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Sample records for picm-19 pig liver

  1. The Effects of Space Flight and Microgravity on the Growth and Differentiation of PICM-19 Pig Liver Stem Cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to answer the question, what effects would microgravity have on the growth, differentiation, and function on liver stem cells, the ARS-PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line was cultured in space aboard space shuttle Endeavor for the 16 days of mission STS-126. The liver is among the few organs ...

  2. The effects of space flight and microgravity on the growth and differentiation of PICM-19 pig liver stem cells.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Caperna, Thomas J; Blomberg, LeAnn; Graninger, Paul G; Stodieck, Louis S

    2010-06-01

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line was cultured in space for nearly 16 d on the STS-126 mission to assess the effects of spaceflight on the liver's parenchymal cells-PICM-19 cells to differentiate into either monolayers of fetal hepatocytes or 3-dimensional bile ductules (cholangiocytes). Semi-quantitative data included light microscopic assessments of final cell density, cell morphology, and response to glucagon stimulation and electron microscopic assessment of the cells' ultrastructural features and cell-to-cell connections and physical relationships. Quantitative assessments included assays of hepatocyte detoxification functions, i.e., inducible P450 activities and urea production and quantitation of the mRNA levels of several liver-related genes. Three post-passage age groups were included: 4-d-, 10-d-, and 14-d-old cultures. In comparing flight vs. ground-control cultures 17 h after the space shuttle's return to earth, no differences were found between the cultures with the exception being that some genes were differentially expressed. By light microscopy both young and older cultures, flight and ground, had grown and differentiated normally in the Opticell culture vessels. The PICM-19 cells had grown to approximately 75% confluency, had few signs of apoptosis or necrosis, and had either differentiated into monolayer patches of hepatocytes with biliary canaliculi visible between the cells or into 3-dimensional bile ductules with well-defined lumens. Ultrastructural features between flight and ground were similar with the PICM-19 cells displaying numerous mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicular bodies, and occasional lipid vacuoles. Cell-to-cell arrangements were typical in both flight and ground-control samples; biliary canaliculi were well-formed between the PICM-19 cells, and the cells were sandwiched between the STO feeder cells. PICM-19 cells displayed inducible P450 activities. They produced urea in a glutamine

  3. Characterization of PICM-19H porcine liver stem cell line for potential use in a bioartificial liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hepatocyte cell line is needed as the biological component of a bioartificial liver (BAL). One candidate is the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line. These cells have many normal hepatocyte functions often lacking in tumor-derived liver cell lines. The study characterized a PICM-19 derivative cell ...

  4. Morphology and metabolic activity of a porcine liver stem cell line (PICM-19) maintained in a multicompartment hollow fiber bioreactor for two weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional hepatocyte cell line that differentiates normally is needed to develop a bioartificial liver (BAL). A porcine hepatic stem cell line, PICM-19H, maintained in a 3D multicompartmental hollow-fiber bioreactor (Hepalife Technologies) was studied. The bioreactor was filled with 400 million...

  5. Gene expression profiling of MYC-driven tumor signatures in porcine liver stem cells by transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Talbot, Neil C; Steer, Clifford J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the genes induced and regulated by the MYC protein in generating tumors from liver stem cells. METHODS: In this study, we have used an immortal porcine liver stem cell line, PICM-19, to study the role of c-MYC in hepatocarcinogenesis. PICM-19 cells were converted into cancer cells (PICM-19-CSCs) by overexpressing human MYC. To identify MYC-driven differential gene expression, transcriptome sequencing was carried out by RNA sequencing, and genes identified by this method were validated using real-time PCR. In vivo tumorigenicity studies were then conducted by injecting PICM-19-CSCs into the flanks of immunodeficient mice. RESULTS: Our results showed that MYC-overexpressing PICM-19 stem cells formed tumors in immunodeficient mice demonstrating that a single oncogene was sufficient to convert them into cancer cells (PICM-19-CSCs). By using comparative bioinformatics analyses, we have determined that > 1000 genes were differentially expressed between PICM-19 and PICM-19-CSCs. Gene ontology analysis further showed that the MYC-induced, altered gene expression was primarily associated with various cellular processes, such as metabolism, cell adhesion, growth and proliferation, cell cycle, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Interestingly, six genes expressed by PICM-19 cells (CDO1, C22orf39, DKK2, ENPEP, GPX6, SRPX2) were completely silenced after MYC-induction in PICM-19-CSCs, suggesting that the absence of these genes may be critical for inducing tumorigenesis. CONCLUSION: MYC-driven genes may serve as promising candidates for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutics that would not have deleterious effects on other cell types in the liver. PMID:25717234

  6. Current status of pig liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Markmann, James F; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The shortage of organs from deceased human donors is a major problem limiting the number of organs transplanted each year and results in the death of thousands of patients on the waiting list. Pigs are currently the preferred species for clinical organ xenotransplantation. Progress in genetically-engineered (GE) pig liver xenotransplantation increased graft and recipient survival from hours with unmodified pig livers to up to 9 days with normal to near-normal liver function. Deletion of genes such as GGTA1 (Gal-knockout pigs) or adding genes such as human complement regulatory proteins (hCD55, hCD46 expressing pigs) enabled hyperacute rejection to be overcome. Although survival up to 9 days was recorded, extended pig graft survival was not achieved due to lethal thrombocytopenia. The current status of GE pig liver xenotransplantation with world experience, potential factors causing thrombocytopenia, new targets on pig endothelial cells, and novel GE pigs with more genes deletion to avoid remaining antibody response, such as beta1,4-N-acetyl galactosaminyl transferase 2 (β4GalNT2), are discussed.

  7. Pig Liver Xenotransplantation: A Review of Progress Toward the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Cooper, David K C; Dou, Ke-Feng; Tao, Kai-Shan; Yang, Zhao-Xu; Tector, A Joseph; Ekser, Burcin

    2016-10-01

    Experience with clinical liver xenotransplantation has largely involved the transplantation of livers from nonhuman primates. Experience with pig livers has been scarce. This brief review will be restricted to assessing the potential therapeutic impact of pig liver xenotransplantation in acute liver failure and the remaining barriers that currently do not justify clinical trials. A relatively new surgical technique of heterotopic pig liver xenotransplantation is described that might play a role in bridging a patient with acute liver failure until either the native liver recovers or a suitable liver allograft is obtained. Other topics discussed include the possible mechanisms for the development of the thrombocytopenis that rapidly occurs after pig liver xenotransplantation in a primate, the impact of pig complement on graft injury, the potential infectious risks, and potential physiologic incompatibilities between pig and human. There is cautious optimism that all of these problems can be overcome by judicious genetic manipulation of the pig. If liver graft survival could be achieved in the absence of thrombocytopenia or rejection for a period of even a few days, there may be a role for pig liver transplantation as a bridge to allotransplantation in carefully selected patients.

  8. [Experimental liver transplantation in pigs. Surgical technique and complications].

    PubMed

    Laino, G M; Anastasi, A; Fabbri, L P; Gandini, E; Valanzano, R; Fontanari, P; Venneri, F; Mazzoni, P; Ieri, A; Spini, S; Scalzi, E; Batignani, G

    1996-10-01

    Only recently, in our laboratory of experimental surgery, we started with a protocol for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a pig model. This was felt as mandatory for experimental purposes as well as for future clinical applications at our center. We report herein our own experience with 41 OLTx. Intraoperative "lethal" complications occurred in up to 32% (14/41) whereas postoperative complications occurred in the remainders at different intervals of time with a maximum survival of 30 days. No attention was paid to prevent rejection-infection episodes. The main cause of death was the primary non-function (PNF) or dis-function (PDF) manifested either intra or postoperatively in 16 out the 41 OLTx (39%). Intraoperative technical errors accounted for up to 9% (4/41 OLTx). Acute hemorrhage gastritis and gastric perforations occurred postoperatively in 6 animals (14%) and represent one of the peculiar aspects of OLT in pig model.

  9. Magnetic Cell Labeling of Primary and Stem Cell-Derived Pig Hepatocytes for MRI-Based Cell Tracking of Hepatocyte Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Dwayne R.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Welch, Glenn; Caperna, Thomas J.; Talbot, Neil C.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP) and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF). The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO) that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility. PMID:25856627

  10. Detection of hepatitis E virus genome in pig livers in Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Vergara, C; Quintero, J; Duarte, J F; Suescún, J P; López-Herrera, A

    2015-03-31

    Hepatitis E is a form of endemic acute hepatitis found in humans in many countries worldwide and is caused by the hepatitis E Virus (HEV). Detection of HEV in pigs indicates that they may be carriers, possibly through zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV in pigs in Colombia is unknown. Studies in the US found that 11% of pig livers sold in grocery stores are contaminated with HEV. It is also known that HEV can be inactivated when cooked, as it is labile to high temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine HEV contamination in pig livers sold in Medellín, Antioquia. A total of 150 livers from 5 slaughterhouses and 100 livers in grocery stores from different social strata of the city of Medellin analyzed to detect a segment of the HEV open reading frame-1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 41.3% of pig livers from slaughterhouses and 25% of livers from grocery stores tested positive for HEV. Thus, the HEV genome is present in pig livers sold in Antioquia, revealing the presence of this virus in pigs from Colombia and the need subject entrails to proper cooking processes before consumption. Further research is required to determine the role of this virus in public health and pork production in Colombia.

  11. Detection of hepatitis E virus genome in pig livers in Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Vergara, C; Quintero, J; Duarte, J F; Suescún, J P; López-Herrera, A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E is a form of endemic acute hepatitis found in humans in many countries worldwide and is caused by the hepatitis E Virus (HEV). Detection of HEV in pigs indicates that they may be carriers, possibly through zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV in pigs in Colombia is unknown. Studies in the US found that 11% of pig livers sold in grocery stores are contaminated with HEV. It is also known that HEV can be inactivated when cooked, as it is labile to high temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine HEV contamination in pig livers sold in Medellín, Antioquia. A total of 150 livers from 5 slaughterhouses and 100 livers in grocery stores from different social strata of the city of Medellin analyzed to detect a segment of the HEV open reading frame-1 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that 41.3% of pig livers from slaughterhouses and 25% of livers from grocery stores tested positive for HEV. Thus, the HEV genome is present in pig livers sold in Antioquia, revealing the presence of this virus in pigs from Colombia and the need subject entrails to proper cooking processes before consumption. Further research is required to determine the role of this virus in public health and pork production in Colombia. PMID:25867439

  12. Relationship between liver degeneration and the production of dark firm dry meat in slaughtered pigs.

    PubMed

    Mori, C; Maeda, H; Yuasa, A

    1990-06-01

    Sixty-five of 77 slaughtered pigs with liver degeneration produced dark firm dry (DFD) meat. The biochemical properties of blood, liver and muscle of those pigs were examined. In the blood, the NEFA level was higher, which indicated the mobilization of lipids from adipose tissues. The serum CPK and LDH5 levels were higher, the enzymes being derived from muscle. In the degenerative liver with yellowish discoloration, the TG level was higher and the glycogen level was lower than in a normal liver. In the DFD muscle with the final pH above 6.0, both the glycogen level immediately after slaughter and the lactic acid level 24 hr after slaughter were lower than in a normal muscle with the final pH below 6.0. Five pigs exhausted experimentally by 53-hr fasting and hard exercise showed the same changes in the blood and liver as the pigs with liver degeneration. Four of the 5 exhausted pigs showed the same changes in the muscle as in DFD meat. From these data, it was confirmed that exhaustion before slaughter led to lipid accumulation in the liver and to a decrease in muscle glycogen, and consequently caused both liver degeneration and DFD meat in the same pig.

  13. Biological characterization of liver fatty acid binding gene from miniature pig liver cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y H; Wang, K F; Zhang, S; Fan, Y N; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind to long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Wuzhishan miniature pig, and then the L-FABP gene was cloned from this cDNA library and an expression vector (pEGFP-N3-L-FABP) was constructed in vitro. This vector was transfected into hepatocytes to test its function. The results of western blotting analysis demonstrated that the L-FABP gene from our full-length enriched cDNA library regulated downstream genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family in hepatocytes. This study provides a theoretical basis and experimental evidence for the application of L-FABP for the treatment of liver injury. PMID:26345909

  14. Biological characterization of liver fatty acid binding gene from miniature pig liver cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y H; Wang, K F; Zhang, S; Fan, Y N; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind to long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Wuzhishan miniature pig, and then the L-FABP gene was cloned from this cDNA library and an expression vector (pEGFP-N3-L-FABP) was constructed in vitro. This vector was transfected into hepatocytes to test its function. The results of western blotting analysis demonstrated that the L-FABP gene from our full-length enriched cDNA library regulated downstream genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family in hepatocytes. This study provides a theoretical basis and experimental evidence for the application of L-FABP for the treatment of liver injury.

  15. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient pigs are a novel large animal model of metabolic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Raymond D.; Mao, Shennen A.; Glorioso, Jaime; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Fisher, James E.; Amiot, Bruce; Rinaldo, Piero; Harding, Cary O.; Marler, Ronald; Finegold, Milton J.; Grompe, Markus; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of tyrosine metabolism. The most severe form of the disease presents acutely during infancy, and is characterized by severe liver involvement, most commonly resulting in death if untreated. Generation of FAH+/− pigs was previously accomplished by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockout in fibroblasts and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently, these animals were outbred and crossed to produce the first FAH−/− pigs. FAH-deficiency produced a lethal defect in utero that was corrected by administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyol)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) throughout pregnancy. Animals on NTBC were phenotypically normal at birth; however, animals were euthanized approximately four weeks after withdrawal of NTBC due to clinical decline and physical examination findings of severe liver injury and encephalopthy consistent with acute liver failure. Biochemical and histological analyses, characterized by diffuse and severe hepatocellular damage, confirmed the diagnosis of severe liver injury. FAH−/− pigs provide the first genetically engineered large animal model of a metabolic liver disorder. Future applications of FAH−/− pigs include discovery research as a large animal model of HT1 and spontaneous acute liver failure, and preclinical testing of efficacy of liver cell therapies, including transplantation of hepatocytes, liver stem cells, and pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes. PMID:24879068

  16. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient pigs are a novel large animal model of metabolic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime; Lillegard, Joseph B; Fisher, James E; Amiot, Bruce; Rinaldo, Piero; Harding, Cary O; Marler, Ronald; Finegold, Milton J; Grompe, Markus; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of tyrosine metabolism. The most severe form of the disease presents acutely during infancy, and is characterized by severe liver involvement, most commonly resulting in death if untreated. Generation of FAH(+/-) pigs was previously accomplished by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockout in fibroblasts and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently, these animals were outbred and crossed to produce the first FAH(-/-) pigs. FAH-deficiency produced a lethal defect in utero that was corrected by administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) throughout pregnancy. Animals on NTBC were phenotypically normal at birth; however, the animals were euthanized approximately four weeks after withdrawal of NTBC due to clinical decline and physical examination findings of severe liver injury and encephalopathy consistent with acute liver failure. Biochemical and histological analyses, characterized by diffuse and severe hepatocellular damage, confirmed the diagnosis of severe liver injury. FAH(-/-) pigs provide the first genetically engineered large animal model of a metabolic liver disorder. Future applications of FAH(-/-) pigs include discovery research as a large animal model of HT1 and spontaneous acute liver failure, and preclinical testing of the efficacy of liver cell therapies, including transplantation of hepatocytes, liver stem cells, and pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes.

