous challenges: big socioeconomic disparities, and a region-specific environmental pollution. The consortium reflects the EU Strategy for the Danube Region Strategy (2010), which identified 11 thematic Priority Areas - one of which is the environmental risks. Birth cohorts have been established in all other areas of Europe and collaborative efforts in promoting maternal and fetal health by minimizing the environmental exposures have been initiated with national, European, and international financial support. A birth cohort in the Danube area could apply the established methodologies for prenatal exposure and birth outcome measurements and establish a platform for targeted health promotion in couples planning pregnancies. The consortium included a strong socioeconomic part focusing on the participant's active registration of exposures to environmental toxicants and health indicators of disease and wellbeing, combined with investigation of their risk-reducing behavior and interventions to change their lifestyle to avoid the adverse health risks. Willingness to pay for reducing the health risks in children is also proposed to be estimated. Further collaboration and networking is encouraged as the Danube region has several decades of experience and expertise in biomonitoring adult populations exposed environmentally or occupationally. Additionally, some countries in the Danube region launched small-scale birth cohorts encouraged by participation in several ongoing research projects.

  2. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dubakiene, Ruta; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Butiene, Indre; Sezaite, Indre; Petronyte, Malvina; Vaicekauskaite, Dalia; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558) established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers. PMID:22606067

  3. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.

  4. Cohort profile: The Isle of Man Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ∼75,000 comprised ∼50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration.

  5. How are European birth-cohort studies engaging and consulting with young cohort members?

    PubMed

    Lucas, Patricia J; Allnock, Debra; Jessiman, Tricia

    2013-04-11

    Birth cohort studies, where parents consent for their child to be enrolled in a longitudinal study prior to or soon after birth, are a powerful study design in epidemiology and developmental research. Participation often continues into adulthood. Where participants are enrolled as infants, provision should be made for consent, consultation and involvement in study design as they age. This study aims to audit and describe the extent and types of consultation and engagement currently used in birth cohorts in Europe. Seventy study groups (representing 84 cohorts) were contacted to ask about their practice in engaging and involving study members. Information was gathered from study websites and publications, 15 cohorts provided additional information via email and 17 cohorts were interviewed over the phone. The cohorts identified confirm the growth of this study design, with more than half beginning since 1990, and 4 since 2011. Most studies maintain a website open to the general public, although many are written for the scientific community only. Five studies have web pages specifically for young cohort members and one study provides a dedicated page for fathers. Cohorts send newsletters, cards, and summaries of findings to participants to stay in touch. Six cohorts use Facebook for this purpose. Five cohorts provide feedback opportunities for participants after completing a round of data collection. We know of just 8 cohorts who have a mechanism for consulting with parents and 3 a mechanism for consulting with young people themselves, although these were 'one off' consultations for some groups. Barriers to further consultation with cohort members were: concerns about impact on quality of research, ethical constraints, resource limitations, lack of importance, and previous adverse experiences. Although the children in some of the cohorts are still young (born in the last 10 years) many are old enough to include some element of consultation. Barriers to greater

  6. The Antecedents of Schizophrenia: A Review of Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Joy; Isohanni, Matti; Jones, Peter; McGrath, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: Birth cohort (BC) studies demonstrate that individuals who develop schizophrenia differ from the general population on a range of developmental indices. The aims of this article were to summarize key findings from BC studies in order to identify areas of convergence and to outline areas requiring further research. Method: We define BC studies as studies based on general population BCs where data are collected prospectively from birth or childhood and which identify schizophrenia or related disorders as an outcome. To identify such studies, we searched various electronic databases using the search parameters (schizo* OR psych*) AND (birth cohort). We also checked the references of relevant articles and previous reviews. Results: We identified 11 BCs from 7 countries that have examined schizophrenia as an outcome in adulthood. There is relatively consistent evidence that, as a group, children who later develop schizophrenia have behavioral disturbances and psychopathology, intellectual and language deficits, and early motor delays. Evidence with respect to alterations in language, educational performance, and physical growth has also been identified in some studies. BC studies have also contributed evidence about a wide range of putative risk factors for schizophrenia. Conclusions: BC studies have provided important, convergent insights into how the developmental trajectory of individuals who develop schizophrenia differs from their peers. The combination of new paradigms and larger cohorts, with the tools of modern epidemiology and biomedical science, is advancing our understanding of the developmental pathways to schizophrenia. PMID:18658128

  7. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  8. Surrounding Greenness and Pregnancy Outcomes in Four Spanish Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Basagaña, Xavier; Ballester, Ferran; Lertxundi, Aitana; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; García-Esteban, Raquel; Mendez, Michelle A.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Green spaces have been associated with improved physical and mental health; however, the available evidence on the impact of green spaces on pregnancy is scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between surrounding greenness and birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age at delivery. Methods: This study was based on 2,393 singleton live births from four Spanish birth cohorts (Asturias, Gipuzkoa, Sabadell, and Valencia) located in two regions of the Iberian Peninsula with distinct climates and vegetation patterns (2003–2008). We defined surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (Landsat 4–5 TM data at 30 m × 30 m resolution) during 2007 in buffers of 100 m, 250 m, and 500 m around each maternal place of residence. Separate linear mixed models with adjustment for potential confounders and a random cohort effect were used to estimate the change in birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age for 1-interquartile range increase in surrounding greenness. Results: Higher surrounding greenness was associated with increases in birth weight and head circumference [adjusted regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) of 44.2 g (20.2 g, 68.2 g) and 1.7 mm (0.5 mm, 2.9 mm) for an interquartile range increase in average NDVI within a 500-m buffer] but not gestational age. These findings were robust against the choice of the buffer size and the season of data acquisition for surrounding greenness, and when the analysis was limited to term births. Stratified analyses indicated stronger associations among children of mothers with lower education, suggesting greater benefits from surrounding greenness. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a beneficial impact of surrounding greenness on measures of fetal growth but not pregnancy length. PMID:22899599

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    2017-05-30

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  11. Physical activity during pregnancy and infant's birth weight: results from the 3D Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Michèle; Croteau, Jordie; Guinhouya, Benjamin C; Bujold, Emmanuel; Audibert, François; Fraser, William D; Marc, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal physical activity and infant's birth weight or risk of inappropriate weight for gestational age (GA), and whether this association differs by infant's sex, maternal body mass index (BMI) or pregnancy complications in a prospective cohort study. 1913 pregnant women from the 3D Birth Cohort (Québec, Canada) completed the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire at each trimester. Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent of task (MET)*hours/week) for total activity, sports and exercise and vigorous intensity activities was calculated. The associations with birth weight and risk of inappropriate weight for GA were evaluated by regression modelling. Interactions were tested with infant's sex, maternal prepregnancy BMI, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders and prematurity. Each 1 MET/hours/week increase in sports and exercise in the first trimester was associated with a 2.5 g reduction in infant's birth weight (95% CI -4.8 to -0.3) but was not associated with the risk of small weight for GA. In contrast, although not significant, a 17% reduction in the risk of large weight for GA was observed with increasing sports and exercise. Furthermore, in women with subsequent pre-eclampsia (but not normotensive or hypertensive women), each 1 MET/hours/week increment spent in any vigorous exercise in the first trimester reduced the infant's birth weight by 19.8 g (95% CI -35.2 to -4.3). Pregnant women with higher sports and exercise levels in the first trimester delivered infants with a lower birth weight. The risk of reducing infant's birth weight with vigorous exercise in women who develop pre-eclampsia later in pregnancy requires evaluation.

  12. Low Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence for a Gradient Relationship in an Urban, Poor, African American Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Noonan, Kelly; Martin, Roy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and cognitive outcomes in an urban, poor, prospectively designed African-American birth cohort. Multivariate analyses of the Pathways to Adulthood study, a subset of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal study, compared low birth weight African-American…

  13. EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children born at low gestational ages face a range of risks and number of neonates surviving very preterm birth is increasing. We present the objectives and methods of a French national cohort of very and moderately preterm children, the EPIPAGE 2 study. It aims to examine short- and long-term outcomes of very preterm children and their determinants. Methods/Design Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all infants live born or stillborn and all terminations of pregnancy between 22 and 31 completed weeks of gestation in all the maternity units in 25 French regions. In addition, a sample of moderate preterm births, i.e. births and late terminations at 32–34 weeks, was included in the same regions. In all, 7804 babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France in 2011 that were either very (22–31 weeks) or moderately preterm (32–34 weeks) were included. Data on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal events were extracted from the obstetric and neonatal records. The follow-up will collect information at corrected ages of one and 2 years and at 5, 8, and 12 years of age. Of the 4467 children discharged alive from the hospital and eligible for follow-up, 155 (4%) families refused further follow-up and 22 died before one-year of age. Finally, 4290 were included in the follow-up. Eight additional projects investigating specific hypotheses among subsamples of the cohort by collecting specific data in addition to the core cohort data are being conducted to investigate 1) diagnosis of histologic chorioamnionitis, 2) early biomarkers of child health, 3) attitudes of care for extremely preterm infants, 4) painful procedures in neonatal intensive care units, 5) neonatal MRI cerebral abnormalities and their relation to executive functions, 6) associations between early gut colonization and early and late onset diseases, 7) impact of neonatal nutrition on child development

  14. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP).

    PubMed

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and birth outcomes in a Spanish birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Martinez, David; Costa, Olga; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Pereda-Pereda, Eva; Schettgen, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort. We measured PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in 1st-trimester maternal plasma (years: 2003-2008) in 1202 mother-child pairs. Continuous birth outcomes included standardized weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. Binary outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age, and preterm birth. We calculated maternal GFR from plasma-creatinine measurements in the 1st-trimester of pregnancy (n=765) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. We used mixed-effects linear and logistic models with region of residence as random effect and adjustment for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fish intake during pregnancy. Newborns in this study weighted on average 3263g and had a median gestational age of 39.8weeks. The most abundant PFAS were PFOS and PFOA (median: 6.05 and 2.35ng/mL, respectively). Overall, PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated to birth outcomes. PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA showed weak, non-statistically significant associations with reduced birth weights ranging from 8.6g to 10.3g per doubling of exposure. Higher PFOS exposure was associated with an OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 0.98, 3.68) for LBW (similar in births-at-term) in boys. Maternal GFR did not confound the associations. In this study, PFAS showed little association with birth outcomes. Higher PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA concentrations were non-significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The association between PFOS and LBW seemed to be sex-specific. Finally, maternal GFR measured

  16. Late preterm birth and neurocognitive performance in late adulthood: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2015-04-01

    We studied if late preterm birth (34 weeks 0 days-36 weeks 6 days of gestation) is associated with performance on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) in late adulthood and if maximum attained lifetime education moderated these associations. Participants were 919 Finnish men and women born between 1934 and 1944, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. They underwent the CERAD-NB at a mean age of 68.1 years. Data regarding gestational age (late preterm versus term) were extracted from hospital birth records, and educational attainment data were gathered from Statistics Finland. After adjustment for major confounders, those born late preterm scored lower on word list recognition (mean difference: -0.33 SD; P = .03) than those born at term. Among those who had attained a basic or upper secondary education, late preterm birth was associated with lower scores on word list recognition, constructional praxis, constructional praxis recall, clock drawing, Mini-Mental State Examination, and memory total and CERAD total 2 compound scores (mean differences: >0.40 SD; P values <.05), and had a 2.70 times higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score: <26 points) (P = .02). Among those with tertiary levels of education, late preterm birth was not associated with CERAD-NB scores. Our findings offer new insight into the lifelong consequences of late preterm birth, and they add late preterm birth as a novel risk factor to the list of neurocognitive impairment in late adulthood. Our findings also suggest that attained lifetime education may mitigate aging-related neurocognitive impairment, especially among those born late preterm. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP)

    PubMed Central

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. Participants MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts—the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Findings to date Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Future plans Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. PMID:27591025

  18. Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Forsén, Tom; Ylihärsilä, Hilkka; Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Barker, D. J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. Methods/Principal Findings This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study) includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40) and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with −0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI −0.91 to −0.24) lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. Conclusion/Significance We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF. PMID:21799817

  19. Urinary Biomarkers of Prenatal Atrazine Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in the PELAGIE Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Limon, Gwendolina; Monfort, Christine; Rouget, Florence; Garlantézec, Ronan; Petit, Claire; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite evidence of atrazine toxicity in developing organisms from experimental studies, few studies—and fewer epidemiologic investigations—have examined the potential effects of prenatal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the association between adverse birth outcomes and urinary biomarkers of prenatal atrazine exposure, while taking into account exposures to other herbicides used on corn crops (simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and acetochlor). Methods: This study used a case-cohort design nested in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the Brittany region of France from 2002 through 2006. We collected maternal urine samples to examine pesticide exposure biomarkers before the 19th week of gestation. Results: We found quantifiable levels of atrazine or atrazine mercapturate in urine samples from 5.5% of 579 pregnant women, and dealkylated and identified hydroxylated triazine metabolites in 20% and 40% of samples, respectively. The presence versus absence of quantifiable levels of atrazine or a specific atrazine metabolite was associated with fetal growth restriction [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0–2.2] and small head circumference for sex and gestational age (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). Associations with major congenital anomalies were not evident with atrazine or its specific metabolites. Head circumference was inversely associated with the presence of quantifiable urinary metolachlor. Conclusions: This study is the first to assess associations of birth outcomes with multiple urinary biomarkers of exposure to triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides. Evidence of associations with adverse birth outcomes raises particular concerns for countries where atrazine is still in use. PMID:21367690

  20. Maternal attitudes towards home birth and their effect on birth outcomes in Iceland: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2016-03-01

    to examine the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and birth outcomes, and whether women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected this relationship. a prospective cohort study. the study was set in Iceland, a sparsely populated island with harsh terrain, 325,000 inhabitants, high fertility and home birth rates, and less than 5000 births a year. a convenience sample of women who attended antenatal care in Icelandic health care centres, participated in the Childbirth and Health Study in 2009-2011, and expressed consistent attitudes towards home birth (n=809). of the participants, 164 (20.3%) expressed positive attitudes towards choosing home birth and 645 (79.7%) expressed negative attitudes. Women who had a positive attitude towards home birth had significantly more positive attitudes towards birth and more negative attitudes towards intervention than did women who had a negative attitude towards home birth. Of the 340 self-reported low-risk women that answered questionnaires on birth outcomes, 78 (22.9%) had a positive attitude towards home birth and 262 (77.1%) had a negative attitude. Oxytocin augmentation (19.2% (n=15) versus 39.1% (n=100)), epidural analgesia (19.2% (n=15) versus 33.6% (n=88)), and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (0.0% (n=0) versus 5.0% (n=13)) were significantly lower among women who had a positive attitude towards home birth. Women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and oxytocin augmentation or epidural analgesia. the beneficial effect of planned home birth on maternal outcome in Iceland may depend to some extent on women's attitudes towards birth and intervention. Efforts to de-stigmatise out-of-hospital birth and de-medicalize women's attitudes towards birth might increase women׳s use of health-appropriate birth services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vipin Kumar; George, Santosh; Sarkar, Rajiv; Giri, Sidhartha; Samuel, Prasanna; Vivek, Rosario; Saravanabavan, Anuradha; Liakath, Farzana Begum; Ramani, Sasirekha; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J; Brown, David W; Estes, Mary K; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia. Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group. Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2%) were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6%) were norovirus GI, 150(8.1%) norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4%) were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4%) were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8%) were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6%) GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0%) with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3%) ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428) were at a significantly lower risk (48/190) of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01). This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  2. Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2011-01-01

    The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

  3. Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2011-01-01

    The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

  4. Life-Course Relationship between Socioeconomic Circumstances and Timing of First Birth in a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    van Roode, Thea; Sharples, Katrina; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the influence of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood (childhood SES) and adulthood (adult SES) on timing of first birth by age 37. Methods A longitudinal study of a 1972–1973 New Zealand birth cohort collected information on socioeconomic characteristics from age 3–32 and reproductive histories at 21, 26, 32 and 38; information on first birth was available from 978 of the original 1037. Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression to examine first live birth prior to age 21, from 21–25, from 26–31, and from 32–37, by socioeconomic characteristics at different ages. Results Overall, 68.5% of men had fathered a child and 75.9% of women had given birth, by age 37; with overall differences in parenthood to age 31 for men, and 37 for women evident by childhood SES. While parenthood by age 20 was strongly associated with lower childhood SES for both sexes, first entry into motherhood from 32–37 was more likely with higher adult SES at age 32 (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0 for medium and RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3 for high compared with low). Education also differientated age at parenthood, with those with higher education more likely to defer fatherhood past age 31, and motherhood past age 25 followed by a period of increased likelihood of motherhood for women with higher levels of education from age 32–37 (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.87–2.2 and RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6 for medium and high respectively compared with low). Conclusions SES varies across the lifecourse, and SES at the time has the strongest association with first births at that time. Low childhood SES drives adolescent parenthood, with resulting cumulative differences in parenthood past age 30. Those with more education and higher adult SES are deferring parenthood but attempt to catch up in the mid to late thirties. PMID:28085935

  5. Cohort profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort follow-up visits in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cf; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana Mb

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Effect of birth size and proportionality on BMI and skinfold thickness in early adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, C L; Hallal, P C; Nader, G A; Neutzling, M B; deFátima Vieira, M; Menezes, A M B; Victora, C G

    2009-05-01

    To assess the effect of birth weight, length and ponderal index at birth on body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness in early adolescence. Population-based, prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. Out of 5249 cohort members, 87.5% were traced at 11 years of age. Birth weight, length and ponderal index (birth weight/birth length(3) x 100) -- treated as continuous variable and divided into fourths -- were the exposure variables. BMI at 11 years, triceps and subscapular skinfolds were the outcomes. Confounders included sex, gestational age, parity, maternal schooling, family income, maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal BMI. All three exposure variables were significantly associated with BMI in early adolescence, but the strongest effect was observed for birth weight. Each unit (Z-score) increase in birth weight was associated with 0.46 kg m(-2) increase in BMI at 11 years. The equivalent coefficients for ponderal index and birth length were 0.22 and 0.21 kg m(-2), respectively. High birth weight, length and ponderal index were also associated with increased values for triceps and subscapular skinfolds at 11 years, and with increased prevalence of obesity. Of the three birth exposures studied, birth weight presented the strongest effect on anthropometry in early adolescence. Ponderal index, a proportionality indicator associated with infant mortality, hospitalizations and anthropometry in infancy, was also associated with anthropometry in early adolescence, but its predictive value for the latter is lower than that of birthweight alone. All three birth size indicators studied presented poor predictability of the later risk of obesity.

  7. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  8. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-09-30

    To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Longitudinal study. Danish national birth cohort. Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50,897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy < or = 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations-hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination.

  9. Asthma and occupation in the 1958 birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rebecca Elisabeth; Cullinan, Paul; Fishwick, David; Hoyle, Jennifer; Warburton, Chris J; Strachan, David P; Butland, Barbara K; Jarvis, Debbie

    2013-04-01

    To examine the association of adult onset asthma with lifetime exposure to occupations and occupational exposures. We generated lifetime occupational histories for 9488 members of the British 1958 birth cohort up to age 42 years. Blind to asthma status, jobs were coded to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and an Asthma Specific Job Exposure Matrix (ASJEM) with an expert re-evaluation step. Associations of jobs and ASJEM exposures with adult onset asthma were assessed in logistic regression models adjusting for sex, smoking, social class at birth and childhood hay fever. Of the 7406 cohort members with no asthma or wheezy bronchitis in childhood, 639 (9%) reported asthma by age 42 years. Adult onset asthma was associated with 18 occupations, many previously identified as risks for asthma (eg, farmers: OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.06 to 8.80; hairdressers: OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.85; printing workers: OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.49 to 6.18). Four were cleaning occupations and a further three occupations were likely to use cleaning agents. Adult onset asthma was associated with five of the 18 high-risk specific ASJEM exposures (flour exposure: OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.85; enzyme exposure: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.42; cleaning/disinfecting products: OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.22; metal and metal fumes: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.07; textile production: OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.61). Approximately 16% (95% CI 3.8% to 27.1%) of adult onset asthma was associated with known asthmagenic occupational exposures. This study suggests that about 16% of adult onset asthma in British adults born in the late 1950s could be due to occupational exposures, mainly recognised high-risk exposures.

  10. Determinants of breast-feeding in a Finnish birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Ahonen, Suvi; Arkkola, Tuula; Uusitalo, Liisa; Pietinen, Pirjo; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2010-04-01

    To assess milk feeding on the maternity ward and during infancy, and their relationship to sociodemographic determinants. The validity of our 3-month questionnaire in measuring hospital feeding was assessed. A prospective Finnish birth cohort with increased risk to type 1 diabetes recruited between 1996 and 2004. The families completed a follow-up form on the age at introduction of new foods and age-specific dietary questionnaires. Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) project, Finland. A cohort of 5993 children (77 % of those invited) participated in the main study, and 117 randomly selected infants in the validation study. Breast milk was the predominant milk on the maternity ward given to 99 % of the infants. Altogether, 80 % of the women recalled their child being fed supplementary milk (donated breast milk or infant formula) on the maternity ward. The median duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 1.4 months (range 0-8) and that of total breast-feeding 7.0 months (0-25). Additional milk feeding on the maternity ward, short parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, small gestational age and having no siblings were associated with a risk of short duration of both exclusive and total breast-feeding. In the validation study, 78 % of the milk types given on the maternity ward fell into the same category, according to the questionnaire and hospital records. The recommendations for infant feeding were not achieved. Infant feeding is strongly influenced by sociodemographic determinants and feeding practices on the maternity wards. Long-term breast-feeding may be supported by active promotion on the maternity ward.

  11. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  12. Influence of birth cohort on age of onset cluster analysis in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Glenn, T; Alda, M; Andreassen, O A; Angelopoulos, E; Ardau, R; Baethge, C; Bauer, R; Bellivier, F; Belmaker, R H; Berk, M; Bjella, T D; Bossini, L; Bersudsky, Y; Cheung, E Y W; Conell, J; Del Zompo, M; Dodd, S; Etain, B; Fagiolini, A; Frye, M A; Fountoulakis, K N; Garneau-Fournier, J; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Harima, H; Hassel, S; Henry, C; Iacovides, A; Isometsä, E T; Kapczinski, F; Kliwicki, S; König, B; Krogh, R; Kunz, M; Lafer, B; Larsen, E R; Lewitzka, U; Lopez-Jaramillo, C; MacQueen, G; Manchia, M; Marsh, W; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, M; Melle, I; Monteith, S; Morken, G; Munoz, R; Nery, F G; O'Donovan, C; Osher, Y; Pfennig, A; Quiroz, D; Ramesar, R; Rasgon, N; Reif, A; Ritter, P; Rybakowski, J K; Sagduyu, K; Scippa, A M; Severus, E; Simhandl, C; Stein, D J; Strejilevich, S; Hatim Sulaiman, A; Suominen, K; Tagata, H; Tatebayashi, Y; Torrent, C; Vieta, E; Viswanath, B; Wanchoo, M J; Zetin, M; Whybrow, P C

    2015-01-01

    Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database. The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared. There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups. These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth: The Aarhus Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregård; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies indicated an association between intrauterine exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and lower birth weight. However, these perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have to some extent been substituted by other compounds on which little is known. We investigated the association between specific PFAAs and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth. We studied 1,507 mothers and their children from the Aarhus Birth Cohort (2008-2013). Nulliparous women were included during pregnancy, and serum levels of 16 PFAAs were measured between 9 and 20 completed gestational weeks (96% within 13 weeks). For compounds with quantifiable values in > 50% of samples (7 compounds), we report the associations with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth determined by multivariable linear regression. Estimated mean birth weights were lower among women with serum perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluoroheptane sulfonate, and PFOS concentrations above the lowest exposure quartile, but we found no consistent monotonic dose-response patterns. These associations were stronger when the population was restricted to term births (n = 1,426). For PFOS, the birth weight estimates for the highest versus lowest quartile were -50 g (95% CI: -123, 23 g) in all births and -62 g (95% CI: -126, 3 g) in term births. For the other PFAAs, the direction of the associations was inconsistent, and no overall association with birth weight was apparent. No PFAAs were associated with birth length or head circumference at birth. Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between PFAAs and birth weight or other indices of fetal growth, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those with exposures above the lowest quartile for some compounds. Bach CC, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Olsen J, Matthiesen NB, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Bossi R, Henriksen TB. 2016. Perfluoroalkyl acids in maternal serum and indices of fetal growth: the

  14. Trajectories of dental anxiety in a birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. M.; Broadbent, J. M.; Locker, D.; Poulton, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine predictors of dental anxiety trajectories in a longitudinal study of New Zealanders. Methods Prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand, with dental anxiety scale (DAS) scores and dental utilization determined at ages 15, 18, 26 and 32 years. Personality traits were assessed at a superfactor and (more fine-grained) subscale level via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire at age 18 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify dental anxiety trajectories. Results DAS scores from at least three assessments were available for 828 participants. Six dental anxiety trajectories were observed: stable nonanxious low (39.6%); stable nonanxious medium (37.9%); recovery (1.6%); adult-onset anxious (7.7%); stable anxious (7.2%) and adolescent-onset anxious (5.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that males and those with higher DMFS at age 15 years were more likely to be in the stable nonanxious low trajectory group. Membership of the stable nonanxious medium group was predicted by the dental caries experience at age 15 years. Participants who had lost one or more teeth between ages 26 and 32 years had almost twice the relative risk for membership of the adult-onset anxious group. Personality traits predicted group membership. Specifically, high scorers (via median split) on the ‘stress reaction’ subscale had over twice the risk of being in the stable anxious group; low scorers on the traditionalism subscale were more likely to be members of the recovery trajectory group; and high scorers on the ‘social closeness’ subscale had half the risk of being in the stable anxious group. Dental caries experience at age 5 years was also a predictor for the stable anxious group. Membership of the late-adolescent-onset anxious group was predicted by higher dental caries experience by age 15 years, but none of the other predictors was significant. Conclusion Six discrete trajectories of dental anxiety

  15. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, L C; Figueiredo, F P; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Caldas, A J M; Mochel, E G; Ribeiro, V S

    2007-09-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

  16. Clinical features of celiac disease: a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Agardh, Daniel; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kurppa, Kalle; Simell, Ville; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Jörneus, Ola; Hummel, Michael; Liu, Edwin; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2015-04-01

    To investigate clinical features of celiac disease (CD) and their association with risk factors for CD in a genetic risk birth cohort. Children from 6 clinical centers in 4 countries positive for HLA-DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were annually screened for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) and assessed for symptoms by questionnaires. Associations of symptoms with anthropometrics, known risk factors for CD, tTGA levels, and mucosal lesions in those biopsied were examined. Of 6706 screened children, 914 developed persistent positive tTGA, 406 underwent biopsies, and 340 had CD. Compared with age-matched tTGA-negative children, those with persistent tTGA were more likely to have symptoms at 2 (34% vs 19%, P < .001) and 3 years of age (28% vs 19%, P = .009) but not at 4 years (27% vs 21%, NS). Z-scores for height, weight, and BMI did not differ between groups. In children with persistent tTGA, having ≥ 1 symptom was associated with family history of CD (odds ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval, 1.21-5.57) but not with age, gender, or HLA-DR3-DQ2 homozygosity. At seroconversion, tTGA levels were higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic children (P < .001), in those from CD families (P < .001), and in US participants (P < .001) but not associated with age, gender, or HLA genotype. tTGA levels correlated with severity of mucosal lesions both in symptomatic (r = 0.53, P < .001) and asymptomatic children (r = 0.22, P = .01). A majority of children detected with persistent tTGA in screenings are asymptomatic and have normal growth by age 4 years. tTGA levels correlate more strongly with severity of mucosal lesions in symptomatic as compared with asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Ambient air pollution and preterm birth: A prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; Liang, Shengwen; Yang, Shaoping; Trevathan, Edwin; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Jing; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Yiming; Vaughn, Michael; Shen, Longjiao; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Pu; Ward, Patrick; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Zhang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although studies in western countries suggest that ambient air pollution is positively associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, the upper levels of pollutant exposures have been relatively low, thus eroding confidence in the conclusions. Meanwhile, in Asia, where upper levels of exposure have been greater, there have been limited studies of the association between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The primary objective was to evaluate whether high levels of pollution, including particulate matter pollution with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) are related to increased occurrence of preterm birth (PTB). We conducted a population-based study in Wuhan, China in a cohort of 95,911 live births during a two-year period from 2011 to 2013. The exposure was estimated based on daily mean concentrations of pollutants estimated using the pollutants' measurements from the nine closest monitors. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationships between exposure to each of the pollutants during different pregnancy periods and PTB while controlling for key covariates. We found 3% (OR=1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 2% (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03), 15% (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.19), and 5% (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07) increases in risk of PTB with each 5-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, 100-μg/m(3) increase in CO concentrations, and 10-μg/m(3) increase in O3 concentrations, respectively. There was negligible evidence for associations for SO2 and NO2. The effects from two-pollutant models were similar to the estimated effects from single pollutant models. No critical exposure windows were identified consistently: the strongest effect for PTB was found in the second trimester for PM2.5, PM10, and CO, but for SO2 it was in the first trimester, second month, and third month. For NO2 it was in the first

  18. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. How many subjects are needed in a longitudinal birth cohort study?

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2009-07-01

    One of the first decisions that needs to be taken when planning a birth cohort concerns the size of the study. This in turn will depend on the research questions to be answered and thence whether environmental exposures and outcomes are measured on a continuum or as dichotomous variables. Here we describe ways in which different birth cohorts have addressed this issue and explore the advantages of smaller detailed studies over larger less-detailed studies.

  20. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    PubMed

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  1. Cohort Trends in Premarital First Births: What Role for the Retreat From Marriage?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2015-01-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women’s years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a “shotgun marriage”). For women born between 1920–1924 and 1945–1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945–1949 and 1960–1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions—a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning “marriageable” men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth. PMID:24072609

  2. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-09-05

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  3. Childspacing among Birth Cohorts of American Women: 1905 to 1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Based on marriage and fertility histories obtained in the June 1980 Current Population Survey (CPS), this report presents a detailed fertility history for women born since 1905. By categorizing these women according to the period of their birth, their marriage, or their child's birth, it is possible to examine the timing patterns of childbearing…

  4. The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Valgerdur Lisa; Gamble, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2017-05-03

    Several risk factors for negative birth experience have been identified, but little is known regarding the influence of social and midwifery support on the birth experience over time. The aim of this study was to describe women's birth experience up to two years after birth and to detect the predictive role of satisfaction with social and midwifery support in the birth experience. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with a convenience sample of pregnant women from 26 community health care centres. Data was gathered using questionnaires at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy (T1, n=1111), at five to six months (T2, n=765), and at 18-24 months after birth (T3, n=657). Data about sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, birth outcomes, social and midwifery support, depressive symptoms, and birth experience were collected. The predictive role of midwifery support in the birth experience was examined using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of negative birth experience was 5% at T2 and 5.7% at T3. Women who were not satisfied with midwifery support during pregnancy and birth were more likely to have negative birth experience at T2 than women who were satisfied with midwifery support. Operative birth, perception of prolonged birth and being a student predicted negative birth experience at both T2 and T3. Perception of negative birth experience was relatively consistent during the study period and the role of support from midwives during pregnancy and birth had a significant impact on women's perception of birth experience. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life: historical cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, H. T.; Sabroe, S.; Olsen, J.; Rothman, K. J.; Gillman, M. W.; Fischer, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluation for military service. SUBJECTS: 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973 and 1975. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean score in the Boerge Prien test of cognitive function; score is the number of correct answers to 78 questions and correlates with full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). RESULTS: Mean score in the Boerge Prien test increased from 39.9 at a birth weight of < or = 2500 g to 44.6 at a birth weight of 4200 g even after adjustment for gestational age and length at birth, maternal age and parity, and other variables. Above a birth weight of 4200 g the test score decreased slightly. CONCLUSION: Birth weight is associated with cognitive performance in young adult life. Interference with fetal growth may influence adult cognitive performance. PMID:9277604

  6. Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2010-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier. PMID:20739029

  7. Paternal factors to the offspring birth weight: the 829 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cuifang; Huang, Tingting; Cui, Fangfang; Gao, Mengting; Song, Lifang; Wang, Suqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contributions of parental, especially paternal factors to the offspring birth weight. Methods: Eligible 829 live-born, singleton children living in Hubei, China were recruited. Birth weight were measured immediately after birth and information about the parents were collected by face-to-face interview using questionnaire. Association between parental factors and birth weight was evaluated using univariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Fathers living in the rural area had offspring with higher risk of low birth weight when compared with fathers who live in the capital city. Maternal lower education, lower gestational weight gain, being primipara and shorter gestational age were risk factors for low birth weight. In addition, Mothers with the history of chronic disease had higher risk to deliver a low birth weight baby. On the contrary, women who increased non-staple food consumption during pregnancy had higher risk to have a macrosomic pregnancy. However, lifestyle factors including diet, exercise, screen time, drinking and smoking from both maternal and paternal exhibited little influence on fetal birth weight. Conclusion: Paternal as well as maternal factors exert influence on the fetal birth weight, although maternal factors make bigger contributions. Compared with socioeconomic and obstetric factors, lifestyle before and during pregnancy has less influence on fetal birth weight, suggested that special attention should be paid to antenatal care for the pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status in rural area. PMID:26379952

  8. Birth Weights in Sickle Cell Disease Pregnancies: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan E.; Macleod, David

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been linked with an increased incidence of adverse foetal outcomes when compared to women without haemoglobinopathies (HbAA). There’s a paucity of data into foetal outcomes for infants born to women with SCD. Customised growth charts have been demonstrated to be better than population-based growth charts at identifying unhealthy small babies. We analysed the mean birth weight and customised birth weight centiles of infants born to mothers with SCD versus mothers with HbAA genotype, to quantify the risk of having a smaller baby. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were analysed for 88 women with SCD (50 HbSS; 38 HbSC) and 176 controls (HbAA). Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean birth weight (P value = 0.004) and the mean birth weight centiles (P value = 0.016). We conclude that SCD is a risk factor for having a smaller baby. PMID:27776167

  9. Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution, Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content, and Birth Weight in the INMA (Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (Belgium) Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Diana B.P.; Casas, Maribel; Vilahur, Nadia; Begiristain, Haizea; Bustamante, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fierens, Frans; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Iñiguez, Carmen; Janssen, Bram G.; Lefebvre, Wouter; Llop, Sabrina; Olea, Nicolás; Pedersen, Marie; Pieters, Nicky; Santa Marina, Loreto; Souto, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction. Objective: We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and birth weight. Methods: We used data from two independent European cohorts: INMA (n = 376; Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (n = 550; Belgium). Relative placental mtDNA content was determined as the ratio of two mitochondrial genes (MT-ND1 and MTF3212/R3319) to two control genes (RPLP0 and ACTB). Effect estimates for individual cohorts and the pooled data set were calculated using multiple linear regression and mixed models. We also performed a mediation analysis. Results: Pooled estimates indicated that a 10-μg/m3 increment in average NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a 4.9% decrease in placental mtDNA content (95% CI: –9.3, –0.3%) and a 48-g decrease (95% CI: –87, –9 g) in birth weight. However, the association with birth weight was significant for INMA (–66 g; 95% CI: –111, –23 g) but not for ENVIRONAGE (–20 g; 95% CI: –101, 62 g). Placental mtDNA content was associated with significantly higher mean birth weight (pooled analysis, interquartile range increase: 140 g; 95% CI: 43, 237 g). Mediation analysis estimates, which were derived for the INMA cohort only, suggested that 10% (95% CI: 6.6, 13.0 g) of the association between prenatal NO2 and birth weight was mediated by changes in placental mtDNA content. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mtDNA content can be one of the potential mediators of the association between prenatal air pollution exposure and birth weight. Citation: Clemente DB, Casas M, Vilahur N, Begiristain H, Bustamante M, Carsin AE, Fernández MF, Fierens F, Gyselaers W, Iñiguez C, Janssen BG

  10. Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Maternal Serum and Indices of Fetal Growth: The Aarhus Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregård; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated an association between intrauterine exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and lower birth weight. However, these perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have to some extent been substituted by other compounds on which little is known. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific PFAAs and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth. Methods: We studied 1,507 mothers and their children from the Aarhus Birth Cohort (2008–2013). Nulliparous women were included during pregnancy, and serum levels of 16 PFAAs were measured between 9 and 20 completed gestational weeks (96% within 13 weeks). For compounds with quantifiable values in > 50% of samples (7 compounds), we report the associations with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth determined by multivariable linear regression. Results: Estimated mean birth weights were lower among women with serum perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluoroheptane sulfonate, and PFOS concentrations above the lowest exposure quartile, but we found no consistent monotonic dose–response patterns. These associations were stronger when the population was restricted to term births (n = 1,426). For PFOS, the birth weight estimates for the highest versus lowest quartile were –50 g (95% CI: –123, 23 g) in all births and –62 g (95% CI: –126, 3 g) in term births. For the other PFAAs, the direction of the associations was inconsistent, and no overall association with birth weight was apparent. No PFAAs were associated with birth length or head circumference at birth. Conclusions: Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between PFAAs and birth weight or other indices of fetal growth, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those with exposures above the lowest quartile for some compounds. Citation: Bach CC, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Olsen J, Matthiesen NB, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC, Bossi R, Henriksen TB

  11. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples.