  17. Extensively reared Iberian pigs versus intensively reared white pigs for the manufacture of liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Estévez, M; Morcuende, D; Ramírez, R; Ventanas, J; Cava, R

    2004-07-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics and quality traits of the raw ingredients (muscle cuadriceps femoris, liver and adipose tissue) and the pâtés made from extensively reared Iberian pigs and intensively reared white pigs, were evaluated. The differences found between muscles, livers and adipose tissues from Iberian and white pigs influenced the characteristics of the pâtés. Compared to pâtés from white pigs, pâtés from Iberian pigs had a higher content of heme iron (27.5 μg/g vs 11.5 μg/g; p<0.05) and lower content of non-heme iron (27.5 μg/g vs 33.7 μg/g; p<0.05). Pâtés from Iberian pigs exhibited a darker colour (L (∗):18.6 vs 15.9, p<0.05) with less redness (a (∗) values: 9.1 vs 11.3; p<0.05) and yellowness (b (∗) values: 13.1 vs 14.8, p<0.05). Thus, pâtés from white pigs had higher values of chroma (18.6 vs 15.9, p<0.05) and smaller values of hue (52.5 vs 55.2, p<0.05) that those from Iberian pigs' pâtés. In fatty acid composition, pâtés from white pigs had higher proportions of SFA (37.9% vs 32.8%, p<0.05) and PUFA (14.4% vs 9.6%, p<0.05) than pâtés from Iberian pigs and lower percentages of oleic (53.4% vs 43.6%, p<0.05) and total of MUFA (57.5% vs 47.6%, p<0.05). Pâtés from Iberian pigs had a lower n-6/n-3 values (13.2 vs 17.2; p<0.05).

  18. Purification and characterization of guinea pig liver morphine 6-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Kageura, E; Ishida, T; Toki, S

    1985-05-10

    Morphine 6-dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the dehydrogenation of morphine to morphinone, has been purified about 440-fold from the soluble fraction of guinea pig liver with a yield of 38%. The purified enzyme was a homogeneous protein on polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 29,000 and 7.6, respectively. The enzyme utilizes both NAD and NADP as a cofactor, and the Km values were 0.12 mM for NAD and 0.42 mM for NADP. The Vmax values for morphine were 588 milliunits/mg of protein (with NAD) and 1600 milliunits/mg of protein (with NADP). The Km values for morphine were 0.12 mM (with NAD) and 0.49 mM (with NADP). The enzyme also exhibited activity for morphine-related compounds: nalorphine, normorphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine; however, 7,8-saturated congeners such as dihydromorphine and dihydrocodeine were poor substrates. The enzyme was inactivated by removal of 2-mercaptoethanol from the enzyme solution. The inactivated enzyme was rapidly recovered by the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol. Phenylarsine oxide and CdCl2 (dithiol modifiers) inhibited competitively toward cofactor binding and noncompetitively toward morphine binding. These results suggest that the enzyme possesses the essential thiol groups, probably vicinal dithiol, at or near the cofactor-binding site. Using the partially purified enzyme, 8-(2-hydroxyethylthio)dihydromorphinone was isolated as the product and identified by UV, mass, and NMR spectra. It was confirmed that morphinone proposed as the dehydrogenation product was nonenzymatically and covalently bound to 2-mercaptoethanol. Accordingly, the isolated morphinone-2-mercaptoethanol conjugate must be formed by two steps: enzymatic production of morphinone from morphine and then nonenzymatic binding of 2-mercaptoethanol to morphinone. PMID:2580834

  19. Cellular immune responses to amoebic liver abcess in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, R S; Harris, W G

    1977-01-01

    Guinea-pigs infected in the liver with the Biswas strain of Entamoeba histolytica showed no dermal hypersensitivity but showed positive lymphocyte transformation and macrophage-migration inhibition. The time sequence showed an activated response at 4 days after infection, a full response at 8 days when the liver abscesses were resolving and a waning response at 12 days when the abscesses had healed. PMID:891028

  20. Evaluation of Encapsulated Liver Cell Spheroids in a Fluidised-Bed Bioartificial Liver for Treatment of Ischaemic Acute Liver Failure in Pigs in a Translational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Clare; Spearman, Catherine Wendy; Kahn, Delawir; Miller, Malcolm; Figaji, Anthony; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Arendse, Hiram; Gautier, Aude; Sharratt, Peter; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey

    2013-01-01

    Liver failure is an increasing problem. Donor-organ shortage results in patients dying before receiving a transplant. Since the liver can regenerate, alternative therapies providing temporary liver-support are sought. A bioartificial-liver would temporarily substitute function in liver failure buying time for liver regeneration/organ-procurement. Our aim: to develop a prototype bioartificial-liver-machine (BAL) comprising a human liver-derived cell-line, cultured to phenotypic competence and deliverable in a clinical setting to sites distant from its preparation. The objective of this study was to determine whether its use would improve functional parameters of liver failure in pigs with acute liver failure, to provide proof-of-principle. HepG2cells encapsulated in alginate-beads, proliferated in a fluidised-bed-bioreactor providing a biomass of 4–6×1010cells, were transported from preparation-laboratory to point-of-use operating theatre (6000miles) under perfluorodecalin at ambient temperature. Irreversible ischaemic liver failure was induced in anaesthetised pigs, after portal-systemic-shunt, by hepatic-artery-ligation. Biochemical parameters, intracranial pressure, and functional-clotting were measured in animals connected in an extracorporeal bioartificial-liver circuit. Efficacy was demonstrated comparing outcomes between animals connected to a circuit containing alginate-encapsulated cells (Cell-bead BAL), and those connected to circuit containing alginate capsules without cells (Empty-bead BAL). Cells of the biomass met regulatory standards for sterility and provenance. All animals developed progressive liver-failure after ischaemia induction. Efficacy of BAL was demonstrated since animals connected to a functional biomass (+ cells) had significantly smaller rises in intracranial pressure, lower ammonia levels, more bilirubin conjugation, improved acidosis and clotting restoration compared to animals connected to the circuit without cells. In the +cell

  1. N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Pig Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model: Radiological and Histopathological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiao; Zhou Xiangping Guan Yongsong; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Scutt, Diane; Gong Qiyong

    2006-06-15

    Experimental research involving animal models plays a critical role in the development and improvement of minimally invasive therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a large animal, the pig is commonly used for surgery and interventional radiology research. In this study, liver multicentric HCC with cirrhosis was induced in six China Taihu pigs by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of N-nitrosodiethylamine once a week for 3 months, followed by a period of 10-12 months without N-nitrosodiethylamine treatment. All pigs were in generally good health until the end of the study. The tumor nodules appeared hyperattenuating in the arterial phase of a dynamic computed tomography (CT) scan. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT angiography demonstrated that the tumors derived their blood supply mainly from the hepatic artery system. Lipiodol-CT showed Lipiodol retention in tumor areas. The histology and electron microscopic ultrastructure of the chemically induced liver HCC in this study resembled human HCC with a cirrhosis background. An immunohistochemistry study confirmed that the tumors were of hepatocyte origin. All highly, moderately, and poorly differentiated HCC tumors were identified in this study. Cholangiocarcinoma was not seen in any of the animals. Due to its comparable size to human anatomy, the pig liver HCC model would give a better scope for interventional and surgical manipulations than small animal models.

  2. Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Chen, C; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement. The main factors were lipid source (n = 4; corn oil [CN], canola oil [CA], poultry fat [PF], and tallow [TL]) and lipid peroxidation level (n = 3; original lipids [OL], slow oxidation [SO] through heating at 95°C for 72 h, or rapid oxidation [RO] through heating at 185°C for 7 h). Pigs were provided ad libitum access to diets in group pens for 28 d followed by controlled feed intake in metabolism crates for 10 d. On d 39, all pigs were euthanized for liver samples to determine liver weight, lipid profile, and gene expression patterns. Lipid oxidation analysis indicated that compared with the OL, SO and RO of lipids had a markedly increased concentrations of primary and secondary peroxidation products, and the increased lipid peroxidation products in CN and CA were greater than those in PF and TL. After a 28-d ad libitum feeding period, pigs fed RO lipids tended to have reduced ADFI (P = 0.09) and ADG (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed OL, and pigs fed CA had reduced G:F (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed all other lipids. Pigs fed RO lipids tended to have increased relative liver weight (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed OL. Liver triglyceride concentration (LTG) in pigs fed OL was greater (P < 0.05) than in pigs fed SO lipids and tended to be greater (P < 0.07) than in pigs fed SO. The reduced LTG were consistent with increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of PPARα factor target genes (acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase) in pigs fed SO and RO lipids compared with pigs fed OL. Pigs fed CN or CA tended to have increased LTG (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed

  3. Expression of heat shock protein 70 in the liver of extensively and intensively kept heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Negrato, E; Di Martino, G; Vascellari, M; Radaelli, G; Capello, K; Pascoli, F; Bertotto, D; Bonfanti, L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by Western blot (WB) in swine liver. Subsequently, the study aimed to apply this method to two experimental groups of heavy pigs raised in different confinement systems: intensive/indoor (Group A) and extensive/outdoor (Group B). Thirty-six crossbred commercial heavy pigs were divided as follows: Group A (eight castrated males and eight females) was equally distributed into two single-sex indoor pens (1.02 m²/pig); Group B (11 castrated males and nine females) was kept in one single (partially grassy and partially wooded) open area of about 6000 m². Group A was slaughtered at 41 weeks of age (170 ± 9 kg) and Group B at 48 weeks of age (172 ± 13 kg). At the abattoir the livers of all the animals were collected and analyzed by WB assay in order to quantify the levels of HSP70. Moreover, a further liver sample was taken from the same animals in order to investigate the cellular localization of HSP70 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The interaction between sex and group resulted statistically significant (P = 0.001). When stratified by sex, Group A showed significantly higher HSP70 values compared with Group B for both male and female subjects (P < 0.001). Stratifying by group, males showed significantly higher HSP70 values than females in Group A (P < 0.001), whereas no statistical differences were observed between sexes for Group B (P = 0.653). The IHC results evidenced cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in a granular pattern in both groups. The different expression pattern observed by WB could prove to be a useful tool in the assessment of pig health and welfare.

  4. Efficacy of Fluidized Bed Bioartificial Liver in Treating Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Pigs: A Metabolomics Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Shao, Li; Zhao, Lifu; Lv, Guoliang; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Anye; Li, Jianzhou; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Deying; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h. Serum samples were assayed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The difference in survival time (51.6 ± 7.9 h vs. 49.3 ± 6.6 h) and serum metabolome was negligible between the S and C groups, whereas FBBAL treatment significantly prolonged survival time (70.4 ± 11.5h, P < 0.01) and perturbed the serum metabolome, resulting in a marked decrease in phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelinase, and fatty acids and an increase in conjugated bile acids. The FBBAL exhibits some liver functions and may exert its therapeutic effect by altering the serum metabolome of FHF pigs. Moreover, alginate-chitosan capsules have less influence on serum metabolites. Nevertheless, the alterations were not universally beneficial, revealing that much should be done to improve the FBBAL. PMID:27194381

  5. Efficacy of Fluidized Bed Bioartificial Liver in Treating Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Pigs: A Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Shao, Li; Zhao, Lifu; Lv, Guoliang; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Anye; Li, Jianzhou; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Deying; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h. Serum samples were assayed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The difference in survival time (51.6 ± 7.9 h vs. 49.3 ± 6.6 h) and serum metabolome was negligible between the S and C groups, whereas FBBAL treatment significantly prolonged survival time (70.4 ± 11.5h, P < 0.01) and perturbed the serum metabolome, resulting in a marked decrease in phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelinase, and fatty acids and an increase in conjugated bile acids. The FBBAL exhibits some liver functions and may exert its therapeutic effect by altering the serum metabolome of FHF pigs. Moreover, alginate–chitosan capsules have less influence on serum metabolites. Nevertheless, the alterations were not universally beneficial, revealing that much should be done to improve the FBBAL. PMID:27194381

  6. Curative ex vivo liver-directed gene therapy in a pig model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime; Elgilani, Faysal; Amiot, Bruce; Chen, Harvey; Rinaldo, Piero; Marler, Ronald; Jiang, Huailei; DeGrado, Timothy R; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; O'Connor, Michael K; Freeman, Brittany L; Ibrahim, Samar H; Peng, Kah Whye; Harding, Cary O; Ho, Chak-Sum; Grompe, Markus; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Lillegard, Joseph B; Russell, Stephen J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2016-07-27

    We tested the hypothesis that ex vivo hepatocyte gene therapy can correct the metabolic disorder in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (Fah(-/-)) pigs, a large animal model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1). Recipient Fah(-/-) pigs underwent partial liver resection and hepatocyte isolation by collagenase digestion. Hepatocytes were transduced with one or both of the lentiviral vectors expressing the therapeutic Fah and the reporter sodium-iodide symporter (Nis) genes under control of the thyroxine-binding globulin promoter. Pigs received autologous transplants of hepatocytes by portal vein infusion. After transplantation, the protective drug 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyol)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) was withheld from recipient pigs to provide a selective advantage for expansion of corrected FAH(+) cells. Proliferation of transplanted cells, assessed by both immunohistochemistry and noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging of NIS-labeled cells, demonstrated near-complete liver repopulation by gene-corrected cells. Tyrosine and succinylacetone levels improved to within normal range, demonstrating complete correction of tyrosine metabolism. In addition, repopulation of the Fah(-/-) liver with transplanted cells inhibited the onset of severe fibrosis, a characteristic of nontransplanted Fah(-/-) pigs. This study demonstrates correction of disease in a pig model of metabolic liver disease by ex vivo gene therapy. To date, ex vivo gene therapy has only been successful in small animal models. We conclude that further exploration of ex vivo hepatocyte genetic correction is warranted for clinical use.

  7. Curative ex vivo liver-directed gene therapy in a pig model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime; Elgilani, Faysal; Amiot, Bruce; Chen, Harvey; Rinaldo, Piero; Marler, Ronald; Jiang, Huailei; DeGrado, Timothy R; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; O'Connor, Michael K; Freeman, Brittany L; Ibrahim, Samar H; Peng, Kah Whye; Harding, Cary O; Ho, Chak-Sum; Grompe, Markus; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Lillegard, Joseph B; Russell, Stephen J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2016-07-27

    We tested the hypothesis that ex vivo hepatocyte gene therapy can correct the metabolic disorder in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (Fah(-/-)) pigs, a large animal model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1). Recipient Fah(-/-) pigs underwent partial liver resection and hepatocyte isolation by collagenase digestion. Hepatocytes were transduced with one or both of the lentiviral vectors expressing the therapeutic Fah and the reporter sodium-iodide symporter (Nis) genes under control of the thyroxine-binding globulin promoter. Pigs received autologous transplants of hepatocytes by portal vein infusion. After transplantation, the protective drug 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyol)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) was withheld from recipient pigs to provide a selective advantage for expansion of corrected FAH(+) cells. Proliferation of transplanted cells, assessed by both immunohistochemistry and noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging of NIS-labeled cells, demonstrated near-complete liver repopulation by gene-corrected cells. Tyrosine and succinylacetone levels improved to within normal range, demonstrating complete correction of tyrosine metabolism. In addition, repopulation of the Fah(-/-) liver with transplanted cells inhibited the onset of severe fibrosis, a characteristic of nontransplanted Fah(-/-) pigs. This study demonstrates correction of disease in a pig model of metabolic liver disease by ex vivo gene therapy. To date, ex vivo gene therapy has only been successful in small animal models. We conclude that further exploration of ex vivo hepatocyte genetic correction is warranted for clinical use. PMID:27464750

  8. Cholesterol ester hydrolase in pig liver is activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.S.; Dubin, E.; Margolis, S.

    1986-05-01

    To examine whether hepatic neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) is regulated by phosphorylation, the authors have assayed CEH activity from pig liver cytosol by measuring /sup 14/C-oleate release from labeled cholesteryl oleate at pH 7.4. When pig liver cytosol was incubated with 2 mM Mg and 0.5 mM ATP, CEH activity was increased (141 +/- 8% of control, mean +/- SEM). Addition of 25..mu..M cyclic AMP (cAMP) further activated CEH activity (164 +/- 4% of control) as compared to incubation with Mg and ATP (p < 0.02). In the presence of 5 mM EDTA or in the absence of either Mg or ATP, no activation of CEH was observed. The activation was completely abolished by further incubation of activated cytosol with E. coli alkaline phosphatase. Activation of CEH activity was partially prevented by the addition of protein kinase inhibitor (p < 0.02) and this effect was completely reversed in the presence of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (p < 0.05). To examine further the role of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, CEH activity was purified 240-fold by 35% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ precipitation and Sepharose 4B chromatography. Incubation of partially purified CEH fractions with Mg, ATP and cAMP did not increase CEH activity. Addition of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activated CEH activity of partially purified fractions. The authors observations indicate that pig liver CEH is activated by phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  9. The osmotic stability of lysosomes from adult and foetal guinea-pig liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J M; Neil, M W

    1969-02-01

    1. Lysosome-rich fractions were obtained from foetal liver tissues as early as 35 days uterine age. Foetal lysosomes showed the same ;structure-linked latency' and acid hydrolytic potentiality characteristic of their adult counterparts. 2. The osmotic stability of lysosome-rich fraction from foetal guinea-pig liver tissue was greater than that of the corresponding adult lysosome fractions, p-nitrophenyl-phosphatase being used as marker enzyme. 3. The observation was confirmed by using beta-glycerophosphatase and phenolphthalein beta-glucuronidase as alternative marker enzymes. p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and beta-glycerophosphate appear to act as substrates for the same enzyme. 4. By using p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity measurements it was shown that the osmotic stability of foetal lysosomal fractions decreased with increasing foetal age, but at no time achieved the degree of osmotic instability characteristic of adult lysosomal fractions. 5. The correlation of these findings with the intracellular environment of lysosomes is discussed.

  10. Inhibition of pig liver and Zea mays L. polyamine oxidase: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Federico, R; Leone, L; Botta, M; Binda, C; Angelini, R; Venturini, G; Ascenzi, P

    2001-01-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) is involved in polyamine metabolism and production of hydrogen peroxide in animal and plants, thus representing a key system in development and programmed cell death. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of amiloride, p-aminobenzamidine, clonidine, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl-indole (DAPI), gabexate mesylate, guazatine, and N,N'-bis(2,3-butadienyl)-1,4-butane-diamine (MDL72527) on the catalytic activity of pig liver and Zea mays L. PAO, Lens culinaris L. and Pisum sativum L. and swine kidney copper amine oxidase, bovine trypsin, as well as neuronal constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) was investigated. Moreover, agmatine and N(3) -prenylagmatine (G3) were observed to inhibit pig liver and Zea mays L. PAO, bovine trypsin, and NOS-I action, but were substrates for Lens culinaris L., Pisum sativum L. and swine kidney copper amine oxidase. Guazatine and G3 inhibited selectively Zea mays L. PAO with K(i) values of 7.5 x 10(-9) M and 1.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively (at pH 6.5 and 25.0 degrees C). As a whole, the data reported here represent examples of enzyme cross-inhibition, and appear to be relevant in view of the use of cationic L-arginine-and imidazole-based compounds as drugs. PMID:11342283

  11. Liver transcriptome profile in pigs with extreme phenotypes of intramuscular fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition using RNA-Seq. Results The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L) with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty acid composition were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L) and 270 (H) lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96), as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72). A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic acids metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Conclusions In the present study RNA-Seq was used as a tool to explore

  12. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: I. Effects on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Estienne, M J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) and vitamin E on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status in pigs fed diets high in oxidants. Crossbred barrows (n=100, 10.91±0.65 kg BW, 36±2 d of age, Landrace×Duroc) were allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included 1) HO, high-oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soybean oil and 10% PUFA source (providing 2.05% docosahexaenoic acid in the diet), 2) VE, the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E, 3) AOX, the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg), 4) VE+AOX, the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend, and 5) SC, a standard corn-soy control diet. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet because the animals were displaying very poor health. Compared with SC pigs, HO pigs had decreased ADG (0.92 vs. 0.51 kg for d 26 to 55, 1.29 vs. 0.34 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05) and ADFI (1.84 vs. 0.96 kg for d 26 to 55, 3.41 vs. 1.14 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05). However, switching the HO pigs to the SC diet resulted in HO pigs having a greater ADG than VE-fed pigs from d 83 to 118 (0.90 vs. 0.60 kg; P<0.05). The antioxidant blend restored pig performance to a level similar that of pigs fed the SC diet (P>0.05) with greater G:F for the entire period (0.44 vs. 0.38; P<0.05). A greater liver to BW ratio was found in HO compared with other treatments on d 55 and in VE on d 118. Total bilirubin concentration in plasma of HO pigs on d 55 was greater than that in VE+AOX pigs (P<0.05), whereas on d 118, bilirubin concentration in VE was higher than those in VE+AOX and SC (P<0.05). A similar trend was observed in aspartate transaminase. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl were elevated (P<0.05) in the HO pigs compared with the SC pigs on d 55 but not on d 118. Liver TBARS and

  13. Effects of a Preconditioning Oral Nutritional Supplement on Pig Livers after Warm Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Nickkholgh, Arash; Li, Zhanqing; Yi, Xue; Mohr, Elvira; Liang, Rui; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Gross, Marie-Luise; Zorn, Markus; Benzing, Steffen; Schneider, Heinz; Büchler, Markus W.; Schemmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several approaches have been proposed to pharmacologically ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) containing glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on hepatic warm IRI in pigs. Methods. pONS (70 g per serving, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) was dissolved in 250 mL tap water and given to pigs 24, 12, and 2 hrs before warm ischemia of the liver. A fourth dose was given 3 hrs after reperfusion. Controls were given the same amount of cellulose with the same volume of water. Two hours after the third dose of pONS, both the portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped for 40 min. 0.5, 3, 6, and 8 hrs after reperfusion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic arterial flow (HAF), bile flow, and transaminases were measured. Liver tissue was taken 8 hrs after reperfusion for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results. HR, MAP, CVP, HAF, and PVF were comparable between the two groups. pONS significantly increased bile flow 8 hrs after reperfusion. ALT and AST were significantly lower after pONS. Histology showed significantly more severe necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in controls. pONS significantly decreased the index of immunohistochemical expression for TNF-α, MPO, and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Administration of pONS before and after tissue damage protects the liver from warm IRI via mechanisms including decreasing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and necrosis. PMID:22791934

  14. Cloning changes the response to obesity of innate immune factors in blood, liver, and adipose tissues in domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune factors were analyzed in lean and diet-induced obese cloned domestic pigs and compared to normal domestic pigs (obese and lean). The number of genes affected by obesity was lower in cloned animals than in control animals. All genes affected by obesity in adipose tissues of clones were downregulated; both upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls as well as lean clones and controls. Generally, the variation in phenotype between individual pigs was not reduced in cloned siblings as compared to normal siblings. Therefore, we conclude that cloning limits both the number of genes responding to obesity as well as the degree of tissue-differentiated gene expression, concomitantly with an increase in APP serum concentrations only seen in cloned, obese pigs. This may suggest that the APP response seen in obese, cloned pigs is a consequence of the characteristic skewed gene response to obesity in cloned pigs, as described in this work. This should be taken into consideration when using cloned animals as models for innate responses to obesity.

  15. The liver transcriptome of two full-sibling Songliao black pigs with extreme differences in backfat thickness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatness traits in animals are important for their growth, meat quality, reproductive performance, and immunity. The liver is the principal organ of the regulation of lipid metabolism, and this study used massive parallelized high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the porcine liver tissue transcriptome architecture of two full-sibling Songliao black pigs harboring extremely different phenotypes of backfat thickness. Results The total number of reads produced for each sample was in the region of 53 million, and 8,226 novel transcripts were detected. Approximately 92 genes were differentially regulated in the liver tissue, while 31 spliced transcripts and 33 primary transcripts showed significantly differential expression between pigs with higher and lower backfat thickness. Genes that were differentially expressed were involved in the metabolism of various substances, small molecule biochemistry, and molecular transport. Conclusions Genes involved in the regulation of lipids could play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. These results could help us understand how liver metabolism affects the backfat thickness of pigs. PMID:25053997

  16. Exploration of steroidogenesis-related genes in testes, ovaries, adrenals, liver and adipose tissue in pigs.

    PubMed

    Robic, Annie; Feve, Katia; Louveau, Isabelle; Riquet, Juliette; Prunier, Armelle

    2016-08-01

    To explore the metabolism of steroids in the pig species, a qualitative PCR analysis was performed for the main transcript of 27 genes involved in steroid metabolism. We compared samples of testes, adipose tissue and liver from immature and peripubertal males, adrenal cortex from peripubertal males, ovaries from cyclic females and adipose tissue from peripubertal females. Some genes were shown to have a tissue-specific expression. Two of them were expressed only in testes, ovaries and adrenals: CYP11A1 and CYP11B. The CYP21 and HSD17B3 genes, were expressed respectively only in adrenals and only in testes. Very few differences were observed between transcriptional patterns of peripubertal testes and adrenal glands as well as between male and female fat tissues. However, the expression of genes involved in the sulfonation of steroids was higher in testes than in adrenals from males. Main differences between ovaries and testes were observed for HSD17B1/2/3, AKR1C-pig6 and sulfotransferase genes (SULT2A1/SULT2B1). The present study shows that the SRD5A2 and CYP21 genes were not involved in the testicular biosynthesis of androstenone. It also shows that porcine adrenal glands produce essentially corticosteroids and that fat tissue is unable to produce de novo steroids. PMID:27436769

  17. Pathological characteristics of liver allografts from donation after brain death followed by cardiac death in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Wang, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Zhao; Zhang, Long-Juan; Wang, Hao-Chen; Li, Zhuo-Hui; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Cai, Chang-Jie; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Yi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2014-10-01

    Donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD) is a unique practice in China. The aim of this study was to define the pathologic characteristics of DBCD liver allografts in a porcine model. Fifteen male pigs (25-30 kg) were allocated randomly into donation after brain death (DBD), donation after circulatory death (DCD) and DBCD groups. Brain death was induced by augmenting intracranial pressure. Circulatory death was induced by withdrawal of life support in DBCD group and by venous injection of 40 mL 10% potassium chloride in DCD group. The donor livers were perfused in situ and kept in cold storage for 4 h. Liver tissue and common bile duct samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL testing and electron microscopic examination. Spot necrosis was found in hepatic parenchyma of DBD and DBCD groups, while a large area of necrosis was shown in DCD group. The apoptosis rate of hepatocytes in DBD [(0.56±0.30)%] and DBCD [(0.50 ± 0.11)%] groups was much lower than that in DCD group [(3.78±0.33)%] (P<0.05). And there was no significant difference between DBD group and DBCD group (P>0.05)). The structures of bile duct were intact in both DBD and DBCD groups, while the biliary epithelium was totally damaged in DCD group. Under electron microscope, the DBD hepatocytes were characterized by intact cell membrane, well-organized endoplasmic reticulum, mild mitochondria edema and abundant glycogens. Broken cell membrane, mild inflammatory cell infiltration and sinusoidal epithelium edema, as well as reduced glycogen volume, were found in the DBCD hepatocytes. The DCD hepatocytes had more profound cell organelle injury and much less glycogen storage. In conclusion, the preservation injury of DBCD liver allografts is much less severe than that of un-controlled DCD, but more severe than that of DBD liver allografts under electron microscope, which might reflect post-transplant liver function to some extent.

  18. Immunological tolerance to pig-serum partially inhibits the formation of septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rodrigo Guimarães; Gotardo, Bruna Magalhães; Assis, Bárbara Cristina A; Mengel, José; Andrade, Zilton A

    2004-11-01

    Systhematized septal fibrosis of the liver can be induced in rats either by repeated intraperitoneal injections of pig-serum or by Capillaria hepatica infection. The relationship between these two etiological factors, as far as hepatic fibrosis is concerned, is not known, and present investigation attempts to investigate it. C. hepatica-induced septal fibrosis of the liver was considerably inhibited in rats previously rendered tolerant to pig-serum. Pig-serum-tolerant rats developed antibodies against pig-serum when infected with C. hepatica, but this did not happen when the infection occurred in normal rats. On the other hand, anti-C. hepatica antibodies failed to recognize any epitope in pig-serum, by Western blot. However, no evidence of an immunological cross reactivity was found, at least at the humoral level. Alternatively, cell-mediated mechanisms may be involved, and further investigations are warranted.