  12. Body height, birth cohort and social background in Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Rahkonen, O

    2001-06-01

    Poor childhood living conditions are associated with short stature. Before the Second World War Finland had much lower living standards than Sweden, but this gap had largely disappeared by the 1970s. Body height differences were examined by birth cohort, economic difficulties in childhood and adult socioeconomic position in Finland and Sweden. Two nationally representative data sets were used (n = 7,300 in Finland and n = 4,551 in Sweden). Three indicators of social background were included, i.e. economic difficulties in childhood, education and occupational class. The methods used were direct age-standardisation, index of dissimilarity and regression analysis. In the cohort born in 1920-1929 body height was taller in Sweden (175.8 cm among men and 163.7 cm among women) than in Finland (173.9 and 161.2 cm respectively). Body height by birth cohort increased faster in Finland, with the result that, in the cohort born in 1960-1969, the gap between the countries had narrowed to 0.8 cm among men and 0.3 cm among women. Body height differences by social background were larger in Finland than in Sweden. Socioeconomic body height differences have remained largely stable over the birth cohorts in both countries. The results suggest that differential economic development is partly seen in the narrowing of body height differences between Finland and Sweden. However, socioeconomic differences in body height have remained largely similar over the birth cohorts studied and between Finland and Sweden.

  13. Brighter children? The association between seasonality of birth and child IQ in a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grootendorst-van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Objective Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and biological factors in the association between season of birth and child IQ. Design In a prenatally recruited birth cohort (born in 2002–2006), we examined the association between season of birth and non-verbal IQ at age 6 years among 6034 children. We explored how adjusting for socioeconomic status and maternal IQ, childbirth outcomes, pregnancy vitamin D status, nutritional intake, exposure to infections, and child age relative to peers in class changed the relation between season of birth and child IQ. Results We found that spring birth was associated with lower non-verbal IQ (estimate: more than 1 point; β−1.24 (95% CI −2.31 to −0.17), p=0.02; seasonal trend β−0.40 (95% CI −0.74 to −0.07), p=0.02) than birth in summer. Adjustment for different covariates led to a substantial reduction (−65.0% change, in a seasonal trend analysis) of this association. In particular, sociodemographic factors and maternal IQ (−10.0% and −22.5% change, respectively) contributed. Conclusions Season of birth is an indicator of many underlying factors related to child IQ. The observed effects on IQ were small and therefore not of clinical significance. PMID:28213594

  14. Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yutong; Shaheen, Seif O; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Hansell, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    Findings from previous studies investigating the relationship between birth weight and adult lung function have been inconsistent, and data on birth weight and adult lung function decline are lacking. Few studies have investigated the relation between early childhood growth and adult lung function. FEV1 and FVC were measured at ages 43 years, 53 years and 60-64 years in the 1946 British birth cohort study. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to study associations with birth weight and weight gain at age 0-2 years. Multilevel models assessed how associations changed with age, with FEV1 and FVC as repeated outcomes. 3276 and 3249 participants were included in FEV1 and FVC analyses, respectively. In women, there was a decreasing association between birth weight and FVC with age. From the multilevel model, for every 1 kg higher birth weight, FVC was higher on average by 66.3 mL (95% CI 0.5 to 132) at 43 years, but significance was lost at 53 years and 60-64 years. Similar associations were seen with FEV1, but linear change (decline) from age 43 years lost statistical significance after full adjustment. In men, associations with birth weight were null in multilevel models. Higher early life weight gain was associated with higher FEV1 at age 43 years in men and women combined but not in each sex. Birth weight is positively associated with adult lung function in middle age, particularly in women, but the association diminishes with age, potentially due to accumulating environmental influences over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Occupational Lifting, Fetal Death and Preterm Birth: Findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort Using a Job Exposure Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). Methods For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. Results We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200 kg per day. These findings correspond to an excess fraction of 11% for stillbirth and 10% for preterm birth. Conclusion We found an increased risk of stillbirth among women with a prior fetal death, who lifted >200 kg/day, and an exposure-response relationship between occupational lifting and preterm birth among primigravid women. The study adds to a large body of prospective studies on occupational lifting and adverse pregnancy outcomes by refined exposure assessment. PMID:24614129

  16. Birth Outcomes in a Prospective Pregnancy–Birth Cohort Study of Environmental Risk Factors in Kuwait: The TRACER Study

    PubMed Central

    AlSeaidan, Mohammad; Al Wotayan, Rihab; Christophi, Costas A.; Al-Makhseed, Massouma; Awad, Yara Abu; Nassan, Feiby; Ahmed, Ayah; Abraham, Smitha; Boley, Robert Bruce; James-Todd, Tamarra; Wright, Rosalind J.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid development and westernisation in Kuwait and other Gulf states have been accompanied by rising rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other chronic conditions. Prenatal experiences and exposures may be important targets for intervention. We undertook a prospective pregnancy–birth cohort study in Kuwait, the TRansgenerational Assessment of Children’s Environmental Risk (TRACER) Study, to examine prenatal risk factors for early childhood obesity. This article describes the methodology and results of follow-up through birth. Methods Women were recruited at antenatal clinical visits. Interviewers administered questionnaires during the pregnancy and collected and banked biological samples. Children are being followed up with quarterly maternal interviews, annual anthropometric measurements, and periodic collection of biosamples. Frequencies of birth outcomes (i.e. stillbirth, preterm birth, small and large for gestational age, and macrosomia) were calculated as a function of maternal characteristics and behaviours. Results Two thousand four hundred seventy-eight women were enrolled, and 2254 women were followed to delivery. Overall, frequencies of stillbirth (0.6%), preterm birth (9.3%), and small for gestational age (7.4%) were comparable to other developed countries, but not strongly associated with maternal characteristics or behaviours. Macrosomia (6.1%) and large for gestational age (23.0%) were higher than expected and positively associated with pre-pregnancy maternal overweight/obesity. Conclusions A large birth cohort has been established in Kuwait. The collected risk factors and banked biosamples will allow examination of the effects of prenatal exposures on the development of chronic disease in children. Initial results suggest that maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be targeted to prevent macrosomia and its associated sequelae of childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:27193754

  17. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth: findings from the Danish National Birth Cohort using a job exposure matrix.

    PubMed

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200 kg per day. These findings correspond to an excess fraction of 11% for stillbirth and 10% for preterm birth. We found an increased risk of stillbirth among women with a prior fetal death, who lifted >200 kg/day, and an exposure-response relationship between occupational lifting and preterm birth among primigravid women. The study adds to a large body of prospective studies on occupational lifting and adverse pregnancy outcomes by refined exposure assessment.

  18. [A systematic review of epidemiological cohort studies based on the Italian Medical Birth Register. Is it time to think of a multicentric birth cohort?

    PubMed

    Canova, Cristina; Pitter, Gisella; Schifano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    birth cohorts are a necessary tool for the study of the effects of exposures which can occur during pregnancy and early life on the development and health status in paediatric and adult life. The Italian Medical Birth Register (CeDAP), linked with other health administrative data, allows to build population based births cohorts to be followed over time. to sistematically review all published scientific papers using data extracted from the (CeDAP) in order to give a picture of their current use for epidemiological aims; to describe advantages and limits of these data and possible future developments for epidemiological purposes. a systematic review was conducted using PubMed, identifying all peer-reviewed research papers in English or Italian published by November 2015, by combining of free text and MeSH terms, where available. Features of included papers have been double checked and possible disagreements have been discussed to reach consensus. the research strategy found 720 papers, 35 of which fulfilling the required criteria. Only few Italian regions used CeDAP data for epidemiological studies, particularly Lazio and Umbria (Central Italy) and Emilia-Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy). About half of the included papers were analytical, while the others were descriptive. Occurrence of caesarean deliveries and the prevalence of malformations were the most recurrent topics. Almost all papers used only data at delivery, whereas 5 papers used a longitudinal design with follow-up after birth. the Italian CeDAP registry is an important source of information for epidemiological research and its use for both aetiological aims and health services assessment should be enhanced. Furthermore, its characteristics, in particular its homogeneity among all Italian regions, might allow to create a multiregional birth cohort to be regularly followed up.

  19. Interpregnancy interval after live birth or pregnancy termination and estimated risk of preterm birth: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shachar, B Z; Mayo, J A; Lyell, D J; Baer, R J; Jeliffe-Pawlowski, L L; Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M

    2016-11-01

    We assessed whether interpregnancy interval (IPI) length after live birth and after pregnancy termination was associated with preterm birth (PTB). Multiyear birth cohort. Fetal death, birth and infant death certificates in California merged with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. One million California live births (2007-10) after live birth and after pregnancy termination. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of PTB of 20-36 weeks of gestation and its subcategories for IPIs after a live birth and after a pregnancy termination. We used conditional logistic regression (two IPIs/mother) to investigate associations within mothers. PTB relative to gestations of ≥ 37 weeks. Analyses included 971 211 women with IPI after live birth, and 138 405 women with IPI after pregnancy termination with 30.6% and 74.6% having intervals of <18 months, respectively. IPIs of <6 months or 6-11 months after live birth showed increased odds of PTB adjusted ORs for PTB of 1.71 (95% CI 1.65-1.78) and 1.20 (95% CI 1.16-1.24), respectively compared with intervals of 18-23 months. An IPI >36 months (versus 18-23 months) was associated with increased odds for PTB. Short IPI after pregnancy termination showed a decreased OR of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.94). The within-mother analysis showed the association of increased odds of PTB for short IPI, but not for long IPI. Women with IPI <1 or >3 years after a live birth were at increased odds of PTB-an important group for intervention to reduce PTB. Short IPI after pregnancy termination was associated with reduced odds for PTB and needs to be further explored. Short and long IPI after live birth, but not after pregnancy termination, showed increased odds for PTB. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  1. Isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in cord serum and birth outcomes in China: Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Sauvé, Sébastien; Paul, Gunther; Lin, Shao; Lu, Long; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zhou, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Di; Xu, Shu-Li; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Xiao, Xiang; Fu, Chuanxi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-03-12

    Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are mixed. Moreover, little research has accrued pertaining to the association between isomers of PFASs with gestational age and birth weight. To address this gap and present novel information, we conducted a study including 321 pairs of mothers and their infants recruited from Guangzhou, China. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) along with other PFAS levels in cord serum samples. Mothers' and infants' characteristics were gathered from medical records. The resulting data revealed that higher PFOS, PFOA and isomers of PFOS were associated with lower birth weight. Per ln-unit (ng/mL) increase in cord serum total branched PFOS isomers was associated with a 126.3g (95% CI: -195.9, -56.8) reduction in the weight of infants at birth, while an ln-unit (ng/mL) increase of serum linear PFOS isomers (n-PFOS) was associated with a 57.2g (95% CI: -103.1, -11.3) reduction in the weight of infants at birth upon the subsequent adjustment for potential confounding variables. Notably, the association between cord PFAS level and birth weight was more pronounced in male infants. Furthermore, a positive association among branched PFOS isomers (1m-PFOS and 3+4+5m-PFOS) and gestational age was found. No associations could be found among other PFASs in conjunction with gestational age or birth weight. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that higher PFAS concentrations are associated with lower birth weight, and branched PFOS isomers show greater impact on infant birth weight than linear PFOS.

  2. Birth size and childhood growth as determinants of physical functioning in older age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna; Salonen, Minna K; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-12-15

    The study reports on the associations of infant and childhood anthropometric measurements, early growth, and the combined effect of birth weight and childhood body mass index with older age physical functioning among 1,999 individuals born in 1934-1944 and belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Physical functioning was assessed by the Short Form 36 scale. Anthropometric data from infancy and childhood were retrieved from medical records. The risk of lower Short Form 36 physical functioning at the mean age of 61.6 years was increased for those with birth weight less than 2.5 kg compared with those weighing 3.0-3.5 kg at birth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 4.72). The gain in weight from birth to age 2 years was associated with decreased risk of lower physical functioning for a 1-standard deviation increase (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.94). The risk of lower physical functioning was highest for individuals with birth weight in the lowest third and body mass index at 11 years of age in the highest third compared with those whose birth weight was in the middle third and body mass index at age 11 years was in the highest third (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.83, 5.19). The increasing prevalence of obesity at all ages and the aging of populations warrant closer investigation of the role of weight trajectories in old age functional decline.

  3. Maternal tobacco use and extremely premature birth - a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, S; Gunnerbeck, A; Wikström, A-K; Cnattingius, S; Edstedt Bonamy, A-K

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal tobacco use (smoking or use of snuff) and risk of extremely preterm birth, and if tobacco cessation before antenatal booking influences this risk. To study the association between tobacco use and spontaneous or medically indicated onset of delivery. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. All live singleton births, registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1999-2012. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks of gestation), very preterm birth (28-31 weeks), moderately preterm birth (32-36 weeks). Maternal snuff use (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.14-2.21) and smoking (OR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39-1.87 and OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.53-2.39 for moderate and heavy smoking, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of extremely preterm birth. When cessation of tobacco use was obtained there was no increased risk of preterm birth. Snuff use was associated with a twofold risk increase of medically indicated extremely preterm birth, whereas smoking was associated with increased risks of both medically indicated and spontaneous extremely preterm birth. Snuff use and smoking in pregnancy were associated with increased risks of extremely preterm birth. Women who stopped using tobacco before the antenatal booking had no increased risk. These findings indicate that nicotine, the common substance in cigarettes and snuff, is involved in the mechanisms behind preterm birth. The use of nicotine should be minimized in pregnancy. Tobacco use increases risk of extremely preterm birth. Cessation is preventive. Avoid nicotine in pregnancy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Increasing the quality of life from womb to grave: the importance of pregnancy and birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Leung, Brenda M; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Field, Catherine J; Bernier, Francois P; Tough, Suzanne; Cui, Xinjie; Dewey, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics is revealing how "nature is nurtured", with environmental factors such as nutrition, environmental neurotoxicants, and psychological stress influencing DNA expression. In this current opinion paper, we argue that understanding the dynamic interplay between the genome acquired at conception and environmental exposures throughout life requires pregnancy and birth cohorts, and that greater Canadian national commitment to the infrastructure needed for sustaining such cohorts is warranted. We present a framework that is now being implemented in Alberta.

  5. Associations of anthropometry since birth with sagittal posture at age 7 in a prospective birth cohort: the Generation XXI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Raquel; Simpkin, Andrew J; Heron, Jon; Alegrete, Nuno; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D; Barros, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Adult sagittal posture is established during childhood and adolescence. A flattened or hypercurved spine is associated with poorer musculoskeletal health in adulthood. Although anthropometry from birth onwards is expected to be a key influence on sagittal posture design, this has never been assessed during childhood. Our aim was to estimate the association between body size throughout childhood with sagittal postural patterns at age 7. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants A subsample of 1029 girls and 1101 boys taking part in the 7-year-old follow-up of the birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal) was included. We assessed the associations between anthropometric measurements (weight, height and body mass index) at birth, 4 and 7 years of age and postural patterns at age 7. Postural patterns were defined using latent profile analysis, a probabilistic model-based technique which allows for simultaneously including anthropometrics as predictors of latent profiles by means of logistic regression. Results Postural patterns identified were sway, flat and "neutral to hyperlordotic"in girls, and "sway to neutral", flat and hyperlordotic in boys; with flat and hyperlordotic postures representing a straightened and a rounded spine, respectively. In both girls and boys, higher weight was associated with lower odds of a flat pattern compared with a sway/"sway to neutral"pattern, with stronger associations at older ages: for example, ORs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88) per SD increase in birth weight and 0.36 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.68) per SD increase in weight at age 7 in girls, with similar findings in boys. Boys with higher ponderal index at birth were more frequently assigned to the hyperlordotic pattern (OR=1.44 per SD; p=0.043). Conclusions Our findings support a prospective sculpting role of body size and therefore of load on musculoskeletal spinopelvic structures, with stronger associations as children get older. PMID:28751482

  6. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  7. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  8. Geographic Distribution of Autism in California: A Retrospective Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Karla C; Christiansen, Lasse E; Delwiche, Lora D; Azari, Rahman; Carpenter, Tim E; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal environmental exposures are among the risk factors being explored for associations with autism. We applied a new procedure combining multiple scan cluster detection tests to identify geographically defined areas of increased autism incidence. This procedure can serve as a first hypothesis-generating step aimed at localized environmental exposures, but would not be useful for assessing widely distributed exposures, such as household products, nor for exposures from non-point sources, such as traffic. Geocoded mothers' residences on 2,453,717 California birth records, 1996–2000, were analyzed including 9,900 autism cases recorded in the California Department of Developmental Services (DDS) database through February 2006 which were matched to their corresponding birth records. We analyzed each of the 21 DDS Regional Center (RC) catchment areas separately because of wide variation in diagnostic practices. Ten clusters of increased autism risk were identified in eight RC regions, and one potential cluster in each of two other RC regions. After determination of clusters, multiple mixed Poisson regression models were fit to assess differences in known demographic autism risk factors between births within and outside areas of elevated autism incidence, independent of case status. Adjusted for other covariates, the majority of areas of autism clustering were characterized by high parental education, e.g., relative risks >4 for collegegraduate versus non-high school graduate parents. This geographic association possibly occurs because RCs do not actively conduct case finding and parents with lower education are, for various reasons, less likely to successfully seek services. PMID:20049980

  9. Women's birth expectations, are they fulfilled? Findings from a longitudinal Swedish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2015-06-01

    The importance of women's expectations on the experience of birth has shown contradictory results regarding fulfilment. The aim of this study was to describe pregnant women's expectations of birth and to investigate if these expectations were fulfilled. An additional aim was to determine if unfulfilled expectations were related to the mode of birth, use of epidural and the birth experience. This research investigated a prospective regional cohort study of 1042 Swedish-speaking women who completed a questionnaire about birth expectations in late pregnancy and were followed up with two months after birth. Five areas were under study: support from partner, support from midwife, control, participation in decision making and the midwife's presence during labour and birth. An index combining expectations and experiences was created. Certain background characteristics were associated with expectations as well as experiences. Statistically significant differences were shown between expectations and experiences in support from midwife (mean 3.41 vs 3.32), support from partner (mean 3.70 vs 3.77), and midwife's presence (mean 3.00 vs 3.39). Experiences 'worse than expected' regarding decision making and control were associated with modes of birth other than vaginal and four out of five areas were associated with a less positive birth experience. Some women had high birth expectations of which some were fulfilled. An expectation on support from the midwife was less likely to be achieved, while support from partner and the midwives' presence were fulfilled. If the woman's expectations were not fulfilled, e.g. became 'worse than expected' this was associated with a less positive overall birth experience as well as with instrumental or surgical mode of birth. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors influencing enrollment: a case study from Birth to Twenty, the 1990 birth cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda M; Panday, Saadhna; Norris, Shane A

    2009-08-01

    Longitudinal studies offer significant advantages in rendering data commensurate with the complexity of human development. However, incomplete enrollment and attrition over time can introduce bias. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of evaluative information on cohorts in developing countries. This paper documents various strategies adopted to minimize loss to follow up and describes a retrospective analysis of a small group of families who were missed during initial enrollment and through several subsequent rounds of data collection of the Birth to Twenty (BT20) birth cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa that began in 1990. A purposive case study approach was used, and 10 of the 119 families missed at enrollment were interviewed to investigate why these families were not enrolled into the study. The findings demonstrate that high mobility, both within urban areas and between urban and rural areas, are a major challenge for longitudinal studies in densely populated urban areas. In addition, enrollment was also affected by individuals changing their names, largely motivated to facilitate access to employment under Apartheid, as well as varying motivations for participating in research. Longitudinal studies in the developing country context must be mindful of the political, social and economic climate that influences enrollment and ongoing cohort maintenance.

  11. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  12. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  13. Genotype × Cohort Interaction on Completed Fertility and Age at First Birth

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Microevolutionary projections use empirical estimates of genetic covariation between physical or psychological phenotypes and reproductive success to forecast changes in the population distributions of those phenotypes over time. The validity of these projections depends on relatively consistent heritabilities of fertility-relevant outcomes and consistent genetic covariation between fertility and other physical or psychological phenotypes across generations. However, well-documented, rapidly changing mean trends in the level and timing of fertility may have been accompanied by differences in the genetic mechanisms of fertility. Using a sample of 933 adult twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the United States study, we demonstrate that genetic influences on completed fertility and age at first birth were trivial for the 1920 to 1935 birth cohort, but rose substantially for the 1936 to 1955 birth cohort. For the 1956 to 1970 birth cohort, genetic influences on completed fertility, but not age at first birth, persisted. Because the heritability of fertility is subject to change dynamically with the social context, it is difficult to project selection pressures or the rate at which selection will occur. PMID:25491394

  14. Genotype × cohort interaction on completed fertility and age at first birth.

    PubMed

    Briley, Daniel A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Microevolutionary projections use empirical estimates of genetic covariation between physical or psychological phenotypes and reproductive success to forecast changes in the population distributions of those phenotypes over time. The validity of these projections depends on relatively consistent heritabilities of fertility-relevant outcomes and consistent genetic covariation between fertility and other physical or psychological phenotypes across generations. However, well-documented, rapidly changing mean trends in the level and timing of fertility may have been accompanied by differences in the genetic mechanisms of fertility. Using a sample of 933 adult twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the United States study, we demonstrate that genetic influences on completed fertility and age at first birth were trivial for the 1920-1935 birth cohort, but rose substantially for the 1936-1955 birth cohort. For the 1956-1970 birth cohort, genetic influences on completed fertility, but not age at first birth, persisted. Because the heritability of fertility is subject to change dynamically with the social context, it is difficult to project selection pressures or the rate at which selection will occur.

  15. Fetal growth restriction and 18-year growth and nutritional status: Aboriginal birth cohort 1987-2007.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Mott, Susan; Singh, Gurmeet

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to compare the growth and nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal term infants born with (n = 81) and without fetal growth restriction (n = 260). A prospective birth cohort study of 341 Aboriginal babies from the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia was recruited at birth (1987-1990) and re-examined at a mean age of 18.3 years (2006-2008) for outcome measures of growth and nutrition status. Those with growth restriction at birth were 3 cm shorter (P = 0.0026) and 9 kg lighter (P = 0.0001) with head circumferences 0.95 cm smaller (P = 0.0008) than those without growth restriction. The proportions of growth restricted participants with body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) were significantly greater (P = 0.028), and those with BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and with fat percentage >85th percentile were significantly smaller (P = 0.012 and 0.004, respectively). In this cohort, those Aboriginal babies born smaller and lighter have remained smaller and lighter at 18 years of age. However, the highest risk of later chronic noncommunicable disease has been reported in subjects who were born small and become relatively larger in later life. The continued study of this Aboriginal birth cohort will give us an opportunity to determine if and when in later life the effects of birth weight are modified by environmental nutritional factors.

  16. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  17. Birth Cohort Change in the Vocational Interests of Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubany, Shawn T.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which vocational interests have changed across birth cohorts of college students to better understand how socio-cultural factors may have an impact on career development. Using meta-analytic data collection methods, dissertations and journal articles presenting interests scores…

  18. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  19. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  20. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

  1. School Health Screening of a Birth Cohort: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; And Others

    1983-01-01

    School-age illnesses in Denmark, coded from information in 4,327 school health records, are reported for a perinatal cohort comprising 9,125 successive live births. Although characteristic somatic disorders continue to rise, problems of a psycho-social nature dominate. Findings suggest that the school health service should be adapted towards…

  2. A Birth Cohort Study: Conceptual and Design Considerations and Rationale. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Richter, Kerry; Halle, Tamara; Le Menestrel, Suzanne; Zaslow, Martha; Greene, Angela Dungee; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela; Bridges, Lisa

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 2000 (ECLS-B) is a study that will assess children's health status and their growth and development in domains that are critical for later school readiness and academic achievement. This paper is one of several that have been prepared in support of ECLS-B design efforts. It is anticipated that…

  3. Epidemiology of Infantile Autism in Southern Ibaraki, Japan: Differences in Prevalence in Birth Cohorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanoue, Yoko; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on an observational study of children (ages 3-7) screened at a child guidance center in Japan, the prevalence rate of infantile autism in each one-year birth cohort (1972-1978) fluctuated in a four-year cycle which was closely correlated with the number of children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract diseases. (JW)

  4. Birth Cohort Change in the Vocational Interests of Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubany, Shawn T.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which vocational interests have changed across birth cohorts of college students to better understand how socio-cultural factors may have an impact on career development. Using meta-analytic data collection methods, dissertations and journal articles presenting interests scores…

  5. Vision and Intelligence at Age 83 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ross D.; Allerhand, Michael; Patton, Niall; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which visual function, measured as near and distant visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, is correlated with concurrently measured cognitive function and prior intellectual ability was investigated in a narrow age range group known as the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 (LBC1921). Participants were aged approximately 83 years at the…

  6. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  7. School Health Screening of a Birth Cohort: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; And Others

    1983-01-01

    School-age illnesses in Denmark, coded from information in 4,327 school health records, are reported for a perinatal cohort comprising 9,125 successive live births. Although characteristic somatic disorders continue to rise, problems of a psycho-social nature dominate. Findings suggest that the school health service should be adapted towards…

  8. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

  9. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  10. Social Outcomes in Adulthood of Children with Intellectual Impairment: Evidence from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, I.; Strydom, A.; Richards, M.; Hardy, R.; Bernal, J.; Wadsworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Social policy for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) continues to evolve, but little is known about the lives to which such policies are applied. We aimed to use a prospective follow-up of a British birth cohort to identify children with mild and more severe intellectual impairment, and compare a range of social outcomes in adulthood with…

  11. Maternal age and adverse perinatal outcomes in a birth cohort (BRISA) from a Northeastern Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Figuerêdo, Eduardo Durans; Lamy Filho, Fernando; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2014-12-01

    To verify the existence of associations between different maternal ages and the perinatal outcomes of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction in the city of São Luís, Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional study using a sample of 5,063 hospital births was conducted in São Luís, from January to December 2010. The participants comprise the birth cohort for the study "Etiological factors of preterm birth and consequences of perinatal factors for infant health: birth cohorts from two Brazilian cities" (BRISA). Frequencies and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the results. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of maternal age associated with the following outcomes: preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. The percentage of early teenage pregnancy (12-15 years old) was 2.2%, and of late (16-19 years old) was 16.4%, while pregnancy at an advanced maternal age (>35 years) was 5.9%. Multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant increase in preterm births among females aged 12-15 years old (OR=1.6; p=0.04) compared with those aged 20-35 years. There was also a higher rate in preterm births among females aged 16-19 years old (OR=1.3; p=0.01). Among those with advanced maternal age (>35 years old), the increase in the prevalence of preterm birth had only borderline statistical significance (OR=1.4; p=0.05). There was no statistically significant association between maternal age and increased prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction.

  12. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  13. Biological determinants of spontaneous late preterm and early term birth: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brown, H K; Speechley, K N; Macnab, J; Natale, R; Campbell, M K

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between biological determinants of preterm birth (infection and inflammation, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia, diabetes mellitus, other) and spontaneous late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. Retrospective cohort study. City of London and Middlesex County, Canada. Singleton live births, delivered at 34-41 weeks to London-Middlesex mothers following spontaneous labour. Data were obtained from a city-wide perinatal database on births between 2002 and 2011 (n = 17,678). Multivariable analyses used multinomial logistic regression. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth, compared with full term birth (39-41 weeks). After controlling for covariates, there were associations between infection and inflammation and late preterm birth (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.65, 2.60); between placental ischaemia and other hypoxia and late preterm (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.88, 2.61) and early term (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.13, 1.39) birth; between diabetes mellitus and late preterm (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI 2.90, 5.21) and early term (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI 2.19, 3.23) birth; and between other biological determinants (polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios) and late preterm (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.70, 4.64) and early term (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.32, 2.70) birth. Our findings show that delivery following spontaneous labour even close to full term may be a result of pathological processes. Because these biological determinants of preterm birth contribute to an adverse intrauterine environment, they have important implications for fetal and neonatal health. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  16. Associations of maternal organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity with birth outcomes in SAWASDEE birth cohort, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Srinual, Niphan; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P. Barry; Riederer, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure has been reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of OP pesticides on human fetal development have not yet been elucidated. Our pilot study birth cohort, the Study of Asian Women and Offspring’s Development and Environmental Exposures (SAWASDEE cohort) aimed to evaluate environmental chemical exposures and their relation to birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment in 52 pregnant farmworkers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A large array of data was collected multiple times during pregnancy including approximately monthly urine samples for evaluation of pesticide exposure, three blood samples for pesticide-related enzyme measurements and questionnaire data. This study investigated the changes in maternal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and their relation to urinary diakylphosphates (DAPs), class-related metabolites of OP pesticides, during pregnancy. Maternal AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PON1 activities were measured three times during pregnancy and urinary DAP concentrations were measured, on average, 8 times from enrollment during pregnancy until delivery. Among the individuals in the group with low maternal PON1 activity (n = 23), newborn head circumference was negatively correlated with log10 maternal ΣDEAP and ΣDAP at enrollment (gestational age=12±3 weeks; β = −1.0 cm, p = 0.03 and β = −1.8 cm, p <0.01, respectively) and at 32 weeks pregnancy (β = −1.1 cm, p = 0.04 and β = −2.6 cm, p = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, among these mothers, newborn birthweight was also negatively associated with log10 maternal ΣDEAP and ΣDAP at enrollment (β = −219.7 g, p = 0.05 and β = −371.3 g, p = 0.02, respectively). Associations between maternal DAP levels and newborn outcomes were not observed in the group of participants with high maternal PON1 activity. Our results

  17. Associations of maternal organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity with birth outcomes in SAWASDEE birth cohort, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Srinual, Niphan; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Riederer, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure has been reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. However, the mechanisms of toxicity of OP pesticides on human fetal development have not yet been elucidated. Our pilot study birth cohort, the Study of Asian Women and Offspring's Development and Environmental Exposures (SAWASDEE cohort) aimed to evaluate environmental chemical exposures and their relation to birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment in 52 pregnant farmworkers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A large array of data was collected multiple times during pregnancy including approximately monthly urine samples for evaluation of pesticide exposure, three blood samples for pesticide-related enzyme measurements and questionnaire data. This study investigated the changes in maternal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities and their relation to urinary diakylphosphates (DAPs), class-related metabolites of OP pesticides, during pregnancy. Maternal AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PON1 activities were measured three times during pregnancy and urinary DAP concentrations were measured, on average, 8 times from enrollment during pregnancy until delivery. Among the individuals in the group with low maternal PON1 activity (n=23), newborn head circumference was negatively correlated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (gestational age=12±3 weeks; β=-1.0 cm, p=0.03 and β=-1.8 cm, p<0.01, respectively) and at 32 weeks pregnancy (β=-1.1cm, p=0.04 and β=-2.6 cm, p=0.01, respectively). Furthermore, among these mothers, newborn birthweight was also negatively associated with log10 maternal ∑DEAP and ∑DAP at enrollment (β=-219.7 g, p=0.05 and β=-371.3g, p=0.02, respectively). Associations between maternal DAP levels and newborn outcomes were not observed in the group of participants with high maternal PON1 activity. Our results support previous findings from US birth

  18. Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health - goals, challenges, limitations and needs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D

    2010-02-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of "why", "what" and "how" behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural "experiments" (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose-response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better evidence on the health

  19. Increasing Use of Nonmedical Analgesics Among Younger Cohorts in the United States: A Birth Cohort Effect

    PubMed Central

    Miech, Richard; Bohnert, Amy; Heard, Kennon; Boardman, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Nonmedical use of prescription pain drugs (hereafter ‘analgesics’) has increased substantially in recent years. It is not known whether today’s youth are disproportionately driving this increase or, instead, the trend is a general one that has affected cohorts of all ages similarly. To address this question we present the first age-period-cohort analysis of nonmedical use of analgesics. Methods Data come from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a series of annual, nationally-representative, cross-sectional surveys of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population. The analysis focuses on the years 1985 to 2009 and uses the recently developed ‘intrinsic estimator’ algorithm to disentangle age-period-cohort effects. Results Substantial increases in the prevalence of nonmedical analgesics use have occurred across all cohorts and ages in recent years, but this increase is significantly amplified among today’s adolescents. The odds of past-year, nonmedical analgesics use for today’s youngest cohort (born 1980–1994) are higher than would be expected on the basis of their age and broad, historical period influences that have increased use across people of all ages and cohorts. The independent influence of cohort on past-year, nonmedical analgesics use is about 40% higher for today’s youth cohort than any of the cohorts that came before them. This finding is present among men, women, non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. Conclusions Although nonmedical use of analgesics is evident among all ages, cohorts, and periods, today’s younger cohorts warrant special attention for substance abuse policies and interventions targeted at reversing the increase in nonmedical analgesics use. PMID:23260832

  20. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  1. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such

  2. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress.

    PubMed

    Joly, Marie-Pier; Boivin, Michel; Junker, Anne; Bocking, Alan; Kramer, Michael S; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2012-10-29

    A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants.Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such information provides a valuable

  3. A relative cohort size forecasting model of Canadian total live births.

    PubMed

    Ahlburg, D A

    1986-01-01

    Easterlin and Condran suggest that Canadian fertility is dictated by a relative cohort size (or relative income) model of fertility which points to a resurgence of fertility rather than a decline in the next 2 decades. Samuelson (1976) formalized Easterlin's model and shows that if the Easterlin effect is sufficiently strong, cycles in fertility will result. Ahlburg (1983) demonstrates that this model fits the US postwar fertility data very well and predicts the revival of fertility in the 1980s and 1990s. This model is applied to Canadian data as a check on Easterlin and Condran's earlier analysis and to determine whether the model also predicts a revival of Canadian fertility. According to the model, increases in the size of a birth cohort relative to preceding cohorts reduce that cohort's income relative to that of smaller cohorts and consequently reduce the fertility of the large cohort. In this manner, the size of a particular cohort is a function of the size of previous birth cohorts. The model assumes that immigration is zero, or, at least, relatively small. From the statistics, it does not appear that emigration or immigration was sufficiently large to alter significantly the age-structure of the Canadian population. Additionally, foreign-born women have much lower fertility than native-born women, particularly among postwar immigrants. Thus, the model outlined may be a useful approximation to the Canadian experience. Table 1 reports the results of estimating the model for Canadian data for the 1941-79 period. The results are consistent with the relative cohort size model that is outlined. The variables were correctly signed and significant at the 0.05 level in 1-tailed tests. The overall equation was significant at the 0.91 level. The forecasts with 20-year lags from the relative cohort model lie between the low and medium forecasts of Denton et al. until the end of this decade and between the medium and high forecast for the remainder of the 20th century

  4. Maternal tea consumption and the risk of preterm delivery in urban China: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Lerro, Catherine; Yang, Tao; Li, Jing; Qiu, Jie; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Cui, Hongmei; Lv, Ling; Xu, Ruifeng; Xu, Xiaoying; Huang, Huang; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-05-31

    Studies investigating the relationship between maternal tea drinking and risk of preterm birth have reached inconsistent results. The present study analyzed data from a birth cohort study including 10,179 women who delivered a singleton live birth were conducted in Lanzhou, China between 2010 and 2012. Drinking tea (OR = 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.09-1.69), and specifically green (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI: 1.08-1.85) or scented tea (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.50), was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Drinking tea was associated with both moderate preterm (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.79) and spontaneous preterm birth (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.09-1.83). Risk of preterm birth increased with decreasing age of starting tea drinking (<20 years, OR = 1.60, 95 % CI: 1.17-2.20) and increasing duration (p for trend < 0.01). The relationship between tea drinking and preterm birth is modified by both maternal age (p < 0.05) and gestational weight gain (p < 0.05). Despite conflicting findings in the previous literature, we saw a significant association with maternal tea drinking and risk of preterm birth in our cohort. More studies are needed both to confirm this finding and to elucidate the mechanism behind this association.

  5. Birth weight is not associated with risk of fracture: results from two Swedish cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Byberg, Liisa; Michaëlsson, Karl; Goodman, Anna; Zethelius, Björn; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-10-01

    Development and growth in utero has been suggested to influence bone health. However, the relationship with risk of fracture in old age is largely unknown. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we studied the association between birth weight and fractures at ages 50-94 among 10,893 men and women (48% women) from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study (UBCoS, born 1915-29) and 1334 men from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, born 1920-24). Measured birth weight was collected from hospital or midwives' records and fractures from the Swedish National Patient Register. We observed 2796 fractures (717 of these were hip fractures) in UBCoS and 335 fractures (102 hip fractures) in ULSAM. In UBCoS, the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 kg increase in birth weight, adjusted for sex and socioeconomic status at birth, was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.09] for any fracture and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.91-1.23) for hip fracture. Estimates in ULSAM were similar. We did not observe a differential association of birth weight with fractures occurring before age 70 or after age 70 years. Neither birth weight standardized for gestational age nor gestational duration was associated with fracture rate. In linear regression, birth weight was not associated with bone mineral density among 303 men who were 82-years-old in ULSAM but showed positive associations with total body bone mineral content (β per kg increase in birth weight, adjusted for social class and age, 133; 95% CI, 30-227). This association was attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index and height (β, 41; 95% CI, -43-126). We conclude that birth weight is associated with bone mineral content but this association does not translate into an association with risk of fracture in men and women aged 50-94 years.

  6. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C; Knudsen, Vibeke K; Gillman, Matthew W; Mikkelsen, Tina B; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-10-01

    Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet through questionnaires and on covariates through telephone interviews and ascertained birth outcomes through registry linkages. Findings were adjusted for mother's parity, age, height, prepregnant BMI, gestational weight gain, smoking status, and total energy intake; father's height; and family's socioeconomic status The analyses included data from 50,117 mother-infant pairs. Mean (+/-SD) consumption of milk was 3.1 +/- 2.0 glasses/d. Milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of small-for gestational age (SGA) birth and directly with both large-for-gestational age (LGA) birth and mean birth weight (P for trend < 0.001). In a comparison of women drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P < 0.001) for abdominal circumference (0.52 cm; 0.35, 0.69 cm), placental weight (26 g; 15, 38 g), birth length (increment: 0.31 cm; 0.15, 0.46 cm), and head circumference (0.13 cm; 0.04, 0.25 cm). Birth weight was related to intake of protein, but not of fat, derived from milk. Milk intake in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA.

  7. Neighbourhood deprivation and very preterm birth in an English and French cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social factors affect the risk of very preterm birth and may affect subsequent outcomes in those born preterm. We assessed the influence of neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics on the risk and outcomes of singleton very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation) in two European regions with different health systems. Methods Live births (n=1118) from a population-based cohort of very preterm infants in 2003 in Trent (UK) and Ile-de-France (France) regions were geocoded to their neighbourhood census tracts. Odds ratios for very preterm singleton birth by neighbourhood characteristics (unemployment rate, proportion manual workers, proportion with high school education only, non home ownership) were computed using infants enumerated in the census as a control population. The impact of neighbourhood variables was further assessed by pregnancy and delivery characteristics and short term infant outcomes. Results Risk of very preterm singleton birth was higher in more deprived neighbourhoods in both regions (OR between 2.5 and 1.5 in the most versus least deprived quartiles). No consistent associations were found between neighbourhood deprivation and maternal characteristics or health outcomes for very preterm births, although infants in more deprived neighbourhoods were less likely to be breastfed at discharge. Conclusions Neighbourhood deprivation had a strong consistent impact on the risk of singleton very preterm birth in two European regions, but did not appear to be associated with maternal characteristics or infant outcomes. Differences in breastfeeding at discharge suggest that socio-economic factors may affect long term outcomes. PMID:23617598

  8. Work-family life courses and BMI trajectories in three British birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, R E; Sacker, A; Bell, S; Kumari, M; Worts, D; McDonough, P; Kuh, D; McMunn, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Combining work and family responsibilities has previously been associated with improved health in mid-life, yet little is known about how these associations change over time (both biographical and historical) and whether this extends to body mass index (BMI) trajectories for British men and women. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between work-family life courses and BMI trajectories across adulthood (16–42 years) for men and women in three British birth cohorts. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Multiply imputed data from three nationally representative British birth cohorts were used—the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; 1946 birth cohort, n=3012), the National Child Development Study (NCDS; 1958 birth cohort, n=9614) and the British Cohort Study (BCS; 1970 birth cohort, n=8140). A typology of work-family life course types was developed using multi-channel sequence analysis, linking annual information on work, partnerships and parenthood from 16 to 42 years. Work-family life courses were related to BMI trajectories using multi-level growth models. Analyses adjusted for indicators of prior health, birthweight, child BMI, educational attainment and socioeconomic position across the life course, and were stratified by gender and cohort. RESULTS: Work-family life courses characterised by earlier transitions to parenthood and weaker long-term links to employment were associated with greater increases in BMI across adulthood. Some of these differences, particularly for work-family groups, which are becoming increasingly non-normative, became more pronounced across cohorts (for example, increases in BMI between 16 and 42 years in long-term homemaking women: NSHD: 4.35 kg m–2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.44, 5.26; NCDS: 5.53 kg m–2, 95% CI: 5.18, 5.88; BCS: 6.69 kg m–2, 95% CI: 6.36, 7.02). CONCLUSIONS: Becoming a parent earlier and weaker long-term ties to employment are associated with greater

  9. The Novel 10-Item Asthma Prediction Tool: External Validation in the German MAS Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grabenhenrich, Linus B.; Reich, Andreas; Fischer, Felix; Zepp, Fred; Forster, Johannes; Schuster, Antje; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Bergmann, Renate L.; Bergmann, Karl E.; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma. Objective We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort. Methods The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study) recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months) at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years. Results For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester) of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23) and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78). Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome ‘physicians’ diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89). Conclusion The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings. PMID:25536057

  10. Oocyte activation by calcium ionophore and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Netanella; Biron-Shental, Tal; Sukenik-Halevy, Rivka; Klement, Anat Hershko; Sharony, Reuven; Berkovitz, Arie

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the safety of oocyte activation by calcium ionophore in cases of failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure with respect to birth defects. A retrospective cohort of pregnancies achieved by oocyte activation with calcium ionophore after ICSI (ICSI-Ca) and routine ICSI between the years 2006 and 2014. Not applicable. The cohort included a total of 793 pregnancies: 66 (8%) were lost to follow up and 49 (6%) were ongoing pregnancies at the time of data collection. Out of the 678 available cases for analysis, 595 treatments were ICSI alone (88%) and 83 were ICSI-Ca (12%). None. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including birth defects were compared. On the basis of a cohort of 595 ICSI pregnancies and 83 ICSI-Ca pregnancies, we found no difference in birth defects rate for singletons or for twins. Additionally, no significant difference was found between defect type (chromosomal aberration or structural malformations) and malformation type (heart, urogenital, and limb), between the ICSI and ICSI-Ca groups. Moreover, no significant differences were found regarding birth weight, gestational week at time of delivery, and fetal gender for singleton or twin pregnancies. Ca ionophore oocyte activation should be considered as a legitimate option for cases of failed or low fertilization by ICSI. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Dieckmann, Marlowe Gates; Gottlieb, Laura; Chow, Jessica; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, “overweight/obesity”) according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models. Results The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood. Conclusions Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians) than previously reported. PMID:24950056

  12. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    PubMed Central

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Aaltonen, Sari; Heikkilä, Kauko; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Willemsen, Gonneke; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B; Goldberg, Jack H; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Rasmussen, Finn; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886–1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20320.001 PMID:27964777

  14. Pre-conceptional intake of folic acid supplements is inversely associated with risk of preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Guan, Yuhong; Zhao, Yimin; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xuejuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Meilong; Wu, Lingping; Zhu, Shanlin; Liu, Huijuan; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-02-14

    Associations of folic acid supplementation with risk of preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were unclear for the Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations in a large Chinese prospective cohort study: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. In the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 240 954 pregnant women visited local clinics or hospitals within their first trimester in Southeast China during 1999-2012. Information on anthropometric parameters, folic acid supplementation and other maternal characteristics were collected by in-person interviews during their first visit. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded during the follow-up of these participants. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of folic acid supplementation with pregnancy outcomes. The prevalence of folic acid supplementation was 24·9% in the cohort. The prevalence of PTB and SGA birth was 3·48 and 9·2%, respectively. Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with 8% lower risk of PTB (relative risk (RR) 0·92; 95% CI 0·85, 1·00; P=0·04) and 19% lower risk of SGA birth (RR 0·81; 95% CI 0·70, 0·95; P=0·008), compared with non-users. Higher frequency of pre-conceptional folic acid use was associated with lower risk of PTB (P trend=0·032) and SGA birth (P trend=0·046). No significant association between post-conceptional initiation of folic acid supplementation and either outcome was observed. In conclusion, the present study suggests an association between pre-conceptional, but not post-conceptional, folic acid supplementation and lower risk of PTB and SGA birth in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort. Further research in other cohorts of large sample size is needed to replicate these findings.

  15. Associations of anthropometry since birth with sagittal posture at age 7 in a prospective birth cohort: the Generation XXI Study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Fábio A; Lucas, Raquel; Simpkin, Andrew J; Heron, Jon; Alegrete, Nuno; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D; Barros, Henrique

    2017-07-26

    Adult sagittal posture is established during childhood and adolescence. A flattened or hypercurved spine is associated with poorer musculoskeletal health in adulthood. Although anthropometry from birth onwards is expected to be a key influence on sagittal posture design, this has never been assessed during childhood. Our aim was to estimate the association between body size throughout childhood with sagittal postural patterns at age 7. Prospective cohort study. A subsample of 1029 girls and 1101 boys taking part in the 7-year-old follow-up of the birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal) was included. We assessed the associations between anthropometric measurements (weight, height and body mass index) at birth, 4 and 7 years of age and postural patterns at age 7. Postural patterns were defined using latent profile analysis, a probabilistic model-based technique which allows for simultaneously including anthropometrics as predictors of latent profiles by means of logistic regression. Postural patterns identified were sway, flat and "neutral to hyperlordotic"in girls, and "sway to neutral", flat and hyperlordotic in boys; with flat and hyperlordotic postures representing a straightened and a rounded spine, respectively. In both girls and boys, higher weight was associated with lower odds of a flat pattern compared with a sway/"sway to neutral"pattern, with stronger associations at older ages: for example, ORs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88) per SD increase in birth weight and 0.36 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.68) per SD increase in weight at age 7 in girls, with similar findings in boys. Boys with higher ponderal index at birth were more frequently assigned to the hyperlordotic pattern (OR=1.44 per SD; p=0.043). Our findings support a prospective sculpting role of body size and therefore of load on musculoskeletal spinopelvic structures, with stronger associations as children get older. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  16. Chapter 2: Birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M; Dodd, Kevin W; Feuer, Eric J

    2012-07-01

    We present methods for estimating five-year birth-cohort-specific trends in smoking behavior for individuals born between 1910 and 1984. We combine cross-sectional survey data on smoking behavior from the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted between 1965 and 2001 into a single data set. The cumulative incidence of smoking by year of age and calendar year is constructed for each birth cohort from this data set and the effect of differential mortality on ever smoking prevalence is adjusted by modeling the ever smoking prevalence of each cohort for each survey year and back extrapolating that effect to age 30. Cumulative incidence is then scaled to match the ever smoking prevalence at age 30. Survival analyses generate the cumulative cessation among ever smokers across year of age and calendar year and are used to estimate current smoking prevalence. Data from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health is used to divide those initiating smoking into quintiles of number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the mean CPD for each quintile in each calendar year is estimated from the NHIS data. For five-year birth cohorts of white, african-american, Hispanic and all race/ethnicity groupings of males and females born between 1910 and 1984, estimates are provided for prevalence of current and ever smoking, incidence of cessation, incidence of initiation, and the distribution of smoking duration and CPD for each calendar year and each single year of age through the year 1999. We believe that we are the first to provide birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population that include distributions of duration of smoking and number of cigarettes per day. These additional elements substantively enhance the utility of these estimates for estimating lung cancer risks.

  17. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at <37 weeks gestational age was compared between the referent pregnancy (defined as normal pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, IPI of 12-24 months, and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended PWG) and those with short or long IPI, abnormal BMI (underweight, overweight, and obese), and high or low PWG (under or exceeding IOM recommendations). Results Only 6 % of the women in this study had a referent pregnancy, with a preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of <6 and 6-12 months were associated with increased rates of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adjOR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  18. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants by domestic water hardness and season of birth: Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Kristiane A; Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Melbye, Mads; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to be more common in regions with hard domestic water and in children with a fall/winter birth. However, it is unknown whether a synergistic effect exists. We sought to evaluate the association between domestic water hardness and season of birth, respectively, with onset of AD within the first 18 months of life in a large Danish birth cohort. Of children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, 52,950 were included. History of physician-diagnosed AD and population characteristics were obtained from interviews. Birth data were obtained from the Civil Registration System, and domestic water hardness data were obtained from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The relative prevalence (RP) of AD was calculated by using log-linear binomial regression. The prevalence of AD was 15.0% (7,942/52,950). The RP of AD was 5% (RPtrend, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) higher for each 5° increase in domestic water hardness (range, 6.60-35.90 German degrees of hardness [118-641 mg/L]). Although the RP of AD was higher in children with a fall (RP, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.31) or winter (RP, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25) birth, no significant interaction was observed with domestic water hardness. The population attributable risk of hard domestic water on AD was 2%. We observed that early exposure to hard domestic water and a fall/winter birth was associated with an increase in the relative prevalence of AD within the first 18 months of life. Although the 2 exposures did not interact synergistically, a dose-response relationship was observed between domestic water hardness and AD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Agarwal, Umber; Diggle, Peter J; Platt, Mary Jane; Yoxall, Bill; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2011-01-01

    Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors. Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks). In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8) in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9). Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4), and there was no significant relationship with deprivation. Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  20. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time.

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Vedar, Michelle G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Bradman, Asa; Rauh, Virginia A.; Yolton, Kimberly; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Perera, Frederica P.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are associated with reduced fetal growth in animals, but human studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We pooled data from four cohorts to examine associations of prenatal OP exposure with birth weight (n = 1,169), length (n = 1,152), and head circumference (n = 1,143). Methods: Data were from the CHAMACOS, HOME, Columbia, and Mount Sinai birth cohorts. Concentrations of three diethyl phosphate (ΣDEP) and three dimethyl phosphate (ΣDMP) metabolites of OP pesticides [summed to six dialkyl phosphates (ΣDAPs)] were measured in maternal urine. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to examine associations with birth outcomes. Results: We found no significant associations of ΣDEP, ΣDMP, or ΣDAPs with birth weight, length, or head circumference overall. However, among non-Hispanic black women, increasing urinary ΣDAP and ΣDMP concentrations were associated with decreased birth length (β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.0 and β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.0, respectively, for each 10-fold increase in metabolite concentration). Among infants with the PON1192RR genotype, ΣDAP and ΣDMP were negatively associated with length (β = –0.4 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.0 and β = –0.5 cm; 95% CI: –0.9, –0.1). Conclusions: This study confirms previously reported associations of prenatal OP exposure among black women with decreased infant size at birth, but finds no evidence of smaller birth weight, length, or head circumference among whites or Hispanics. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found stronger inverse associations of DAPs and birth outcome in infants with the less susceptible PON1192RR genotype. The large pooled data set facilitated exploration of interactions by race/ethnicity and PON1 genotype, but was limited by differences in study populations. Citation: Harley KG, Engel SM, Vedar MG, Eskenazi B, Whyatt RM, Lanphear BP, Bradman A, Rauh VA, Yolton K, Hornung RW, Wetmur JG, Chen J, Holland NT, Barr DB

  2. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  3. Maternal fish consumption and infant birth size and gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Buck, Germaine M; Tee, Grace P; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Vena, John E; Weiner, John M; Swanson, Mya; Msall, Michael E

    2003-06-02

    The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. 2,716 infants born between 1986-1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn) were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks), birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference) and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect). Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1-2, 3-7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams), birth length (in centimeters), and head and chest circumference (in centimeters) were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant determinants of birth size. The results support the

  4. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  5. Smaller kidney size at birth in South Asians: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Paul J; Jeffrey, Robin F; Yuen, Ho M; Godfrey, Keith M; West, Jane; Wright, John

    2016-03-01

    Rates of advanced chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are higher in South Asian than in white British populations. Low birth weight is also more frequent in South Asian populations and has been associated with increased risks of kidney disease, perhaps due to a reduced nephron endowment. Using ultrasound scans at 34 weeks of gestation, we measured fetal kidney dimensions (transverse and anteroposterior diameters, length and circumference) and derived volume in a random sample of 872 white British and 715 South Asian participants in the Born in Bradford cohort study. Kidney measurements were compared between ethnic groups. Birth weight for gestational age at 40 weeks was 200 g less in South Asian babies compared with white British babies. The mean kidney volume for gestational age was 16% lower in South Asian than in white British babies [8.79 versus 10.45 cm(3), difference 1.66 cm(3) (95% confidence interval 1.40-1.93, P < 0.001)]. The difference was robust after adjustment for maternal age, socio-economic factors, marital status, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use in pregnancy, parity, baby's gender and birth weight for gestational age [adjusted difference 1.38 cm(3) (0.97-1.84), P < 0.001]. There were smaller reductions in other fetal measures. South Asian babies have smaller kidneys compared with white British babies, even after adjusting for potential confounders including birth weight. This finding may contribute to increased risks of adult kidney disease in South Asian populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries.

    PubMed

    Trias-Llimós, Sergi; Bijlsma, Maarten J; Janssen, Fanny

    2017-02-01

    Understanding why inequalities in alcohol-related mortality trends by sex and country exist is essential for developing health policies. Birth cohort effects, indicative of differences by generation in drinking, have rarely been studied. This study estimated the relative contributions of birth cohorts to liver cirrhosis mortality trends and compared sex- and country-specific cohort patterns across eight European countries. Time-series analysis of population-level mortality data. Austria, Finland, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden; 1950-2011. National populations aged 15-94 years. We modelled country- and sex-specific liver cirrhosis mortality (from national vital registers) adjusting for age, period and birth cohort. Birth cohorts (adjusted for age and period) made statistically significant contributions to liver cirrhosis mortality in all countries and for both sexes (P < 0.001), and more so among women (average contribution to deviance reduction of 38.8%) than among men (17.4%). The observed cohort patterns were statistically different between all but two country pairs (P < 0.001). Sex differences existed overall (P < 0.001), but not in the majority of countries (P > 0.999). Visual inspection of birth cohort patterns reveals birth cohorts at higher risk of liver cirrhosis mortality. The inclusion of the birth cohort dimension improves the understanding of alcohol-attributable mortality trends in Europe. Birth cohorts at higher risk of liver cirrhosis mortality were born during 1935-49 in Sweden and Finland, around 1950 in Austria and the Netherlands and 1960 or later in Hungary, Italy, Poland and Spain. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  8. Determinants of infant growth: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Hui, L L; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lam, T H; Schooling, C Mary

    2010-11-01

    A high rate of infant growth may be associated with adult cardiovascular disease. We investigated factors associated with infant weight growth in a large sample from the recently transitioned population of Hong Kong. We used a nonlinear shape invariant model with random effects among 5949 term, singletons (77% follow-up) from a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" to investigate factors associated with weight growth in the first year of life. Overall birth weight was lower but infant growth was more rapid than the 2006 WHO standards. Shorter gestation and lower birth order were associated with lower birth weight and faster infant growth. Female sex, maternal smoking in pregnancy, and a mother born in Hong Kong were associated with lower birth weight, but not with faster growth. Higher maternal education was associated with faster infant growth, grades 10-11 (1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.05), greater than or equal to grade12 (1.07, CI = 1.04-1.09) compared with less than or equal to grade 9. Infant growth may respond more rapidly to socio-economic development than birth weight. Whether mother's education is associated with rapid infant growth via current conditions or her own "constitution" is unclear, nevertheless we believe this study illustrates the importance of contextually specific research for understanding the determinants of population health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Bresnahan, M; Begg, M D; Susser, E

    2001-08-11

    To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings. Cohort study of siblings of the same sex. 12 cities in the United States. 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was restricted to children born at >/=37 weeks gestation and with birth weights of 1500-3999 g. Full scale IQ at age 7 years. Mean IQ increased monotonically with birth weight in both sexes across the range of birth weight in a linear regression analysis of one randomly selected sibling per family (n= 1683) with adjustment for maternal age, race, education, socioeconomic status, and birth order. Within same sex sibling pairs, differences in birth weight were directly associated with differences in IQ in boys (812 pairs, predicted IQ difference per 100 g change in birth weight =0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.71) but not girls (871 pairs, 0.10, -0.09 to 0.30). The effect in boys remained after differences in birth order, maternal smoking, and head circumference were adjusted for and in an analysis restricted to children with birth weight >/= 2500 g. The increase in childhood IQ with birth weight continues well into the normal birth weight range. For boys this relation holds within same sex sibships and therefore cannot be explained by confounding from family social environment.

  10. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hershko-Klement, A; Sukenik-Halevy, R; Biron Shental, T; Miller, N; Berkovitz, A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to study the birth defect rates in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) pregnancies. A cohort of couples presenting male factor infertility between January 2006 and January 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Discharge letters and a telephone interview were performed for assessing pregnancy outcome. All clinical data were reviewed by a board certified medical geneticist. Main outcomes were fetal/birth defect and chromosomal abnormality rates. Two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pregnancies were available for analysis, of them, 1669 (73.9%) resulting from ICSI and 2258 (26.1%) achieved by IMSI. Pregnancy outcome distribution did not show a significant difference. For the fresh embryo transfer cohort, fetal/birth defect rate was 4.5%, chromosomal aberration rate was 1.0%, and structural malformation rate was 3.5%. IMSI vs. ICSI pregnancies were less likely to involve a fetal/birth defect: 3.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively, but did not reach a statistical significance OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.39-1.22). Split by multiplicity, this trend existed only for singleton pregnancies; 1.4% structural malformations rate vs. 3.8%, respectively, OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.11-0.9). The frozen cohort demonstrated a significantly lower birth defect rate (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.58). We conclude that IMSI procedure does not involve an increased malformation rate and may offer a reduced anomaly incidence. Further studies are required. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New Zealand. Methods The cohorts utilized various online/offline methods to recruit participants. Pregnant women who became aware volunteered, completed an online questionnaire, thus obtaining baseline information. Results The NINFEA study has recruited 7003 pregnant women, while the ELF study has recruited 2197 women. The cohorts targeted the whole country, utilizing a range of support processes to reduce the attrition rate of the participants. For the NINFEA and ELF cohorts, online participants were predominantly older (35% and 28.9%, respectively), highly educated (55.6% and 84.9%, respectively), and were in their final trimester of pregnancy (48.5% and 53.6%, respectively). Conclusions Internet-based cohort epidemiological studies are feasible, however, it is clear that participants are self-selective samples, as is the case for many birth cohorts. Internet-based cohort studies are potentially cost-effective and novel methodology for conducting long-term epidemiology research. However, from our experience, participants tend to be self-selective. In marked time, if the cohorts are to form part of a larger research program they require further use and exploration to address biases and overcome limitations. PMID:26071071

  12. Etiological Survey on Intellectual Disability in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikura, Ulla; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Olsen, Paivi; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Taanila, Anja; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of intellectual disability was studied both in incident (n = 9,432) and prevalent (n = 9,351) populations in a one-year birth cohort born in Northern Finland in 1985-1986. Data from multiple sources were used to follow the children until the age of 11.5 years. Of the incident cases (n = 119) with intellectual disabilities, 66.4% had…

  13. Urban and Education Disparity for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening in 66-month-old children, and to explore the distribution of ASD screening and diagnosis in Taiwan. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095). The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) cut-off point of 13/14 was considered…

  14. Difference in celiac disease risk between Swedish birth cohorts suggests an opportunity for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Cecilia; Hernell, Olle; Hörnell, Agneta; Lönnberg, Göran; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2008-09-01

    Sweden experienced a unique epidemic of celiac disease in children <2 years of age. The epidemic was partly explained by changes in infant feeding over time and indicated a multifactorial pathogenesis. The main aim of this study was to analyze celiac disease risk in epidemic and postepidemic birth cohorts up to preschool age, to explore further the opportunity for primary prevention. A population-based incidence register of celiac disease in children covering the entire nation from 1998 to 2003 and part of the country back to 1973 was analyzed. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition diagnostic criteria for celiac disease were used. The annual incidence rate for each age group and the cumulative incidence according to age for each birth cohort were calculated. A considerable difference in cumulative incidences of celiac disease at comparable ages was demonstrated between birth cohorts from the epidemic and postepidemic periods. The difference persisted during the preschool years, although it decreased somewhat with age. During the last years of the follow-up period, there was again a successive increase in incidence rate among children <2 years of age. The difference in celiac disease risk between birth cohorts at comparable ages suggests an opportunity for primary prevention. This highlights the importance of further exploring the role of infant feeding and exogenous factors besides dietary gluten that might initiate or prevent disease development. Moreover, on the basis of postepidemic incidence trends, we speculate that the Swedish epidemic might not have been as unique as thought previously, although its magnitude was striking.

  15. Respiratory Viruses in Neonates: A Prospective, Community-based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Mohinder; Alsaleh, Asma; Lambert, Stephen B; Ware, Robert S; Mhango, Lebogang P; Mackay, Ian M; Whiley, David M; Sloots, Theo P; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-12-01

    A community-based birth cohort study collected weekly nasal swabs and recorded daily symptoms from 157 full-term infants. An average of 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.34) respiratory virus infections per neonatal period were detected. Human rhinoviruses of diverse subtypes dominated; almost 50% were asymptomatic and continued rhinovirus detections may signify new genotypes. Respiratory viruses are common and often unrecognized in healthy neonates.

  16. Maternal use of oral contraceptives and risk of birth defects in Denmark: prospective, nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Brittany M; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Björn; Melbye, Mads

    2016-01-06

    Is oral contraceptive use around the time of pregnancy onset associated with an increased risk of major birth defects? In a prospective observational cohort study, data on oral contraceptive use and major birth defects were collected among 880,694 live births from Danish registries between 1997 and 2011. We conservatively assumed that oral contraceptive exposure lasted up to the most recently filled prescription. The main outcome measure was the number of major birth defects throughout one year follow-up (defined according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification). Logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios of any major birth defect as well as categories of birth defect subgroups. Prevalence of major birth defects (per 1000 births) was consistent across each oral contraceptive exposure group (25.1, never users; 25.0, use >3 months before pregnancy onset (reference group); 24.9, use 0-3 months before pregnancy onset (that is, recent use); 24.8, use after pregnancy onset). No increase in prevalence of major birth defects was seen with oral contraceptive exposure among women with recent use before pregnancy (prevalence odds ratio 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.03)) or use after pregnancy onset (0.95 (0.84 to 1.08)), compared with the reference group. There was also no increase in prevalence of any birth defect subgroup (for example, limb defects). It is unknown whether women took oral contraceptives up to the date of their most recently filled prescription. Also, the rarity of birth defects made disaggregation of the results difficult. Residual confounding was possible, and the analysis lacked information on folate, one of the proposed mechanisms. Oral contraceptive exposure just before or during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major birth defects. BMC was funded by the Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health's Maternal Health Task Force and Department of Epidemiology Rose Traveling

  17. Pre-gravid oral contraceptive use in relation to birth weight: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Elizabeth E; Hahn, Kristen A; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Riis, Anders H; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J; Wise, Lauren A

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association between pregravid oral contraceptive (OC) use and birth weight, and findings have been conflicting. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5921 pregnancy planners in Denmark to evaluate recency, duration, and type of OC used before conception in relation to infant birth weight. Participants completed online questionnaires and reported detailed information on contraceptive history and covariates at baseline. Participants completed bimonthly follow-up questionnaires to update their pregnancy status for up to 12 months or until conception occurred. Birth weight data were ascertained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry for 4046 live births delivered by study participants between 2008 and 2010. We used multivariable linear and log-binomial regression analyses to control for confounding. Mean birth weight was higher among women who had used OCs within 0-1 months (mean difference = 97 g, CI 26, 168) or 2-6 months (mean difference = 40 g, CI -5, 85) before conception, compared with more than 12 months before conception. Mean birth weight was lower among women who had used OCs for long durations (mean difference comparing ≥12 with <4 years of OC use = -85 g, CI -158, -11). Our findings indicate that pregravid OC use within 6 months of conception may be associated with a small increase in birth weight, but that long duration of use may have the opposite effect. Results were stronger among male infants, among 2nd and 4th generation OC users, and among users of OCs with a higher estrogen dose.

  18. Pre-gravid oral contraceptive use in relation to birth weight: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, EE; Hahn, KA; Mikkelsen, EM; Riis, AH; Sorensen, HT; Rothman, KJ; Wise, LA

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association between pregravid oral contraceptive (OC) use and birth weight, and findings have been conflicting. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5921 pregnancy planners in Denmark to evaluate recency, duration, and type of OC used before conception in relation to infant birth weight. Participants completed online questionnaires and reported detailed information on contraceptive history and covariates at baseline. Participants completed bimonthly follow-up questionnaires to update their pregnancy status for up to12 months or until conception occurred. Birth weight data were ascertained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry for 4046 live births delivered by study participants between 2008 and 2010. We used multivariable linear and log-binomial regression analyses to control for confounding. Mean birth weight was higher among women who had used OCs within 0–1 months (mean difference = 97 g, CI: 26, 168) or 2–6 months (mean difference=40 g, CI: −5, 85) before conception, compared with more than 12 months before conception. Mean birth weight was lower among women who had used OCs for long durations (mean difference comparing ≥12 with <4 years of OC use = −85 g, CI: −158, −11). Our findings indicate that pregravid OC use within 6 months of conception may be associated with a small increase in birth weight, but that long duration of use may have the opposite effect. Results were stronger among male infants, among 2nd and 4th generation OC users, and among users of OCs with a higher estrogen dose. PMID:26076921

  19. Men with severe hemophilia in the United States: birth cohort analysis of a large national database

    PubMed Central

    Mazepa, Marshall A.; Baker, Judith R.; Riske, Brenda K.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The availability of longitudinal data collected prospectively from 1998 to 2011 at federally funded US hemophilia treatment centers provided an opportunity to construct a descriptive analysis of how outcomes of men with severe hemophilia have been altered by the incremental advances and setbacks in hemophilia care in the last 50 years in the United States. This surveillance collaboration with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assembled the largest uniformly examined population with severe hemophilia (n = 4899 men with severe factor VIII and IX deficiency). To address the heterogeneity of this population, 4 successive birth cohorts, differentially affected by eras of hemophilia care, were examined separately in regard to demographics, complications of hemophilia and its treatment, and mortality. Severely affected men in each birth cohort were compared also with the corresponding mild hemophilia birth cohorts (n = 2587 men total) to control for outcomes that might be attributable to aging and environment independent of severely defective hemostasis. The analysis demonstrates improving access to standard of care therapy, correlating the proportion of men on prophylactic factor replacement and reduced bleeding frequency for the youngest men. Frequent bleeding persisted in one third to one half of men across all ages, however, and the disability gap between severe and mild hemophilia did not narrow. The greatest cause of death was liver failure, but attempted anti–hepatitis C virus therapy and cure were low. The study suggests a continued need for national surveillance to monitor and inform hemophilia interventions and outcomes. PMID:26983851

  20. Electronic data collection in epidemiological research. The use of REDCap in the Pelotas birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Blumenberg, Cauane; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes the use of Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) to conduct one of the follow-up waves of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort. The aim is to point out the advantages and limitations of using this electronic data capture environment to collect data and control every step of a longitudinal epidemiological research, specially in terms of time savings and data quality. We used REDCap as the main tool to support the conduction of a birth cohort follow-up. By exploiting several REDCap features, we managed to schedule assessments, collect data, and control the study workflow. To enhance data quality, we developed specific reports and field validations to depict inconsistencies in real time. Using REDCap it was possible to investigate more variables without significant increases on the data collection time, when comparing to a previous birth cohort follow-up. In addition, better data quality was achieved since negligible out of range errors and no validation or missing inconsistencies were identified after applying over 7,000 interviews. Adopting electronic data capture solutions, such as REDCap, in epidemiological research can bring several advantages over traditional paper-based data collection methods. In favor of improving their features, more research groups should migrate from paper to electronic-based epidemiological research.

  1. Twenty Years of Schizophrenia Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jääskeläinen, Erika; Haapea, Marianne; Rautio, Nina; Juola, Pauliina; Penttilä, Matti; Nordström, Tanja; Rissanen, Ina; Husa, Anja; Keskinen, Emmi; Marttila, Riikka; Filatova, Svetlana; Paaso, Tiina-Mari; Koivukangas, Jenni; Moilanen, Kristiina; Isohanni, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966), which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother's mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4%) had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia. PMID:26090224

  2. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jodczyk, Sarah; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Pearson, John F; Kennedy, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677) at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  3. Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy. PMID:19142341

  4. Changing relationships between smoking and psychiatric disorders across twentieth century birth cohorts: clinical and research implications

    PubMed Central

    Talati, A; Keyes, KM; Hasin, DS

    2016-01-01

    As the risks of tobacco use become recognized and smoking becomes stigmatized, new smokers may be increasingly driven to smoke by biological or genetic vulnerabilities rather than social desirability. Given that genetic risk for deviant proneness is shared across other psychiatric and addictive disorders, we predicted that as rates of smoking decreased through the latter half of the twentieth century, associations between smoking and psychopathology would increase. Participants (N = 25 412) from a large US study—the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC—were interviewed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) and classified into one of five birth cohort decades (1940s to 1980s) and three smoking history (nonsmokers, never-dependent smokers and ever-dependent smokers) groups. We found that the prevalence of smoking decreased across the five birth cohorts, but associations of smoking with drug and AUDs, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder, each increased monotonically in more recently born cohorts, even after adjusting for concurrent demographic and socioeconomic changes. For drug and AUDs, increases were observed among smokers both with and without a history of nicotine dependence; for other outcomes, increases were entirely driven by nicotine-dependent smokers. Findings suggest that smokers in more recent cohorts have disproportionately high psychiatric vulnerability, and may benefit from greater mental health screenings. Differentiating between casual and dependent smokers may further help prioritize those at greatest risk. Researchers should also be aware of potential variation in psychiatric comorbidity based on cohort of birth when defining groups of smokers, to minimize confounding. PMID:26809837

  5. Changing relationships between smoking and psychiatric disorders across twentieth century birth cohorts: clinical and research implications.