  19. NADP(+)-dependent D-xylose dehydrogenase from pig liver. Purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, S; Monasterio, O; Ureta, T

    1990-03-15

    An NADP(+)-dependent D-xylose dehydrogenase from pig liver cytosol was purified about 2000-fold to apparent homogeneity with a yield of 15% and specific activity of 6 units/mg of protein. An Mr value of 62,000 was obtained by gel filtration. PAGE in the presence of SDS gave an Mr value of 32,000, suggesting that the native enzyme is a dimer of similar or identical subunits. D-Xylose, D-ribose, L-arabinose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucose and D-mannose were substrates in the presence of NADP+ but the specificity constant (ratio kcat./Km(app.)) is, by far, much higher for D-xylose than for the other sugars. The enzyme is specific for NADP+; NAD+ is not reduced in the presence of D-xylose or other sugars. Initial-velocity studies for the forward direction with xylose or NADP+ concentrations varied at fixed concentrations of the nucleotide or the sugar respectively revealed a pattern of parallel lines in double-reciprocal plots. Km values for D-xylose and NADP+ were 8.8 mM and 0.99 mM respectively. Dead-end inhibition studies to confirm a ping-pong mechanism showed that NAD+ acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor versus NADP+ (Ki 5.8 mM) and as a competitive inhibitor versus xylose. D-Lyxose was a competitive inhibitor versus xylose and uncompetitive versus NADP+. These results fit better to a sequential compulsory ordered mechanism with NADP+ as the first substrate, but a ping-pong mechanism with xylose as the first substrate has not been ruled out. The presence of D-xylose dehydrogenase suggests that in mammalian liver D-xylose is utilized by a pathway other than the pentose phosphate pathway.

  20. Alkyl isocyanates as active site-directed inactivators of guinea pig liver transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; Whetzel, N K; Folk, J E

    1975-10-10

    Alkyl isocyanates are effective inactivators of guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Based on the specificity of the reaction the protection against inactivation by glutamine substrate, and the essential nature of calcium for the inactivation reaction, it is concluded that these reagents act as amide substrate analogs and, thus function in an active site-specific manner. Support for the contention that inactivation results from alkyl thiocarbamate ester formation through the single active site sulfhydryl group of the enzyme is (a) the loss of one free--SH group and the incorporation of 1 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme in the reaction, (b) similarity in chemical properties of the inactive enzyme derivative formed to those previously reported for another alkyl thiocarbamoylenzyme and an alkyl thiocarbamoylcysteine derivative, and (c) the finding that labeled peptides from digests of [methyl-14C]thiocarbamoyltransglutaminase and those from digests of iodoacetamide-inactivated enzyme occupy similar positions on peptide maps. Transglutaminase was found to be inactivated neither by urethan anlogs of its active ester substrates nor by urea analogs of its amide substrates. It is concluded on the basis of these findings that inactive carbamoylenzyme derivatives are formed only by direct addition of the transglutaminase active--SH group to the isocyanate C--N double bond, and not, like several serine active site enzymes, by nucleophilic displacement with urethan analogs of substrate, or by nucleophilic displacement with urea analogs of substrate. PMID:240837

  1. Inhibitory effects of Ruta graveolens L. extract on guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Pirouzpanah, Saieed; Saieed, Pirouzpanah; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Reza, Rashidi Mohammad; Delazar, Abbas; Abbas, Delazar; Razavieh, Seyyed-Vali; Seyyedvali, Razavieh; Hamidi, Aliasghar; Aliasghar, Hamidi

    2006-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plant with various biological properties. In the present study, the effects of R. graveolens extract on aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum hydroxylase, are investigated. Aldehyde oxidase was partially purified from liver homogenates of mature male guinea pigs by heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation. The total extract was obtained by macerating the aerial parts of R. graveolens in MeOH 70% and the effect of this extract on the enzyme activity was assayed using phenanthridine, vanillin and benzaldehyde as substrates. Quercetin and its glycoside form, rutin were isolated, purified and identified from the extract and their inhibitory effects on the enzyme were investigated. R. graveolens extract exhibited a high inhibition on aldehyde oxidase activity (89-96%) at 100 microg/ml which was comparable with 10 microM of menadione, a specific potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effect of extract against the oxidation of benzaldehyde, vanillin and phenanthridine were 10.4, 10.1, 43.2 microg/ml, respectively. Both quercetin and rutin at 10 microM caused 70-96% and 27-52% inhibition on the enzyme activity, respectively. Quercetin was more potent inhibitor than rutin, but both flavonols exerted their inhibitory effects mostly in a linear mixed-type.

  2. Quantification of Hepatitis E Virus in Naturally-Contaminated Pig Liver Products.

    PubMed

    Martin-Latil, Sandra; Hennechart-Collette, Catherine; Delannoy, Sabine; Guillier, Laurent; Fach, Patrick; Perelle, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the cause of self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans, is widespread and endemic in many parts of the world. The foodborne transmission of HEV has become of concern due to the identification of undercooked pork products as a risk factor for infection. Foodborne enteric viruses are conventionally processed by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which gives sensitive and quantitative detection results. Recently, digital PCR (dPCR) has been described as a novel approach to genome quantification with no need for a standard curve. The performance of microfluidic digital RT-PCR (RT-dPCR) was compared to RT-qPCR when detecting HEV in pig liver products. The sensitivity of the RT-dPCR assay was similar to that of RT-qPCR, and quantitative data obtained by both detection methods were not significantly different for almost all samples. This absolute quantification approach may be useful for standardizing quantification of HEV in food samples and may be extended to quantifying other human pathogens in food samples. PMID:27536278

  3. Quantification of Hepatitis E Virus in Naturally-Contaminated Pig Liver Products

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Latil, Sandra; Hennechart-Collette, Catherine; Delannoy, Sabine; Guillier, Laurent; Fach, Patrick; Perelle, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the cause of self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans, is widespread and endemic in many parts of the world. The foodborne transmission of HEV has become of concern due to the identification of undercooked pork products as a risk factor for infection. Foodborne enteric viruses are conventionally processed by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which gives sensitive and quantitative detection results. Recently, digital PCR (dPCR) has been described as a novel approach to genome quantification with no need for a standard curve. The performance of microfluidic digital RT-PCR (RT-dPCR) was compared to RT-qPCR when detecting HEV in pig liver products. The sensitivity of the RT-dPCR assay was similar to that of RT-qPCR, and quantitative data obtained by both detection methods were not significantly different for almost all samples. This absolute quantification approach may be useful for standardizing quantification of HEV in food samples and may be extended to quantifying other human pathogens in food samples. PMID:27536278

  4. Activity and dynamics of an enzyme, pig liver esterase, in near-anhydrous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Murielle; Kurkal-Siebert, V; Dunn, Rachel V.; Tehei, M; Finney, J.L.; Smith, Jeremy C; Daniel, R. M.

    2010-10-01

    Water is widely assumed to be essential for life, although the exact molecular basis of this requirement is unclear. Water facilitates protein motions, and although enzyme activity has been demonstrated at low hydrations in organic solvents, such nonaqueous solvents may allow the necessary motions for catalysis. To examine enzyme function in the absence of solvation and bypass diffusional constraints we have tested the ability of an enzyme, pig liver esterase, to catalyze alcoholysis as an anhydrous powder, in a reaction system of defined water content and where the substrates and products are gaseous. At hydrations of 3 ( 2) molecules of water per molecule of enzyme, activity is several orders-of-magnitude greater than nonenzymatic catalysis. Neutron spectroscopy indicates that the fast ( nanosecond) global anharmonic dynamics of the anhydrous functional enzyme are suppressed. This indicates that neither hydration water nor fast anharmonic dynamics are required for catalysis by this enzyme, implying that one of the biological requirements of water may lie with its role as a diffusion medium rather than any of its more specific properties.

  5. Gene expression profiles in liver of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Bendixen, Christian; Hedegaard, Jakob; Hornshøj, Henrik; Berget, Ingunn; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Grindflek, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Background Boar taint is the unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat of uncastrated male pigs that is primarily caused by high levels of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue. Androstenone is a steroid and its levels are mainly genetically determined. Studies on androstenone metabolism have, however, focused on a limited number of genes. Identification of additional genes influencing levels of androstenone may facilitate implementation of marker assisted breeding practices. In this study, microarrays were used to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways related to androstenone metabolism in the liver from boars with extreme levels of androstenone in adipose tissue. Results Liver tissue samples from 58 boars of the two breeds Duroc and Norwegian Landrace, 29 with extreme high and 29 with extreme low levels of androstenone, were selected from more than 2500 individuals. The samples were hybridised to porcine cDNA microarrays and the 1% most significant differentially expressed genes were considered significant. Among the differentially expressed genes were metabolic phase I related genes belonging to the cytochrome P450 family and the flavin-containing monooxygenase FMO1. Additionally, phase II conjugation genes including UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A5, UGT2A1 and UGT2B15, sulfotransferase STE, N-acetyltransferase NAT12 and glutathione S-transferase were identified. Phase I and phase II metabolic reactions increase the water solubility of steroids and play a key role in their elimination. Differential expression was also found for genes encoding 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD17B2, HSD17B4, HSD17B11 and HSD17B13) and plasma proteins alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and orosomucoid (ORM1). 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and plasma proteins regulate the availability of steroids by controlling the amount of active steroids accessible to receptors and available for metabolism. Differences in the expression of FMO1, NAT12, HSD17B2 and

  6. Studying Closed Hydrodynamic Models of “In Vivo” DNA Perfusion in Pig Liver for Gene Therapy Translation to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, Luis; Miguel, Antonio; Pérez-Enguix, Daniel; Montalvá, Eva; García-Gimeno, María Adelaida; Noguera, Inmaculada; Díaz, Ana; Pérez, Judith; Sanz, Pascual; López-Andújar, Rafael; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Expressing exogenous genes after naked DNA delivery into hepatocytes might achieve sustained and high expression of human proteins. Tail vein DNA injection is an efficient procedure for gene transfer in murine liver. Hydrodynamic procedures in large animals require organ targeting, and improve with liver vascular exclusion. In the present study, two closed liver hydrofection models employing the human alpha-1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene are compared to reference standards in order to evaluate their potential clinical interest. Material and Methods A solution of naked DNA bearing the hAAT gene was retrogradely injected in 7 pig livers using two different closed perfusion procedures: an endovascular catheterization-mediated procedure (n = 3) with infrahepatic inferior vena cava and portal vein blockage; and a surgery-mediated procedure (n = 4) with completely sealed liver. Gene transfer was performed through the suprahepatic inferior cava vein in the endovascular procedure and through the infrahepatic inferior vena cava in the surgical procedure. The efficiency of the procedures was evaluated 14 days after hydrofection by quantifying the hAAT protein copies per cell in tissue and in plasma. For comparison, samples from mice (n = 7) successfully hydrofected with hAAT and healthy human liver segments (n = 4) were evaluated. Results Gene decoding occurs efficiently using both procedures, with liver vascular arrest improving its efficiency. The surgically closed procedure (sealed organ) reached higher tissue protein levels (4x10^5- copies/cell) than the endovascular procedure, though the levels were lower than in human liver (5x10^6- copies/cell) and hydrofected mouse liver (10^6- copies/cell). However, protein levels in plasma were lower (p<0.001) than the reference standards in all cases. Conclusion Hydrofection of hAAT DNA to “in vivo” isolated pig liver mediates highly efficient gene delivery and protein expression in tissue. Both endovascular and

  7. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.

  8. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status. PMID:27482299

  9. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland. PMID:10620372

  10. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland.

  11. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  12. Pre-clinical study of in vivo magnetic resonance-guided bubble-enhanced heating in pig liver.

    PubMed

    Elbes, Delphine; Denost, Quentin; Laurent, Christophe; Trillaud, Hervé; Rullier, Anne; Quesson, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    Bubble-enhanced heating (BEH) can be exploited to increase heating efficiency in treatment of liver tumors with non-invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The objectives of this study were: (i) to demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the heating efficiency of sonication exploiting BEH in pig liver in vivo using a clinical platform; (ii) to determine the acoustic threshold for such effects with real-time, motion-compensated magnetic resonance-guided thermometry; and (iii) to compare the heating patterns and thermal lesion characteristics resulting from continuous sonication and sonication including a burst pulse. The threshold acoustic power for generation of BEH in pig liver in vivo was determined using sonication of 0.5-s duration ("burst pulse") under real-time magnetic resonance thermometry. In a second step, experimental sonication composed of a burst pulse followed by continuous sonication (14.5 s) was compared with conventional sonication (15 s) of identical energy (1.8 kJ). Modification of the heating pattern at the targeted region located at a liver depth between 20 and 25 mm required 600-800 acoustic watts. The experimental group exhibited near-spherical heating with 40% mean enhancement of the maximal temperature rise as compared with the conventional sonication group, a mean shift of 7 ± 3.3 mm toward the transducer and reduction of the post-focal temperature increase. Magnetic resonance thermometry can be exploited to control acoustic BEH in vivo in the liver. By use of experimental sonication, more efficient heating can be achieved while protecting tissues located beyond the focal point.

  13. Metabolism of supplemental iron (Fe) by hepatocytes (HC), kupffer cells (KC) and endothelial cells (EC) in neonatal pig liver

    SciTech Connect

    Caperna, T.J.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Newborn pigs rapidly develop anemia unless treated with supplemental Fe. The authors have developed methods to isolate and culture the predominant cell types in porcine liver to investigate cellular distribution and metabolism of Fe supplements. One-day (d) old piglets were injected with Fe-dextran (50 mg Fe/kg) and liver cells were isolated from treated and age-matched control piglets 1, 5, and 10 d later. The concentration (..mu..g/mg cell protein) of Fe increased 62-, 54-, and 5-fold over controls in KC, EC, and HC, respectively, 1 d after Fe injection. Thereafter, accumulated Fe was mobilized from all 3 cell types. By 10 d HC mobilized > 85% of accumulated Fe, while Fe levels in KC and EC from treated pigs were at least 15-fold higher than control levels. In vitro studies confirmed the greater capacity of KC and EC to accumulate colloidal Fe compared to HC. The concentration of ferritin (Ft) to liver cells from control pigs was below 0.3 ..mu..g/mg cell protein. After treatment, Ft levels peaked in HC and KC on d 1 at 5.0 and 15.6 ..mu..g/mg cell protein, but in EC on d 5 at 13.3 ..mu..g/mg. Ferritin Fe represented 9% of total Fe in KC and EC at all times after treatment, but as much as 48% in HC at 1 d. Continued investigation of hepatic cellular metabolism of supplemental Fe provides a useful model for investigating the treatment of human neonatal anemia.

  14. Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Iacovella, Nicola; Abate, Vittorio; Aronica, Vincenzo; Di Marco, Vincenzo; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    An observational study was designed to assess the bioaccumulation of polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCB), and 13 selected polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in autochthonous pigs reared in the Nebrodi Park of Sicily (Italy). Perirenal fat and liver samples were drawn from animals representative of three different outdoor farming systems and from wild pigs and then analyzed for the chemicals mentioned previously. The highest concentrations of PCDD + PCDF and DL-PCB were detected in the fat (0.45 and 0.35 pg World Health Organization toxicity equivalents [WHO-TE] per g of fat base [FB], respectively) and livers (12.7 and 3.28 pg WHO-TE per g FB) of the wild group, whereas the free-ranging group showed the lowest levels (0.05 and 0.03 pg WHO-TE per g FB in fat and 0.78 and 0.27 pg WHO-TE per g FB in livers). The sum of PBDE congeners was highest in wild pigs (0.52 ng/g FB in fat and 5.64 ng/g FB in livers) and lowest in the farmed group (0.14 ng/g FB in fat and 0.28 ng/g FB in livers). The contamination levels in fat and livers of outdoor pigs had mean concentration values lower than those levels reported for intensively indoor-farmed animals. In wild pigs, bioaccumulation was associated with their free grazing in areas characterized by bush fires. The results of this study aid to emphasize the quality of the environment as a factor to guarantee food safety in typical processed pig meat products, specifically from outdoor and extensive Nebrodi farming systems.