    PubMed

    Talati, A; Keyes, K M; Hasin, D S

    2016-04-01

    As the risks of tobacco use become recognized and smoking becomes stigmatized, new smokers may be increasingly driven to smoke by biological or genetic vulnerabilities rather than social desirability. Given that genetic risk for deviant proneness is shared across other psychiatric and addictive disorders, we predicted that as rates of smoking decreased through the latter half of the twentieth century, associations between smoking and psychopathology would increase. Participants (N=25 412) from a large US study-the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC-were interviewed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) and classified into one of five birth cohort decades (1940s to 1980s) and three smoking history (nonsmokers, never-dependent smokers and ever-dependent smokers) groups. We found that the prevalence of smoking decreased across the five birth cohorts, but associations of smoking with drug and AUDs, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder, each increased monotonically in more recently born cohorts, even after adjusting for concurrent demographic and socioeconomic changes. For drug and AUDs, increases were observed among smokers both with and without a history of nicotine dependence; for other outcomes, increases were entirely driven by nicotine-dependent smokers. Findings suggest that smokers in more recent cohorts have disproportionately high psychiatric vulnerability, and may benefit from greater mental health screenings. Differentiating between casual and dependent smokers may further help prioritize those at greatest risk. Researchers should also be aware of potential variation in psychiatric comorbidity based on cohort of birth when defining groups of smokers, to minimize confounding.

  6. Are baby boomer women unique? The moderating effect of birth cohort on age in substance use patterns during midlife.

    PubMed

    Sarabia, Stephanie Elias; Martin, James I

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of age to use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs, among midlife women and whether these relationships are modified by birth cohort. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, which included 2,035 baby boomer and silent generation cohort women, ages 30 to 55. Midlife women across cohorts reduced alcohol and marijuana use, but not illicit and prescription drug misuse, as they aged. A modifying effect of birth cohort was not supported, but findings did support differential aging effects across substances. Implications are discussed.

  7. Gestational age and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, H S; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-09-01

    Preterm, and more recently early term, birth has been identified as a risk factor for poor health. Whether the sequelae of late preterm or early term birth extends to poor mental health and well-being in adolescence is unclear and has not been systematically assessed. Linear regression was used to assess the adjusted associations of gestational age (very/moderate preterm (<34 weeks, n=85), late preterm (34-36 weeks, n=305), early term (37-38 weeks, n=2228), full term (39-40 weeks, n=4018), late term (41 weeks, n=809), post-term (≥42 weeks, n=213)) with self-reported self-esteem at ∼11 years (n=6935), parent-reported Rutter score assessing the common emotional and behavioural problems at ∼7 years (n=6292) and ∼11 years (n=5596) and self-reported depressive symptoms at ∼13 years (n=5795) in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort 'Children of 1997' where gestational age has little social patterning. Very/moderate preterm birth was associated with higher Rutter subscore for hyperactivity (ß coefficients 0.5, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.00) at ∼7 years but not at ∼11 years, adjusted for sex, age, socio-economic position, parents' age at birth, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure. Similarly adjusted, late preterm, early term, late term and post-term birth were not associated with self-esteem or depressive symptoms. In a population-representative birth cohort from a non-Western-developed setting, gestational age had few associations with mental health and well-being in adolescence, whereas very preterm birth was specifically associated with hyperactivity in childhood. Inconsistencies with studies from Western settings suggest setting specific unmeasured confounding may underlie any observed associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Estimating bias from loss to follow-up in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Greene, Naomi; Greenland, Sander; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2011-11-01

    Loss to follow-up in cohort studies may result in biased association estimates. Of 61,895 women entering the Danish National Birth Cohort and completing the first data-collection phase, 37,178 (60%) opted to be in the 7-year follow-up. Using national registry data to obtain end point information on all members of the cohort, we estimated associations in the baseline and the 7-year follow-up participant populations for 5 exposure-outcome associations: (a) size at birth and childhood asthma, (b) assisted reproductive treatment and childhood hospitalizations, (c) prepregnancy body mass index and childhood infections, (d) alcohol drinking in early pregnancy and childhood developmental disorders, and (e) maternal smoking in pregnancy and childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We estimated follow-up bias in the odds or rate ratios by calculating relative ratios. For all but one of the above analyses, the bias appeared to be small, between -10% and +8%. For maternal smoking in pregnancy and childhood ADHD, we estimated a positive bias of approximately 33% (95% bootstrap limits of -30% and +152%). The presence and magnitude of bias due to loss to follow-up depended on the nature of the factors or outcomes examined, with the most pronounced contribution in this study coming from maternal smoking. Our methods and results may inform bias analyses in future pregnancy cohort studies.

  9. Cancer mortality in Europe: effects of age, cohort of birth and period of death.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Levi, F; Decarli, A; Boyle, P

    1998-01-01

    Death certification data for 19 cancers or groups of cancers, plus total cancer mortality, in 16 major European countries were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model with arbitrary constraints on the parameters to disentangle the effects of age, birth cohort and period of death. Three major patterns emerged including: first, the prominent role of cohort of birth in defining trends in mortality from most cancer sites (except testis or Hodgkin's disease, where newer treatments had a major period of death effect); and second, the major role of lung and other tobacco-related neoplasm epidemics in determining the diverging pattern of cancer mortality, for each sex and in various European countries and geographic areas. In most countries, the peak male cohort values were reached for generations born between 1900 and 1930. This was observed in women only for Denmark and the U.K., i.e. the two countries where lung and other tobacco-related neoplasm epidemics had already reached appreciable levels. This confirms the importance of cigarette smoking in subsequent generations as a major cause of cancer deaths in Europe. Further, there is a persistent rise in several cancer rates, again chiefly on a cohort basis, in Eastern Europe, which calls for urgent intervention to control the cancer burden in these countries.

  10. The AIDS epidemic among Spanish drug users: a birth cohort-associated phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, J; Pollán, M; López-Abente, G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Spain the number of new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases among injection drug users continues to rise. The time trend up to 1994 has been analyzed, with special attention paid to the different generations. METHODS: The source for injection drug use-related cases was the Spanish AIDS Register. Independent analyses of annual specific rates were run for each sex with the use of an age-period-cohort log-linear model. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, AIDS incidence related to injection drug use is associated with specific birth cohorts. Rising values are observed in the successive generations born during the 1950s, peaking in men born in 1962 and women born in 1964. In subsequent cohorts, there is a marked falloff in incidence for both sexes, but this decline is seen to halt in men from the 1972 birth cohort onwards. The overall period effect is upward, yet the trend flattens in the last years. There is a pronounced age effect with maximum values in men and women at ages 29 and 27, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to urge avoidance of risk behaviors in new generations. PMID:9184504

  11. Incidence and risk factors of preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, about 15 million neonates are born preterm and about 85% of global preterm birth occurs in Asia and Africa regions. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk factors for preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort. Methods Between June 2007 and September 2009, community health workers prospectively collected data from 32,126 mother-live-born baby pairs on household socio-demographic status, pregnancy history, antenatal care seeking and newborn gestational age determined by recall of date of last menstrual period. Results Among all live births, 22.3% were delivered prior to 37 weeks of gestation (i.e. preterm); of which 12.3% were born at 35–36 weeks of gestation (late preterm), 7.1% were born at 32–34 weeks (moderate preterm), and 2.9% were born at 28–31 weeks of gestation (very preterm). Overall, the majority of preterm births (55.1%) were late preterm. Risk of preterm birth was lower among women with primary or higher level of education (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), women who sought antenatal care at least once during the index pregnancy (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.90), and women who had completed all birth preparedness steps (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.34). In contrast, risk of preterm birth was higher among women with a history of child death (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10), who had mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ≤250 mm, indicative of under nutrition (for women having MUAC <214 mm the risk was higher; RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.35), who reported an antenatal complication (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.53), and who received iron-folic acid supplementation for 2–6 months during the index pregnancy (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.44). Conclusions In resource poor settings with high burden of preterm birth, alike Bangladesh, preterm birth risk could be reduced by close monitoring and/or frequent follow-up of women with history of child death and antenatal complications, by encouraging women to seek antenatal care from qualified

  12. Simulated growth trajectories and blood pressure in adolescence: Hong Kong's Chinese Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Freeman, Guy; Lin, Shi Lin; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, Catherine M

    2013-09-01

    Patterns and amounts of growth may determine adult blood pressure. Growth at different phases is correlated and affects current size, making effects on blood pressure difficult to distinguish. We decomposed growth to 13 years into independent associations with blood pressure and estimated how reaching the same size by different routes could affect adolescent blood pressure. Using estimates from partial least squares for the associations of birth weight, height, and BMI at 3 months, growth at 3-9 months, 9-36 months, 3-8 years and 8-13 years and size at 13 years with SBP and DBP in 5247 term births (67% follow-up) from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' Birth Cohort, we estimated SBP and DBP at 13 years for 99 simulated growth trajectories resulting in the same size using nonparametric bootstrapping. High birth weight followed by slower growth was associated with lower SBP in both sexes and DBP in boys. Greater height to 3 years followed by slower height growth was associated with lower SBP in boys. Higher BMI until 9 months followed by slower BMI growth was associated with lower blood pressure in boys. High birth weight or larger early size was associated with lower blood pressure if followed by slower later growth, consistent with the fetal origin hypothesis. However, whether these patterns are due to fetal and infant metabolic programming or to allowing slower growth at periods when rapid growth is harmful is unknown.

  13. Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Variations by History of Military Service and Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Lisa S; Gray, Kristen E; Zephyrin, Laurie C; Harrington, Laura B; Gerber, Megan R; Cochrane, Barbara B; Weitlauf, Julie C; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Bastian, Lori A; Mattocks, Kristin M; Haskell, Sally G; Katon, Jodie G

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), which are associated with both health risks and benefits, among women Veterans. To compare the prevalence of hysterectomy with or without BSO, and early hysterectomy, between postmenopausal Veterans and non-Veterans. We used baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial and Observational Study. Multinomial logistic regression models examined differences in the prevalence of hysterectomy (neither hysterectomy nor BSO, hysterectomy without BSO, and hysterectomy with BSO) between Veterans and non-Veterans. Generalized linear models were used to determine whether early hysterectomy (before age 40) differed between Veterans and non-Veterans. Analyses were stratified by birth cohort (<65, ≥65 years at enrollment). The unadjusted prevalence of hysterectomy without BSO was similar among Veterans and non-Veterans in both birth cohorts (<65: 22% vs 21%; ≥65: 22% vs 21%). The unadjusted prevalence of hysterectomy with BSO was equivalent among Veterans and non-Veterans in the >65 cohort (21%), but higher among Veterans in the <65 cohort (22% vs 19%). In adjusted analyses, although no differences were observed in the >65 cohort, Veterans in the <65 cohort had higher odds of hysterectomy without BSO (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.36) and with BSO (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10, 1.45), as well as elevated risk of early hysterectomy (relative risk 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47), compared with non-Veterans. Aging women Veterans may have higher prevalence of hysterectomy and BSO than non-Veterans. This information contributes to understanding the health needs and risks of women Veterans and can inform clinical practice and policy for this population. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2016.

  14. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249. Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0–3 months and 12–29/32 months with very little association at 3–12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age

  15. Age at Menarche and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Harpsøe, Maria; Simonsen, Jacob; Stenager, Egon; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Baker, Jennifer L; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Frisch, Morten; Bager, Peter

    2017-03-25

    Few studies have addressed the possible association between age at menarche and multiple sclerosis (MS), and results are conflicting. We studied this issue in a large prospective cohort study. The study cohort comprised 77,330 women included in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on menarcheal age was ascertained at the first interview, which took place in the 16th week of pregnancy. Women were followed for MS from the first interview to December 31, 2011. Associations between age at menarche and risk of MS were evaluated with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall, 226 women developed MS during an average follow-up period of 11.7 years. Age at menarche among women with MS was generally lower than that among women without MS (Wilcoxon rank-sum test; P = 0.002). We observed an inverse association between age at menarche and MS risk. For each 1-year increase in age at menarche, risk of MS was reduced by 13% (hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.96). Early age at menarche appears to be associated with an increased risk of MS. The mechanisms behind this association remain to be established.

  16. The contribution of maternal birth cohort to term small for gestational age in the United States 1989-2010: an age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2014-07-01

    After decades of steady increase, mean birthweight in the US declined throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, a trend not fully explained by changes in length of gestation, medical practice, demographics, or maternal behaviours. We hypothesised that secular changes in health or social factors across women's life courses may have contributed to this unexplained trend and examined maternal birth cohort as a proxy measure of life-course determinants of fetal growth in the US. We used the age, period, and cohort (APC) intrinsic estimator (IE) approach to estimate the contribution of maternal birth cohort (independent of maternal age and period of birth) to small for gestational age (SGA), overall and among term births, in the US from 1989 to 2010. We conducted analyses separately among foreign- and US-born Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (NHB), and non-Hispanic white mothers. We found evidence of a U-shaped relationship between maternal birth cohort and SGA among NHB women only. After accounting for maternal age and period of birth, risk of SGA among NHB women born in 1950 was 21.1% and decreased to 15.9% in 1970. However, NHB women born after 1970 experienced increasing risk (19.6% by the 1986 birth cohort). Our findings suggest that NHB women born after 1970 have experienced increasing risk of SGA. Declining risk of SGA across NHB maternal birth cohorts from 1950 to 1970, however, suggests the potential to reverse this trend. Results illustrate the need for research on health and social risk factors for SGA across the pre-pregnancy life course. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

  18. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  19. Age of diagnosis for autism: individual and community factors across 10 birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Christine; King, Marissa D; Bearman, Peter S

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of autism rose dramatically between 1992 and 2001, while the age at which children were first diagnosed declined. During this period the size and composition of the autism caseload has changed, but little is known about whether the factors associated with the timing of diagnosis may also have shifted. Using a multilevel analysis strategy, the individual and community-level factors associated with age of diagnosis were modelled across 10 birth cohorts of California children. Methods Linked birth and administrative records on 17 185 children with diagnoses of autistic disorder born in California between 1992 and 2001 and enrolled with the California Department of Developmental Services (DDS) were analysed. Information on cases, their parents and their residential location were extracted from birth and DDS records. Zip codes of residence were matched to census data to create community-level measures. Multilevel linear models were estimated for each birth cohort, with individual-level effects for sex, race, parental characteristics, poverty status, birth order and symptom expression. At the community level measures of educational and economic composition, local autism prevalence and the presence of a child psychiatrist were included. Results Children with highly educated parents are diagnosed earlier, and this effect has strengthened over time. There is a persistent gap in the age of diagnosis between high and low socioeconomic status (SES) children that has shrunk but not disappeared over time. Conclusion Routine screening for autism in early childhood for all children, particularly those of low SES, is necessary to eliminate disparities in early intervention. PMID:20974836

  20. Traffic-related air pollution and incident asthma in a high-risk birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Becker, Allan; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Brauer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The risk of incident asthma and bronchial hyper-reactivity associated with early life exposure to traffic-related air pollution has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the risk of new onset asthma is positively associated with early exposure to traffic-related air pollution in a well-characterised high-risk birth cohort. Infants at high-risk for asthma were recruited for an intervention study. Birth year exposures to NO, NO(2), black carbon and PM(2.5) were estimated by land use regression. At 7 years of age, asthma was assessed by a paediatric allergist and bronchial hyper-reactivity was measured by methacholine challenge. Associations between exposures and outcomes were analysed by stepwise multiple logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Exposure estimates were available for 184 children; 23 were diagnosed with asthma and 68 with bronchial hyper-reactivity. The IQR (4.1 μg/m(3)) of birth year PM(2.5) was associated with a significantly increased risk of asthma (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 7.4) and with a trend to increased risk of bronchial hyper-reactivity. Similar findings were noted in association with NO and NO(2), while black carbon did not appear to confer increased risk. Modest elevations in exposure to some traffic-related air pollutants during the year of birth are associated with new onset asthma assessed at age 7. That significant associations were revealed in spite of a limited sample size emphasises the strengths of a high-risk birth cohort model, along with individual air pollution exposure estimates and well-characterised data on covariates and outcomes.

  1. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as…

  2. South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as…

  3. The New Zealand 1986 very low birth weight cohort as young adults: mapping the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Darlow, Brian A; Horwood, L John; Woodward, Lianne J; Elliott, John M; Troughton, Richard W; Elder, Mark J; Epton, Michael J; Stanton, Josh D; Swanney, Maureen P; Keenan, Ross; Melzer, Tracy R; McKelvey, Victoria A; Levin, Karelia; Meeks, Margaret G; Espiner, Eric A; Cameron, Vicky A; Martin, Julia

    2015-08-05

    Very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) is associated with increased morbidity and costs of health care in childhood. Emerging evidence suggests these infants face a range of health and social problems as young adults. We studied all New Zealand very low birth weight infants born in 1986 (when 58% were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids) in infancy, with later follow-up at 7 to 8 years and 23 to 24 years. We now aim to assess the cohort at 26-28 years compared with controls. The case sample will comprise a minimum of 250 members of the 1986 New Zealand national very low birth weight cohort (77% of survivors). Outcomes will be compared with a control group of 100 young adults born at term in 1986. Following written informed consent, participants will travel to Christchurch for 2 days of assessments undertaken by experienced staff. Medical assessments include growth measures, vision, respiratory function, blood pressure and echocardiogram, renal function, dental examination and blood tests. Cognitive and neuropsychological functioning will be assessed with standard tests, and mental health and social functioning by participant interview. A telephone interview will be conducted with a parent or significant other person nominated by the respondent to gain a further perspective on the young person's health and functioning. All those born at less than 28 weeks' gestation, plus a random subset of the cohort to a total of 150 cases and 50 controls, will be offered cranial magnetic-resonance imaging. Statistical analysis will examine comparison with controls and long-term trajectories for the very low birth weight cohort. The research will provide crucial New Zealand data on the young adult outcomes for very low birth weight infants and address gaps in the international literature, particularly regarding cardiovascular, respiratory, visual and neurocognitive outcomes. These data will inform future neonatal care, provide evidence-based guidelines for care of preterm

  4. Association of family income with BMI from childhood to adult life: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alícia; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association of family income at birth with BMI among young adults who have been followed since birth. A birth cohort study. In 1982, all children born in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were included in a perinatal survey and visited at ages 1, 2, 4, 15, 18-19 and 23 years. Cohort members (n 4297) were traced and interviewed in 2004-2005. In all follow-ups, participants were weighed and measured, and BMI and prevalence of obesity were calculated for each age. Family income was obtained in minimum wages in 1982 and as a continuous variable, in reais, in later follow-ups. Skin colour was self-reported in 2004-2005. Mean BMI and prevalence of obesity differed between males and females. In males, a direct relationship was found throughout life and among females this relationship was modified by age. During childhood, BMI was higher among girls from higher income groups and this association was inversed at age 23 years. At this same age, mean BMI among black women was 1·3 kg/m2 higher than among white women, even after adjustment for current family income. The findings show in men that the relationship between income and BMI is similar to that seen in less developed areas, whereas among adult women the relationship is similar to that observed in developed countries. In addition to the effect of socio-economic status, skin colour also has an influence on the BMI of adult women.

  5. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and increased risk of schizophrenia in a national birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Sarah; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Leiviskä, Jaana; Kellendonk, Christoph; McKeague, Ian W; Brown, Alan S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate an association between early gestational C-reactive protein, an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and schizophrenia in a large, national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. A nested case-control design from the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia cohort was utilized. A total of 777 schizophrenia cases (schizophrenia, N=630; schizoaffective disorder, N=147) with maternal sera available for C-reactive protein testing were identified and matched to 777 control subjects in the analysis. Maternal C-reactive protein levels were assessed using a latex immunoassay from archived maternal serum specimens. Increasing maternal C-reactive protein levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with schizophrenia in offspring (adjusted odds ratio=1.31, 95% confidence interval=1.10-1.56). This finding remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including maternal and parental history of psychiatric disorders, twin/singleton birth, urbanicity, province of birth, and maternal socioeconomic status. This finding provides the most robust evidence to date that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in schizophrenia, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months), 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months), and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23 years). CONCLUSIONS: Birth cohort studies can be carried out successfully in developing countries, and the methods employed in this life-cycle study have allowed us to investigate the influence of early exposures in determining disease outcomes in adult life. PMID:19142340

  7. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    PubMed

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Bachman, Jerald G; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time-period. Combined analysis of nationally representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the United States conducted from 1976 to 2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the United States. A total of 986 003 adolescents in grades 8, 10 and 12. Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time-period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time-periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana and other characteristics. Compared to birth cohorts in which most (87-90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where fewer than half (42-46.9%) disapproved (99% confidence interval: 2.75, 4.53). Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. The Autism Birth Cohort: a paradigm for gene-environment-timing research.

    PubMed

    Stoltenberg, C; Schjølberg, S; Bresnahan, M; Hornig, M; Hirtz, D; Dahl, C; Lie, K K; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Schreuder, P; Alsaker, E; Øyen, A-S; Magnus, P; Surén, P; Susser, E; Lipkin, W I

    2010-07-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased by 5- to 10-fold over the past 20 years. Whether ASDs are truly more frequent is controversial; nonetheless, the burden is profound in human and economic terms. Although autism is among the most heritable of mental disorders, its pathogenesis remains obscure. Environmental factors are proposed; however, none is implicated. Furthermore, there are no biomarkers to screen for ASD or risk of ASD. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) was initiated to analyze gene x environment x timing interactions and enable early diagnosis. It uses a large, unselected birth cohort in which cases are prospectively ascertained through population screening. Samples collected serially through pregnancy and childhood include parental blood, maternal urine, cord blood, milk teeth and rectal swabs. More than 107,000 children are continuously screened through questionnaires, referral, and a national registry. Cases are compared with a control group from the same cohort in a 'nested case-control' design. Early screening and diagnostic assessments and re-assessments are designed to provide a rich view of longitudinal trajectory. Genetic, proteomic, immunologic, metagenomic and microbiological tools will be used to exploit unique biological samples. The ABC is a paradigm for analyzing the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders.

  10. Genome-wide association analysis of metabolic traits in a birth cohort from a founder population.

    PubMed

    Sabatti, Chiara; Service, Susan K; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Ripatti, Samuli; Brodsky, Jae; Jones, Chris G; Zaitlen, Noah A; Varilo, Teppo; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Ruokonen, Aimo; Laitinen, Jaana; Jakkula, Eveliina; Coin, Lachlan; Hoggart, Clive; Collins, Andrew; Turunen, Hannu; Gabriel, Stacey; Elliot, Paul; McCarthy, Mark I; Daly, Mark J; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Freimer, Nelson B; Peltonen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of longitudinal birth cohorts enable joint investigation of environmental and genetic influences on complex traits. We report GWAS results for nine quantitative metabolic traits (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), drawn from the most genetically isolated Finnish regions. We replicate most previously reported associations for these traits and identify nine new associations, several of which highlight genes with metabolic functions: high-density lipoprotein with NR1H3 (LXRA), low-density lipoprotein with AR and FADS1-FADS2, glucose with MTNR1B, and insulin with PANK1. Two of these new associations emerged after adjustment of results for body mass index. Gene-environment interaction analyses suggested additional associations, which will require validation in larger samples. The currently identified loci, together with quantified environmental exposures, explain little of the trait variation in NFBC1966. The association observed between low-density lipoprotein and an infrequent variant in AR suggests the potential of such a cohort for identifying associations with both common, low-impact and rarer, high-impact quantitative trait loci.

  11. A retrospective longitudinal study of caries development in an Australian Aboriginal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, L M; Armfield, J M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of longitudinal investigations that examine the progression of dental disease in an indigenous population. Dental examinations of a cohort of indigenous Australians born in Darwin (Australia) between 1987 and 1990 were conducted at ages 6-8 and 11-13 years as part of the Child Dental Health Survey, and 18-20 years as part of the longstanding prospective Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Data was available at all ages for 145 participants. The percent DMFT >0 increased from 17.2 to 44.1 to 81.4%, representing a linear trajectory, whereas mean DMFT increased from 0.3 to 1.0 to 5.6, representing an exponential trajectory. Both trends were significant. At age 18-20 years, the percent DMFT >0 among ABC study participants was 1.2 times that of their counterparts at a national level. The differences were more marked when dental caries severity was considered, with mean DMFT among 18- to 20-year-old ABC study participants being 1.7 times that of similarly aged adults at a national level. Most of this disparity was constituted by the decayed component, with ABC study participants having eight times the mean DT of their national-level counterparts. The findings indicate that Aboriginal young adults in this birth cohort experience a disproportionate amount of dental disease relative to their non-indigenous counterparts, and that this pattern is consistent across the life course.

  12. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Alastalo, Hanna; Leskinen, Jukka T; Nyman, Kai; Henriksson, Markus; Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Pyhälä, Riikka; Tuovinen, Soile; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4) at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5) years at the second cognitive testing. The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72) and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19). Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79) and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99). Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  13. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  14. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-07-01

    It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Data were collected in the period 1996-2002. We used linear and logistic regression models and adjusted for confounders. In the fully adjusted models, most of the mean differences in birth size measures had values indicating a smaller size of offspring among women with occupational lifting versus women with no lifting, but the differences were very small, and there was a statistically significant trend only for placental weight showing lighter weight with increasing number of kilos lifted per day. In jobs likely to include person-lifting, we found increased odds of SGA among children of women who lifted 501-1000 kilos per day [odds ratio (OR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-1.83] and >1000 kilos per day (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83-2.76) compared to no lifting. In jobs with no person-lifting, occupational lifting was not associated with SGA. Overall, we observed no strong support for an association between maternal occupational lifting and impaired size at birth. Our data indicated a potential association between lifting and SGA among offspring of women in occupations that are likely to include person-lifting. These results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power, and we suggest that future studies include detailed, individual information on job functions and ergonomic routines of lifting

  15. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  16. Grandparental education, parental education and child height: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Shirley S L; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Adult height is the sum of growth during fetal, infancy, childhood, and puberty, controlled by different biological factors. In long-term developed Western populations, height is positively associated with socioeconomic position, but less clearly so in recently developing populations. We aimed to elucidate socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases. We examined the associations of parents' education and grandparents' education with birth weight and height gain z-scores during infancy (birth to <2 years), childhood (2 to <8 years), and puberty (8 to <14 years) adjusted for parents' height using generalized estimating equations in Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort (n = 8264). Parents' education, but not grandparents', was positively associated with birth weight (z-score, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.12 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and height gain during infancy (0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18), adjusted for gender, gestational age, initial size, parity, parents' age, parents' birthplace, and parents' height. Conversely, similarly adjusted, grandparents' education, but not parents', was associated with height gain during childhood (0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.18). Parental education was associated with fetal and infant, but not childhood, linear growth, suggesting the mechanism underlying socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases may be contextually specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  18. Examining the intergenerational transmission of violence in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2006-02-01

    This paper examines whether exposure to interparental violence in childhood predicts subsequent involvement in interpartner violence and violent crime after controlling for potentially confounding factors. The investigation analyses data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort of over 1000 New Zealand young adults studied at multiple assessment points from birth to the age of 25. After controlling for potentially confounding risk factors, observed associations between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and increased risks of both (a) psychological interpartner violence perpetration and victimization and (b) violent crime, were reduced to statistical non-significance. No statistically significant associations were observed between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and increased risk of physical interpartner violence perpetration or victimization. It is concluded that the effects of childhood exposure to interparental violence on subsequent interpartner violence are weak and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which childhood exposure to interparental violence occurs.

  19. Hypothyroxinemia During Gestation and Offspring Schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W; Brown, Alan S

    2016-06-15

    Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that thyroid hormone deficiency during early gestation alters brain development. As schizophrenia is associated with prenatal brain insults and premorbid cognitive deficits, we tested the a priori hypothesis that serologically defined maternal thyroid deficiency during early gestation to mid-gestation is associated with schizophrenia in offspring. The investigation is based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of Schizophrenia, a nested case-control study that included archived maternal sera from virtually all pregnancies since 1983 (N = >1 million). We identified all offspring in the cohort with a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the national inpatient and outpatient register and matched them on sex, date of birth, and residence in Finland at time of onset of the case to comparison subjects (1:1) from the cohort. Maternal sera of 1010 case-control pairs were assessed for free thyroxine, and sera of 948 case-control pairs were assessed for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Maternal hypothyroxinemia (free thyroxine ≤10th percentile, normal thyroid-stimulating hormone) was associated with an increased odds of schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-2.50, p = .002). When adjusted for maternal psychiatric history, province of birth, and maternal smoking during pregnancy, the association remained significant (odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.55, p = .010). In a large, national birth cohort, prospectively documented hypothyroxinemia during early gestation to mid-gestation was associated with increased odds of schizophrenia in offspring. This information can inform translational studies of maternal hypothyroxinemia examining molecular and cellular deviations relevant to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse effects of maternal lead levels on birth outcomes in the ALSPAC study: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, CM; Golding, J; Emond, AM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the associations of prenatal blood lead levels (B-Pb) with pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of mother–child pairs in the UK. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting Avon area of Bristol, UK. Population Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Methods Whole blood samples were collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Linear regression models for continuous outcomes and logistic regression models for categorical outcomes were adjusted for covariates including maternal height, smoking, parity, sex of the baby and gestational age. Main outcome measures Birthweight, head circumference and crown–heel length, preterm delivery and low birthweight. Results The mean blood lead level (B-Pb) was 3.67 ± 1.47 μg/dl. B-Pb ≥ 5 μg/dl significantly increased the risk of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.00 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.35–3.00) but not of having a low birthweight baby (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.86–2.18) in multivariable binary logistic models. Increasing B-Pb was significantly associated with reductions in birth weight (β −13.23, 95% CI −23.75 to −2.70), head circumference (β −0.04, 95% CI −0.07 to −0.06) and crown–heel length (β −0.05, 95% CI −0.10 to −0.00) in multivariable linear regression models. Conclusions There was evidence for adverse effects of maternal B-Pb on the incidence of preterm delivery, birthweight, head circumference and crown–heel length, but not on the incidence of low birthweight, in this group of women. PMID:24824048

  1. Prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Lima, Rosângela C; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee) questionnaire. Associations between the outcome “occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview” and the variables of socioeconomic, demographic and birth characteristics were tested by means of multivariable analyses, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing over the preceding year was 24.9%. Among the individuals reporting wheezing, 54.6% reported difficulty in sleeping, and 12.9% reported difficulty in speaking due to wheezing. The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was significantly higher among women. This association was maintained in analyses adjusted for non-white skin color, family history of asthma and low socioeconomic level. Among men, there was no significant association in the analyses adjusted for skin color and family income at birth. Family histories of asthma and poverty throughout life presented significant associations with wheezing in the chest. For both sexes, there were no associations with the variables of birth weight and breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was high, and subjects with low family income at birth were more likely to have had wheezing in the chest over the preceding year. PMID:19142351

  2. Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon C S; Malone, Fergal D; Ball, Robert H; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Berkowitz, Richard L; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Design Prospective cohort study of 38 033 pregnancies between 1999 and 2003. Setting 15 centres representing major regions of the United States. Participants 976 women from the original cohort who conceived as the result of assisted reproductive technology, had a first trimester ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length, and delivered live singleton infants without evidence of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities. First trimester growth was expressed as the difference between the observed and expected size of the fetus, expressed as equivalence to days of gestational age. Main outcome measures Birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Results For each one day increase in the observed size of the fetus, birth weight increased by 28.2 (95% confidence interval 14.6 to 41.2) g. The association was substantially attenuated by adjustment for duration of pregnancy (adjusted coefficient 17.1 (6.6 to 27.5) g). Further adjustments for maternal characteristics and complications of pregnancy did not have a significant effect. The risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant decreased with increasing size in the first trimester (odds ratio for a one day increase 0.87, 0.81 to 0.94). The association was not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics or complications of pregnancy. Conclusion Variation in birth weight may be determined, at least in part, by fetal growth in the first 12 weeks after conception through effects on timing of delivery and fetal growth velocity. PMID:17355993

  3. Does Adolescent Affect Impact Adult Social Integration? Evidence from the British 1946 Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Stephani L.; Wadsworth, Michael EJ

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort), we take a life course approach with a sociology of mental health framework to examine the relationship between adolescent affect and adult social integration. The results suggest that being observed as anxious or sad in adolescence has long-term effect on adult social integration. These associations are not explained by adult mental health or socioeconomic status, for the most part. The results demonstrate support for social selection processes between adolescent mental health and adult social outcomes and suggest a disparate effect of type of adolescent affect on adult social outcomes. PMID:22723717

  4. Prospective birth cohort in a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil: methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cynthia; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Castanha, Priscila M S; Ramesh, Anita; Alexander, Neal; Mello, Maria Júlia G de; Marques, Ernesto T A; Martelli, Celina M Turchi

    2016-01-01

    Dengue cases have increased in younger age groups in Brazil. Maternal anti-dengue antibodies can have a protective effect in the first months of life, but their decline can increase the risk of severe dengue. A prospective birth cohort was established in 2011-2012 in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, to determine the incidence of serotype-specific dengue infection and the kinetics of transferred maternal anti-dengue antibodies in the first years of life. This article describes the design, methods and preliminary results of this cohort study. 354 children underwent clinical and laboratory monitoring for two years, with 15% losses to follow-up. The overall rate of new infections was approximately 10% in the first year of follow-up. Information on the force of serotype-specific dengue infection and the evaluation of transferred maternal antibodies can contribute to understanding dengue etiopathogenesis.

  5. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Peet, Evan D; McCoy, Dana C; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris; Fink, Günther

    2015-01-01

    While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and institutional contexts.

  6. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Peet, Evan D.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. Methods We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Results Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. Conclusion The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and

  7. Cohort of birth modifies the association between FTO genotype and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Rosenquist, James Niels; Lehrer, Steven F.; O’Malley, A. James; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial body of research has explored the relative roles of genetic and environmental factors on phenotype expression in humans. Recent research has also sought to identify gene–environment (or g-by-e) interactions, with mixed success. One potential reason for these mixed results may relate to the fact that genetic effects might be modified by changes in the environment over time. For example, the noted rise of obesity in the United States in the latter part of the 20th century might reflect an interaction between genetic variation and changing environmental conditions that together affect the penetrance of genetic influences. To evaluate this hypothesis, we use longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study collected over 30 y from a geographically relatively localized sample to test whether the well-documented association between the rs993609 variant of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene and body mass index (BMI) varies across birth cohorts, time period, and the lifecycle. Such cohort and period effects integrate many potential environmental factors, and this gene-by-environment analysis examines interactions with both time-varying contemporaneous and historical environmental influences. Using constrained linear age–period–cohort models that include family controls, we find that there is a robust relationship between birth cohort and the genotype–phenotype correlation between the FTO risk allele and BMI, with an observed inflection point for those born after 1942. These results suggest genetic influences on complex traits like obesity can vary over time, presumably because of global environmental changes that modify allelic penetrance. PMID:25548176

  8. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all p<0·001). Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all p<0·001). The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  9. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L.; Félix, Têmis M.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1–3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle‐income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728503

  10. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Karam, Simone M; Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L; Félix, Têmis M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1-3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle-income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling.

  11. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kelen H; Labrecque, Jeremy; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Fernando C; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort). METHODS The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico – Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government), in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit) and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries). We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN), an asset index. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN), 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit) 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN), coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37%) according to the IEN. CONCLUSIONS Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population. PMID:28380211

  12. Lifetime growth and blood pressure in adolescence: Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Heys, Michelle; Lin, Shi Lin; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure tracks from adolescence to adulthood and is positively associated with low birth weight and faster infant growth. Most observations are from Western populations; it is unclear whether these are biologically based or contextually specific. We examined the associations of growth with blood pressure in adolescence. Multivariable partial least squares regression was used to assess the associations of growth to ~11 years with blood pressure at ~11 years in 5813 term births from Hong Kong's Children of 1997 birth cohort. Growth was considered as gender- and age-specific z-scores for birth weight, BMI, and length at 3 months; change in z-scores for BMI and height at 3 to 9 months, 9 to 36 months, 3 to 7 years, and 7 to 11 years; and BMI and height at 11 years. Birth weight was weakly inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in girls -0.58 mm Hg 95% confidence interval -1.05 to -0.12 (boys -0.21, -0.71 to 0.30). Childhood growth, particularly linear growth at 7 to 11 years (girls: 1.27, 0.56 to 1.98; boys 2.11, 1.39 to 2.83), as well as current height (girls: 2.40, 2.04 to 2.76, boys: 2.65, 2.29 to 3.01) and BMI (girls: 2.72, 2.35 to 3.09, boys: 2.72, 2.09 to 3.36) were associated with higher systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was also positively associated with current size. In the first study to examine simultaneously the role of pre- and postnatal growth in adolescent blood pressure, the role of late childhood growth predominated.

  13. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence - Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    PubMed

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-04-20

    Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory

  15. Birth Weight and Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet; Ballester, Ferran; Bloemen, Karolien; de Boer, Michiel; Chevrier, Cécile; Eggesbø, Merete; Guxens, Mònica; Krämer, Ursula; Legler, Juliette; Martínez, David; Palkovicova, Lubica; Patelarou, Evridiki; Ranft, Ulrich; Rautio, Arja; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Slama, Rémy; Stigum, Hein; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomas; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Weihe, Pál; Kuperus, Nynke Weisglas; Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE adjusted for gestational age and a priori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140 ng/L (range of cohort medians 20–484 ng/L) and that of p,p´-DDE was 528 ng/L (range of cohort medians 50–1,208 ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150 g [95% confidence interval (CI): –250, –50 g] per 1-µg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-µg/L increase in p,p´-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: –18, 4 g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p´-DDE does not. The study

  16. Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet; Ballester, Ferran; Bloemen, Karolien; de Boer, Michiel; Chevrier, Cécile; Eggesbø, Merete; Guxens, Mònica; Krämer, Ursula; Legler, Juliette; Martínez, David; Palkovicova, Lubica; Patelarou, Evridiki; Ranft, Ulrich; Rautio, Arja; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Slama, Rémy; Stigum, Hein; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomas; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Weihe, Pál; Kuperus, Nynke Weisglas; Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE adjusted for gestational age and a priori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140 ng/L (range of cohort medians 20-484 ng/L) and that of p,p´-DDE was 528 ng/L (range of cohort medians 50-1,208 ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -250, -50 g] per 1-µg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-µg/L increase in p,p´-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -18, 4 g). The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p´-DDE does not. The study adds to mounting evidence that low-level exposure to

  17. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison by birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; Derose, Alessandra; Digiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-11-01

    According to the 'reproductive polarization' hypothesis, family-policy regimes unfavourable to the combination of employment with motherhood generate greater socio-economic differentials in fertility than other regimes. This hypothesis has been tested mainly for 'liberal' Anglo-American regimes. To investigate the effects elsewhere, we compared education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types. Women with low educational attainment have continued to have first births early, not only in Britain and the USA but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Women at all other levels of education have experienced a shift towards later first births, a shift that has been largest in Southern Europe. Unlike the educationally heterogeneous changes in age pattern at first birth seen under the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes, the changes across birth cohorts in the study's two 'universalistic' countries, Norway and France, have been educationally homogeneous.

  18. Birth weight and adult health in historical perspective: evidence from a New Zealand cohort, 1907-1922.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Evan; Wood, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    We provide new historical evidence on the developmental origins of health and disease in a cohort of boys born between 1907 and 1922 in Wellington, New Zealand. Using a dataset of 1523 birth records that include birth weight and length we find 852 (58%) of the adult cohort in World War II records measuring stature, body mass and blood pressure. On average, the boys weighed 3.5 kg at birth, similar to Australian and American babies of the era, and nearly identical to full-term New Zealand babies in the 1990s. Using OLS regression models we estimate the effect of birth weight on adult stature and systolic blood pressure. We find an increase in birth weight of 1 kg is associated with an increase in stature of 2.6 cm (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 cm-3.6 cm), and a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 2.1 mm/Hg (95% CI - 5.00 to 0.67). This is the earliest cohort by fifty years for whom the fetal origins hypothesis has been examined in early adulthood. Our estimates of the effect of birth weight on blood pressure are towards the upper end of the range of published estimates in modern cohorts.

  19. [Management of wheezing disorders in infants participating in the PARIS birth cohort].

    PubMed

    Herr, M; Nikasinovic, L; Foucault, C; Le Marec, A M; Giordanella, J P; Just, J; Momas, I

    2012-01-01

    While wheezing disorders are common in preschool children, their management is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the use of medical health care resources due to wheezing disorders in infants aged 18 months followed up in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medication on account of respiratory disorders during the previous 12 months were collected with a standardized questionnaire, administered by a paediatrician, during the health check offered to every child aged 18 months included in the PARIS birth cohort. The prevalence of wheezing disorders during the past 12 months amounted to 560/1974 (28.4%). Among wheezers, 493 (89.3%) required a medical visit because of difficult breathing; 61 (11.0%) went to the emergency room, 35 (6.4%) were admitted to the hospital and 375 (67.2%) received an inhaled anti-asthmatic medication. Recourse to chest physiotherapy was reported in 472 of them (85.1%). This study confirms the high use of healthcare resources because of wheezing disorders in infants and suggests a higher use of anti-asthmatic medications in France compared to other European countries. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Incinerator pollution and child development in the taiwan birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2013-05-31

    This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  1. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

  2. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sonia S; Vasudevan, Anil; Gupta, Milan; Morrison, Katherine; Kurpad, Anura; Teo, Koon K; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2013-01-28

    People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  3. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary. PMID:23727903

  4. Secular trends and birth cohort effects in unprovoked seizures: Rochester, Minnesota 1935-1984.

    PubMed

    Annegers, J F; Hauser, W A; Lee, J R; Rocca, W A

    1995-06-01

    The incidence of idiopathic/cryptogenic epilepsy and isolated unprovoked seizures has been relatively stable in the population of Rochester, Minnesota, for the 50-year period 1935 through 1984. In each decade, the age-specific rates exhibited a consistent U-shaped pattern of decreasing rates from infancy to age 40-49 and a progressive increase thereafter to a second peak at age 70 years. Males had a 15% higher incidence of cryptogenic unprovoked seizures than females. The most pronounced secular trend was a decrease in the incidence in children aged < 10 years for the first 4 decades of the study; however, this trend was interrupted by a slight rebound in the decade 1975-1984. There has been a progressive decrease in the incidence of cryptogenic unprovoked seizures in individuals aged > or = 50 from 1965 through 1984. This decrease paralleled the decrease in cerebrovascular disease in the community. The decrease in idiopathic unprovoked seizures may be related to a concurrent trend in "silent stroke." Plots and Poisson regression analysis did not show patterns in the incidence of idiopathic unprovoked seizures related to successive birth cohorts. However, significantly lower incidence rates were observed for the 1930-1934 birth cohort, about half that of all others, between the ages of 5 and 54 years.

  5. Math learning disorder: incidence in a population-based birth cohort, 1976-82, Rochester, Minn.

    PubMed

    Barbaresi, William J; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    To report the incidence of math learning disorder (Math LD) among school-aged children, overall and by gender. To compare incidence estimates obtained by using three different methods to identify Math LD cases. To assess the extent to which children manifest Math LD alone, versus Math LD with comorbid reading disorder. This is a population-based, retrospective, birth cohort study. Subjects included all children born 1976-82 who remained in Rochester, Minn after age 5 (N = 5718). Using records from all public and private schools, medical facilities, and private tutorial services, all individually administered intelligence quotient and achievement tests and extensive medical, educational, and socioeconomic information were abstracted. Math LD was established using research criteria based on 3 formulas (regression-based discrepancy, nonregression-based discrepancy, low achievement). Cumulative incidence rates of Math LD by age 19 years varied from 5.9% to 13.8% according to the formula used. Boys were more likely to be affected than girls, with relative risk ratios from 1.6 to 2.2 depending on the formula applied. Many children with Math LD (35% to 56.7%, depending on the formula used to define Math LD) did not have a comorbid reading disorder. These results, from a community-based birth cohort, suggest that Math LD is common among schoolchildren, and is significantly more frequent among boys than girls, regardless of definition. Many children with Math LD do not have an associated reading disorder.

  6. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-05-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0-3 months and 12-29/32 months with very little association at 3-12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age 4, indicating that height inequality, which was already present at birth, widened through differential growth rates to age 2 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. [Pregnancy-related anxiety and subthreshold autism trait in preschool children based a birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal

  8. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  9. Prenatal health, educational attainment, and intergenerational inequality: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Juho; Kaymakçalan, Hande; Mäki, Pirjo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the effects of prenatal health on educational attainment and on the reproduction of family background inequalities in education. Using Finnish birth cohort data, we analyze several maternal and fetal health variables, many of which have not been featured in the literature on long-term socioeconomic effects of health despite the effects of these variables on birth and short-term health outcomes. We find strong negative effects of mother's prenatal smoking on educational attainment, which are stronger if the mother smoked heavily but are not significant if she quit during the first trimester. Anemia during pregnancy is also associated with lower levels of attained education. Other indicators of prenatal health (pre-pregnancy obesity, mother's antenatal depressed mood, hypertension and preeclampsia, early prenatal care visits, premature birth, and small size for gestational age) do not predict educational attainment. Our measures explain little of the educational inequalities by parents' class or education. However, smoking explains 12%-and all health variables together, 19%-of the lower educational attainment of children born to unmarried mothers. Our findings point to the usefulness of proximate health measures in addition to general ones. They also point to the potentially important role played by early health in intergenerational processes.

  10. Birth cohort and calendar period trends in breast cancer mortality in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Tarone, R E; Chu, K C; Gaudette, L A

    1997-02-05

    Previous studies of regional and temporal variation in U.S. breast cancer mortality rates have been confined largely to analyses of rates for white women. Breast cancer mortality rates from 1969 through 1992 for white women and black women in four regions of the United States and for all women throughout Canada were compared to identify racial, regional, and temporal differences. Differences and trends in the rates were evaluated in view of breast cancer risk factors and relevant medical interventions. Age-period-cohort models were fit to the data, and changes in birth cohort trends (suggesting a change in a breast cancer risk factor or protective factor) and calendar period trends (suggesting, in part, the impact of new or improved medical interventions) were examined. Breast cancer mortality rates for white women were significantly higher in the Northeast than in any other region of the United States (two-sided t tests; P<.005); the rates for black women were not. Birth cohort trends for all women were similar until about 1940, with a moderation of mortality risk beginning around 1924. A marked moderation of risk by 4-year birth cohorts was observed for U.S. white women born after 1950, whereas stable or slightly decreasing trends were observed for U.S. black women and Canadian women. For women born from 1924 to around 1938, fertility rates increased for all three groups; after 1950, they declined uniformly. Looking at temporal effects, we found that the slope of the mortality calendar period trend increased in the 1980s compared with the 1970s for all women. In the last calendar period, 1991-1992, a trend of decreasing mortality rates was found for white women in the United States and for Canadian women. Widespread environmental exposures are unlikely to explain the higher relative breast cancer mortality rates observed for U.S. white women in the Northeast, since the rates for black women in this region were not higher than in other regions. The moderation of

  11. Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth - findings of a regional German birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Yvonne

    2016-07-07

    The aim was to assess the prevalence, distribution and associated risk factors of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in 3-year-old Thuringian children in 2013 as part of a prospective cohort study. The subjects (n = 377) were all participants in a Thuringian oral health programme. Children of the birth cohort 2009/2010 were invited to dental examination in the first year of life, followed up with continuous dental care over the next 3 years. Dental caries was scored using the WHO diagnostic criteria expanded to the d1-level without radiography. Enamel defects were assessed according to the modified DDE Index. Data were analysed statistically (multivariate logistic regression). The children were aged 3.3 ± 0.7 years and 52.5 % of them were male. Caries prevalence was 15.6 % and caries experience 0.9 ± 3.3 d1-4mfs. The prevalence of DDE was 5.3 % with an average of 2.7 (±1.4) affected teeth. Second primary molars were the most affected teeth and demarcated opacities the most prevalent type. No child had Amelogenesis imperfecta and six children showed hypomineralised second primary molars. Enamel defects were associated with preterm birth (p = 0.024; OR = 4.9) and hospitalisation in the first year of life (p = 0.013; OR = 4.6). A relatively small proportion of 3-year-old Thuringian children suffered from DDE, with second primary molars as the most affected teeth and demarcated opacities as the most prevalent type of defect. Preterm birth and hospitalisation in first year of life can be considered as risk factors for DDE in the primary dentition. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00003438.

  12. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Casas, Lidia; Santa Marina, Loreto; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Jimenez, Ana; Zock, Jan-Paul; Tardón, Adonina; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2,456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy between 2003 and 2008 in four regions of Spain. Socio-demographic, environmental and lifestyle information was obtained at two interviews during pregnancy, one at the first (mean:13.8±2.6 weeks of gestation) and the other at the third trimester (mean: 33.3±2.3 weeks of gestation). Information about prenatal use of indoor and outdoor insecticides (type, timing, place of application, place of storage) was obtained from the second interview. In a 3rd interview (mean: 16.2±6.9 months of age of children), information about postnatal indoor and outdoor insecticide use was obtained. Regression models examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and pesticide use to determine which characteristics predicted use prenatally and postnatally. Fifty-four percent of women reported using indoor insecticides during pregnancy, 45% in their bedroom and 47% elsewhere in the house. Plug-in devices were the most frequent application methods used in the pregnant woman's bedroom and insecticide sprays elsewhere in the house. The maternal factors related to prenatal use of indoor insecticides were parity, country of birth, educational level, region of residence, having a garden or yard with plants, and living near an agricultural area. These products continued to be used postnatally, although 20% of the women stopped using them. Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to pesticide exposure; thus knowing how pesticides are used during pregnancy and infancy may be a starting point for the study of their potential effects on health as well as useful for designing preventive actions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and macrosomia in a Canadian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Vinturache, Angela E; Chaput, Kathleen H; Tough, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    To compare demographic characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of term macrosomic infants of obese and non-obese mothers. A sample of 1996 singleton, term deliveries was drawn from the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort. Maternal self-reported socio-demographic and anthropometric information was linked to the clinical data on pregnancy and birth events abstracted from electronic health records. Demographic, obstetrical characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of macrosomic infants in obese, overweight, and normal weight women were compared. Multinomial regression analysis assessed the risk factors of macrosomia in primiparous and multiparous women stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, controlling for confounding variables. Macrosomia affected 10% of pregnancies in the study. Mothers whose infants were macrosomic were more likely to be Caucasian, obese, have had previous deliveries, undergo induction of labour and delivery by emergency C-section, particularly for labour abnormalities. Macrosomic infants were more likely to be delivered postdates, have meconium stained liquor and require resuscitation at birth. There were no significant differences in birth and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies between obese, overweight and normal weight women. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational age at delivery were risk factors for macrosomia in all women. Ethnicity and history of delivery of a macrosomic infant were additional independent risk factors in multiparas. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of delivery of a macrosomic infant in both primiparous and multiparous women. The maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies are similar in obese and normal weight women.

  14. Kinetics of the neutralizing antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus infections in a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Sande, C J; Mutunga, M N; Okiro, E A; Medley, G F; Cane, P A; Nokes, D J

    2013-11-01

    The kinetics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) neutralizing antibodies following birth, primary and secondary infections are poorly defined. The aims of the study were to measure and compare neutralizing antibody responses at different time points in a birth cohort followed-up over three RSV epidemics. Rural Kenyan children, recruited at birth between 2002 and 2003, were monitored for RSV infection over three epidemic seasons. Cord and 3-monthly sera, and acute and convalescent sera following RSV infection, were assayed in 28 children by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Relative to the neutralizing antibody titers of pre-exposure control sera (1.8 log10 PRNT), antibody titers following primary infection were (i) no different in sera collected between 0 and 0.4 months post-infection (1.9 log10 PRNT, P=0.146), (ii) higher in sera collected between 0.5 and 0.9 (2.8 log10 PRNT, P<0.0001), 1.0-1.9 (2.5 log10 PRNT, P<0.0001), and 2.0-2.9 (2.3 log10 PRNT, P<0.001) months post-infection, and (iii) no different in sera collected at between 3.0 and 3.9 months post-infection (2.0 log10 PRNT, P=0.052). The early serum neutralizing response to secondary infection (3.02 log10 PRNT) was significantly greater than the early primary response (1.9 log10 PRNT, P<0.0001). Variation in population-level virus transmission corresponded with changes in the mean cohort-level neutralizing titers. It is concluded that following primary RSV infection the neutralizing antibody response declines to pre-infection levels rapidly (~3 months) which may facilitate repeat infection. The kinetics of the aggregate levels of acquired antibody reflect seasonal RSV occurrence, age, and infection history.

  15. Is fetal macrosomia related to blood pressure among adolescents? A birth cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wu, J; Yu, J; Gao, E; Meads, C; Afnan, M; Ren, J; Rong, F

    2013-11-01

    Birth weight (BW) has effects on blood pressure (BP). In order to explore the effects of macrosomia on BP in childhood and in adolescence, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Wuxi, China. Subjects with BW ≥4000 g, born in 1993-1995, were the exposed group; the unexposed comparisons were matched by year of birth and sex of infant, with BW of 2500-4000 g. Follow-ups in 2005-6 and 2011-12 were conducted, and height, weight and BP were measured by trained doctors. Multi-mixed models in SAS were used to control for repeated measures to explore the effects of fetal macrosomia on BP. At the inception of the cohort, 1595 pairs of participants were recruited. At the end, 1112 in the exposed group and 1126 in the unexposed group finished both follow-ups. Among adolescents, mean (s.d.) of systolic BP (SBP) was 110.83 (9.43)  mm  Hg, which was statistically significantly higher than that in the unexposed group (mean ± s.d.: 109.33 ± 9.26)  mm  Hg (P=0.0002). After adjusting the repeated measures and birth year, sex, mother's occupation and delivery age, adding weight during pregnancy, hypertension during delivery, gestational age and parity, being a picky eater in childhood, the macrosomia group had higher SBP than the normal BW group; the parameter estimate value was 1.03 (s.e.=0.30). When BMI in childhood and BMI in adolescence were added in the multi-model, the estimated β was 0.71 (s.e.=0.29). No statistically significant effect of macrosomia was found on diastolic BP among adolescents in the multianalysis.

  16. Risk factors and birth outcomes of anaemia in early pregnancy in a nulliparous cohort.

    PubMed

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Baker, Philip N; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of 'low risk' women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization's definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia's conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy.

  17. Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes of Anaemia in Early Pregnancy in a Nulliparous Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Khashan, Ali S.; Kenny, Louise C.; Baker, Philip N.; Nelson, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health and economic problem worldwide, that contributes to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of the study was to calculate the prevalence of anaemia in early pregnancy in a cohort of ‘low risk’ women participating in a large international multicentre prospective study (n = 5 609), to identify the modifiable risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy in this cohort, and to compare the birth outcomes between pregnancies with and without anaemia in early gestation. Methods The study is an analysis of data that were collected prospectively during the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization’s definition of anaemia in pregnancy (haemoglobin < 11g/dL). Binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders (country, maternal age, having a marital partner, ethnic origin, years of schooling, and having paid work) was the main method of analysis. Results The hallmark findings were the low prevalence of anaemia (2.2%), that having no marital partner was an independent risk factor for having anaemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.78), and that there was no statistically significant effect of anaemia on adverse pregnancy outcomes (small for gestational age, pre-tem birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, APGAR score < 7 at one and five minutes). Adverse pregnancy outcomes were however more common in those with anaemia than in those without. Conclusion In this low risk healthy pregnant population we found a low anaemia rate. The absence of a marital partner was a non-modifiable factor, albeit one which may reflect a variety of confounding factors, that should be considered for addition to anaemia’s conceptual framework of determinants. Although not statistically significant, clinically, a trend towards a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed in women that were anaemic in early pregnancy. PMID:25875012

  18. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  20. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Inácio Cm; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-12-01

    Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Physical activity levels in three Brazilian birth cohorts as assessed with raw triaxial wrist accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Inácio CM; van Hees, Vincent T; Ramires, Virgílio V; Knuth, Alan G; Bielemann, Renata M; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data on objectively measured physical activity are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured overall physical activity and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals from the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, according to weight status, socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. Methods: All children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in hospitals in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, constitute the sampling frame; of these 99% agreed to participate. The most recent follow-ups were conducted between 2010 and 2013. In total, 8974 individuals provided valid data derived from raw triaxial wrist accelerometry. The average acceleration is presented in milli-g (1 mg = 0.001g), and time (min/d) spent in MVPA (>100 mg) is presented in 5- and 10-min bouts. Results: Mean acceleration in the 1982 (mean age 30.2 years), 1993 (mean age 18.4 years) and 2004 (mean age 6.7 years) cohorts was 35 mg, 39 mg and 60 mg, respectively. Time spent in MVPA was 26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 25; 27], 43 (95% CI 42; 44) and 45 (95% CI 43; 46) min/d in the three cohorts, respectively, using 10-min bouts. Mean MVPA was on average 42% higher when using 5-min bouts. Males were more active than females and physical activity was inversely associated with age of the cohort and SES. Normal-weight individuals were more active than underweight, overweight and obese participants. Conclusions: Overall physical activity and time spent in MVPA differed by cohort (age), sex, weight status and SES. Higher levels of activity in low SES groups may be explained by incidental physical activity. PMID:25361583

  2. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pot, G K; Prynne, C J; Almoosawi, S; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M

    2015-07-01

    As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically, and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Food consumption of participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey on Health and Development, a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5-day estimated food records at 60-64 years (2006-11), 53 years (1999), 43 years (1989) and 36 years (1982). Only those who recorded ⩾3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (P<0.001), whereas consumption of wholemeal and granary bread, semi-skimmed milk, fish and fruit and vegetables increased (P<0.001) over time. These observed changes in food consumption reflect a healthier diet, for example, replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be because of ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years.

  3. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Prynne, Celia J; Almoosawi, Suzana; Kuh, Diana; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Background As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Subjects/Methods Food consumption of participants from the MRC National Survey on Health and Development (NSHD), a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5 day estimated food records at 60-64y (2006-11), 53y (1999), 43y (1989), and 36y (1982). Only those who recorded ≥ 3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Results Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, and sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (p<0.001) whilst consumption of wholemeal and granary bread, semi-skimmed milk, fish, and fruit and vegetables increased (p<0.001) over time. These observed changes in food consumption reflect a healthier diet, e.g. replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables, and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be due to ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. Conclusions The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years. PMID:25351642

  4. Low birth weight and features of neuroticism and mood disorder in 83 545 participants of the UK Biobank cohort

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Hazel M.; Mackay, Daniel; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Hotopf, Matthew; Kendrick, Tony; Pell, Jill P.; Smith, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been conducted in large cohorts. Aims To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight (1500–2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD. We controlled for possible confounding factors. Method Retrospective cohort study using baseline data on the 83 545 UK Biobank participants with detailed mental health and birth weight data. Main outcomes were prevalent MDD and BD, and neuroticism assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale - Revised (EPIN-R) Results Referent to normal birth weight, very low/low birth weight were associated with higher neuroticism scores, increased MDD and BD. The associations between birth weight category and MDD were partially mediated by higher neuroticism. Conclusions These findings suggest that intrauterine programming may play a role in lifetime vulnerability to affective disorders. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703752

  5. Postnatal Risk of Acquiring Kawasaki Disease: A Nationwide Birth Cohort Database Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lin, Min-Tai; Chen, Hui-Chi; Kao, Feng-Yu; Huang, San-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease and coronary complications from a nationwide birth cohort in Taiwan, a country with the third-highest incidence of Kawasaki disease worldwide. We enrolled children born between 2000 and 2009 with complete postnatal medical care records for 2000-2014 in the Taiwan national database. Out of a total of 2 150 590 live births, we identified 6690 (62.6% boys) patients with Kawasaki disease. The onset was mostly (93.9%) within the first 5 years of life (median, 16 months; 38% during infancy), but was rare within the first 3 months of life. The overall cumulative incidence of Kawasaki disease by age 5 years was 2.78‰ (3.33‰ for boys and 2.17‰ for girls; P < .001) and exhibited an increasing trend with birth year (from 2.28‰ for 2000 to 3.67‰ for 2009). The incidence ratio was 1.535 in boys and 1.055 in each increasing year. Kawasaki disease recurred more often in younger patients (cumulative incidence, 2.3% in infants vs 1.7% in children aged 1-4 years). Coronary complications occurred in 16.2% of the patients, including 4 cases of acute myocardial infarction (3 occuring during the acute stage and 1 occurring 5 years later). The probability of a major cardiac event (infarction, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting, or death) by adolescence was 1.9%. The postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease was 3‰-4‰ and increased with every birth year. Patients with Kawasaki disease are at substantial risk for a major cardiac events during childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Lisa M.; Niu, Xiaoling; Pawlish, Karen S.; Henry, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques. PMID:22187575

  7. From developmental origins of adult disease to life course research on adult disease and aging: insights from birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Power, Chris; Kuh, Diana; Morton, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Maturation of long-running birth cohort studies has fostered a life course approach to adult health, function, and disease and related to conceptual frameworks. Using broad concepts of human development including physical, cognitive, and emotional function, birth cohorts provide insights into the processes across the life course and between generations that link to adult outcomes. We discuss findings on the determinants and health consequences of lifetime trajectories of body size, cognitive and emotional function, and socioeconomic position. Findings from the studies suggest that, for some adult health outcomes, explanations will be incomplete unless exposures and processes from across the life course are taken into account. New birth cohort studies are poised to delineate further the nature and timing of life course relationships in contemporary generations of children.

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence in New Jersey: time trend, birth cohort and socioeconomic status analysis (1979-2006).

    PubMed

    Roche, Lisa M; Niu, Xiaoling; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  9. Confirmation of microevolutionary increase in spina bifida occulta among Swiss birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Chao; Solomon, Lucian Bogdan; Rühli, Frank Jakobus; Schiess, Regula; Öhrström, Lena; Sullivan, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Henneberg, Maciej

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies on the prevalence of spina bifida occulta have indicated a microevolutionary increase in its frequency and possible population differences in the prevalence of the condition. We studied the frequencies of closed and open sacral canals at each sacral level among two birth cohorts in Switzerland. Transverse CT scans and multiplanar reconstruction images of sacra of 95 males and 96 females born in 1940-1950 and 99 males and 94 females born in 1970-1980 in Switzerland were reviewed. We found that individuals born later have significantly more open sacral arches at all sacral levels compared to those born 30-40 years earlier. When results were related to previously published data on Australian cohorts, the trend was the same, but Swiss in both cohorts were less likely to have an open section than Australians at all locations apart from S2. This study confirmed a microevolutionary trend in the opening of sacral canal among two different generations in Switzerland and demonstrated a population difference in the prevalence of spina bifida occulta.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences: Prevalence and related factors in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Howe, Laura D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect people's health and wellbeing not only at the time the ACE is experienced, but also later in life. The majority of studies on ACEs are carried out in high-income countries and little is known about its prevalence in low and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ACEs, associations between ACEs and sociodemographic factors, and the interrelationship between types of ACEs in adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort. Data from 3,951 adolescents (78.4% of the original cohort) from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort were analyzed. Seven types of ACEs were assessed in those up to 18 years old: physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, domestic violence, parental separation and parental death. The most common ACE was parental separation (42%), followed by emotional neglect (19.7%) and domestic violence (10.3%). Approximately 85% of the adolescents experienced at least one ACE, and females reported a higher number of adversities. Several socioeconomic, demographic and family-related characteristics were associated with the occurrence of ACEs, e.g. non-white skin color, low family income, low maternal schooling, absence of mother's partner, maternal smoking, and poor maternal mental health. A strong interrelationship was observed among the ACEs, indicating clustering of risk. These aspects should be considered by health and social care professionals in the prevention and identification of childhood adversities.

  11. Use of antiepileptic or benzodiazepine medication and suicidal ideation--The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, I; Jääskeläinen, E; Isohanni, M; Koponen, H; Ansakorpi, H; Miettunen, J

    2015-05-01

    Both antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) have previously been associated with an increased risk of suicidality. Our aim was to study the association between the use of conventional AEDs and BZDs and suicidal ideation in a large population-based cohort. Information on the medications used in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was collected from the subjects at the age of 31 years, using a postal questionnaire (N=8211). The presence of suicidal ideation and other symptoms of depression and anxiety was assessed via the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 questionnaire. The associations between medications and suicidal ideation were studied in different diagnostic groups and adjusted for symptoms of depression and anxiety. No difference was observed in suicidal ideation between AED users (n=54) and nonusers (n=8157). Subjects using BZDs (n=147) had greater suicidal ideation compared with nonusers (n=8064). Antiepileptic drug and benzodiazepine users more often exhibited other depression and anxiety symptoms. After adjustment for these symptoms, both AED and BZD users had less suicidal ideation compared with nonusers. In conclusion, in this population-based cohort, neither the use of AEDs nor that of BZDs was found to be associated with increased suicidal ideation when the symptoms of depression and anxiety were taken into account.

  12. Neonatal mortality risk for repeat cesarean compared to vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) deliveries in the United States, 1998-2002 birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Menacker, Fay; MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene

    2010-03-01

    To examine trends in repeat cesarean delivery, the characteristics of women who have repeat cesareans, and the risk of neonatal mortality for repeat cesarean birth compared to vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Trends and characteristics of repeat cesareans were examined for: the period 1998-2002 for [1] all births, [2] low-risk births (singleton, term, vertex births) and [3] "no indicated risk" (NIR) births (singleton, term, vertex presentation births with no reported medical risks or complications). For low-risk and NIR births, neonatal mortality rates for repeat cesareans and VBACs were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the risk of neonatal mortality for repeat cesareans and VBACs, after controlling for demographic and health factors. In 2002 the repeat cesarean rate was 87.4%, and varied little by maternal risk status or by demographic and health characteristics. From 1998-2002 rates increased by 20% for low risk and by 21% for NIR births, respectively. For low-risk women for the 1998-2002 birth cohorts, the adjusted odds ratio for neonatal mortality associated with repeat cesarean delivery (compared with VBAC) was 1.36 (95% C.I. 1.20-1.55). For NIR women, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.24 (0.99-1.55). The experience of a prior cesarean has apparently become a major indication for a repeat cesarean. Regardless of maternal risk status, almost 90% of women with a prior cesarean have a subsequent (i.e., repeat) cesarean delivery. This is the case even if there was no other reported medical indication. Our findings do not support the widely-held belief that neonatal mortality risk is significantly lower for repeat cesarean compared to VBAC delivery.

  13. The role of labor pain and overall birth experience in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Knoph, Cecilie; von Soest, Tilmann; Nielsen, Christopher S; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the role of labor pain and overall birth experience in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a comprehensive framework. The study sample (N = 1893) comprised women with a vaginal delivery and was drawn from the Akershus Birth Cohort, which targeted all women scheduled to give birth at Akershus University Hospital in Norway. Questionnaires were given at three different stages: from pregnancy weeks 17 to 32, from the maternity ward, and from 8 weeks postpartum. Data were also obtained from the hospital's birth record. Using structural equation modeling, a prospective mediation model was tested. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were significantly related to both labor pain (r = 0.23) and overall birth experience (r = 0.39). A substantial portion (33%) of the effect of labor pain on posttraumatic stress symptoms was mediated by the overall birth experience. Although the results of this study showed that both labor pain and overall birth experience played a role in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth, overall birth experience appeared to be the central factor. The women's birth experience was not only related to posttraumatic stress symptoms directly but also mediated a substantial portion of the effect of labor pain on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future work should address which areas of birth experience confer protective effects on women to improve clinical care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone caproate did not reduce the rate of recurrent preterm birth in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David B; McIntire, Donald D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Gard, John; Turrichi, Paula; Leveno, Kenneth J

    2017-06-01

    17-alpha Hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of recurrent preterm birth is recommended for use in the United States. We sought to assess the clinical effectiveness of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent recurrent preterm birth ≤35 weeks compared to similar births in our obstetric population prior to the implementation of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. This was a prospective cohort study of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate in our obstetric population. The primary outcome was the recurrence of birth ≤35 weeks for the entire study cohort compared to a historical referent rate of 16.8% of recurrent preterm birth in our population. There were 3 secondary outcomes. First, did 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate modify a woman's history of preterm birth when taking into account her prior number and sequence of preterm and term births? Second, was recurrence of preterm birth related to 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentration? Third, was duration of pregnancy modified by 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate treatment compared to a prior preterm birth? From January 2012 through March 2016, 430 consecutive women with prior births ≤35 weeks were treated with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Nearly two thirds of the women (N = 267) began injections ≤18 weeks and 394 (92%) received a scheduled weekly injection within 10 days of reaching 35 weeks or delivery. The overall rate of recurrent preterm birth was 25% (N = 106) for the entire cohort compared to the 16.8% expected rate (P = 1.0). The 3 secondary outcomes were also negative. First, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate did not significantly reduce the rates of recurrence regardless of prior preterm birth number or sequence. Second, plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were not different (P = .17 at 24 weeks; P = .38 at 32 weeks) between women delivered ≤35 weeks and those delivered later in pregnancy. Third, the mean (

  15. Mental disorders in new parents before and after birth: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elizabeth; Binns, Colin; Homer, Caroline S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders of women during the postnatal period are a major public health problem. Compared with women’s mental disorders, much less attention has been paid to men’s mental disorders in the perinatal period. To date, there have been no reports in the literature describing secular changes of both maternal and paternal hospital admissions for mental disorders over the period covering the year before pregnancy (non-parents), during pregnancy (expectant parents) and up to the first year after birth (parents) based on linked parental data. The co-occurrences of couples’ hospital admissions for mental disorders have not previously been investigated. Aims To describe maternal and paternal hospital admissions for mental disorders before and after birth. To compare the co-occurrences of parents’ hospital admissions for mental disorder in the perinatal period. Method This is a cohort study using paired parents’ population data from the New South Wales (NSW) Perinatal Data Collection (PDC), Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) and Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC). The study included all parents (n=196 669 couples) who gave birth to their first child in NSW between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2009. Results The hospital admission rate for women with a principal mental disorder diagnosis in the period between the year before pregnancy and the first year after birth was significantly higher than that for men. Parents’ mental disorders influenced each other. If a man was admitted to hospital with a principal mental disorder diagnosis, his wife or partner was more likely to be admitted to hospital with a principal mental disorder diagnosis compared with women whose partner had not had a hospital admission, and vice versa. Conclusions Mothers’ mental disorders after birth increased more significantly than fathers. However, fathers’ mental disorders significantly impacted the co-occurrence of mothers’ mental disorders

  16. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Mary B; Silverwood, Richard J; Nitsch, Dorothea; Adams, Judith E; Stephen, Alison M; Nip, Wing; Macfarlane, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9); only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%), obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%), raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%), and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%). A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the individual's ability to adapt to and self manage changes in

  17. Comparing profiles of mental disorder across birth cohorts: results from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Buchan, Heather; Batterham, Philip J; Slade, Tim

    2014-05-01

    To describe and compare individuals with any DSM-IV mental disorder from three different birth cohorts - young (16-34 years), middle age (35-59 years) and older age (60-85 years) - on a range of clinically relevant factors. Data were derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Individuals from three birth cohorts with a range of mental health and substance use disorders were identified using DSM-IV criteria and compared using regression analysis. The specific factors that were compared include: (1) type of disorder/disorders present; (2) suicidality; (3) number of co-occurring disorders; (4) levels of distress and impairment; (5) self-assessed physical and mental health; (6) presence of physical conditions; (7) size and quality of social support/network; and (8) treatment-seeking behaviour. The birth cohorts differed dramatically in terms of the specific disorders that were present. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience internalising disorders and significantly less likely to experience externalising disorders in comparison to the young cohort. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience co-morbid physical conditions as well as lower life satisfaction, poorer self-rated physical health, increased functional impairment, and more days out of role. The younger cohort had a significantly larger peer group that they could confide in and rely on in comparison to the older cohort. Clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant that mental disorders manifest as highly heterogeneous constructs. The presentation of a disorder in a younger individual could be vastly different from the presentation of the same disorder in an older individual. The additional burden associated with these factors and how they apply to different birth cohorts must be taken into consideration when planning mental health services and effective treatment for the general population.

  18. The course of skull deformation from birth to 5 years of age: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Engelbert, Raoul Hh; Pelsma, Maaike; Groenewoud, Hans Mm; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; der Sanden, Maria Wg Nijhuis-van

    2017-01-01

    In a continuation of a prospective longitudinal cohort study in a healthy population on the course of skull shape from birth to 24 months, at 5 years of age, 248 children participated in a follow-up assessment using plagiocephalometry (ODDI-oblique diameter difference index, CPI-cranio proportional index). Data from the original study sampled at birth, 7 weeks, 6, 12, and 24 months were used in two linear mixed models.