  15. Purification and properties of acyl/alkyl dihydroxyacetone-phosphate reductase from guinea pig liver peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Datta, S C; Ghosh, M K; Hajra, A K

    1990-05-15

    The peroxisomal acyl/alkyl dihydroxyacetone-phosphate reductase (EC 1.1.1.101) was solubilized and purified 5500-fold from guinea pig liver. The enzyme could be solubilized by detergents only at high ionic strengths in presence of the cosubstrate NADPH. Peroxisomes, isolated from liver by a Nycodenz step density gradient centrifugation, were first treated with 0.2% Triton X-100 to remove the soluble and a large fraction of the membrane-bound proteins. The enzyme was solubilized from the resulting residue by 0.05% Triton X-100, 1 M KCl, 0.3 mM NADPH, and 2 mM dithiothreitol in Tris-HCl buffer (10 mM) at pH 7.5. The enzyme was further purified after precipitating it by dialyzing out the KCl and then resolubilized with 0.8% octyl glucoside in 1 M KCl (plus NADPH and dithiothreitol). The second solubilized enzyme was purified to homogeneity (370-fold from peroxisomes) by gel filtration in a Sepharose CL-6B column followed by affinity chromatography on an NADPH-agarose gel matrix. NADPH-agarose was prepared by reacting periodate-oxidized NADP+ to adipic acid dihydrazide-agarose and then reducing the immobilized NADP+ with NaBH4. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzyme showed a single homogeneous band with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 75,000 by size exclusion chromatography. Amino acid analysis of the purified protein showed that hydrophobic amino acid comprised 27% of the molecule. The Km value of the purified enzyme for hexadecyldihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) was 21 microM, and the Vmax value in the presence of 0.07 mM NADPH was 67 mumol/min/mg. The turnover number (Kcat), after correcting for the isotope effect of the cosubstrate NADP3H, was calculated to be 6,000 mol/min/mol of enzyme, assuming the enzyme has a molecular weight of 60,000. The purified enzyme also used palmitoyldihydroxyactone phosphate as a substrate (Km = 15.4 microM, and Vmax = 75

  16. Effects of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on some liver biochemical and histopathological parameters in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Al-Awthan, Yahya S; Hezabr, Samira M; Al-Zubairi, Aisha M; Al-Hemiri, Faten A

    2014-04-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides constitute one of the most widely used classes of pesticides being employed for both agricultural and landscape pest control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dimethoate (DM), an organophosphorus insecticide, on some biochemical and histopathological parameters in liver of adult male guinea pigs as well as the possible role of Withania somnifera extract in attenuation of DM-induced hepatotoxicity. The animals were divided randomly into 5 groups and kept at 5 animals per group in an environmentally controlled condition with free access to food and water ad libitum. The first group was served as a control group and administered with olive oil orally; the group II received aqueous extract of W. somnifera (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) orally, group III, IV and V was administered with DM (14 mg kg(-1); 1/25LD50) for 21 days orally. Group IV and V received 100 mg kg(-1) of W. somnifera extract and silymarin, respectively half hour before DM administration for 21 days. DM caused a statistically significant increase in the serum level of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP) when compared to control animals, whereas, W. somnifera and silymarin pre-treatment to the DM-intoxicated animals resulted in a significant normalization of the enzymes activities. On the other hand W. somnifera extract reduced the incidence of histopathological changes such as cytoplasmic vacuolization and degeneration in nuclei, rupture of epithelia lining the central vein, widened sinusoidal space and lymphocyte infiltration induced by DM treatment in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that W. somnifera aqueous extract could protect the liver against DM-induced oxidative damage.

  17. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls monocyte production and maturation and the steady-state size of the liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Kristin A; Waddell, Lindsey A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Davis, Gemma M; Clohisey, Sara M; McCulloch, Mary; Magowan, Elizabeth; Mabbott, Neil A; Summers, Kim M; Hume, David A

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) is an essential growth and differentiation factor for cells of the macrophage lineage. To explore the role of CSF1 in steady-state control of monocyte production and differentiation and tissue repair, we previously developed a bioactive protein with a longer half-life in circulation by fusing pig CSF1 with the Fc region of pig IgG1a. CSF1-Fc administration to pigs expanded progenitor pools in the marrow and selectively increased monocyte numbers and their expression of the maturation marker CD163. There was a rapid increase in the size of the liver, and extensive proliferation of hepatocytes associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Despite the large influx of macrophages, there was no evidence of liver injury and no increase in circulating liver enzymes. Microarray expression profiling of livers identified increased expression of macrophage markers, i.e., cytokines such as TNF, IL1, and IL6 known to influence hepatocyte proliferation, alongside cell cycle genes. The analysis also revealed selective enrichment of genes associated with portal, as opposed to centrilobular regions, as seen in hepatic regeneration. Combined with earlier data from the mouse, this study supports the existence of a CSF1-dependent feedback loop, linking macrophages of the liver with bone marrow and blood monocytes, to mediate homeostatic control of the size of the liver. The results also provide evidence of safety and efficacy for possible clinical applications of CSF1-Fc.

  18. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls monocyte production and maturation and the steady-state size of the liver in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Kristin A.; Waddell, Lindsey A.; Lisowski, Zofia M.; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Davis, Gemma M.; Clohisey, Sara M.; McCulloch, Mary; Magowan, Elizabeth; Mabbott, Neil A.; Summers, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) is an essential growth and differentiation factor for cells of the macrophage lineage. To explore the role of CSF1 in steady-state control of monocyte production and differentiation and tissue repair, we previously developed a bioactive protein with a longer half-life in circulation by fusing pig CSF1 with the Fc region of pig IgG1a. CSF1-Fc administration to pigs expanded progenitor pools in the marrow and selectively increased monocyte numbers and their expression of the maturation marker CD163. There was a rapid increase in the size of the liver, and extensive proliferation of hepatocytes associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Despite the large influx of macrophages, there was no evidence of liver injury and no increase in circulating liver enzymes. Microarray expression profiling of livers identified increased expression of macrophage markers, i.e., cytokines such as TNF, IL1, and IL6 known to influence hepatocyte proliferation, alongside cell cycle genes. The analysis also revealed selective enrichment of genes associated with portal, as opposed to centrilobular regions, as seen in hepatic regeneration. Combined with earlier data from the mouse, this study supports the existence of a CSF1-dependent feedback loop, linking macrophages of the liver with bone marrow and blood monocytes, to mediate homeostatic control of the size of the liver. The results also provide evidence of safety and efficacy for possible clinical applications of CSF1-Fc. PMID:27445344

  19. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury.

    PubMed

    Grottke, Oliver; Braunschweig, Till; Spronk, Henri M H; Esch, Stephanie; Rieg, Annette D; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Fitzner, Christina; Tolba, Rene; Rossaint, Rolf

    2011-08-18

    Despite increasing use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to treat hemorrhage-associated coagulopathy, few studies have investigated PCC in trauma, and there is a particular lack of safety data. This study was performed to evaluate PCC therapy in a porcine model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Coagulopathy was induced in 27 anesthetized pigs by replacing approximately 70% blood volume with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactate solution; erythrocytes were collected and retransfused. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received PCC (35 or 50 IU/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters including thromboelastometry, thrombin generation, and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. Internal organs were examined macroscopically and histologically to determine the presence of emboli and assess liver injury. Total blood loss was significantly lower and survival was higher in both PCC groups versus the control group (P < .05). These outcomes appeared to be dose-independent. Thromboembolism was found in all animals treated with 50 IU/kg PCC; 44% also showed signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Liver injury was similar in all animals. In conclusion, 35 IU/kg PCC safely improved coagulation and attenuated blood loss. However, the higher dose of PCC (50 IU/kg) appeared to increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  20. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.

    PubMed

    Rødgaard, Tina; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-02-15

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw minipigs behave more similarly to obese humans than the other two pig breeds investigated.

  1. Cisplatin Pharmacokinetics in Nontumoral Pig Liver Treated With Intravenous or Transarterial Hepatic Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrot, Pascal; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Guibert, Pierre; Bouculat, Francois; Cassagnes, Lucie; Leger-Enreille, Anne; Buc, Emmanuel; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bommelaer, Gilles; Boyer, Louis; Abergel, Armand

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cisplatin (CDDP) pharmacokinetics after its intravenous (IV) or intrahepatic arterial administration (IHA) in healthy pigs with or without embolization by absorbable gelatine. Material and Methods: We analysed plasmatic and hepatic drug concentration in four groups of six mini-pigs each according to the modality of administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg): IV, IHA, IHA with partial embolization using absorbable gelatine (IHA-Pe), and IHA with complete embolization (IHA-Te). Unbounded plasmatic and hepatic platinum concentrations were measured. Concentration and pharmacokinetics parameters were compared using analysis of variance. Results: For all groups, there was a rapid and biexponential decrease in free platinum concentration. Plasmatic terminal half-life (T{sub 1/2}) was significantly decreased after embolization at 191, 178, 42, and 41 min after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te administration, respectively. Maximal plasmatic concentration and systemic exposure to CDDP (AUC{sub 24}) values were significantly decreased after embolization (C{sub max}p = 0.0075; AUC{sub 24}p = 0.0053). Hepatic CDDP concentration rapidly peaked and then decreased progressively. After 24 h, the residual concentration represented 45, 47, 60, and 63 % of C{sub max}, respectively, after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} and AUC{sub {infinity}} values were increased after embolization, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This preliminary study confirms the feasibility of a pig model to study systemic and hepatic CDDP pharmacokinetics. Systemic exposure is lower after embolization, which could minimize systemic toxicity. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} elimination and hepatic exposition values are increased with IHA compared with IV administration.

  2. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G.; Holst, Jens J.

    2012-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly described metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and also glucagon-like peptides-1 and -2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We tested the effects of restoring bile acids by treating a neonatal piglet PNALD model with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Neonatal pigs received enteral feeding (EN), TPN, or TPN + CDCA for 14 days, and responses were assessed by serum markers, histology, and levels of key regulatory peptides. Cholestasis and steatosis were demonstrated in the TPN group relative to EN controls by elevated levels of serum total and direct bilirubin and also bile acids and liver triglyceride (TG) content. CDCA treatment improved direct bilirubin levels by almost fourfold compared with the TPN group and also normalized serum bile acids and liver TG. FGF19, GLP-1, and GLP-2 were decreased in plasma of the TPN group compared with the EN group but were all induced by CDCA treatment. Intestinal mucosal growth marked by weight and villus/crypt ratio was significantly reduced in the TPN group compared with the EN group, and CDCA treatment increased both parameters. These results suggest that decreased circulating FGF19 during TPN may contribute to PNALD. Moreover, we show that enteral CDCA not only resolves PNALD but acts as a potent intestinal trophic agent and secretagogue for GLP-2. PMID:22094603

  3. The transfer of mannose from guanosine diphosphate mannose to dolichol phosphate and protein by pig liver endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J. B.; Hemming, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    When pig liver microsomal preparations were incubated with GDP-[14C]mannose, 10–40% of the 14C was transferred to mannolipid and 1–3% to mannoprotein. The transfer to mannolipid was readily reversible and GDP was one of the products of the reaction. It was possible to reverse the reaction by adding excess of GDP and to show the incorporation of [14C]GDP into GDP-mannose. When excess of unlabelled GDP-mannose was added to a partially completed incubation there was a rapid transfer back of [14C]mannose from the mannolipid to GDP-mannose. The other product of the reaction, the mannolipid, had the properties of a prenol phosphate mannose. This was illustrated by its lability to dilute acid but stability to dilute alkali, and by its chromatographic properties. Dolichol phosphate stimulated the incorporation of [14C]mannose into both mannolipid and into protein, although the former effect was larger and more consistent than the latter. The incorporation of exogenous [3H]dolichol phosphate into the mannolipid, and its release, accompanied by mannose, on treatment of the mannolipid with dilute acid, confirmed that exogenous dolichol phosphate can act as an acceptor of mannose in this system. It was shown that other exogenous polyprenol phosphates (but not farnesol phosphate or cetyl phosphate) can substitute for dolichol phosphate in this respect but that they are much less efficient than dolichol phosphate in stimulating the transfer of mannose to protein. Since pig liver contained substances with the chromatographic properties of both dolichol phosphate and dolichol phosphate mannose, which caused an increase in transfer of [14C]mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to mannolipid, it was concluded that endogenous dolichol phosphate acts as an acceptor of mannose in the microsomal preparation. The results indicate that the mannolipid is an intermediate in the transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose to protein. Some 4% of the mannose of a sample of mannolipid added to an

  4. In vivo vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs increases ascorbate transporters in liver but not kidney and brain.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ditte; Lindblad, Maiken M; Paidi, Maya D; Hasselholt, Stine; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2014-07-01

    Moderate vitamin C (vitC) deficiency (plasma concentrations less than 23 μmol/L) affects as much as 10% of adults in the Western World and has been associated with an increased mortality in disease complexes such as cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. The distribution of vitC within the body is subjected to complex and nonlinear pharmacokinetics and largely depends on the sodium-dependent vitC-specific transporters, sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) and sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2). Although currently not established, it is likely to expect that a state of deficiency may affect the expression of these transporters to preserve vitC concentrations in specific target tissues. We hypothesized that diet-induced states of vitC deficiency lead to alterations in the messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein expression of vitC transporters, thereby regulating vitC tissue distribution. Using guinea pigs as a validated model, this study investigated the effects of a diet-induced vitC deficiency (100 mg vitC/kg feed) or depletion (0 mg vitC/kg feed) on the expression of transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2 in selected tissues and the transport from plasma to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In deficient animals, SVCT1 was increased in the liver, whereas a decreased SVCT1 expression but increased SVCT2 mRNA in livers of depleted animals suggests a shift in transporter expression as response to the diet. In CSF, a constant plasma:CSF ratio shows unaltered vitC transport irrespective of dietary regime. The study adds novel information to the complex regulation maintaining vitC homeostasis in vivo during states of deficiency.

  5. In vivo study of partial liver resection on pigs using a 1.9 μm thulium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Danicke, V.; Brinkmann, R.; Bruch, H.; Kleemann, M.