  19. Bisphenol A and Adiposity in an Inner-City Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hoepner, Lori A.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Widen, Elizabeth M.; Hassoun, Abeer; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Mueller, Noel T.; Diaz, Diurka; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) may contribute to the development of obesity. Prospective evidence in humans on this topic is limited. Objectives: We examined prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures in relation to childhood measures of adiposity in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) New York City birth cohort. Methods: BPA concentrations were measured in prenatal (n = 375) and child ages 3 (n = 408) and 5 years (n = 518) spot urine samples. Childhood anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance outcomes included body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) at 5 and 7 years, and fat mass index (FMI), percent body fat (%BF), and waist circumference (WC) at 7 years. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression with continuous and tertile BPA concentrations. Results: Prenatal urinary BPA concentrations were positively associated with child age 7 FMI (β = 0.31 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.60, p = 0.04), %BF (β = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.03, 1.55, p = 0.04), and WC (β = 1.29 cm; 95% CI: 0.29, 2.30, p = 0.01), but not BMIZ, or change in BMIZ between ages 5 and 7 years (all p-values > 0.1). FMI results were sex-specific. Child urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric outcomes (all p-values > 0.05). Conclusions: Analyses of the CCCEH longitudinal birth cohort found associations between prenatal urinary BPA concentrations and FMI, %BF, and WC. Our results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may contribute to developmental origins of adiposity. These findings are consistent with several prior studies, raising concern about the pervasiveness of BPA. Citation: Hoepner LA, Whyatt RM, Widen EM, Hassoun A, Oberfield SE, Mueller NT, Diaz D, Calafat AM, Perera FP, Rundle AG. 2016. Bisphenol A and adiposity in an inner-city birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1644–1650; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP205 PMID:27187982

  20. Adult outcomes of binge drinking in adolescence: findings from a UK national birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Viner, R M; Taylor, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine outcomes in adult life of binge drinking in adolescence in a national birth cohort. Longitudinal birth cohort: 1970 British Birth Cohort Study surveys at 16 years (1986) and 30 years (2000). A total of 11 622 subjects participated at age 16 years and 11 261 subjects participated at age 30 years. At the age of 16 years, data on binge drinking (defined as two or more episodes of drinking four or more drinks in a row in the previous 2 weeks) and frequency of habitual drinking in the previous year were collected. Thirty-year outcomes recorded were alcohol dependence/abuse (CAGE questionnaire), regular weekly alcohol consumption (number of units), illicit drug use, psychological morbidity (Malaise Inventory) and educational, vocational and social history. 17.7% of participants reported binge drinking in the previous 2 weeks at the age of 16 years. Adolescent binge drinking predicted an increased risk of adult alcohol dependence (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0), excessive regular consumption (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.1), illicit drug use (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9), homelessness (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4), convictions (1.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5), school exclusion (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.2), lack of qualifications (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), accidents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6) and lower adult social class, after adjustment for adolescent socioeconomic status and adolescent baseline status of the outcome under study. These findings were largely unchanged in models including both adolescent binge drinking and habitual frequent drinking as main effects. Adolescent binge drinking is a risk behaviour associated with significant later adversity and social exclusion. These associations appear to be distinct from those associated with habitual frequent alcohol use. Binge drinking may contribute to the development of health and social inequalities during the transition from adolescence to

  1. [Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and fetal outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Ge, X; Xu, Y Q; Huang, S H; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Hao, J H; Niu, Y; Yan, S Q; Tao, F B

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the relations between the second and third trimesters intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and the fetal outcomes, in order to provide medical advice for early detection and intervention on ICP. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Ma' anshan, Anhui, China (Ma'anshan Birth Cohort, MABC). Pregnant women within 14 weeks of gestation were consecutively recruited when standards were met. Anthropometrics were collected in early pregnancy. Maternal serum total bile acid level (TBA) was collected in the second and third trimesters, and women were viewed as cases if the results were accorded with clinical diagnosis. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations of the second and third trimester ICP, and fetal outcomes. A total of 2 978 pregnant women were included in this study. The rate of ICP was 6.5% (n=196), and the rates of the second and third trimesters were 1.4% (n=43) and 5.1% (n=153) respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, we found that ICP from both the second and third trimesters could increase the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), fetal distress and meconium-stained amniotic fluid.OR values (95% CI) were 6.42 (2.59-15.93) and 3.73 (2.07-6.72) for preterm birth while 6.52 (2.19-19.45) and 4.90 (2.43-9.90) for LBW, 2.91 (1.27-6.67) and 1.88 (1.11-3.19) for fetal distress and 2.34 (1.19-4.61) and 1.66 (1.11-2.48) for meconium-stained amniotic fluids, respectively. The risk of adverse fetal outcomes caused by the second trimester ICP appeared significantly higher than the third trimester ICP. ICP from the second and third trimesters significantly increased the risk of adverse fetal outcomes, suggesting that clinicians should put more attention to the second trimester ICP. Both early detection and intervention were of great importance in reducing the adverse fetal outcomes.

  2. A study of the birth weight-obesity relation using a longitudinal cohort and sibling and twin pairs.

    PubMed

    The, Natalie S; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-09-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994-2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11-21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Among persons with a nonobese mother, high birth weight (>4 kg) participants were more likely than normal birth weight (>/=2.5-Birth weight difference was positively associated with body mass index difference later in life for female monozygotic pairs only (beta = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 4.35). Given the null associations observed in the sibling sample, the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity from cohort analyses may be attributed to confounding by maternal characteristics. Further research is needed to identify specific factors that contribute to the birth weight-obesity relation.

  3. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Victora, Cesar G; Golding, Jean; Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria; Araujo, Cora L; Smith, George Davey

    2009-01-01

    Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separately for males and females. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between overweight status and two SEP indicators – family income and maternal education. Results A strong positive association was observed in 11-year-old boys from the 1993 Pelotas cohort, with higher prevalence of overweight among the least poor and among those whose mothers had more years of schooling (x2 for linear trend p < 0.001). In ALSPAC study higher prevalence of overweight was seen among boys whose mothers had lower educational achievement (x2 for linear trend p = 0.006). Among 11 year-old girls from 1993 Pelotas cohort study there was a positive association (higher prevalence of overweight in the higher socioeconomic and educational strata, x2 for linear trend p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) while an inverse association was found in the ALSPAC study (x2 for linear trend p < 0.001). Among males from the 1982 cohort study, overweight at 18 years of age showed a positive association with both SEP indicators while among females, the reverse association was found. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the social patterning of overweight varies between and within populations over time. Specific approaches should be developed within populations in order to contain the obesity epidemic and reduce disparities. PMID:19368733

  4. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Objective In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Design Longitudinal panel. Setting Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994–2011). Population Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20–69 years in 1994–1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965–1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955–1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945–1954), World War II (born: 1935–1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925–1934). Main outcomes Use of primary care and specialist services. Results Although the overall pattern suggested less use of physician services by each successive recent cohort, this blinded differences in primary and specialist care use by cohort. Multilevel analyses comparing cohorts showed that Gen Xers and younger boomers, particularly those with multimorbidity, were less likely to use primary care than earlier cohorts. In contrast, specialist use was higher in recent cohorts, with Gen Xers having the highest specialist use. These increases were explained by the increasing levels of multimorbidity. Education, income, having a regular source of care, sedentary lifestyle and obesity were significantly associated with physician services use, but only partially contributed to cohort differences. Conclusions The findings suggest a shift from primary care to specialist care among recent cohorts, particularly for those with multimorbidity. This is of concern given policies to promote primary care services to prevent and manage chronic conditions. There is a need for policies to address important generational differences in healthcare preferences and the balance between primary and specialty care to ensure integration and coordination of healthcare delivery. PMID:27687902

  5. Size at Birth, Weight Gain in Infancy and Childhood, and Adult Diabetes Risk in Five Low- or Middle-Income Country Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A.; Osmond, Clive; Gigante, Denise; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Lee, Nanette R.; Ramirez-Zea, Manual; Richter, Linda M.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Fall, Caroline H.D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined associations of birth weight and weight gain in infancy and early childhood with type 2 diabetes (DM) risk in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 6,511 young adults from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Exposures were weight at birth, at 24 and 48 months, and adult weight, and conditional weight gain (CWG, deviation from expected weight gain) between these ages. Outcomes were adult fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose or DM (IFG/DM), and insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment (IR-HOMA, three cohorts). RESULTS Birth weight was inversely associated with adult glucose and risk of IFG/DM (odds ratio 0.91[95% CI 0.84–0.99] per SD). Weight at 24 and 48 months and CWG 0–24 and 24–48 months were unrelated to glucose and IFG/DM; however, CWG 48 months–adulthood was positively related to IFG/DM (1.32 [1.22–1.43] per SD). After adjusting for adult waist circumference, birth weight, weight at 24 and 48 months and CWG 0–24 months were inversely associated with glucose and IFG/DM. Birth weight was unrelated to IR-HOMA, whereas greater CWG at 0–24 and 24–48 months and 48 months–adulthood predicted higher IR-HOMA (all P < 0.001). After adjusting for adult waist circumference, birth weight was inversely related to IR-HOMA. CONCLUSIONS Lower birth weight and accelerated weight gain after 48 months are risk factors for adult glucose intolerance. Accelerated weight gain between 0 and 24 months did not predict glucose intolerance but did predict higher insulin resistance. PMID:22100968

  6. Critical assessment of the research outcomes of European birth cohorts: linking environmental factors with non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Piler, P; Kandrnal, V; Bláha, L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this review paper was to stimulate collaborative discussions toward the development of a general concept of an open source protocol for a feasible and efficient longitudinal birth cohort study exploring non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their multifactorial etiology and relations between various risk factors. The present paper systematically reviews the design of existing birth cohorts in Europe containing environmental exposure data, and assesses a quantity and quality of their research outcomes as their potential to be an effective tool for studying non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. European birth cohorts with more than 3000 participants have been included in the study. A total number of scientific papers published in the internationally recognized journals and their impact factors and citation records were evaluated for all cohorts as surrogates for their efficiency to contribute to NCDs understanding and thus their prevention. The birth cohorts contributing most significantly to the NCD understanding shared common features: (i) study size between 10,000 and 15,000 mother-child pairs; (ii) repeated assessment of children from prenatal into adulthood; and (iii) availability of biological samples. Smaller cohorts and cohorts with a specific focus generated a lower number of publications; however, these often received considerably a higher number of citations. General cohort studies with 10,000-15,000 mother-child pairs allow a broader context interpretation, publish a higher number of articles, and often lead to the formation of infrastructures for 'spin-off (nested) studies'. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: a comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor, Lisa C.; Messer, Lynne C.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Birth records are an important source of data for examining population-level birth outcomes, but questions about the reliability of these vital records exist. We sought to assess the reliability of birth certificate data by comparing them with data from a large prospective cohort. Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort study participants were matched with their birth certificates to assess agreement for maternal demographics, health behaviours, previous pregnancies and major pregnancy events. Agreement among categorical variables was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa statistics; for continuous variables, Spearman’s correlations and concordance correlation coefficients were used. The majority of variables had high agreement between the two data sources, especially for maternal demographic and birth outcome variables. Variables measuring anaemia, gestational diabetes and alcohol consumption showed the lowest correlations. Number of cigarettes smoked and number of previous pregnancies differed by education categories. For most variables, birth records appear to be a good source of reliable information. With the exception of a few variables that differed by education, most variables did not differ by stratum of race or education. Our research further supports the use of birth certificates as a reliable source of population-level data. PMID:20078836

  8. Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: a comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Messer, Lynne C; Laraia, Barbara A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    Birth records are an important source of data for examining population-level birth outcomes, but questions about the reliability of these vital records exist. We sought to assess the reliability of birth certificate data by comparing them with data from a large prospective cohort. Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort study participants were matched with their birth certificates to assess agreement for maternal demographics, health behaviours, previous pregnancies and major pregnancy events. Agreement among categorical variables was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa statistics; for continuous variables, Spearman's correlations and concordance correlation coefficients were used. The majority of variables had high agreement between the two data sources, especially for maternal demographic and birth outcome variables. Variables measuring anaemia, gestational diabetes and alcohol consumption showed the lowest correlations. Number of cigarettes smoked and number of previous pregnancies differed by education categories. For most variables, birth records appear to be a good source of reliable information. With the exception of a few variables that differed by education, most variables did not differ by stratum of race or education. Our research further supports the use of birth certificates as a reliable source of population-level data.

  9. Adolescent self-organization predicts midlife memory in a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man K; Jones, Peter B; Barnett, Jennifer H; Gaysina, Darya; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J; Richards, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60-64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent Self-Organization Predicts Midlife Memory in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60–64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

  11. Urban and Education Disparity for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening in 66-month-old children, and to explore the distribution of ASD screening and diagnosis in Taiwan. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095). The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) cut-off point of 13/14 was considered optimal for screening of children at 66 months. More children were diagnosed with ASD in urban areas. Parents of children diagnosed with ASD had a higher level of education, but parents of children with a lower level of education were screened as being at higher risk of ASD. Urban disparity and parental level of education effected parental awareness of the illness and the rate of ASD diagnosis.

  12. Correlation between the Cogstate computerized measure and WAIS-IV among birth cohort mothers.

    PubMed

    Kataja, Eeva-Leena; Karlsson, Linnea; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Parsons, Christine; Schembri, Adrian; Kiiski-Mäki, Hanna; Karlsson, Hasse

    2017-03-01

    Large studies, with limited resources call for cost-effective cognitive assessment methods. Computerized tests offer viable alternatives but more data are needed on their functioning. Our aim was to evaluate the overlap between a computerized neuropsychological test battery and a traditional test of general intelligence (IQ). Cognitive functioning was assessed in birth cohort mothers (n = 80) with two widely used methods: Cogstate, computerized test battery, and WAIS-IV, a traditional IQ test. Correlational analyses were conducted. We found weak-to-moderate correlations between the measures, except for verbal comprehension. The indices of overall performance showed more consistent correlations than Subtests. The overall correlations were in accordance with earlier studies. Cogstate is relatively independent of verbal comprehension abilities. The choice of the cognitive assessment method should be strongly guided by the research question. More studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of the Cogstate Composite Score in cognitive screening.

  13. Daytime sleep duration and the development of childhood overweight: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bolijn, R; Gubbels, J S; Sleddens, E F C; Kremers, S P J; Thijs, C

    2016-10-01

    Reduced nighttime sleep is a risk factor for childhood overweight, but the association between daytime sleep and overweight is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate daytime sleep duration as an independent risk factor for childhood overweight. Data from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study on daytime and nighttime sleep at 2 years (N = 2322), and body mass index (BMI) around 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years were used. Multivariable general estimating equation regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep duration with BMI (linear) and overweight (logistic). No associations between daytime sleep and BMI or overweight were found, whereas longer nighttime sleep was associated with lower BMI and lower risk of overweight persisting up to age 9. Daytime sleep duration is probably less relevant for prevention of childhood overweight. © 2015 World Obesity.

  14. Parental divorce and adult psychological distress: evidence from a national birth cohort: a research note.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, B; Power, C; Hope, S

    1997-10-01

    An association was found between childhood parental divorce and adult psychological distress in a British national birth cohort at ages 23 and 33. No moderating effects were found for gender, age at separation, or remarriage of the custodial parent. Participants who were young adults when their parents divorced also showed increased levels of symptomatology, whereas those who experienced parental death in childhood showed no increased risk. An interaction between parental divorce and own divorce in women, giving particularly high symptom levels, arose from a selection process in those from divorced families of origin only, with high 23-year scores predicting subsequent divorce. Own divorce was associated with an increase in distress between age 23 and 33, but this was irrespective of family of origin.

  15. The case for launch of an international DNA-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Chopra, Mickey; Aulchenko, Yurii; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Edmond, Karen; Horta, Bernardo L.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Nair, Harish; Qureshi, Zeshan; Rubens, Craig; Theodoratou, Evropi; Victora, Cesar G.; Wang, Wei; Weber, Martin W.; Wilson, James F.; Zgaga, Lina; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally. PMID:23198101

  16. Self-esteem, risky sexual behavior, and pregnancy in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy in late adolescence and early adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of engaging in unprotected sex (sexual intercourse with either an opposite- or same-sex partner without using a condom), a greater number of sexual partners, and a greater risk of pregnancy at ages 15-25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors, including family socioeconomic background, family functioning, child abuse, and individual characteristics and behavior, reduced the strength of these associations to statistically non-significant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy were weak and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.

  17. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  18. Premature birth and insulin resistance in infancy: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Payal, Vikas; Jora, Rakesh; Sharma, Pramod; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine the role of prematurity and other variables to predict insulin sensitivity in infancy. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study, 36 preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 preterm small for gestational age (SGA), and 17 term SGA included as study cohort and 36 term AGA as control cohort. Detailed anthropometry assessment was performed at birth, 3, 6, and 9 months and at 9 months, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin was done. Insulin resistance was determined by using homeostasis model assessment version 2. Results: It is found that preterm AGA (mean difference 0.617, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.43–0.80, P = 0.0001), preterm SGA (mean difference 0.764, 95% CI; 0.44–1.09, P = 0.0001), and term AGA (mean difference 0.725, 95% CI; 0.49–0.96, P = 0.0001) group had significantly higher insulin resistance than control. There was no significant difference in between preterm SGA and preterm AGA (mean difference 0.147 95% CI; −0.13–0.42, P = 0.927). In multiple regression models, SGA status (β =0.505) was more significant predictor of insulin resistance index than gestational age (β = −0.481), weight-for-length (β =0.315), and ponderal index (β = −0.194). Conclusion: Preterm birth is a risk factor for the future development of insulin resistance which may develop as early as infancy. PMID:27366716

  19. Avoidable deaths until 48 [corrected] months of age among children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gorgot, Luis Ramon Marques da Rocha; Santos, Iná; Valle, Neiva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matisajevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Albernaz, Elaine

    2011-04-01

    To describe avoidable deaths of children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The death of 92 children between 2004/2008 from Pelotas Birth Cohort were identified and classified according to the Brazilian List of Avoidable Causes of Mortality of Brazilian Unified Healthcare System. The Mortality Information System (SIM) for the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) and the city of Pelotas were screened to search for deaths that occurred outside the city, as well as causes of deaths after the 1st year. Causes of infant deaths (<1 year of age) were compared between information from a sub-study and SIM. Mortality coefficients per 1,000 LB and proportional mortality for avoidable causes, including by type of health facility (traditional or Family Health Strategy) were calculated. The mortality coefficient was 22.2/ 1,000 LB, 82 the deaths occurred in the first year of life (19.4/1,000LB), and these included 37 (45%) in the first week. More than ¾ of the deaths (70/92) were avoidable. In infancy, according to the sub-study, the majority (42/82) could be prevented through adequate care of the woman during pregnancy; according to SIM, the majority could have been prevented through adequate newborn care (32/82). There was no difference in the proportion of avoidable deaths by type of health facility. The proportion of avoidable deaths is high. The quality of death certificate registries needs improvement so that avoidable deaths can be employed as an indicator to monitor maternal and child health care.

  20. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  1. Parental separation in childhood and adult smoking in the 1958 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Sarah E; Lacey, Rebecca E

    2017-01-23

    Parental separation or divorce is a known risk factor for poorer adult health. One mechanism may operate through the uptake of risky health behaviours, such as smoking. This study investigated the association between parental separation and adult smoking in a large British birth cohort and also examined potential socioeconomic, relational and psychosocial mediators. Differences by gender and timing of parental separation were also assessed. Multiply imputed data on 11 375 participants of the National Child Development Study (the 1958 British birth cohort) were used. A series of multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to investigate the association between parental separation (0-16 years) and adult smoking status (age 42), and the role of potential socioeconomic, relational and psychosocial mediators. Parental separation in childhood was associated with an increased risk of being a current (RRR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.77, 2.60) or ex-smoker (RRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.85) at age 42. This association remained after consideration of potential socioeconomic, psychosocial and relational mediators. Relational (parent-child relationship quality, parental involvement and adult partnership status) and socioeconomic factors (overcrowding, financial hardship, housing tenure, household amenities, free school meal receipt and educational attainment) appeared to be the most important of the groups of mediators investigated. No differences by gender or the timing of parental separation were observed. Parental separation experienced in childhood was associated with increased risk of smoking. Families undergoing separation should be further supported in order to prevent the uptake of smoking and to prevent later health problems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  3. Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery and Learning Disabilities in a Population-Based Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sprung, Juraj; Flick, Randall P.; Wilder, Robert T.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Pike, Tasha L.; Dingli, Mariella; Gleich, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Barbaresi, William J.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anesthetics administered to immature brains may cause histopathological changes and long-term behavioral abnormalities. The association between perinatal exposure to anesthetics during Cesarean delivery (CD) and development of learning disabilities (LD) was determined in a population-based birth cohort. Methods The educational and medical records of all children born to mothers residing in five townships of Olmsted County, MN from 1976-1982 and remaining in the community at age 5 were reviewed to identify those with LDs. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare rates of LD between children delivered vaginally and via CD (with general or regional anesthesia). Results Of the 5,320 children in this cohort, 497 were delivered via CD (under general anesthesia N=193, and regional anesthesia N=304). The incidence of LD depended on mode of delivery (P = 0.050, adjusted for sex, birth weight, gestational age, exposure to anesthesia prior to age 4, and maternal education). LD risk was similar in children delivered by vagina or CD with general anesthesia, but was reduced in children receiving CD with regional anesthesia (hazard ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92; P=0.017 for comparison of CD under regional anesthesia compared to vaginal delivery). Conclusion Children exposed to general or regional anesthesia during CD are not more likely to develop LD compared to children delivered vaginally, suggesting that brief perinatal exposure to anesthetic drugs does not adversely affect long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. The risk of LD may be lower in children delivered by CD whose mothers received regional anesthesia. PMID:19602960

  4. Pre-birth cohort study of atopic dermatitis and severe bronchiolitis during infancy.

    PubMed

    Balekian, Diana S; Linnemann, Rachel W; Castro, Victor M; Perlis, Roy; Thadhani, Ravi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis (i.e. severe bronchiolitis) are at increased risk of childhood asthma. There are many known risk factors for severe bronchiolitis, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases. Less is known about the association between atopic diseases and risk of severe bronchiolitis. We sought to further examine risk factors for severe bronchiolitis, focusing on atopic dermatitis (AD). We conducted a nested cohort study within the Massachusetts General Hospital Obstetric Maternal Study (MOMS), a prospective cohort of pregnant women enrolled during 1998-2006. Children of mothers enrolled in MOMS were included in the analysis if they received care within our health system (n = 5407). Potential risk factors for bronchiolitis and hospitalization data were extracted from the children's electronic health records; we also examined pregnancy and perinatal risk factors collected from the underlying MOMS data. During the first year of life, 125 infants (2.3%) had severe bronchiolitis. Eighteen of these patients had AD; 11 (61%) were diagnosed with AD prior to bronchiolitis hospitalization. In unadjusted analyses, AD was associated with severe bronchiolitis (χ(2) 14.6; p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses adjusting for nine known risk factors for severe bronchiolitis, including demographics, birth season, disposition at birth, cardiac disease, maternal parity, and delivery mode, AD was associated with increased odds of severe bronchiolitis (odds ratio 2.72, 95% confidence interval 1.60-4.63). Atopic dermatitis is significantly associated with severe bronchiolitis in infancy. The mechanism of the AD-bronchiolitis association is unclear and merits further study; this research may shed light on the pathogenesis of asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dietary iron intake during early pregnancy and birth outcomes in a cohort of British women

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Simpson, Nigel A.B.; McArdle, Harry J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Cade, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Iron deficiency during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, particularly, if present during early gestation. Iron supplements are widely recommended during pregnancy, but evidence of their benefit in relation to infant outcomes is not established. This study was performed in the UK, where iron supplements are not routinely recommended during pregnancy, to investigate the association between iron intake in pregnancy and size at birth. METHODS From a prospective cohort of 1274 pregnant women aged 18–45 years, dietary intake was reported in a 24-h recall administered by a research midwife at 12-week gestation. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using dietary recall and three questionnaires in the first, second and third trimesters. RESULTS Of the cohort of pregnant women, 80% reported dietary iron intake below the UK Reference Nutrient Intake of 14.8 mg/day. Those reported taking iron-containing supplements in the first, second and third trimesters were 24, 15 and 8%, respectively. Women with dietary iron intake >14.8 mg/day were more likely to be older, have a higher socioeconomic profile and take supplements during the first trimester. Vegetarians were less likely to have low dietary iron intake [odds ratio = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8] and more likely to take supplements during the first and second trimesters. Total iron intake, but not iron intake from food only, was associated with birthweight centile (adjusted change = 2.5 centiles/10 mg increase in iron, 95% CI: 0.4, 4.6). This association was stronger in the high vitamin C intake group, but effect modification was not significant. CONCLUSION There was a positive relationship between total iron intake, from food and supplements, in early pregnancy and birthweight. Iron intake, both from diet and supplements, during the first trimester of pregnancy was higher in vegetarians and women with a better socioeconomic profile. PMID:21303776

  6. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  7. Descriptive epidemiological study of food intake among Japanese adults: analyses by age, time and birth cohort model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although food and nutrient consumption among the Japanese population, known to have one of the longest life expectancies in the world, has changed markedly after World War II, little is known about the influences age, time and birth cohort have had. The present study examined the effects age, time and birth cohort have had on intake of 14 food groups from 1989 to 2009, using published data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. Methods The survey included 575 adults (271 men and 304 women) in 1989, 8431 (3952 men and 4479 women) in 1999 and 5632 (2629 men and 3003 women) in 2009. The effects of age on energy-adjusted food intakes defined by gender and birth cohort (birth in 1930–1939, 1940–1949, 1950–1959, 1960–1969, 1970–1979) were estimated using the mean polish process. Results Intakes of meat and confectionary increased whereas those of milk and dairy products, sugar, and fats and oils decreased from 1989 to 2009. Both men and women in the 1940’s birth cohort consumed more fruit, although differences in food intake by birth cohort were less discernible. Furthermore, meat, fats and oils, and wheat intake decreased while fruits, fish, beans and vegetables consumption increased with aging in both men and women. Conclusions The present analysis suggests intakes of meat and confectionary have increased in Japan over the past 20 years regardless of age and generation. Also, younger individuals are less likely to consume fruits, fish, beans and vegetables regardless of the birth cohort and time period. Differences in food group consumption by birth cohorts born between 1930 and 1979 were not obvious. The first indication of these findings would be that in order to avoid ongoing increases in meat and confectionery intake, the public health strategy should target the whole Japanese population. Secondly, intervening with the diet of younger individuals, especially today, would be reasonable as it is unknown whether today

  8. Association between parental socioeconomic status with underweight and obesity in children from two Spanish birth cohorts: a changing relationship.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Mota, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2015-12-22

    Our objective was twofold: to estimate the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity in two birth cohorts (1999-2000 and 2007-2008) from Castilla-La Mancha, Spain; and to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and weight status in these two cohorts. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements was utilised in two cluster randomised trials. Using population-based samples of children from Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, 1158 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, born in the years 1999-2000 and 1588 children with a mean age of 5.3 years born in the years 2007-2008 participated. Children were classified according to the body mass index cut-offs proposed by the International Obesity Task Force criteria. An index of SES was calculated using questions regarding parental education and occupation levels. Prevalence of underweight was higher in the 2007-2008 birth cohort (20.5%, 95 % CI: 18.5, 22.5) than in the 1999-2000 birth cohort (8.1%, 95% CI: 6.5, 9.7), and the overweight/obesity prevalence was 20.4% (95% CI: 18.4, 22.5) and 35.5% (95% CI: 32.7, 38.3) respectively. In the lower SES stratum, in the 2007-2008 birth cohort, the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was 36.7% (95% CI: 22.2, 51.2) and 16.3% (95% CI: 4.9, 27.7) respectively, and 22.2% (95% CI: 2.8, 60.0) and 55.5% (95% CI: 21.2, 86.3) in the 1999-2000 cohort. The ratio between underweight:overweight/obesity showed higher values for all SES categories in 2007-2008 cohort, but particularly in the lower SES group (0.4 in the 1999-2000 cohort and 2.2 in the 2007-2008 cohort). Underweight prevalence was lower in the cohort of children born in 1999-2000, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower in the cohort of children born in 2007-2008. Furthermore, while in the 1999-2000 children's cohort underweight was more frequent amongst children from high SES families and overweight/obesity was more frequent in children from low SES families, in the 2008

  9. Manganese exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and size at birth: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Kippler, Maria; Ahmed, Sultan; Palm, Brita; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2015-06-01

    The essential element manganese (Mn) might be toxic at excess exposure. We assessed the impact of elevated Mn exposure through drinking water during pregnancy on birth size in a population-based cohort(n = 1695) in rural Bangladesh. Concentrations of water Mn (median = 236 μg/L, range = 7.1-6336; n = 1177) and erythrocyte Mn (median = 30 μg/kg, range = 6.3-114; n = 758) were measured using ICP-MS. In regression analyses, newborns of women in the highest tertile of water Mn (median = 1495 μg/L) were 0.49 cm (0.20 SD) shorter (B = -0.42; 95% CI: -0.77, -0.08) than those in the lowest tertile (56μg/L). The inverse association was significant in girls and also in boys of mothers with lowest hemoglobin values, likely due to higher absorption of Mn. Manganese concentrations in water and erythrocytes did not correlate, and the associations of the latter with birth size were less obvious. This study suggests that consumption of water with highly elevated Mn levels during pregnancy may impair fetal growth.

  10. Family type and criminal behaviour of male offspring: the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sauvola, Anu; Koskinen, Outi; Jokelainen, Jari; Hakko, Helinä; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2002-06-01

    Unstable family environment during childhood is known to predispose to juvenile delinquency. This study explored whether childhood family structure is associated with violent behaviour of adult offspring. We used a large, unselected general population birth cohort (n = 5589 males) linked with the national crime registers (up to the age of 32 years). The Ministry of Justice provided information on registered offences for all subjects. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between family type and criminality (violent and non-violent crimes). We found that single-parent family "at birth" (adj. OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.0) and "all time" (up to the age of 14 years) (adj. OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.5-10.6) were risk factors for violent offences of an adult offspring. Also parental death (adj. OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6) and divorce (adj. OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.7) doubled the risk for violence. Non-violent offences were associated only with parental death and, divorce. A single-parent family of origin is strongly associated with later violent criminality of male offspring. Further studies are needed to explore the psychosocial aspects of single-parent family environment which may promote the vulnerability to violent offending in adulthood.

  11. Naturally Acquired Immunity Against Rotavirus Infection and Gastroenteritis in Children: Paired Reanalyses of Birth Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Lewnard, Joseph A; Lopman, Benjamin A; Parashar, Umesh D; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Samuel, Prasanna; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Kang, Gagandeep; Pitzer, Virginia E

    2017-08-01

    Observational studies in socioeconomically distinct populations have yielded conflicting conclusions about the strength of naturally acquired immunity against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), mirroring vaccine underperformance in low-income countries. We revisited birth cohort studies to understand naturally acquired protection against rotavirus infection and RVGE. We reanalyzed data from 200 Mexican and 373 Indian children followed from birth to 2 and 3 years of age, respectively. We reassessed protection against RVGE, decomposing the incidence rate into the rate of rotavirus infection and the risk of RVGE given infection, and tested for serum antibody correlates of protection using regression models. Risk for primary, secondary, and subsequent infections to cause RVGE decreased per log-month of age by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%-41%), 69% (95% CI, 30%-86%), and 64% (95% CI, -186% to 95%), respectively, in Mexico City, and by 10% (95% CI, -1% to 19%), 51% (95% CI, 41%-59%) and 67% (95% CI, 57%-75%), respectively, in Vellore. Elevated serum immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G titers were associated with partial protection against rotavirus infection. Associations between older age and reduced risk for RVGE or moderate-to-severe RVGE given infection persisted after controlling for antibody levels. Dissimilar estimates of protection against RVGE may be due in part to age-related, antibody-independent risk for rotavirus infections to cause RVGE.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of subgingival bacteria in predicting preterm birth- a pilot cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Khalid S; El Tantawi, Maha M.; Alagl, Adel S; Alnimr, Amani M; Haseeb, Yasmeen A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preterm birth (PTB) increases the risk of adverse outcomes for new born infants. Subgingival bacteria are implicated in causing PTB. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of some subgingival gram positive and gram negative bacteria detected by routine lab procedures in predicting PTB. Methodology Pregnant Saudi women (n= 170) visiting King Fahad hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were included in a pilot cohort study. Plaque was collected in the 2nd trimester and screened for subgingival anaerobes using Vitek2. Pregnancy outcome (preterm/full term birth) was assessed at delivery. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the identified bacteria to predict PTB. Results Data about time of delivery was available for 94 subjects and 22 (23.4%) had PTB. Three gram negative and 4 gram positive subgingival bacteria had sensitivity ≥ 95% with two of each having negative likelihood ratios ≤0.10. Three gram positive bacteria had specificity > 95% with only one having positive likelihood ratio >2. Conclusion Subgingival bacteria identified using readily available lab techniques in the plaque of pregnant Saudi women in their 2nd trimester have useful potential to rule out PTB. PMID:27833518

  13. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  14. Medical Record Validation of Maternal Recall of Pregnancy and Birth Events From a Twin Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Li, Linda; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the validity of maternal recall for several perinatal variables 8–10 years after pregnancy in a twin sample. Retrospective information was collected 8–10 years after the delivery event in a cohort of mothers from the University of Southern California Twin Study (N = 611) and compared with medical records for validity analysis. Recall of most variables showed substantial to perfect agreement (κ = 0.60–1.00), with notable exceptions for specific medical problems during pregnancy (κ ≤ 0.40) and substance use when mothers provided continuous data (e.g., number of cigarettes per day; r ≤ 0.24). With the exception of delivery method, neonatal intensive care unit admission, birth weight, neonatal information, and post-delivery complications were also recalled with low accuracy. For mothers of twins, maternal recall is generally a valid measure for perinatal variables 10 years after pregnancy. However, caution should be taken regarding variables such as substance use, medical problems, birth length, and post-delivery complications. PMID:23725849

  15. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  16. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  17. Fetal environment and early age at natural menopause in a British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Sarah E.; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hardy, Rebecca; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early life development may influence the timing of natural menopause through association with size of the initial follicle pool or early follicular loss. This study examines the relationships of birthweight, gestational age and birthweight standardized by gestational age with early menopause in the 1958 British birth cohort study. METHODS Study participants were over 2900 women with data on birthweight, gestational age (obtained at birth), menopausal status at age 44–45 years and potential confounding factors. Logistic regression was used to study relationships of birthweight, gestational age and birthweight standardized by gestational age with post-menopausal status by 44–45 years, with and without adjustments for confounding factors. RESULTS There was a U-shaped association between birthweight and menopausal status at 44–45 years: women at either extremes of birthweight (<2.5 and ≥4.0 kg) had increased odds of post-menopausal status compared with those weighing 3.0–3.49 kg [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 3.38; 1.81, 95% CI 1.11, 2.97, respectively]. Women with higher birthweight standardized by gestational age (which indicates faster fetal growth rate) also had increased odds of being post-menopausal by 44–45 years (OR for fastest quarter versus second fastest quarter = 1.80; 95% CI 1.16, 2.81). These associations persisted after adjustment for socioeconomic position at birth, adult smoking status and use of oral contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that variations in fetal environment may be associated with the timing of menopause. Given that extremes of birthweight and higher birthweight standardized by gestational age were associated with earlier age at menopause, mechanisms related to these characteristics that also regulate ovarian function should be investigated further. PMID:20047935

  18. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  19. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Maria Alexsandra da S.; Garcia, Daniela Cavalcante; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Cipolotti, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life. METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76), they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO) weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low. PMID:25119747

  20. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children--results of a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-08-07

    Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) were measured at the age of 3 years by one calibrated clinician using a vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm; Münchner Modell 042-751-00, Germany). A regular parent survey was conducted to assess risk factors for development of malocclusion. Three hundred seventy seven children (mean age 3.31 ± 0.70 years; 52.5% male) were examined. Children had a mean overjet of 2.4 ± 0.8 mm and the mean overbite was 0.8 ± 1.2 mm; 58.8 % of the children had a normal overjet ≤ 3 mm and 88.8% a normal overbite with < [Formula: see text] overlap. Prevalence of malocclusion was 45.2% (10.9% anterior open bite, 41.2% increased overjet ≥ 3 mm, 40.8% Class II/III canine relationship, 3.4% posterior crossbite). All children who sucked the thumb had a malocclusion. Children who used a pacifier had greater odds of having a malocclusion at age of 3 years than children without pacifier use (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.87-6.05). Malocclusion and dental trauma were associated, but not statistically significant (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 0.99-3.34; p = 0.062). Malocclusion was not associated with gender, migration background, low socioeconomic status, preterm birth, special health care needs, breathing or dietary patterns (p > 0.05). Non-nutritive sucking habits were important risk factors for development of a malocclusion in the primary dentition.