    2011-07-01

    Dissection of liver tissue can be performed by different techniques (ultrasound, mono and bipolar dissection, water jet dissection and by stapler). In this animal study the potential of a Thulium fiber laser system was investigated for open parenchyma dissection. Based on a cw Thulium fiber laser (IPG laser GmbH, Burbach, Germany), emitting a wavelength at 1.9 μm and a maximal power at 50 W, a surgical dissection device was developed at the Medical Laser Centre Luebeck. Cw laser radiation (40 Watt) was transmitted via a 365 μm fiber with a polished distal fiber tip. Procedure was performed in contact mode; irradiance at the distal fiber tip was 38.2 kW/cm2. After general anesthesia and a median laparotomy an atypical laser resection of the liver was performed in 3 pigs. Healing process was controlled after 2-3 weeks by histological analysis (H&E staining). The final evaluation data included total resection time, blood loss, bile leakage and mass of dissected tissue. All animals treated in this study were cared for in accordance to the European convention on animal care. In general the dissection with the 1.9 μm laser radiation was easily performed. Hemostasis was highly sufficient so blood loss and bile leakage was negligible. Total resection time including hemostasis of the remaining tissue was 26 +/- 12 min. Weight of resected tissue was 17 +/- 8 g. During survival period no complications (bleeding or inflammation) occurred. After 2 weeks histology showed ongoing scar formation about 1 - 2 mm in depth of the dissected area.

  6. Effects of sex, weight, diet and hCG administration on levels of skatole and indole in the liver and hepatic activities of cytochromes P4502E1 and P4502A6 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zamaratskaia, G; Chen, G; Lundström, K

    2006-02-01

    Cytochromes P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and P4502A6 (CYP2A6) catalyse metabolic reactions of skatole and indole metabolism. The objectives of this study were as follows: to evaluate whether activities of CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 in pigs of two live weights (LW) differ between males and females; to investigate whether activities of CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 are affected by hCG stimulation; and to investigate whether the levels of skatole and indole in the liver and the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 are affected by raw potato starch (RPS). Female pigs expressed higher CYP2A6 activity at 90kg LW, and higher CYP2E1 activity at 115kg LW compared to male pigs. Skatole levels in the liver were higher in male pigs than in female pigs at both LW, whereas indole levels were higher in males only at 115 kg LW. Neither levels of indolic compounds in the liver nor enzyme activities were affected by hCG stimulation. The inclusion of RPS in the diet reduced skatole levels in the liver in both sexes and increased CYP2A6 activity in female pigs. It was concluded that the incidence of boar taint may depend on both skatole amount, which reach the liver, and the activities of enzymes involved in skatole metabolism, which may vary depending on sex, live weight, and diet. PMID:22061562

  7. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea)

    PubMed Central

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M.; Vázquez, José A.; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  8. Desferrioxamine Attenuates Pancreatic Injury after Major Hepatectomy under Vascular Control of the Liver: Experimental Study in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Varsos, Panagiotis; Nastos, Constantinos; Papoutsidakis, Nikolaos; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Defterevos, George; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Pafiti, Agathi; Fragulidis, George; Economou, Emmanuel; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Pancreatic injury can manifest after major hepatectomy under vascular control. The main mechanism involved seems to be remote oxidative injury due to “spillage” of reactive oxygen species and cytokines from the liver. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of desferrioxamine in the prevention of pancreatic injury following major hepatectomy. Methods. Twelve Landrace pigs were subjected to a combination of major hepatectomy (70–75%), using the Pringle maneuver for 150 minutes, after constructing a porta-caval side-to-side anastomosis. The duration of reperfusion was 24 hours. Animals were randomly divided into a control group (n = 6) and a desferrioxamine group (DFX, n = 6). DFX animals were treated with continuous IV infusion of desferrioxamine 100 mg/kg. Pancreatic tissue injury, c-peptide and amylase concentrations, and pancreatic tissue oxidative markers were evaluated. Results. Desferrioxamine-treated animals showed decreased c-peptide levels, decreased acinar cell necrosis, and decreased tissue malondialdehyde levels 24 hours after reperfusion compared with the control group. There was no difference in portal pressure or serum amylase levels between the groups. Conclusions. Desferrioxamine seems to attenuate pancreatic injury after major hepatectomy under vascular control possibly by preventing and reversing production and circulation of oxidative products. PMID:22791933

  9. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea).

    PubMed

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M; Vázquez, José A; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  10. Cattle bile but not bear bile or pig bile induces lipid profile changes and fatty liver injury in mice: mediation by cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    Three types of animal bile preparation, bear bile (BB), cattle bile (CB) and pig bile (PB) differ in bile acid composition and are supposed to exert different pharmacotoxicological actions. Dietary supplementation with CB at 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks decreased triacylglycerol (TAG) level but increased total cholesterol (CHO) level in serum, which were associated with fatty liver injury in mice. The increased levels of cholesterol esters (CE) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the serum and liver were observed in the mice fed the CB-supplemented diet. Lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury observed in the mice fed the CB diet were not induced by the supplementation with BB and PB. The supplementation with cholic acid (CA), the most abundant bile acid in CB, could induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which were indistinguishable from those induced by CB supplementation. CB and CA supplementation induced similar changes in the expression levels of mRNAs in the liver. Thus, CB induced lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which can be attributed to the actions of CA contained in CB. The inabilities of BB and PB to induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury are supposed to be due to their limited contents of CA.

  11. The synergistic decarboxylation of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate by an enzyme system from pig-liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P R; Quayle, J R

    1967-03-01

    1. An enzyme system that catalyses a synergistic decarboxylation of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate has been purified from pig-liver mitochondria. 2. The purified system is specific for glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate as substrates, although in earlier stages of purification glycine and l-glutamate are also active. 3. The reaction is inhibited strongly by EDTA and N-ethylmaleimide. Substrate analogues, present at concentrations equimolar with respect to the substrates, are not effective as inhibitors. 4. The reaction proceeds in the absence of added cofactors. Magnesium chloride, mercaptoethanol and sucrose stimulate the reaction, and stabilize the activity of the enzyme. 5. The pH optimum of the reaction is 7.0. The K(m) values of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate, at saturating concentration of the corresponding co-substrate, are 16mm and 3.6mm respectively. 6. Isotopic work with specifically labelled [(14)C]glyoxylate and 2-oxo[(14)C]-glutarate suggests that the enzyme system catalyses an initial condensation of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate that results in, or leads to, release of C-1 of both substrates as carbon dioxide. C-2 of glyoxylate and C-5 of 2-oxoglutarate do not appear as carbon dioxide. 7. The stoicheiometry of the reaction is complex. During the initial stages of the reaction, more carbon dioxide is recovered from 2-oxoglutarate than from glyoxylate. Subsequently, there is a disproportionate increase with time of carbon dioxide evolution from the carboxyl group of glyoxylate. The excess of decarboxylation of glyoxylate over 2-oxogluturate is further increased by treatment of reaction products with acid.

  12. The synergistic decarboxylation of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate by an enzyme system from pig-liver mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P. R.; Quayle, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    1. An enzyme system that catalyses a synergistic decarboxylation of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate has been purified from pig-liver mitochondria. 2. The purified system is specific for glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate as substrates, although in earlier stages of purification glycine and l-glutamate are also active. 3. The reaction is inhibited strongly by EDTA and N-ethylmaleimide. Substrate analogues, present at concentrations equimolar with respect to the substrates, are not effective as inhibitors. 4. The reaction proceeds in the absence of added cofactors. Magnesium chloride, mercaptoethanol and sucrose stimulate the reaction, and stabilize the activity of the enzyme. 5. The pH optimum of the reaction is 7·0. The Km values of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate, at saturating concentration of the corresponding co-substrate, are 16mm and 3·6mm respectively. 6. Isotopic work with specifically labelled [14C]glyoxylate and 2-oxo[14C]-glutarate suggests that the enzyme system catalyses an initial condensation of glyoxylate and 2-oxoglutarate that results in, or leads to, release of C-1 of both substrates as carbon dioxide. C-2 of glyoxylate and C-5 of 2-oxoglutarate do not appear as carbon dioxide. 7. The stoicheiometry of the reaction is complex. During the initial stages of the reaction, more carbon dioxide is recovered from 2-oxoglutarate than from glyoxylate. Subsequently, there is a disproportionate increase with time of carbon dioxide evolution from the carboxyl group of glyoxylate. The excess of decarboxylation of glyoxylate over 2-oxogluturate is further increased by treatment of reaction products with acid. PMID:16742506

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part II: Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfl, S.; Stampfl, U.; Rehnitz, C.; Schnabel, Ph.; Satzl, S.; Christoph, P.; Henn, C.; Thomas, F.; Richter, G. M.

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (40-120 {mu}m) for acute and chronic tissue embolization in mini-pig livers. Methods. Thirteen animals were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 3), total arterial bed occlusion with acute procedure; groups 2 to 4, chronic superselective embolization with follow-up of 1 week (group 2, n = 1), 4 weeks (group 3, n 4) or 14 weeks (group 4, n = 5). Key endpoints were homogeneity and particle distribution in acute embolizations (group 1) and necrosis and inflammation in chronic embolizations (groups 2-4) as assessed microscopically and angiographically. Results. After liver embolization, parenchymal necrosis did not occur; only signs of vessel wall disintegration were evident. The bile ducts remained intact. A distinct foreign body reaction with sparse leukocytic infiltration and giant cells was found at 14 weeks, but no signs of major inflammation were found. Particles were seen at the presinusoidal level, but no particle transportation into the sinusoids was observed. Conclusions. Embolization in mini-pig livers, using small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres, results in vessel fibrosis without parenchymal or bile duct necrosis. The most likely explanation for preservation of the parenchyma is portal inflow. Small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres may be ideal as an adjunct for chemoembolization.

  14. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P A; Harikrishnan, R; Indira, M

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4g/kg b.wt for 90days. After 90days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α1 (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. PMID:24239723

  15. Studies on the effect of long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide on serum and liver proteins level and enzyme activity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Drozdz, M; Kucharz, E; Ludyga, K; Molska-Drozda, T

    1976-01-01

    Forty male guinea pigs were exposed to nitrogen dioxide in a concentration of 2 mg/m3, 8 hours daily for a period of 180 days. Forty male animals were used as a control group. The following changes were found in intoxicated animals: the decrease of total protein and seromucoid concentration in blood serum and the decrease of total protein, perchloric acid-soluble proteins, protein-bound hexosamines and sialic acids content, in liver tissue. Electrophoretic examination of the serum proteins showed the increase of alpha 1- and beta 2-globulins and the decrease of albumin concentration. Changes in the level of glycoproteins fractions and protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum were described also. Estimation of enzymes activity showed the decrease of alanine and aspartate transaminase activity in blood serum caused by the strong decrease of the cytoplasmic fraction of these enzymes. However the simultaneous increase of the mitochondrial fraction of transaminases activity was observed. The decrease of the activity of choline esterase was found also. Similar changes of enzymes activity were found in liver tissue. Histopathological studies were done for the further clearing the influenze of nitrogen dioxide on serum and liver proteins concentration and enzymes activity. It was found that after long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide the destruction processes may be observed in the liver. The possible mechanism of the nitrogen dioxide-induced damage of protein metabolism is discussed.

  16. Coordinated miRNA/mRNA Expression Profiles for Understanding Breed-Specific Metabolic Characters of Liver between Erhualian and Large White Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Runsheng; Sun, Qinwei; Jia, Yimin; Cong, Rihua; Ni, Yingdong; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Zhihua; Zhao, Ruqian

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of various metabolic processes in the liver, yet little is known on the breed-specific expression profiles of miRNAs in coordination with those of mRNAs. Here we used two breeds of male newborn piglets with distinct metabolic characteristics, Large White (LW) and Erhualian (EHL), to delineate the hepatic expression profiles of mRNA with microarray and miRNAs with both deep sequencing and microarray, and to analyze the functional relevance of integrated miRNA and mRNA expression in relation to the physiological and biochemical parameters. EHL had significantly lower body weight and liver weight at birth, but showed elevated serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), as well as higher liver content of cholesterol. Higher serum cortisol and lower serum insulin and leptin were also observed in EHL piglets. Compared to LW, 30 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated miRNAs were identified in the liver of EHL, together with 298 up-regulated and 510 down-regulated mRNAs (FDR<10%). RT-PCR validation of some differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) further confirmed the high-throughput data analysis. Using a target prediction algorithm, we found significant correlation between the up-regulated miRNAs and down-regulated mRNAs. Moreover, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which are involved in proteolysis, were predicted to be mediated by DEMs. These findings provide new information on the miRNA and mRNA profiles in porcine liver, which would shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the breed-specific traits in the pig, and may serve as a basis for further investigation into the biological functions of miRNAs in porcine liver. PMID:22719927

  17. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of

  18. Effects of rapeseed-press cake glucosinolates and iodine on the performance, the thyroid gland and the liver vitamin A status of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Tischendorf, F; Leiterer, M; Hartung, H; Bargholz, J

    2001-01-01

    Rapeseed press cake (per kg DM 181 g EE, 341 g CP and 23.3 mmol glucosinolates) was tested in a long-term experiment with a total of sixty pigs (live weight range 24 to 104 kg). The 3 x 2 factorial design consisted of three rapeseed press cake levels (no rapeseed press cake--control, 75 g or 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet) each with two iodine dosages (125 or 250 micrograms supplementary iodine per kg diet). Reduced feed intake and depressed weight gain were found in groups receiving 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet, which correspond to 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. At an inclusion level of 75 g rapeseed-press cake per kg diet no differences in feed intake and growth intensity were recorded in comparison to the rape feed free control. The rapeseed-press cake diet increased the weight of thyroid gland and liver and decreased the serum thyroxine (T4) concentration. Higher iodine dosage increased the serum T4 concentration of pigs receiving 75 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet (= 1.6 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet) to the level of the control group and retarded the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Intake of rapeseed products lowered the iodine content of the thyroid gland, however, there was no significant difference between groups given 1.6 and 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. The vitamin A content of the whole liver and the vitamin A serum concentration were not influenced by the diets tested. However, rapeseed press cake and the glucosinolates, respectively, decreased the vitamin A concentration per gram liver due to the organ enlargement and the resulting dilution effect.

  19. Fetal liver glycogen production and glycogenic transcript expression during prenatal development from pig breeds differing in preweaning survivability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sow productivity is influenced by a number of factors including preweaning piglet mortality. In commercial pigs, low birth weight piglets exhibit the greatest susceptibility to preweaning mortality. In contrast, Meishan (MS) piglets have naturally occurring lower birth weight and also improved prewe...