  1. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in an International Prospective Cohort of Nulliparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Gustaaf Albert; Lee, Shalem Y.; North, Robyn A.; McCowan, Lesley M.; Simpson, Nigel A. B.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation) with intact membranes (SPTB-IM) and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM) for nulliparous pregnant women. Design Prospective international multicentre cohort. Participants 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%). Results Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9%) had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0%) and 60 (1.9%) in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant’s not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene), mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction). Low BMI (<20) nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07–6.51). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. Conclusion The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. Trial Registration ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493 PMID:22815699

  2. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E; Visness, Cynthia M; Gergen, Peter J; Wood, Robert A; Bloomberg, Gordon R; O'Connor, George T; Kattan, Meyer; Sampson, Hugh A; Witter, Frank R; Sandel, Megan T; Shreffler, Wayne G; Wright, Rosalind J; Arbes, Samuel J; Busse, William W

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses) that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma. PMID:19426496

  3. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  4. A birth cohort analysis of the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cairong; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhang, Yawei; Shi, Kunchong; Boyle, Peter; Li, Ni; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the incidence trends for adenocarcinoma (AC) of the cervix among the 20-44 age group in the United States and compared the observed birth cohort incidence patterns with the changing patterns of exposure to potential risk factors associated with AC of the cervix, such as infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), obesity, and use of oral contraceptives. Methods Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for 1973-2010, we conducted age–period–cohort modeling to evaluate birth cohort patterns on incidence trends of AC of the cervix over time. Results The increase in incidence of AC of the cervix started among those born around the mid 1940s and accelerated up until around the mid 1960s birth cohort in both whites and in all races combined, regardless of the assumed period slope. There was a suggestion that the incidence rates of AC of the cervix slowed down after the 1975 birth cohort in both whites and all races combined. Conclusion DES was used by millions of women in the United States as a synthetic estrogen between the years 1940-1971. This time period of DES use among pregnant women parallels the observed birth cohort trends in our study, whereby a notable acceleration of AC of the cervix incidence rates was observed for those born in the mid 1940s through the mid 1975s. Thus, our results appear to suggest that in utero exposure to DES might be at least partly responsible for the observed incidence pattern of AC of the cervix as observed in this study. PMID:25025585

  5. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates. PMID:27929405

  6. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  7. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    EPA Science Inventory

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  8. Offspring birth weight, gestational age and maternal characteristics in relation to glucose status at age 53 years: evidence from a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kuh, D; Mishra, G D; Black, S; Lawlor, D A; Smith, G Davey; Okell, L; Wadsworth, M; Hardy, R

    2008-01-01

    Aims We investigated pathways linking offspring birth weight to maternal diabetes risk in later life by taking into account a range of prospective early-life and adult maternal factors. Methods In a national birth cohort study, we examined the relationship between offspring birth weight and maternal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at age 53 years in 581 mothers who had a first birth between age 19 and 25 years, and had data on potential confounders or mediators. Results Mean age at first birth was 21.5 years. After adjustment for maternal body mass index (BMI), mean percentage change in maternal HbA1c per kilogram increase in offspring birth weight was −1.8%[95% confidence interval (CI) −3.5, −0.1; P = 0.03]. This relationship was mostly accounted for by gestational age that was inversely related to maternal HbA1c (−0.9%; 95% CI −1.5, −0.4; P = 0.001). Other risk factors for high HbA1c were smoking and high BMI at 53 years. There was a significant interaction between offspring birth weight and maternal childhood social class (P = 0.01). Mothers from a manual background with higher birth weight offspring had lower HbA1c (BMI adjusted: −3.1%; 95% CI −5.0, −1.1); this was not observed for mothers from a non-manual background (BMI adjusted: 1.9%; 95% CI −1.3, 5.0). Conclusions Short gestational age and low offspring birth weight may be part of a pathway linking impaired early maternal growth to diabetes risk in later life. A second possible pathway linking higher offspring birth weight to later maternal glucose status was also identified. These potential pathways require further investigation in cohorts with a wider maternal age range so that the early targeting of public health initiatives can be assessed. Diabet. Med. 25, 530–535 (2008) PMID:18445168

  9. Environments For Healthy Living (EFHL) Griffith birth cohort study: characteristics of sample and profile of antenatal exposures.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Cate M; Scuffham, Paul A; Shibl, Rania; Ng, Shukay; Scott, Rani; Spinks, Anneliese; Mihala, Gabor; Wilson, Andrew; Kendall, Elizabeth; Sipe, Neil; McClure, Roderick J

    2012-12-15

    The Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL) study is a repeated sample, longitudinal birth cohort in South East Queensland, Australia. We describe the sample characteristics and profile of maternal, household, and antenatal exposures. Variation and data stability over recruitment years were examined. Four months each year from 2006, pregnant women were recruited to EFHL at routine antenatal visits on or after 24 weeks gestation, from three public maternity hospitals. Participating mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on individual, familial, social and community exposure factors. Perinatal data were extracted from hospital birth records. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were calculated comparing the EFHL birth sample with regional and national reference populations. Data stability of antenatal exposure factors was assessed across five recruitment years (2006-2010 inclusive) using the Gamma statistic for ordinal data and chi-squared for nominal data. Across five recruitment years 2,879 pregnant women were recruited which resulted in 2904 live births with 29 sets of twins. EFHL has a lower representation of early gestational babies, fewer still births and a lower percentage of low birth weight babies, when compared to regional data. The majority of women (65%) took a multivitamin supplement during pregnancy, 47% consumed alcohol, and 26% reported having smoked cigarettes. There were no differences in rates of a range of antenatal exposures across five years of recruitment, with the exception of increasing maternal pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0349), decreasing rates of high maternal distress (p=0.0191) and decreasing alcohol consumption (p<0.0001). The study sample is broadly representative of births in the region and almost all factors showed data stability over time. This study, with repeated sampling of birth cohorts over multiple years, has the potential to make important contributions to population health through evaluating longitudinal

  10. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and autism in a national birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Brown, A S; Sourander, A; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, S; McKeague, I W; Sundvall, J; Surcel, H-M

    2014-02-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with a largely unknown etiology. Inflammation during pregnancy may represent a common pathway by which infections and other insults increase risk for the disorder. Hence, we investigated the association between early gestational C-reactive protein (CRP), an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and childhood autism in a large national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. Other strengths of the cohort included nearly complete ascertainment of pregnancies in Finland (N=1.2 million) over the study period and national psychiatric registries consisting of virtually all treated autism cases in the population. Increasing maternal CRP levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with autism in offspring. For maternal CRP levels in the highest quintile, compared with the lowest quintile, there was a significant, 43% elevated risk. This finding suggests that maternal inflammation may have a significant role in autism, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Elevated Maternal C-Reactive Protein and Autism in a National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W.; Sundvall, Jouko; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with a largely unknown etiology. Inflammation during pregnancy may represent a common pathway by which infections and other insults increase risk for the disorder. Hence, we investigated the association between early gestational C-reactive protein (CRP), an established inflammatory biomarker, prospectively assayed in maternal sera, and childhood autism in a large national birth cohort with an extensive serum biobank. Other strengths of the cohort included nearly complete ascertainment of pregnancies in Finland (N=1.2 million) over the study period and national psychiatric registries consisting of virtually all treated autism cases in the population. Increasing maternal CRP levels, classified as a continuous variable, were significantly associated with autism in offspring. For maternal CRP levels in the highest quintile, compared to the lowest quintile, there was a significant, 43% elevated risk. This finding suggests that maternal inflammation may play a significant role in autism, with possible implications for identifying preventive strategies and pathogenic mechanisms in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23337946

  12. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo Gallo, Erika Alejandra; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Murray, Joseph; Duarte da Silva, Luciana Anselmi; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232

  13. Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID): a dynamic birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Stephen Bernard; Ware, Robert S; Cook, Anne L; Maguire, Frances A; Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mackay, Ian M; Wang, David; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Even in developed economies infectious diseases remain the most common cause of illness in early childhood. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of these infections is limited by reliance on data from decades ago performed using low-sensitivity laboratory methods, and recent studies reporting severe, hospital-managed disease. The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is an ongoing study enrolling a dynamic birth cohort to document the community-based epidemiology of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in early childhood. Women are recruited antenatally, and their healthy newborn is followed for the first 2 years of life. Parents keep a daily symptom diary for the study child, collect a weekly anterior nose swab and dirty nappy swab and complete a burden diary when a child meets pre-defined illness criteria. Specimens will be tested for a wide range of viruses by real-time PCR assays. Primary analyses involves calculating incidence rates for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the cohort by age and seasonality. Control material from children when they are without symptoms will allow us to determine what proportion of ARIs and AGE can be attributed to specific pathogens. Secondary analyses will assess the incidence and shedding duration of specific respiratory and gastrointestinal pathogens. This study is approved by The Human Research Ethics Committees of the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01304914.

  14. The mobility problem in Britain: new findings from the analysis of birth cohort data.

    PubMed

    Bukodi, Erzsébet; Goldthorpe, John H; Waller, Lorraine; Kuha, Jouni

    2015-03-01

    Social mobility is now a matter of greater political concern in Britain than at any time previously. However, the data available for the determination of mobility trends are less adequate today than two or three decades ago. It is widely believed in political and in media circles that social mobility is in decline. But the evidence so far available from sociological research, focused on intergenerational class mobility, is not supportive of this view. We present results based on a newly-constructed dataset covering four birth cohorts that provides improved data for the study of trends in class mobility and that also allows analyses to move from the twentieth into the twenty-first century. These results confirm that there has been no decline in mobility, whether considered in absolute or relative terms. In the case of women, there is in fact evidence of mobility increasing. However, the better quality and extended range of our data enable us to identify other 'mobility problems' than the supposed decline. Among the members of successive cohorts, the experience of absolute upward mobility is becoming less common and that of absolute downward mobility more common; and class-linked inequalities in relative chances of mobility and immobility appear wider than previously thought. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  15. The epidemiology and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infancy in southern Vietnam: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Katherine L.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Van; Nguyet, Nguyen Minh; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ha, Phan Thi Thanh; Lien, Le Bich; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Previous studies indicate a high burden of diarrhoeal disease in Vietnamese children, however longitudinal community-based data on burden and aetiology are limited. The findings from a large, prospective cohort study of diarrhoeal disease in infants in southern Vietnam are presented herein. Methods Infants were enrolled at birth in urban Ho Chi Minh City and a semi-rural district in southern Vietnam, and followed for 12 months (n = 6706). Diarrhoeal illness episodes were identified through clinic-based passive surveillance, hospital admissions, and self-reports. Results The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal illness in the first year of life was 271/1000 infant-years of observation for the whole cohort. Rotavirus was the most commonly detected pathogen (50% of positive samples), followed by norovirus (24%), Campylobacter (20%), Salmonella (18%), and Shigella (16%). Repeat infections were identified in 9% of infants infected with rotavirus, norovirus, Shigella, or Campylobacter, and 13% of those with Salmonella infections. Conclusions The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal disease in infants in both urban and semi-rural settings in southern Vietnam was quantified prospectively. A large proportion of laboratory-diagnosed disease was caused by rotavirus and norovirus. These data highlight the unmet need for a rotavirus vaccine in Vietnam and provide evidence of the previously unrecognized burden of norovirus in infants. PMID:25813553

  16. Smoking behavior of Mexicans: patterns by birth-cohort, gender, and education.

    PubMed

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Lillard, Dean R; Balmori de la Miyar, Josè R

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about historical smoking patterns in Mexico. Policy makers must rely on imprecise predictions of human or fiscal burdens from smoking-related diseases. In this paper we document intergenerational patterns of smoking, project them for future cohorts, and discuss those patterns in the context of Mexico's impressive economic growth. We use retrospectively collected information to generate life-course smoking prevalence rates of five birth-cohorts, by gender and education. With dynamic panel data methods, we regress smoking rates on indicators of economic development. Smoking is most prevalent among men and the highly educated. Smoking rates peaked in the 1980s and have since decreased, slowly on average, and fastest among the highly educated. Development significantly contributed to this decline; a 1 % increase in development is associated with an average decline in smoking prevalence of 0.02 and 0.07 percentage points for women and men, respectively. Mexico's development may have triggered forces that decrease smoking, such as the spread of health information. Although smoking rates are falling, projections suggest that they will be persistently high for several future generations.

  17. Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Stigter, Laura; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Spengler, John; Budzyn-Mrozek, Dorota; Kaim, Irena; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported an association between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and lower birth weight, birth length, and head circumference. The main goal of the present analysis was to assess the possible impact of coexposure to PAH-containing barbecued meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes. The birth cohort consisted of 432 pregnant women who gave birth at term (>36 wk of gestation). Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18-35 y of age, and who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, were included in the study. Detailed information on diet over pregnancy was collected through interviews and the measurement of exposure to airborne PAHs was carried out by personal air monitoring during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of barbecued meat consumption on birth outcomes (birth weight, length, and head circumference at birth) was adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs, child's sex, gestational age, parity, size of mother (maternal prepregnancy weight, weight gain in pregnancy), and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke. The multivariable regression model showed a significant deficit in birth weight associated with barbecued meat consumption in pregnancy (coeff = -106.0 g; 95%CI: -293.3, -35.8). The effect of exposure to airborne PAHs was about the same magnitude order (coeff. = -164.6 g; 95%CI: -172.3, -34.7). Combined effect of both sources of exposure amounted to birth weight deficit of 214.3 g (95%CI: -419.0, -9.6). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference showed similar trends but the estimated effects were of borderline significance level. As the intake of barbecued meat did not affect the duration of pregnancy, the reduced birth weight could not have been mediated by a shortened gestation period. In conclusion, the study results provided epidemiologic

  18. Clinical Disorders in a Post War British Cohort Reaching Retirement: Evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mary B.; Silverwood, Richard J.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Adams, Judith E.; Stephen, Alison M.; Nip, Wing; Macfarlane, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60–64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0–9); only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%–56.7%), obesity (31.1%, 28.8%–33.5%), raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1–28.26%), and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6–27.5%). A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. Conclusions Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  19. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Methods In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. Results In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. Conclusions It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. PMID:26678603

  20. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal exposure to loratadine in children with hypospadias: a nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the risk of hypospadias after reported exposure to loratadine and other antihistamines during pregnancy, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We examined the risk of hypospadias in a nested case-control design based on women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1998 to 2002 ( approximately 95,000 pregnant women). Data on maternal use of medicine in pregnancy were retrieved from questionnaires and telephone interviews, and data on birth outcomes were obtained from the Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR). Within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we identified cases with a diagnosis of hypospadias and randomly selected 10 controls per case without such a diagnosis (matched by date of birth). We identified 203 cases of hypospadias recorded in the HDR within 1 year postpartum and 2030 controls. One case (0.5%) and 25 (1.2%) controls reported exposure to loratadine in the first trimester or up to 30 days before the time of conception. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for hypospadias among users of loratadine relative to nonusers was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.1-6.9) and the corresponding OR for other antihistamines was 0.5 (95% CI: 0.1-1.9). These data do not indicate an increased risk of hypospadias associated with maternal exposure to loratadine. In addition, this study does not suggest any risk differential between maternal exposure to loratadine and other antihistamines. However, the statistical precision of the risk estimates was low.

  2. Gestational dating by metabolic profile at birth: a California cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Norton, Mary E; Baer, Rebecca J; Santos, Nicole; Rutherford, George W

    2016-04-01

    Accurate gestational dating is a critical component of obstetric and newborn care. In the absence of early ultrasound, many clinicians rely on less accurate measures, such as last menstrual period or symphysis-fundal height during pregnancy, or Dubowitz scoring or the Ballard (or New Ballard) method at birth. These measures often underestimate or overestimate gestational age and can lead to misclassification of babies as born preterm, which has both short- and long-term clinical care and public health implications. We sought to evaluate whether metabolic markers in newborns measured as part of routine screening for treatable inborn errors of metabolism can be used to develop a population-level metabolic gestational dating algorithm that is robust despite intrauterine growth restriction and can be used when fetal ultrasound dating is not available. We focused specifically on the ability of these markers to differentiate preterm births (PTBs) (<37 weeks) from term births and to assign a specific gestational age in the PTB group. We evaluated a cohort of 729,503 singleton newborns with a California birth in 2005 through 2011 who had routine newborn metabolic screening and fetal ultrasound dating at 11-20 weeks' gestation. Using training and testing subsets (divided in a ratio of 3:1) we evaluated the association among PTB, target newborn characteristics, acylcarnitines, amino acids, thyroid-stimulating hormone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and galactose-1-phosphate-uridyl-transferase. We used multivariate backward stepwise regression to test for associations and linear discriminate analyses to create a linear function for PTB and to assign a specific week of gestation. We used sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value to evaluate the performance of linear functions. Along with birthweight and infant age at test, we included 35 of the 51 metabolic markers measured in the final multivariate model comparing PTBs and term births. Using a linear discriminate

  3. Gestational dating by metabolic profile at birth: a California cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L.; Norton, Mary E.; Baer, Rebecca J.; Santos, Nicole; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate gestational dating is a critical component of obstetric and newborn care. In the absence of early ultrasound, many clinicians rely on less accurate measures, such as last menstrual period or symphysis-fundal height during pregnancy, or Dubowitz scoring or the Ballard (or New Ballard) method at birth. These measures often underestimate or overestimate gestational age and can lead to misclassification of babies as born preterm, which has both short- and long-term clinical care and public health implications. Objective We sought to evaluate whether metabolic markers in newborns measured as part of routine screening for treatable inborn errors of metabolism can be used to develop a population-level metabolic gestational dating algorithm that is robust despite intrauterine growth restriction and can be used when fetal ultrasound dating is not available. We focused specifically on the ability of these markers to differentiate preterm births (PTBs) (<37 weeks) from term births and to assign a specific gestational age in the PTB group. Study Design We evaluated a cohort of 729,503 singleton newborns with a California birth in 2005 through 2011 who had routine newborn metabolic screening and fetal ultrasound dating at 11–20 weeks’ gestation. Using training and testing subsets (divided in a ratio of 3:1) we evaluated the association among PTB, target newborn characteristics, acylcarnitines, amino acids, thyroid-stimulating hormone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and galactose-1-phosphate-uridyl-transferase. We used multivariate backward stepwise regression to test for associations and linear discriminate analyses to create a linear function for PTB and to assign a specific week of gestation. We used sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value to evaluate the performance of linear functions. Results Along with birthweight and infant age at test, we included 35 of the 51 metabolic markers measured in the final multivariate model comparing PTBs and

  4. Early Signs of Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemcke, Sanne; Juul, Svend; Parner, Erik T.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    To identify possible early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we studied prospectively collected interviews from 76,441 mothers about their children's development and behaviour at 6 and 18 months. In Danish national registries, 720 children with ASD and 231 children with intellectual disability (ID)…

  5. Gender Differences of Children's Developmental Trajectory from 6 to 60 Months in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Po-Fei; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The parental report instrument is the most efficient developmental detection method and has shown high validity with professional assessment instruments. The reliability and validity of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) 6-, 18- and 36-month scales have already been established. In this study, the reliability and validity of the 60-month scale…

  6. Autism-Risk Screening in the First 3 Years of Life in Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    To increase public awareness and sensitivity, a two-stage screening with a community-based approach is proposed, with the use of the broadband Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) developmental instrument in the first stage and the narrowband Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in the second stage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to…

  7. Family Structure Transitions and Early Childhood Development in Taiwan: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…

  8. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  9. Gender Repetition: School Access, Transitions and Equity in the "Birth-to-Twenty" Cohort Panel Study in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected by the Birth-to-Twenty child cohort study in urban South Africa, this paper describes the patterns of schooling of a population of children born in the Greater Johannesburg area in April to June 1990. This paper examines the patterns of initial enrolment in Grade 1, transitions through grades, and trends in primary school…

  10. Premorbid Anomalies and Risk of Schizophrenia and Depressive Disorders in a Birth Cohort Exposed to Prenatal Rubella

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…

  11. Gender Repetition: School Access, Transitions and Equity in the "Birth-to-Twenty" Cohort Panel Study in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected by the Birth-to-Twenty child cohort study in urban South Africa, this paper describes the patterns of schooling of a population of children born in the Greater Johannesburg area in April to June 1990. This paper examines the patterns of initial enrolment in Grade 1, transitions through grades, and trends in primary school…

  12. Early Signs of Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemcke, Sanne; Juul, Svend; Parner, Erik T.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    To identify possible early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we studied prospectively collected interviews from 76,441 mothers about their children's development and behaviour at 6 and 18 months. In Danish national registries, 720 children with ASD and 231 children with intellectual disability (ID)…

  13. Family Structure Transitions and Early Childhood Development in Taiwan: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan has over the past three decades been experiencing demographic changes that may pose important concerns for children's quality of life. This study examines the relationships and potential pathways between family structure transitions and early childhood development. Our analysis is based on 19,499 children from the 2005 birth cohort who…

  14. Premorbid Anomalies and Risk of Schizophrenia and Depressive Disorders in a Birth Cohort Exposed to Prenatal Rubella

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…

  15. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  18. Early age at menarche and wheezing in adolescence. The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Gary; Baptista Menezes, Ana Maria; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of menarche before 11 years of age on the incidence of wheezing/asthma in girls 11 to 18 years of age. Methods The study sample comprised 1,350 girls from a birth cohort that started in 1993 in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil; this cohort was followed until 18 years of age. We assessed wheezing by the question, “Have you ever had wheezing in the chest at any time in the past?,” from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Early menarche was defined as occurring before 11 years of age. We estimated the cumulative incidence of wheezing excluding from the analysis all those participants who reported wheezing before age of 11 years. We performed the chi-square test to assess the association between ever wheezing and independent variables. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate cumulative incidence ratios. Results The average age at menarche in the cohort girls was 12 years (95% CI: 11.1–12.1). The prevalence of early menarche before 11 years of age was 11% (95% CI: 9.7–12.3). The cumulative incidence of wheezing from 11 to 18 years of age was 33.5% (95% CI: 30.9– 36.0). The crude association between ever wheezing in adolescence and early menarche before age 11 was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96–1.48). After adjusting for early childhood and contemporaneous variables, no significant association for early menarche before 11 years of age and wheezing during adolescence was found (CIR: 1.18; CI95%: 0.93-1.49). Conclusion Early menarche before 11 years of age is not associated with an increased risk of wheezing during adolescence. PMID:26870751

  19. Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (∼7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later

  20. Water hardness and eczema at 1 and 4 y of age in the INMA birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Esplugues, Ana; Ballester, Ferran; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Santa Marina, Loreto; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Sunyer, Jordi; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to hard water has been suggested as a risk factor for eczema in childhood, based on limited evidence from two ecologic and two cross-sectional studies. We evaluate this hypothesis for the first time in early infancy using prospective data from a mother-child cohort study. We used data from the INMA cohorts in Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia, Spain (N=1638). Current and ever eczema, bathing frequency and duration and covariables were collected by questionnaires at 14 months (14 m) and 4 years (4 y). Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) level in municipal water was assigned to home addresses at birth, 14 m and 4 y. We calculated Odds Ratio (OR) of eczema related to CaCO3 at home, bath exposure and a combination of both. Prevalence of eczema ever was 18.4% at 14 m and 33.4% at 4 y. Mean CaCO3 ranged from 51.6 to 272.8 mg/L among areas. No association was detected between water hardness at home and current or ever eczema. Adjusted OR was 0.79 (95%CI=0.45, 1.39) at 14 m and 0.93 (0.56, 1.52) at 4 y among children in the highest vs. lowest tertiles of CaCO3. Bath exposure alone or in combination with water hardness did not increase the OR of eczema at 14 m or 4 y either. We did not find an association between eczema and water hardness at home or bathing exposure during the first four years of life. This first cohort study in a critical age period with improved exposure assessment does not confirm the association suggested among children by previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal health literacy and late initiation of immunizations among an inner-city birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Feemster, Kristen A; Mohamad, Zeinab; Fiks, Alex; Grundmeier, Robert; Cnaan, Avital

    2011-04-01

    To determine if maternal health literacy influences early infant immunization status. Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads. Immunization status at age 3 and 7 months was assessed in relation to maternal health literacy measured at birth using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Multivariable logistic regression quantified the effect of maternal health literacy on immunization status adjusting for the relevant covariates. The cohort consists of primarily African-American (87%), single (87%) mothers (mean age 23.4 years). Health literacy was inadequate or marginal among 24% of mothers. Immunizations were up-to-date among 73% of infants at age 3 months and 43% at 7 months. Maternal health literacy was not significantly associated with immunization status at either 3 or 7 months. In multivariable analysis, compared to infants who had delayed immunizations at 3 months, infants with up-to-date immunizations at 3 months were 11.3 times (95%CI 6.0-21.3) more likely to be up-to-date at 7 months. The only strong predictors of up-to-date immunization status at 3 months were maternal education (high school graduate or beyond) and attending a hospital-affiliated clinic. Though maternal health literacy is not associated with immunization status in this cohort, later immunization status is most strongly predicted by immunization status at 3 months. These results further support the importance of intervening from an early age to ensure that infants are fully protected against vaccine preventable diseases.

  2. Oral health-related quality of life in a birth cohort of 32-year olds

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Herenia P.; Thomson, W. Murray; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Poulton, Richie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among New Zealand adults and assess the relationship between clinical measures of oral health status and a well-established OHRQoL measure, controlling for sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and use of dental services. Methods A birth cohort of 924 dentate adults (participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) was systematically examined for dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal attachment loss (CAL) at age 32 years. OHRQoL was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). The questionnaire also collected data on each study member’s occupation, self-rated oral health and reasons for seeing a dental care provider. SES was determined from each individual’s occupation at age 32 years. Results The mean total OHIP-14 score was 8.0 (SD 8.1); 23.4% of the cohort reported one or more OHIP problems ‘fairly often’ or ‘very often’. When the prevalence of impacts ‘fairly/very often’ was modeled using logistic regression, having untreated caries, two or more sites with CAL of 4+ mm and 1 or more teeth missing by age 32 years remained significantly associated with OHRQoL, after adjusting for sex and ‘episodic’ dental care. Multivariate analysis using Poisson regression determined that being in the low SES group was also associated with the mean number of impacts (extent) and the rated severity of impacts. Conclusions OHIP-14 scores were significantly associated with clinical oral health status indicators, independently of sex and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The prevalence of impacts (23.4%) in the cohort was significantly greater than age- and sex-standardized estimates from Australia (18.2%) and the UK (15.9%). PMID:18650957

  3. Use of an electronic medical record to create the marshfield clinic twin/multiple birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John; Kitchner, Terrie; Ye, Zhan; Zhou, Zhiyi; He, Min; Schrodi, Steven J; Hebbring, Scott J

    2014-12-01

    Population-based genetic analyses, such as the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), have proven powerful for describing the genetic complexities of common disease in epidemiologic research. However, the significant challenges faced by population-based study designs have resulted in revitalization of family-based approaches, including twin studies. Twin studies are unique in their ability to ascertain both heritable and environmental contributions to human disease. Several regional and national twin registries have been constructed using a variety of methods to identify potential twins. A significant challenge in constructing these large twin registries includes the substantial resources required to recruit participants, collect phenotypic data, and update the registries as time progresses. Here we describe the use of the Marshfield Clinic electronic medical record (EMR) to identify a cohort of 19,226 patients enriched for twins or multiples. This cohort defines the Marshfield Clinic Twin/Multiple Birth Cohort (MCTC). An EMR system provides both a mechanism to identify potential twins and a source of detailed phenotypic data in near real time without the need for patient contact outside standard medical care. To demonstrate that the MCTC can be used for genetic-based epidemiologic research, concordance rates for muscular dystrophy (MD) and fragile-X syndrome-two highly heritable diseases-were assessed. Observations indicate that both MD and fragile-X syndrome are highly correlated among affected twins in the MCTC (P ≅ 3.7 × 10(-6) and 1.1 × 10(-4) , respectively). These findings suggest that EMR systems may not only be an effective resource for predicting families of twins, but can also be rapidly applied to epidemiologic research. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Danilo R; Costa, Jaderson C; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Halpern, Ricardo; Dumith, Samuel; Karam, Simone; Barros, Fernando C

    2010-01-01

    de Moura DR, Costa JC, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Matijasevich A, Halpern R, Dumith S, Karam S, Barros FC. Risk factors for suspected developmental delay at age 2 years in a Brazilian birth cohort. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2010; 24: 211–221. Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. This study was part of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The Battelle Screening Developmental Inventory (BSDI) was administered to cohort children at age 2 years. A hierarchical model of determination for SDD with confounder adjustment was built including maternal sociodemographic, reproductive and gestational characteristics, as well as child and environmental characteristics. Multivariable analysis was carried out using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] were calculated. In the results, 3.3% of the 3869 children studied screened positive for SDD. After confounder control, children more likely to show SDD were: those with positive BSDI at age 12 months (PR = 5.51 [3.59, 8.47]); with 5-min Apgar <7 (PR = 3.52 [1.70, 7.27]); with mothers who had <4 years of schooling (PR = 3.35 [1.98, 5.66]); from social classes D and E (PR = 3.00 [1.45, 6.19]); with a history of gestational diabetes (PR = 2.77 [1.34, 5.75]); born <24 months after the last sibling (PR = 2.46 [1.42, 4.27]); were not told child stories in the preceding week (PR 2.28 [1.43, 3.63]); did not have children's literature at home (PR = 2.08 [1.27, 3.39]); with low birthweight (PR = 1.75 [1.00, 3.07]); were born preterm (PR = 1.74 [1.07, 2.81]); with <6 antenatal care appointments (PR = 1.70 [1.07, 2.68]); with history of hospitalisation (PR = 1

  5. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998-2002 ( N=344,160). Linking the DNBC ( N=91,442) and the general population to the Danish national health registries, all children were followed until they received an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, had a prescription of psychotropic medication or to the end of follow-up in 2013. The prevalence ratios (PRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each psychiatric diagnosis and by sex. Age at first diagnosis presented as means were compared using the one-sample t-test. In the DNBC, the selected childhood psychiatric diagnoses were underrepresented by 3% (PR=0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), ranging from a 20% underrepresentation for schizophrenia (PR=0.80, 95% CI 0.59-1.09) to a 6% over-representation for anxiety disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (PR=1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.17). The majority of the specific diagnoses were modestly underrepresented in the DNBC compared to the general population, while use of psychotropic medication had similar representation. Girls were generally more underrepresented than boys. Depression was on average diagnosed 0.4 years earlier in the DNBC than in the general population ( p=0.023). These findings suggest that the social selection may influence the prevalence of diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders in the DNBC.

  6. Birth cohort effects among US-born adults born in the 1980s: foreshadowing future trends in US obesity prevalence.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W R; Keyes, K M; Utz, R L; Martin, C L; Yang, Y

    2013-03-01

    Obesity prevalence stabilized in the US in the first decade of the 2000s. However, obesity prevalence may resume increasing if younger generations are more sensitive to the obesogenic environment than older generations. We estimated cohort effects for obesity prevalence among young adults born in the 1980s. Using data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1971 and 2008, we calculated obesity for respondents aged between 2 and 74 years. We used the median polish approach to estimate smoothed age and period trends; residual non-linear deviations from age and period trends were regressed on cohort indicator variables to estimate birth cohort effects. After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, cohorts born in the 1980s had increased propensity to obesity versus those born in the late 1960s. The cohort effects were 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) for the 1979-1983 and 1984-1988 birth cohorts, respectively. The effects were especially pronounced in Black males and females but appeared absent in White males. Our results indicate a generational divergence of obesity prevalence. Even if age-specific obesity prevalence stabilizes in those born before the 1980s, age-specific prevalence may continue to rise in the 1980s cohorts, culminating in record-high obesity prevalence as this generation enters its ages of peak obesity prevalence.

  7. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Asthma: Evidence from a Cohort in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between age at first birth and parity and risk of asthma death. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the date of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from asthma associated with parity and age at first birth. A trend of increasing risk of asthma death was seen with increasing age at first birth. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–1.08) among women with two live births and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36–0.78) among those with three or more births, compared with women who had one live birth. There was a significant decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of asthma death with increasing parity. This study is the first to provide evidences to support an association between reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) and the risk of asthma death. PMID:24921463

  8. Parity, age at first birth, and risk of death from asthma: evidence from a cohort in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-06-11

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between age at first birth and parity and risk of asthma death. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We tracked each woman from the date of their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from asthma associated with parity and age at first birth. A trend of increasing risk of asthma death was seen with increasing age at first birth. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-1.08) among women with two live births and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78) among those with three or more births, compared with women who had one live birth. There was a significant decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of asthma death with increasing parity. This study is the first to provide evidences to support an association between reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) and the risk of asthma death.