  20. Liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, W R; Lake, J R; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Schladt, D P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Wainright, J L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    The median waiting time for patients with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 18 days in 2012 to 9 days in 2014, after implementation of the Share 35 policy in June 2013. Similarly, mortality among candidates listed with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 366 per 100 waitlist years in 2012 to 315 in 2014. The number of new active candidates added to the pediatric liver transplant waiting list in 2014 was 655, down from a peak of 826 in 2005. The number of prevalent candidates (on the list on December 31 of the given year) continued to decline, 401 active and 173 inactive. The number of deceased donor pediatric liver transplants peaked at 542 in 2008 and was 478 in 2014. The number of living donor liver pediatric transplants was 52 in 2014; most were from donors closely related to the recipients. Graft survival continued to improve among pediatric recipients of deceased donor and living donor livers. PMID:26755264

  1. Toxicity of Doxorubicin on Pig Liver After Chemoembolization with Doxorubicin-loaded Microspheres: A Pilot DNA-microarrays and Histology Study

    SciTech Connect

    Verret, Valentin Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saieda Homayra; Wassef, Michel; Moine, Laurence; Bonneau, Michel; Laurent, Alexandre

    2013-02-15

    The potential mechanisms accounting for the hepatotoxicity of doxorubicin-loaded microspheres in chemoembolization were examined by combining histology and DNA-microarray techniques.The left hepatic arteries of two pigs were embolized with 1 mL of doxorubicin-loaded (25 mg; (DoxMS)) or non-loaded (BlandMS) microspheres. The histopathological effects of the embolization were analyzed at 1 week. RNAs extracted from both the embolized and control liver areas were hybridized onto Agilent porcine microarrays. Genes showing significantly different expression (p < 0.01; fold-change > 2) between two groups were classified by biological process. At 1 week after embolization, DoxMS caused arterial and parenchymal necrosis in 51 and 38 % of embolized vessels, respectively. By contrast, BlandMS did not cause any tissue damage. Up-regulated genes following embolization with DoxMS (vs. BlandMS, n = 353) were mainly involved in cell death, apoptosis, and metabolism of doxorubicin. Down-regulated genes (n = 120) were mainly related to hepatic functions, including enzymes of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Up-regulated genes included genes related to cell proliferation (growth factors and transcription factors), tissue remodeling (MMPs and several collagen types), inflammatory reaction (interleukins and chemokines), and angiogenesis (angiogenic factors and HIF1a pathway), all of which play an important role in liver healing and regeneration. DoxMS caused lesions to the liver, provoked cell death, and disturbed liver metabolism. An inflammatory repair process with cell proliferation, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis was rapidly initiated during the first week after chemoembolization. This pilot study provides a comprehensive method to compare different types of DoxMS in healthy animals or tumor models.

  2. Effects on Transcriptional Regulation and Lipid Droplet Characteristics in the Liver of Female Juvenile Pigs after Early Postnatal Feed Restriction and Refeeding Are Dependent on Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Hammon, Harald M.; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm2) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life. PMID:24260100

  3. Third-Generation Sequencing and Analysis of Four Complete Pig Liver Esterase Gene Sequences in Clones Identified by Screening BAC Library

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiliang; Xiao, Yuncai; Bi, Dingren; Yin, Jingdong; Shi, Deshi

    2016-01-01

    Aim Pig liver carboxylesterase (PLE) gene sequences in GenBank are incomplete, which has led to difficulties in studying the genetic structure and regulation mechanisms of gene expression of PLE family genes. The aim of this study was to obtain and analysis of complete gene sequences of PLE family by screening from a Rongchang pig BAC library and third-generation PacBio gene sequencing. Methods After a number of existing incomplete PLE isoform gene sequences were analysed, primers were designed based on conserved regions in PLE exons, and the whole pig genome used as a template for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Specific primers were then selected based on the PCR amplification results. A three-step PCR screening method was used to identify PLE-positive clones by screening a Rongchang pig BAC library and PacBio third-generation sequencing was performed. BLAST comparisons and other bioinformatics methods were applied for sequence analysis. Results Five PLE-positive BAC clones, designated BAC-10, BAC-70, BAC-75, BAC-119 and BAC-206, were identified. Sequence analysis yielded the complete sequences of four PLE genes, PLE1, PLE-B9, PLE-C4, and PLE-G2. Complete PLE gene sequences were defined as those containing regulatory sequences, exons, and introns. It was found that, not only did the PLE exon sequences of the four genes show a high degree of homology, but also that the intron sequences were highly similar. Additionally, the regulatory region of the genes contained two 720bps reverse complement sequences that may have an important function in the regulation of PLE gene expression. Significance This is the first report to confirm the complete sequences of four PLE genes. In addition, the study demonstrates that each PLE isoform is encoded by a single gene and that the various genes exhibit a high degree of sequence homology, suggesting that the PLE family evolved from a single ancestral gene. Obtaining the complete sequences of these PLE genes

  4. L-Ornithine phenylacetate reduces ammonia in pigs with acute liver failure through phenylacetylglycine formation: a novel ammonia-lowering pathway.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Rune Gangsøy; Rose, Christopher F; Fuskevåg, Ole-Martin; Mæhre, Hanne; Revhaug, Arthur; Jalan, Rajiv; Ytrebø, Lars Marius

    2014-11-15

    Glycine is an important ammoniagenic amino acid, which is increased in acute liver failure (ALF). We have previously shown that L-ornithine phenylacetate (OP) attenuates ammonia rise and intracranial pressure in pigs suffering from ALF but failed to demonstrate a stoichiometric relationship between change in plasma ammonia levels and excretion of phenylacetylglutamine in urine. The aim was to investigate the impact of OP treatment on the phenylacetylglycine pathway as an alternative and additional ammonia-lowering pathway. A well-validated and -characterized large porcine model of ALF (portacaval anastomosis, followed by hepatic artery ligation), which recapitulates the cardinal features of human ALF, was used. Twenty-four female pigs were randomized into three groups: (1) sham operated + vehicle, (2) ALF + vehicle, and (3) ALF + OP. There was a significant increase in arterial glycine concentration in ALF (P < 0.001 compared with sham), with a three-fold increase in glycine release into the systemic circulation from the kidney compared with the sham group. This increase was attenuated in both the blood and brain of the OP-treated animals (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), and the attenuation was associated with renal removal of glycine through excretion of the conjugation product phenylacetylglycine in urine (ALF + vehicle: 1,060 ± 106 μmol/l; ALF + OP: 27,625 ± 2,670 μmol/l; P < 0.003). Data from this study provide solid evidence for the existence of a novel, additional pathway for ammonia removal in ALF, involving glycine production and removal, which is targeted by OP.

  5. Cerebral microdialysis reflects the neuroprotective effect of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption in acute liver failure better and earlier than intracranial pressure: a controlled study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral edema is a well-recognized and potentially fatal complication of acute liver failure (ALF). The effectiveness of treatments that address intracranial hypertension is generally assessed by measuring intracranial pressure (ICP). The aim of this study was to determine the role of cerebral microdialysis in monitoring the efficacy of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) treatment for ALF. We hypothesized that in ALF cerebral microdialysis reflects the benefits of FPSA treatment on cerebral edema before ICP. Methods A surgical resection model of ALF was used in 21 pigs. We measured plasma ammonia concentration, brain concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and glutamine, and ICP. Animals were randomized into three groups: in one group eight animals received 6 hours of FPSA treatment 2 hours after induction of ALF; in another group 10 animals received supportive treatment for ALF only; and in the final group three underwent sham surgery. Results The ICP was significantly higher in the ALF group than in the FPSA group 9 hours after surgery. The lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio was significantly lower in the FPSA group than the ALF group 5 hours after surgery, before any significant difference in ICP was detected. Indeed, significant changes in the L/P ratio could be observed within 1 hour of treatment. Glutamine levels were significantly lower in the FPSA group than the ALF group between 6 hours and 10 hours after surgery. Conclusions Brain lactate/pyruvate ratio and concentration of glutamine measured by cerebral microdialysis reflected the beneficial effects of FPSA treatment on cerebral metabolism more precisely and rapidly than ICP in pigs with fulminant ALF. The role of glutamine as a marker of the efficacy of FPSA treatment for ALF appears promising, but needs further evaluation. PMID:23758689

  6. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. I. The influence on DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in the liver of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Stanosek, J; Lewandowska-Tokarz, A; Ludyga, K; Pietras, A; Kula, B

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the behaviour of DNA, RNA and soluble proteins in whole homogenate as well as the nuclear, mitochondrial and postmitochondrial liver fractions in guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia. A decrease of RNA level was found in the liver of animals exposed to combustion exhaust gases together with a decrease of soluble proteins in all the studied fractions. On the other hand, in the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products of combustion gases by ammonia, the studied components were increased. This increase may be the result of the simultaneous action of industrial noise.

  7. Immunobiology of liver xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Burlak, Christopher; Waldman, Joshua P; Lutz, Andrew J; Paris, Leela L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Robson, Simon C; Rees, Michael A; Ayares, David; Gridelli, Bruno; Tector, A Joseph; Cooper, David KC

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are currently the preferred species for future organ xenotransplantation. With advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, clinical xenotransplantation is becoming closer to reality. In preclinical studies (pig-to-nonhuman primate), the xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for human CD55 or from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/− transgenic for human CD46, is associated with survival of approximately 7–9 days. Although hepatic function, including coagulation, has proved to be satisfactory, the immediate development of thrombocytopenia is very limiting for pig liver xenotransplantation even as a ‘bridge’ to allotransplantation. Current studies are directed to understand the immunobiology of platelet activation, aggregation and phagocytosis, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, toward identifying interventions that may enable clinical application. PMID:23078060

  8. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

  9. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation. PMID:11012362

  10. Transplantable liver production plan: "Yamaton"--liver project, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-10-01

    Organ grafts developed in the xenogeneic pig scaffold are expected to resolve most issues of donor safety and ethical concerns about living-donor liver transplantation in Japan. We have been working on so-called "Yamaton" projects to develop transplantable organs using genetically engineered pigs. Our goal is to produce chimeric livers with human parenchyma in such pigs. The Yamaton-Liver project demonstrated the proof of concept by showing that rat-mouse chimeric livers could develop in mice and be successfully transplanted into syngeneic or allogeneic rats. Under conventional immunosuppression, the transplanted livers showed long-term function and protection against rejection. Because chimeric liver grafts have xenogeneic components, additional strategies, such as humanization of pig genes, induction of hematopoietic chimeras in donors, and replacement of pig endothelial cells with human ones, might be required in clinical use. Our projects still need to overcome various hurdles but can bring huge benefits to patients in the future. PMID:23896578

  11. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  12. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  13. The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced

  14. HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide as new T-2 toxin metabolite: enzymatic synthesis, analysis, and species specific formation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides by rat, mouse, pig, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanja; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-10-10

    Glucuronides of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin and its phase I metabolite HT-2 toxin are important phase II metabolites under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Since standard substances are essential for the direct quantitation of these glucuronides, a method for the enzymatic synthesis of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides employing liver microsomes was optimized. Structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry revealed that besides T-2 toxin glucuronide and HT-2 toxin 3-glucuronide also the newly identified isomer HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide was formed. Glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in liver microsomes of rat, mouse, pig, and human was compared and metabolites were analyzed directly by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A distinct, species specific pattern of glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin was observed with interesting interindividual differences. Until recently, glucuronides have frequently been analyzed indirectly by quantitation of the aglycone after enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides by β-glucuronidase. Therefore, the hydrolysis efficiencies of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides using β-glucuronidases from Helix pomatia, bovine liver, and Escherichia coli were compared. PMID:22967261

  15. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  16. Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver and adipose tissues and feed intake response to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in pigs expressing (MC4R) mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, NDP-MSH, in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R, D298 allele (n = 12), N298 allele (n = 12) or heterozygous (n = 12...

  17. Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver and adipose tissues and food intake reponse to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in pigs expressing MC4R mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genetic mechanisms that respond to alpha- melanocortin stimulating hormone (MSH), a melanocortin-3 and 4-receptor (MC3/4-R) agonist. Three MC4R genotypes (2 homozygous and the heterozygous for MC4R) were selected. Six pigs per genotype per treatment wer...

  18. Microarray gene expression profiles of fasting induced changes in liver and adipose tissues of pigs expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor D298N variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting in pigs that express the missense mutation (D298N) in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, which has been associated with increased growth and feed efficiency. Prepubertal gilts (n=24; 12 wildtype...

  19. Early postnatal feed restriction reduces liver connective tissue levels and affects H3K9 acetylation state of regulated genes associated with protein metabolism in low birth weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Nebendahl, Constance; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Krüger, Ricarda; Martens, Karen; Giller, Katrin; Hammon, Harald M; Rimbach, Gerald; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with metabolic consequences in adulthood. Since our previous data indicate birth weight-dependent effects of feed restriction (R) on protein degradation processes in the liver, it should be investigated whether effects on connective tissue turnover are obvious and could be explained by global changes of histone H3K9me3 and H3K9ac states in regulated genes. For this purpose, female littermate pigs with low (U) or normal (N) birth weight were subjected to 3-week R (60% of ad libitum fed controls) with subsequent refeeding (REF) for further 5 weeks. The 3-week R-period induced a significant reduction of connective tissue area by 43% in the liver of U animals at 98 d of age, which was not found in age-matched N animals. Of note, after REF at 131 d of age, in previously feed-restricted U animals (UR), the percentage of mean connective tissue was only 53% of ad libitum fed controls (UK), indicating a persistent effect. In U animals, R induced H3K9 acetylation of regulated genes (e.g. XBP1, ERLEC1, GALNT2, PTRH2), which were inter alia associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, REF was mostly accompanied by deacetylation in U and N animals. Thus, our epigenetic data may give a first explanation for the observed birth weight-dependent differences in this connective tissue phenotype.

  20. Vitamin E in new-generation lipid emulsions protects against parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipi...

  1. Effects of animal liver and bile extracts on biochemical values of rat ethanol-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tien-Chun; Liu, Yu-Tse; Duann, Lan-Tyi; Yu, Kuo-Hui; Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the improvement of fatty liver induced by ethanol with animal liver and bile extracts. This research aimed to increase the economic values of animal liver and bile extracts and used these to reduce damage of ethanol-induced fatty liver. Extracts came from animal liver and bile, including pig bile powder, pig liver extract, a mixture of pig bile powder and pig liver extract, chicken bile powder, chicken liver extract, and a mixture of chicken bile powder and chicken liver extract, and these were fed to Long-Evans rats. The results showed that rats fed ethanol for long terms could increase values of aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, γ-glutamy-transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Pig bile powder could decrease the values of aspartate transaminase, cholesterol and γ-glutamy-transferase. The significances also decreased on aspartate transaminase, γ-glutamy-transferase and aspartate transaminase, which were carried out with the pig liver extract treatment. These results suggest pig bile and liver extracts have high potential to improve rats' ethanol-induced fatty liver with serum biochemical parameters.