  9. Maternal Thyroid Autoantibody and Elevated Risk of Autism in a National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Bao, Yuanyuan; Sourander, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autoimmune disruption may contribute to risk for autism; however, since previous studies relied upon clinical diagnoses, exposure misclassification and recall bias are limitations. Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) is an autoantibody involved in autoimmune thyroiditis. We aimed to test the a priori hypothesis that positivity to maternal serum TPO-Ab (TPO-Ab+) (defined as > 156 IU/ml) during pregnancy is related to childhood autism. Method The study was based on a nested case-control design of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A), a national birth cohort that includes prospectively drawn archived maternal serum specimens from virtually the entire pregnant population of Finland. Cases of childhood autism (ICD-10 F84.0) born from 1987–2005 were ascertained by performing linkages between national birth and inpatient/outpatient registries. All diagnosed cases of childhood autism in Finland over the birth years, and comparison subjects without ASD or severe/profound intellectual disability were matched 1:1 on date of birth, sex, birthplace, and residence in Finland. Maternal serum specimens were assayed in 967 matched case-control pairs for TPO-Ab by a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay blind to case/control status. Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression for matched sets. Results The prevalence of maternal TPO-Ab+ was significantly increased in pregnancies giving rise to autism cases (6.15%) compared to controls (3.54%). The odds of autism were increased by nearly 80% among offspring of mothers who were TPO-Ab+ during pregnancy (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16–2.75, p=0.009), compared to mothers negative for this autoantibody. There was also a significant relationship between maternal TPO-Ab defined as a continuous variable and odds of autism (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01, 1.17, p=0.02). Measures of maternal thyroid hormones did not differ between groups. Conclusions These findings provide the first biomarker-based evidence that a class of

  10. Maternal thyroid autoantibody and elevated risk of autism in a national birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Bao, Yuanyuan; Sourander, Andre

    2015-03-03

    Autoimmune disruption may contribute to risk for autism; however, since previous studies relied upon clinical diagnoses, exposure misclassification and recall bias are limitations. Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) is an autoantibody involved in autoimmune thyroiditis. We aimed to test the a priori hypothesis that positivity to maternal serum TPO-Ab (TPO-Ab+) (defined as >156 IU/ml) during pregnancy is related to childhood autism. The study was based on a nested case-control design of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A), a national birth cohort that includes prospectively drawn archived maternal serum specimens from virtually the entire pregnant population of Finland beginning in 1983. Cases of childhood autism (ICD-10F84.0) born from 1987 to 2005 were ascertained by performing linkages between national birth and inpatient/outpatient registries. All diagnosed cases in Finland over the birth years, and comparison subjects without ASD or severe/profound intellectual disability were matched 1:1 on date of birth, sex, birthplace, and residence in Finland. Maternal serum specimens were assayed in 967 matched case-control pairs for TPO-Ab by a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay blind to case/control status. Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression for matched sets. The prevalence of maternal TPO-Ab+ was significantly increased in pregnancies giving rise to autism cases (6.15%) compared to controls (3.54%). The odds of autism were increased by nearly 80% among offspring of mothers who were TPO-Ab+ during pregnancy (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16-2.75, p=0.009), compared to mothers negative for this autoantibody. There was also a significant relationship between maternal TPO-Ab defined as a continuous variable and odds of autism (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01, 1.17, p=0.02). Measures of maternal thyroid hormones did not differ between groups. These findings provide the first biomarker-based evidence that a class of known maternal autoimmune disorders is

  11. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and the risk of preterm births in China: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Methods: Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 207 936 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20–42 weeks to women from two provinces in southern China. Healthcare workers recorded folic acid intake prospectively each month. Gestational age calculation was based on the first day of the last menstrual period. Preterm births were categorized into three clinical subtypes: iatrogenic preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between folic acid use and the risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower among folic acid users (5.28%) than among non-users (6.10%). Folic acid use showed a 14% risk reduction for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.90]. This association was strongest for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.86) and was not significant for iatrogenic preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.07) or PPROM (adjusted RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.93–1.23). Conclusions: Daily intake of 400 μg folic acid alone during the periconceptional period was associated with a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:24603317

  12. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    PubMed

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Birth cohort effects on abdominal obesity in the United States: the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers and Generation X.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W R; Utz, R L; Keyes, K M; Martin, C L; Yang, Y

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal obesity predicts a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Over the past several decades, prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased markedly in industrialized countries like the United States No previous analyses, however, have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity. Estimating cohort effects is necessary to forecast future health trends and understand the past population-level trends. This analysis evaluated whether there were birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity for the Silent Generation (born 1925-1945), children of the Great Depression; Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964); or Generation X (born 1965-1980). Cohort effects for prevalence of abdominal obesity were estimated using the median polish method with data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1988 and 2008. Respondents were aged 20-74 years. After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, the Silent Generation and Generation X had higher cohort-specific prevalence of abdominal obesity than the Baby Boomers. Effects were more pronounced in women than men. This work presents a novel finding: evidence that the birth cohorts of the post-World War II Baby Boom appeared to have uniquely low cohort effects on abdominal obesity. The growing prosperity of the post-World War II US may have exposed the baby-boom generation to lower levels of psychosocial and socioeconomic stress than the previous or subsequent generations. By identifying factors associated with the Baby Boomers' low cohort-specific sensitivity to the obesogenic environment, the obesity prevention community can identify early-life factors that can protect future generations from excess weight gain.

  14. Cesarean section and risk of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood: evidence from 3 Brazilian birth cohorts123

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Aluísio J; Menezes, Ana B; Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G

    2012-01-01

    Background: The number of cesarean sections (CSs) is increasing in many countries, and there are concerns about their short- and long-term effects. A recent Brazilian study showed a 58% higher prevalence of obesity in young adults born by CS than in young adults born vaginally. Because CS-born individuals do not make contact at birth with maternal vaginal and intestinal bacteria, the authors proposed that this could lead to long-term changes in the gut microbiota that could contribute to obesity. Objective: We assessed whether CS births lead to increased obesity during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood in 3 birth cohorts. Design: We analyzed data from 3 birth-cohort studies started in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Subjects were assessed at different ages until 23 y of age. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios with adjustment for ≤15 socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, anthropometric, and behavioral covariates. Results: In the crude analyses, subjects born by CS had ∼50% higher prevalence of obesity at 4, 11, and 15 y of age but not at 23 y of age. After adjustment for covariates, prevalence ratios were markedly reduced and no longer significant for men or women. The only exception was an association for 4-y-old boys in the 1993 cohort, which was not observed in the other 2 cohorts or for girls. Conclusion: In these 3 birth cohorts, CSs do not seem to lead to an important increased risk of obesity during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. PMID:22237058

  15. Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health – Goals, challenges, limitations and needs

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of “why”, “what” and “how” behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural “experiments” (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose–response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better

  16. A vegetable, fruit, and white rice dietary pattern during pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of preterm birth and larger birth size in a multiethnic Asian cohort: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ai-Ru; de Seymour, Jamie V; Colega, Marjorelee; Chen, Ling-Wei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin M; Tint, Mya-Thway; Quah, Phaik Ling; Godfrey, Keith M; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baker, Philip N; Chong, Yap-Seng; van Dam, Rob M; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-11-01

    Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy have been shown to influence infant birth outcomes. However, to our knowledge, only a few studies have examined the associations in Asian populations. We characterized maternal dietary patterns in Asian pregnant women and examined their associations with the risk of preterm birth and offspring birth size. At 26-28 wk of gestation, 24-h recalls and 3-d food diaries were collected from the women in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. Dietary patterns were derived from exploratory factor analysis. Gestational age was determined by a dating ultrasound scan in the first trimester, and infant birth anthropometric measurements were obtained from hospital records. Associations were assessed by logistic and linear regressions with adjustment for confounding factors. Three maternal dietary patterns were identified: vegetable, fruit, and white rice (VFR); seafood and noodle (SfN); and pasta, cheese, and processed meat (PCP). Of 923 infants, 7.6% were born preterm, 13.4% were born small for gestational age, and 14.7% were born large for gestational age. A greater adherence to the VFR pattern (per SD increase in VFR score) was associated with a lower risk of preterm births (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.91), higher ponderal index (β: 0.26 kg/m(3); 95% CI: 0.06, 0.45 kg/m(3)), and increased risk of a large-for-gestational-age birth (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.62). No associations were observed for the SfN and PCP patterns in relation to birth outcomes. The VFR pattern is associated with a lower incidence of preterm birth and with larger birth size in an Asian population. The findings related to larger birth size warrant further confirmation in independent studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. Results Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log–transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: –87 g (95% CI: –137, –340 per 1.70 ng/mL), –43 g (95% CI: –108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and –135 g (95% CI: –192, –78 per 1.82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: –5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). Conclusions This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth. These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. Citation Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP

  18. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  19. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  20. Maternal factors and the risk of birth defects after IVF and ICSI: a whole of population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davies, M J; Rumbold, A R; Marino, J L; Willson, K; Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Scheil, W; Moran, L J; Thompson, J G; Lane, M; Moore, V M

    2017-09-01

    To assess the contribution of maternal factors to major birth defects after in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural conception. Retrospective cohort study in South Australia for the period January 1986 to December 2002. A whole of population study. A census of all IVF and ICSI linked to registries for births, pregnancy terminations, and birth defects (diagnosed before a child's fifth birthday). Odds ratios (ORs) for birth defects were calculated among IVF, ICSI, and natural conceptions for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, pre-existing diseases, and conditions in pregnancy, with adjustment for confounding factors. Birth defects classified by International Classification of Diseases (ninth revision) and British Paediatric Association (ICD9-BPA) codes. There were 2211 IVF, 1399 ICSI, and 301 060 naturally conceived births. The unadjusted prevalence of any birth defect was 7.1, 9.9, and 5.7% in the IVF, ICSI, and natural conception groups, respectively. As expected, the risk of birth defects increased with maternal age among the natural conceptions. In contrast, for IVF and ICSI combined, relative to natural conceptions, births to women aged ≤29 years had a higher risk (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), births to women aged 35-39 years had no difference in risk (aOR 1.01; 95% CI 0.74-1.37), and births to women aged ≥40 years had a lower risk of defects (aOR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.92). Defects were also elevated for nulliparity, anaemia, and urinary tract infection in births after ICSI, but not after IVF. The usual age-birth defect relationship is reversed in births after IVF and ICSI, and the associations for other maternal factors and defects vary between IVF and ICSI. Risk of birth defects in women over 40 years is lower after infertility treatment than for natural conceptions. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Early life origins of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    von Bondorff, Mikaela B; Törmäkangas, Timo; Salonen, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Osmond, Clive; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP). Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career. 10 682 people born in 1934-44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4) for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6) for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight). For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007). Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial.

  2. Early Life Origins of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Disability Pension: Findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    von Bondorff, Mikaela B.; Törmäkangas, Timo; Salonen, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Osmond, Clive; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP). Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career. Methods 10 682 people born in 1934–44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Results Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4) for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6) for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight). For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007). Conclusions Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial. PMID:25849578

  3. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, NA; Greenwood, DC; Simpson, NAB; McArdle, HJ; Cade, JE

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Design A prospective birth cohort. Setting Leeds, UK. Sample One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18–45 years. Methods Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8–12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Main outcome measures Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Results Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P= 0.02). Conclusions Regular multivitamin–mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study’s findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries. PMID:20353456

  4. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282

  5. Maternal residential exposure to agricultural pesticides and birth defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rappazzo, Kristen M; Warren, Joshua L; Meyer, Robert E; Herring, Amy H; Sanders, Alison P; Brownstein, Naomi C; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agricultural pesticide exposure and birth defects. We linked singleton live birth records for 2003 to 2005 from the North Carolina (NC) State Center for Health Statistics to data from the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Included women had residence at delivery inside NC and infants with gestational ages from 20 to 44 weeks (n = 304,906). Pesticide exposure was assigned using a previously constructed metric, estimating total chemical exposure (pounds of active ingredient) based on crops within 500 meters of maternal residence, specific dates of pregnancy, and chemical application dates based on the planting/harvesting dates of each crop. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for four categories of exposure (<10(th) , 10-50(th) , 50-90(th) , and >90(th) percentiles) compared with unexposed. Models were adjusted for maternal race, age at delivery, education, marital status, and smoking status. We observed elevated ORs for congenital heart defects and certain structural defects affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and musculoskeletal systems (e.g., OR [95% confidence interval] [highest exposure vs. unexposed] for tracheal esophageal fistula/esophageal atresia = 1.98 [0.69, 5.66], and OR for atrial septal defects: 1.70 [1.34, 2.14]). Our results provide some evidence of associations between residential exposure to agricultural pesticides and several birth defects phenotypes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:240-249, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP < or = 12 months), 4351 born of infertile couples conceiving naturally (TTP > 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  7. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study (n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Weight change before and after the introduction of solids: results from a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Lenie; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Looman, Caspar W N; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Mackenbach, Johan P; Moll, Henriëtte A; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-28

    We studied the association, and its direction, between the introduction of solids and weight-for-height (WFH) change between birth and 45 months. Pregnant women were asked to participate in a birth cohort during their first antenatal visit. Data from 3184 children were used. The timing of the introduction of solids was reported by the mother from a questionnaire at 12 months postpartum, and categorised into very early (0-3 months), early (3-6 months) and timely (after 6 months) introduction of solids. Anthropometric data were collected during standardised child health centre visits. WFH was converted into a z-score. Repeated-measurements analyses with splines positioned according to the moments of solid introduction were used to obtain estimates for WFH change before and after the introduction of solids. Analyses were adjusted for educational level, ethnicity, smoking during pregnancy, mother's BMI, breast-feeding, history of food allergy and infant's hospital admission. Before solids were introduced, weight gain was higher in children introduced to solids early (z= 0.65, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.95) than in children introduced to solids very early (z= 0.02, 95 % CI -0.03, 0.08) and timely (z= -0.04, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.03). Shortly after the introduction of solids, children introduced to solids very early and early showed a relative decrease in WFH. WFH change did not differ between the solid introduction groups after 12 months, and at that time, weight change was as expected (i.e. z= 0). We therefore conclude that differences in WFH in childhood are not the result of early introduction to solids.

  9. Air pollution during pregnancy and childhood cognitive and psychomotor development: six European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M T; Verhulst, Frank C; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain)-that recruited mother-infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels-nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of <2.5, <10, and 2.5-10 μm (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively) and PM2.5 absorbance in a subgroup-at birth addresses were estimated by land-use regression models, based on monitoring campaigns performed primarily between 2008 and 2011. Levels were back-extrapolated to exact pregnancy periods using background monitoring sites. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = -1.25 to -0.11] per increase of 10 μg/m in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable.

  10. Food insecurity and children's mental health: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Falissard, Bruno; Galéra, Cédric; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M; Boivin, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals' dietary needs) is concurrently associated with children's psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children's mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997-1998 (n = 2120). Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children's mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%), aggression (26.2%), and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%). The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.79) and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68-5.55). After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child's birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16-6.06). Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children's mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development.

  11. Mold and dampness exposure and allergic outcomes from birth to adolescence: data from the BAMSE cohort.

    PubMed

    Thacher, J D; Gruzieva, O; Pershagen, G; Melén, E; Lorentzen, J C; Kull, I; Bergström, A

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to moldy or damp indoor environments is associated with allergic disease in young children, but it is unclear whether the effects persist to adolescence. Our objective was to assess whether exposure to mold or dampness during infancy increases the risk of asthma, rhinitis, or IgE sensitization in children followed from birth to 16 years of age. We collected questionnaire derived reports of mold or dampness indicators and allergic outcomes from 3798 children in a Swedish birth cohort (BAMSE). Sensitization was assessed from blood samples in 3293 children. Longitudinal associations between prevalent asthma, rhinitis, and IgE sensitization and mold or dampness indicators were assessed using generalized estimating equations. Exposure to any mold or dampness indicator was associated with asthma up to 16 years of age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.08-1.59), while exposure to mold odor (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) and visible mold (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.04-1.58) were associated with rhinitis. Increased risks were observed for nonallergic asthma (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27-2.55) and rhinitis (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.03-1.93). No association was observed between mold or dampness indicators and IgE sensitization. Exposure to any mold or dampness indicator was associated with persistent asthma (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.20-2.50), but not with early-transient or late-onset asthma. Exposure to mold or dampness during infancy increased the risk of asthma and rhinitis up to 16 years of age, particularly for nonallergic disease. Early exposure to mold or dampness appeared particularly associated with persistent asthma through adolescence. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of wheeze in early childhood: a prospective pregnancy birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the independent and additive effects of both pre- and postnatal smoking exposure on the risk of wheeze in children is limited. The purpose of this prospective pregnancy birth cohort study was to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure during the first year of life and the risk of wheeze in Japanese children aged 23 to 29 months. Study subjects were 1354 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on the variables under study was obtained using repeated questionnaires that were completed by mothers, first prior to delivery, then shortly after birth and subsequently around 4, 12, and 24 months after delivery. Wheeze was defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Compared with no maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal smoking throughout pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheeze in children, yet there were no associations between maternal smoking in the first trimester only or in the second and/or third trimesters and the risk of wheeze. No association was observed between postnatally living with at least one household smoker and the risk of wheeze. An analysis to assess the additive effect of prenatal and postnatal smoking exposure revealed that, compared with children not exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy and not postnatally living with at least one household smoker, those who were both exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatally living with at least one household smoker had twofold odds of developing wheeze. Our findings suggest that maternal smoking throughout pregnancy might be associated with an increased risk of wheeze in children. There is also the possibility of a positive additive effect of pre- and postnatal smoking exposure on the risk of childhood wheeze.

  13. Dental caries is associated with dental fear in childhood: findings from a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Torriani, D D; Ferro, R L; Bonow, M L M; Santos, I S; Matijasevich, A; Barros, A J; Demarco, F F; Peres, K G

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental fear in preschool children and to estimate its association with maternal and children characteristics. The study was nested in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil, started in 2004. A sample of 1,129 children aged 5 years was dentally examined, and their mothers were interviewed. Dental fear was investigated using a validated instrument through the question ‘Do you think that your child is afraid of going to the dentist?'. The possible answers were (1) ‘no', (2) ‘yes, a little', (3) ‘yes' and (4) ‘yes, a lot'. The outcome was dichotomized as ‘children without dental fear' (answers 1 and 2) and ‘children with dental fear' (answers 3 and 4). Exploratory variables included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal oral health status and maternal behaviors. The main explanatory variables were caries and dental pain. Data were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression. The prevalence of dental fear was 16.8% (95% confidence interval 14.6-19.0). Multivariate analysis showed that the lower the family income at birth and the higher the severity of dental caries, the higher the prevalence of dental fear. Children who never visited the dentist and those who frequently experienced dental pain were positively associated with higher dental fear prevalence. Presence of dental caries and dental pain were associated with dental fear regardless of socioeconomic origin and lack of dental service use in childhood. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  15. Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: population based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mental health, substance use, educational, and occupational outcomes of adolescents who self harm in a general population sample, and to examine whether these outcomes differ according to self reported suicidal intent. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort of children born in 1991-92. Participants Data on lifetime history of self harm with and without suicidal intent were available for 4799 respondents who completed a detailed self harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Main outcome measures Mental health problems (depression and anxiety disorder), assessed using the clinical interview schedule-revised at age 18 years, self reported substance use (alcohol, cannabis, cigarette smoking, and illicit drugs) at age 18 years, educational attainment at age 16 and 19 years, occupational outcomes at age 19 years, and self harm at age 21 years. Results Participants who self harmed with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years were at increased risk of developing mental health problems, future self harm, and problem substance misuse, with stronger associations for suicidal self harm than for non-suicidal self harm. For example, in models adjusted for confounders the odds ratio for depression at age 18 years was 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 3.15) in participants who had self harmed without suicidal intent at age 16 years and 3.94 (2.67 to 5.83) in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent. Suicidal self harm, but not self harm without suicidal intent, was also associated with poorer educational and employment outcomes. Conclusions Adolescents who self harm seem to be vulnerable to a range of adverse outcomes in early adulthood. Risks were generally stronger in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent, but outcomes were also poor among those who had self harmed without suicidal

  16. Treatment and disease progression in a birth cohort of vertically HIV-1 infected children in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ukraine has the highest HIV prevalence (1.6%) and is facing the fastest growing epidemic in Europe. Our objective was to describe the clinical, immunological and virological characteristics, treatment and response in vertically HIV-infected children living in Ukraine and followed from birth. Methods The European Collaborative Study (ECS) is an ongoing cohort study, in which HIV-1 infected pregnant women are enrolled and followed in pregnancy, and their children prospectively followed from birth. ECS enrolment in Ukraine started in 2000 initially with three sites, increasing to seven sites by 2009. Results A total of 245 infected children were included in the cohort by April 2009, with a median age of 23 months at most recent follow-up; 33% (n = 77) had injecting drug using mothers and 85% (n = 209) were infected despite some use of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Fifty-five (22%) children had developed AIDS, at a median age of 10 months (IQR = 6-19). The most prevalent AIDS indicator disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP). Twenty-seven (11%) children had died (median age, 6.2 months). Overall, 108 (44%) children had started highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), at a median 18 months of age; median HAART duration was 6.6 months to date. No child discontinued HAART and 92% (100/108) remained on their first-line HAART regimen to date. Among children with moderate/severe immunosuppression, 36% had not yet started HAART. Among children on HAART, 71% (69/97) had no evidence of immunosuppression at their most recent visit; the median reduction in HIV RNA was 4.69 log10 copies/mL over a median of 10 months treatment. From survival analysis, an estimated 94%, 84% and 81% of children will be alive and AIDS-free at 6, 12 and 18 months of age, respectively. However, survival increased significantly over time: estimated survival rates to 12 months of age were 87% for children born in 2000/03 versus 96

  17. Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Bradman, Asa; Wolff, Mary S.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Harley, Kim G.; Yang, Jenny H.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Yolton, Kimberly; Vedar, Michelle G.; Xu, Yingying; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are used in agriculture worldwide. Residential use was common in the United States before 2001. Objectives: We conducted a pooled analysis of four birth cohorts (children’s centers; n = 936) to evaluate associations of prenatal exposure to OPs with child development at 24 months. Methods: Using general linear models, we computed site-specific and pooled estimates of the association of total dialkyl (ΣDAP), diethyl (ΣDEP), and dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine with mental and psychomotor development indices (MDI/PDI) and evaluated heterogeneity by children’s center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Results: There was significant heterogeneity in the center-specific estimates of association for ΣDAP and ΣDMP and the MDI (p = 0.09, and p = 0.05, respectively), as well as heterogeneity in the race/ethnicity-specific estimates for ΣDAP (p = 0.06) and ΣDMP (p = 0.02) and the MDI. Strong MDI associations in the CHAMACOS population per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP (β = –4.17; 95% CI: –7.00, –1.33) and ΣDMP (β = –3.64; 95% CI: –5.97, –1.32) were influential, as were associations among Hispanics (β per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP = –2.91; 95% CI: –4.71, –1.12). We generally found stronger negative associations of ΣDAP and ΣDEP with the 24-month MDI for carriers of the 192Q PON1 allele, particularly among blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions: Data pooling was complicated by center-related differences in subject characteristics, eligibility, and changes in regulations governing residential use of OPs during the study periods. Pooled summary estimates of prenatal exposure to OPs and neurodevelopment should be interpreted with caution because of significant heterogeneity in associations by center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Subgroups with unique exposure profiles or susceptibilities may be at higher risk for adverse neurodevelopment following prenatal

  18. Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stephanie M; Bradman, Asa; Wolff, Mary S; Rauh, Virginia A; Harley, Kim G; Yang, Jenny H; Hoepner, Lori A; Barr, Dana Boyd; Yolton, Kimberly; Vedar, Michelle G; Xu, Yingying; Hornung, Richard W; Wetmur, James G; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T; Perera, Frederica P; Whyatt, Robin M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are used in agriculture worldwide. Residential use was common in the United States before 2001. We conducted a pooled analysis of four birth cohorts (children's centers; n = 936) to evaluate associations of prenatal exposure to OPs with child development at 24 months. Using general linear models, we computed site-specific and pooled estimates of the association of total dialkyl (ΣDAP), diethyl (ΣDEP), and dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine with mental and psychomotor development indices (MDI/PDI) and evaluated heterogeneity by children's center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. There was significant heterogeneity in the center-specific estimates of association for ΣDAP and ΣDMP and the MDI (p = 0.09, and p = 0.05, respectively), as well as heterogeneity in the race/ethnicity-specific estimates for ΣDAP (p = 0.06) and ΣDMP (p = 0.02) and the MDI. Strong MDI associations in the CHAMACOS population per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP (β = -4.17; 95% CI: -7.00, -1.33) and ΣDMP (β = -3.64; 95% CI: -5.97, -1.32) were influential, as were associations among Hispanics (β per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP = -2.91; 95% CI: -4.71, -1.12). We generally found stronger negative associations of ΣDAP and ΣDEP with the 24-month MDI for carriers of the 192Q PON1 allele, particularly among blacks and Hispanics. Data pooling was complicated by center-related differences in subject characteristics, eligibility, and changes in regulations governing residential use of OPs during the study periods. Pooled summary estimates of prenatal exposure to OPs and neurodevelopment should be interpreted with caution because of significant heterogeneity in associations by center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Subgroups with unique exposure profiles or susceptibilities may be at higher risk for adverse neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure. Engel SM, Bradman A, Wolff MS, Rauh VA, Harley KG, Yang JH, Hoepner

  19. Intimate partner violence: associations with low infant birthweight in a South African birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Williams, John K.; Zhang, Muyu; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Violence against women is a global public health problem. Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including delivery of a low birthweight (LBW) infant. However, there is a paucity of data from low-middle income countries (LMIC). We examined the association between antenatal IPV and subsequent LBW in a South African birth cohort. This study reports data from the Drakenstein Child Lung Health Study (DCLHS), a multidisciplinary birth cohort investigation of the influence of a number of antecedent risk factors on maternal and infant health outcomes over time. Pregnant women seeking antenatal care were recruited at two different primary care clinics in a low income, semi-rural area outside Cape Town, South Africa. Antenatal trauma exposure was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and an IPV assessment tool specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Potential confounding variables including maternal sociodemographics, pregnancy intention, partner support, biomedical and mental illness, substance use and psychosocial risk were also assessed. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the association between IPV during pregnancy and delivery of an infant with LBW and/or low weight-for-age z (WAZ) scores. The final study sample comprised 263 mother-infant dyads. In multiple regression analyses, the model run was significant [r2=0.14 (adjusted r2=0.11, F(8, 212) = 4.16, p=0.0001]. Exposure to physical IPV occurring during the past year was found to be significantly associated with LBW [t=−2.04, p=0.0429] when controlling for study site (clinic), maternal height, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, substance use and childhood trauma. A significant association with decreased WAZ scores was not demonstrated. Exposure of pregnant women to IPV may impact newborn health. Further research is needed in this field to assess the

  20. The diversity of young adult wheeze: a cluster analysis in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Kurukulaaratchy, R J; Zhang, H; Raza, A; Patil, V; Karmaus, W; Ewart, S; Arshad, S H

    2014-01-01

    Cluster analyses have enhanced understanding of the heterogeneity of both paediatric and adult wheezing. However, while adolescence represents an important transitional phase, the nature of young adult wheeze has yet to be clearly characterised. To use cluster analysis to define, for the first time, clinically relevant young adult wheeze clusters in a longitudinal birth cohort. K-means cluster analysis was undertaken among 309 currently wheezing subjects at 18 years in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (N = 1456). Thirteen disease-characterising clustering variables at 18 years were used. Resulting clusters were then further characterised by severity indices plus potential risk factors for wheeze development throughout the 1st 18 years of life. Six wheeze clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (12.3%) male-early-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-normal-lung-function had male predominance, normal spirometry, low bronchodilator reversibility (BDR), intermediate bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), high atopy prevalence and more admissions. Cluster 2 (24.2%) early-childhood-onset-wheeze-with-intermediate-lung-function had no specific sex association, intermediate spirometry, BDR, BHR, more significant BTS step therapy and admissions. Cluster 3 (9.7%) female-early-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-impaired-lung-function showed female predominance, high allergic disease comorbidity, more severe BDR and BHR, greatest airflow obstruction, high smoking prevalence, higher symptom severity and admissions. Cluster 4 (19.4%) female-undiagnosed-wheezers had adolescent-onset non-atopic wheeze, low BDR and BHR, impaired but non-obstructed spirometry, high symptom frequency and highest smoking prevalence. Cluster 5 (24.6%) female-late-childhood-onset-wheeze-with-normal-lung-function showed no specific atopy association, normal spirometry, low BDR, BHR and symptom severity. Cluster 6 (9.7%) male-late-childhood-onset-atopic-wheeze-with-impaired-lung-function had high atopy and

  1. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n=1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90-109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22-23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120-0.198), P>0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74-102.6) v. 110.14 (95% CI 107.79-112.50), P>0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents and

  2. Seroprevalence of rubella in Colombia: a birth-year cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Lenis Ballesteros, Viviana; Ospina, Martha Ospina; Toro, Olga Lucía Pérez; Díaz, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of rubella and associated factors. METHODS Population-based seroprevalence study in a random sample of 2,124 individuals, aged six to 64 years, representative by age, sex and area in Medellín, Colombia, 2009. Biological and socioeconomic variables were analyzed for their association with serum protection against rubella, according to birth-year cohort; those born before (1954-1990) and after (1991-2003) the introduction of universal immunization. Titer of IgG antibodies against the rubella virus was detected using a high sensitivity (AxSYM®Rubella IgG – Abbott Laboratories) and a high specificity test (VIDAS RUB IgG II®– BioMerieux Laboratories). Proportions and weighted averages derived from a complex sample, including a correction factor for differences in gender participation, were estimated. Association with protection for groups of biological and social variables according to birth cohort was analyzed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS Titers of IgG antibodies were higher in those born before (mean 110 UI/ml, 95%CI 100.5;120.2) compared to those born after (mean 64 UI/ml; 95%CI 54.4;72.8; p = 0.000) the introduction of mass immunization. The proportion of protection increased from 88.9% in those born 1990-1994, to 89.2% in those born 1995-1999 and to 92.1% in those born between 2000 and 2003, possibly due to boosters being administered from 1998 onwards. In those born before the introduction of the immunization, seroprotection was associated with previous contact with cases (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.1;5.9), self- perceived health status (OR 2.5; 95%CI 1.05;6.0), educational level (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0.08;0.8) and years of residence in the neighborhood (RD 0,96; 95%CI 0.98;1.0) after adjusting for all variables. In those born after, serum protection was associated with effective sleep time (OR 1,4; 95%CI 1.09;1.8) and self-perceived health status (OR 5.5; 95%CI 1.2;23.8). CONCLUSIONS The seroprevalence profile changed

  3. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D.; Pell, Jill P.; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22–23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n=1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90–109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. Results There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22–23 years (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120–0.198), P>0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74–102.6) v. 110.14 (95% CI 107.79–112.50), P>0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. Conclusions A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier

  4. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards' health by birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Jaime; Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz G; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2017-01-05

    Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards' health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring's health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. We use data from the Bank of Spain's Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father's and mother's occupation on their offspring's health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals' health (p < 0.01). The effect of father's occupation exceeds that of mother's. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.48), when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98-0.99) when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959-1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39-0.59) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96-0.98), respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals' health has been significantly tempered for those at the bottom of the social scale. However

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal-Maternal Adiponectin, Leptin, and CRP: results of two birth cohorts studies

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Chad A.; Bornemann, Rebecca; Koenig, Wolfgang; Reister, Frank; Walter, Viola; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Weyermann, Maria; Brenner, Hermann; Genuneit, Jon; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Unlike behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, the effect of GWG throughout pregnancy on fetal development and other outcomes has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of GWG with endocrine factors such as adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein which may be associated with inflammatory response, fetal growth, and adiposity later in life. Data were obtained from the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS) and the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, two methodologically similar birth cohort studies including newborns and their mothers recruited from 11/2000–11/2001 and 04/2012–05/2013. In the two included birth cohorts we consistently observed statistically significant positive associations between GWG beginning as early as the second trimester with fetal cord blood leptin and stronger association beginning as early as the first trimester with post-delivery maternal serum leptin. Total weight gain exceeding commonly accepted recommended guidelines was consistently associated with higher leptin levels in both cord blood and post-delivery maternal serum. These results suggest a potential pathomechanistic link between fetal environment and surrogate markers of long-term health. PMID:28150815

  6. Hypothesis-Free Search for Connections between Birth Month and Disease Prevalence in Large, Geographically Varied Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Borsi, John P

    2016-01-01

    We have sought to replicate and extend the Season-wide Association Study (SeaWAS) of Boland, et al.(1) in identifying birth month-disease associations from electronic health records (EHRs). We used methodology similar to that implemented by Boland on three geographically distinct cohorts, for a total of 11.8 million individuals derived from multiple data sources. We were able to identify eleven out of sixteen literature-supported birth month associations as compared to seven of sixteen for SeaWAS. Of the nine novel cardiovascular birth month associations discovered by SeaWAS, we were able to replicate four. None of the novel non-cardiovascular associations discovered by SeaWAS emerged as significant relations in our study. We identified thirty birth month disease associations not previously reported; of those, only six associations were validated in more than one cohort. These results suggest that differences in cohort composition and location can cause consequential variation in results of hypothesis-free searches.

  7. Hypothesis-Free Search for Connections between Birth Month and Disease Prevalence in Large, Geographically Varied Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Borsi, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We have sought to replicate and extend the Season-wide Association Study (SeaWAS) of Boland, et al.1 in identifying birth month-disease associations from electronic health records (EHRs). We used methodology similar to that implemented by Boland on three geographically distinct cohorts, for a total of 11.8 million individuals derived from multiple data sources. We were able to identify eleven out of sixteen literature-supported birth month associations as compared to seven of sixteen for SeaWAS. Of the nine novel cardiovascular birth month associations discovered by SeaWAS, we were able to replicate four. None of the novel non-cardiovascular associations discovered by SeaWAS emerged as significant relations in our study. We identified thirty birth month disease associations not previously reported; of those, only six associations were validated in more than one cohort. These results suggest that differences in cohort composition and location can cause consequential variation in results of hypothesis-free searches. PMID:28269826

  8. Allergic sensitisation in early childhood: Patterns and related factors in PARIS birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gabet, Stephan; Just, Jocelyne; Couderc, Rémy; Seta, Nathalie; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0.35kUA/L. Information regarding lifestyle and environment were obtained from questionnaires prospectively administered. Prevalence of allergic sensitisation to any allergen, to food allergens, and to aeroallergens was 13.8%, 12.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Multiple sensitisation (to at least two allergens) concerned 6.2% of toddlers. Intrinsic factors such as male gender, family history of allergy, and high birth weight increased the risk of food allergen sensitisation and multiple sensitisation. Caesarean section was also positively associated with multiple sensitisation. Day-care attendance was negatively related to food allergen, aeroallergen, and multiple sensitisation. A cat entering the baby's room in early life was strongly associated with aeroallergen sensitisation (ORa 3.21, 95%CI: 1.29-8.01). An introduction of meat in infant's diet after 6 months of age was negatively related to food allergen sensitisation (ORa 0.46, 95%CI: 0.24-0.91). Our results suggest that intrinsic factors and indicators of exposure to microorganisms such as caesarean section and day-care attendance may be associated with inhalant as well as food allergen sensitisation in infancy. For example, male gender, family history of allergy, high birth weight, and caesarean section could be positively related whereas day-care attendance could be negatively related to both aeroallergen and food allergen sensitisation. Conversely, early life exposure to inhalant allergens or food allergens may be

  9. Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21.

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, J P; Williams, S M; Heydon, J L; Walmsley, T A; Menkes, D B

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 micrograms/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 micrograms/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 micrograms/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 micrograms/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p < 0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure. Images Figure 1. PMID:9118875

  10. Issues in Design and Implementation in an Urban Birth Cohort Study: The Syracuse AUDIT Project

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Judith A.; Hargrave, Teresa M.; Hunt, Andrew; Liu, Chien-Chih; Anbar, Ran D.; Hall, Geralyn E.; Naishadham, Deepa; Czerwinski, Maria H.; Webster, Noah; Lane, Sandra D.

    2006-01-01

    The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size. We studied 103 infants of mothers with asthma, living predominantly in inner-city households. Our study combines measurements of a large panel of indoor environmental agents, in-home infant assessments, and review of all prenatal and postnatal medical records through the first year of life. We found multiple environmental pollution sources and potential health risks in study homes including high infant exposure to tobacco smoke. The prevalence of maternal smoking during pregnancy was 54%; postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was nearly 90%. The majority (73%) of homes showed signs of dampness. Participants' lives were complicated by poverty, unemployment and single-parenthood. Thirty-three percent of fathers were not involved with their children, and 62% of subjects moved at least once during the study period. These socioeconomic issues had an impact on project implementation and led to modification of study eligibility criteria. Extensive outreach, follow up, and relationship-building were required in order to recruit and retain families and resulted in considerable work overload for study staff. Our experiences implementing the project will inform further studies on this and other similar populations. Future reports on this cohort will address the role of multiple environmental variables and their effects on wheezing outcome during the first year of life. PMID:16845500

  11. Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID): a dynamic birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Stephen Bernard; Ware, Robert S; Cook, Anne L; Maguire, Frances A; Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mackay, Ian M; Wang, David; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Even in developed economies infectious diseases remain the most common cause of illness in early childhood. Our current understanding of the epidemiology of these infections is limited by reliance on data from decades ago performed using low-sensitivity laboratory methods, and recent studies reporting severe, hospital-managed disease. Methods and analysis The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is an ongoing study enrolling a dynamic birth cohort to document the community-based epidemiology of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in early childhood. Women are recruited antenatally, and their healthy newborn is followed for the first 2 years of life. Parents keep a daily symptom diary for the study child, collect a weekly anterior nose swab and dirty nappy swab and complete a burden diary when a child meets pre-defined illness criteria. Specimens will be tested for a wide range of viruses by real-time PCR assays. Primary analyses involves calculating incidence rates for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) for the cohort by age and seasonality. Control material from children when they are without symptoms will allow us to determine what proportion of ARIs and AGE can be attributed to specific pathogens. Secondary analyses will assess the incidence and shedding duration of specific respiratory and gastrointestinal pathogens. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by The Human Research Ethics Committees of the Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01304914. PMID:23117571

  12. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to