  2. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  3. Effect of increased cardiac output on liver blood flow, oxygen exchange and metabolic rate during longterm endotoxin-induced shock in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Šantak, Borislav; Radermacher, Peter; Adler, Jens; Iber, Thomas; Rieger, Karen M; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Georgieff, Michael; Träger, Karl

    1998-01-01

    We investigated hepatic blood flow, O2 exchange and metabolism in porcine endotoxic shock (Control, n=8; Endotoxin, n=10) with administration of hydroxyethylstarch to maintain arterial pressure (MAP)>60 mmHg. Before and 12, 18 and 24 h after starting continuous i.v. endotoxin we measured portal venous and hepatic arterial blood flow, intracapillary haemoglobin O2 saturation (Hb-O2%) of the liver surface and arterial, portal and hepatic venous lactate, pyruvate, glyercol and alanine concentrations. Glucose production rate was derived from the plasma isotope enrichment during infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose. Despite a sustained 50% increase in cardiac output endotoxin caused a progressive, significant fall in MAP. Liver blood flow significantly increased, but endotoxin affected neither hepatic O2 delivery and uptake nor mean intracapillary Hb-O2% and Hb-O2% frequency distributions. Endotoxin nearly doubled endogenous glucose production rate while hepatic lactate, alanine and glycerol uptake rates progressively decreased significantly. The lactate uptake rate even became negative (P<0.05 vs Control). Endotoxin caused portal and hepatic venous pH to fall significantly concomitant with significantly increased arterial, portal and hepatic venous lactate/pyruvate ratios. During endotoxic shock increased cardiac output achieved by colloid infusion maintained elevated liver blood flow and thereby macro- and microcirculatory O2 supply. Glucose production rate nearly doubled with complete dissociation of hepatic uptake of glucogenic precursors and glucose release. Despite well-preserved capillary oxygenation increased lactate/pyruvate ratios reflecting impaired cytosolic redox state suggested deranged liver energy balance, possibly due to the O2 requirements of gluconeogenesis. PMID:9756385

  4. Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

    2014-03-15

    The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values.

  5. Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

    2014-03-15

    The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values. PMID:24206734

  6. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  7. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France.

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%-31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%-56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%-91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  8. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg.

  9. Protocols for staining of bile canalicular and sinusoidal networks of human, mouse and pig livers, three-dimensional reconstruction and quantification of tissue microarchitecture by image processing and analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Seddik; Hoehme, Stefan; Friebel, Adrian; von Recklinghausen, Iris; Othman, Amnah; Begher-Tibbe, Brigitte; Reif, Raymond; Godoy, Patricio; Johann, Tim; Vartak, Amruta; Golka, Klaus; Bucur, Petru O; Vibert, Eric; Marchan, Rosemarie; Christ, Bruno; Dooley, Steven; Meyer, Christoph; Ilkavets, Iryna; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Böttger, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Drasdo, Dirk; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-05-01

    parameters in adult mice (C57Bl6/N) include the hepatocyte volume (5,128.3 ± 837.8 μm(3)) and the fraction of the hepatocyte surface in contact with the neighbouring hepatocytes (67.4 ± 6.7 %), sinusoids (22.1 ± 4.8 %) and bile canaliculi (9.9 ± 3.8 %). Parameters of the sinusoidal network that we also routinely quantify include the radius of the sinusoids (4.8 ± 2.25 μm), the branching angle (32.5 ± 11.2°), the length of intersection branches (23.93 ± 5.9 μm), the number of intersection nodes per mm(3) (120.3 × 103 ± 42.1 × 10(3)), the average length of sinusoidal vessel per mm(3) (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.4 × 10(3)mm) and the percentage of vessel volume in relation to the whole liver volume (15.3 ± 3.9) (mean ± standard deviation). Moreover, the provided parameters of the bile canalicular network are: length of the first-order branches (7.5 ± 0.6 μm), length of the second-order branches (10.9 ± 1.8 μm), length of the dead-end branches (5.9 ± 0.7 μm), the number of intersection nodes per mm(3) (819.1 × 10(3) ± 180.7 × 10(3)), the number of dead-end branches per mm(3) (409.9 × 10(3) ± 95.6 × 10(3)), the length of the bile canalicular network per mm(3) (9.4 × 10(3) ± 0.7 × 10(3) mm) and the percentage of the bile canalicular volume with respect to the total liver volume (3.4 ± 0.005). A particular strength of our technique is that quantitative parameters of hepatocytes and bile canalicular as well as sinusoidal networks can be extracted from the same tissue block. Reconstructions and quantifications performed as described in the current protocols can be used for quantitative mathematical modelling of the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, protocols are presented for both human and pig livers. The technique is also applicable for both vibratome blocks and conventional paraffin slices. PMID:24748404

  10. Protocols for staining of bile canalicular and sinusoidal networks of human, mouse and pig livers, three-dimensional reconstruction and quantification of tissue microarchitecture by image processing and analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Seddik; Hoehme, Stefan; Friebel, Adrian; von Recklinghausen, Iris; Othman, Amnah; Begher-Tibbe, Brigitte; Reif, Raymond; Godoy, Patricio; Johann, Tim; Vartak, Amruta; Golka, Klaus; Bucur, Petru O; Vibert, Eric; Marchan, Rosemarie; Christ, Bruno; Dooley, Steven; Meyer, Christoph; Ilkavets, Iryna; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Böttger, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Drasdo, Dirk; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-05-01

    parameters in adult mice (C57Bl6/N) include the hepatocyte volume (5,128.3 ± 837.8 μm(3)) and the fraction of the hepatocyte surface in contact with the neighbouring hepatocytes (67.4 ± 6.7 %), sinusoids (22.1 ± 4.8 %) and bile canaliculi (9.9 ± 3.8 %). Parameters of the sinusoidal network that we also routinely quantify include the radius of the sinusoids (4.8 ± 2.25 μm), the branching angle (32.5 ± 11.2°), the length of intersection branches (23.93 ± 5.9 μm), the number of intersection nodes per mm(3) (120.3 × 103 ± 42.1 × 10(3)), the average length of sinusoidal vessel per mm(3) (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.4 × 10(3)mm) and the percentage of vessel volume in relation to the whole liver volume (15.3 ± 3.9) (mean ± standard deviation). Moreover, the provided parameters of the bile canalicular network are: length of the first-order branches (7.5 ± 0.6 μm), length of the second-order branches (10.9 ± 1.8 μm), length of the dead-end branches (5.9 ± 0.7 μm), the number of intersection nodes per mm(3) (819.1 × 10(3) ± 180.7 × 10(3)), the number of dead-end branches per mm(3) (409.9 × 10(3) ± 95.6 × 10(3)), the length of the bile canalicular network per mm(3) (9.4 × 10(3) ± 0.7 × 10(3) mm) and the percentage of the bile canalicular volume with respect to the total liver volume (3.4 ± 0.005). A particular strength of our technique is that quantitative parameters of hepatocytes and bile canalicular as well as sinusoidal networks can be extracted from the same tissue block. Reconstructions and quantifications performed as described in the current protocols can be used for quantitative mathematical modelling of the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, protocols are presented for both human and pig livers. The technique is also applicable for both vibratome blocks and conventional paraffin slices.

  11. Studies on the influence of combustion exhaust gases and the products of their reaction with ammonia on the living organism. II. The influence on aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alanine aminotransferase (AiAt) activities in the liver of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska-Tokarz, A; Stanosek, J; Ludyga, K; Kochanski, L

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) an alanine aminotransferase (AIAT) in the whole homogenate and subcellular liver fractions of guinea pigs exposed to combustion exhaust gases and the neutralization products of these gases is presented in this paper. In the liver of animals exposed to the chronic action of combustion exhaust gases a decrease of both enzyme activities in the whole homogenate as well as in the subcellular fractions could be noted. Statistically significant changes are shown by AspAT. In the group of animals subjected to the action of neutralization products an increase of AIAT activity was observed. The activity of AspAT still shows a decrease, but less distinct in comparison with group I. An exception here is the mitochondrial fraction in which the AspAT activity is distinctly increased.

  12. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-04-30

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells.

  13. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  14. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  15. Dioxin in soil: bioavailability after ingestion by rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.; Lucier, G.W.; Rumbaugh, R.C.; Albro, P.W.; Harvan, D.J.; Hass, J.R.; Harris, M.W.

    1984-03-09

    Soil environmentally contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was given by gavage to guinea pigs and rats. The development of a characteristic clinicopathologic syndrome in guinea pigs, the induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in rats, and the presence of TCDD in the livers of both species show that TCDD in soil exhibits high biological availability after ingestion.

  16. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Liver Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ...

  17. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  18. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to liver wellness. • There are more than 100 liver diseases. • Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of ... out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease. • Some liver diseases such as hepatitis A, hepatitis ...

  19. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J.; Vanlangenhove, Peter Sturm, Emiel J. C.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Hav, Monirath Praet, Marleen; Vente, Maarten A. D.; Snaps, Frederic R.; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  20. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  1. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  2. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  3. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver ...

  4. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  5. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  6. Lessons learned from the cystic fibrosis pig.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, David K

    2016-07-01

    Deficient function in the anion channel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator is the fundamental cause for CF. This is a monogenic condition that causes lesions in several organs including the respiratory tract, pancreas, liver, intestines, and reproductive tract. Lung disease is most notable, given it is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with CF. Shortly after the identification of CF transmembrane conductance regulator, CF mouse models were developed that did not show spontaneous lung disease as seen in humans, and this spurred development of additional CF animal models. Pig models were considered a leading choice for several reasons including their similarity to humans in respiratory anatomy, physiology, and in size for translational imaging. The first CF pig models were reported in 2008 and have been extremely valuable to help clarify persistent questions in the field and advance understanding of disease pathogenesis. Because CF pigs are susceptible to lung disease like humans, they have direct utility in translational research. In addition, CF pig models are useful to compare and contrast with current CF mouse models, human clinical studies, and even newer CF animal models being characterized. This "triangulation" strategy could help identify genetic differences that underlie phenotypic variations, so as to focus and accelerate translational research. PMID:27142487

  7. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  8. [Adrenocortical activity in pigs in relation to nutrition, body weight mycobacteriosis and pre-slaughter stress].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M; Herzig, I; Gilka, J

    1982-01-01

    In 115 pigs divided into 10 groups, with different nutrition levels or with experimentally evoked atypical mycobacteriosis, during the experiments or at slaughter the concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids (11-OHCS) in blood plasma, relative weight of adrenal glands and liver were determined. The increase in adrenocortical function was proved in the cases when the body weight was significantly influenced by malnutrition, and then in the pigs at slaughter, even after relatively careful handling. No changes were found in the course of mycobacteriosis. The relative weight of adrenal glands in slaughtered pigs of lower body weight was higher than that in the pigs of the same age, but of higher body weight. On the other hand, the slaughtered pigs of higher body weights tended to have higher 11-OHCS concentrations. The prolonged stay of the pigs in slaughter houses before bleeding did not result in the increased 11-OHCS levels. The quality of meat was not affected.

  9. Liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime M; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-04-01

    The liver is unique in its ability to regenerate in response to injury. A number of evolutionary safeguards have allowed the liver to continue to perform its complex functions despite significant injury. Increased understanding of the regenerative process has significant benefit in the treatment of liver failure. Furthermore, understanding of liver regeneration may shed light on the development of cancer within the cirrhotic liver. This review provides an overview of the models of study currently used in liver regeneration, the molecular basis of liver regeneration, and the role of liver progenitor cells in regeneration of the liver. Specific focus is placed on clinical applications of current knowledge in liver regeneration, including small-for-size liver transplant. Furthermore, cutting-edge topics in liver regeneration, including in vivo animal models for xenogeneic human hepatocyte expansion and the use of decellularized liver matrices as a 3-dimensional scaffold for liver repopulation, are proposed. Unfortunately, despite 50 years of intense study, many gaps remain in the scientific understanding of liver regeneration.

  10. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime M; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    The liver is unique in its ability to regenerate in response to injury. A number of evolutionary safeguards have allowed the liver to continue to perform its complex functions despite significant injury. Increased understanding of the regenerative process has significant benefit in the treatment of liver failure. Furthermore, understanding of liver regeneration may shed light on the development of cancer within the cirrhotic liver. This review will provide an overview of the models of study currently utilized in liver regeneration, the molecular basis of liver regeneration, and the role of liver progenitor cells in regeneration of the liver. Specific focus will be placed on clinical applications of current knowledge in liver regeneration including small for size liver transplant. Furthermore, cutting edge topics in liver regeneration including in vivo animal models for xenogeneic human hepatocyte expansion and the use of decellularized liver matrices as a three dimensional scaffold for liver repopulation will be proposed. Unfortunately, despite 50 years of intense study, many gaps remain in the scientific understanding of liver regeneration. PMID:24495569

  11. [Evaluation of a new technique of extracorporeal perfusion of the swine liver on a swine-primate model].

    PubMed

    Beaufigeau, M; Wolf, P; Azimzadeh, A; Godfrin, Y; Beller, J P; Boudjema, K; Jaeck, D; Kieny, R; Cinqualbre, J

    1996-01-01

    With the increasing success of liver transplantation there is an urgent need for developing an artificial liver support system to be used in patients with liver failure. An extracorporeal porcine liver perfusion machine was successfully tested in animals with experimental liver failure. Livers were flushed, removed from 35 kg pigs and placed in a heated sterile cassette. The portal vein and the hepatic artery of the graft were connected to the arterial system of the animals. The perfusion pressure of the hepatic artery was regulated via a pressure-flow computerized feed-back device. The venous flow was reinfused from the hepatic veins of the graft to the jugular vein of the animals. The experimental work consisted in two steps: 1. evaluation of clinical and biological consequences of liver perfusion in healthy animals (Group A = pigs, n = 3; group B = primates, n = 3); 2. evaluation of the efficiency of the liver perfusion in animals with ischemic liver failure (Groupe D = pigs, n = 6). The control group (Group C = pigs, n = 7) consisted of pigs with ischemic liver failure without hepatic support. No major clinical or biological adverse effects are reported in groups A and B excepted a thrombocytmia and a marked increase in serum transaminases levels in group B. Liver function as assessed by the bile flow was good in both groups. Comatose pigs with ischemic hepatic failure (group D) recovered a subnormal neurological status in five out of six cases. Serum ammoniemia level were significantly decreased (from 1076 +/- 163 to 255 +/- 32 umol/l). A decrease in serum bilirubine levels and an improvement in the coagulation profile were observed in the perfused animals. Pigs and primates tolerated the perfusion procedure well and beneficial effects were observed in perfused pigs with experimental liver failure.

  12. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... LALD) Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Liver Biopsy Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Liver Function Tests Liver Transplant Newborn ... community. It's Liver Awareness Month- and it's also Liver Cancer Awareness Month, so we've teamed with Bayer ...

  13. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is a ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ...

  14. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. PMID:25533517

  15. Prediction of the feeding background of Iberian pigs using the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous, muscle and hepatic fat.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Cava, R; Antequera, T; Martín, L; Ventanas, J; López-Bote, C J

    1998-06-01

    Thirty Iberian pigs weighing 95 kg were randomly distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and fattened in three traditional management systems ['montanera' (MO), fed extensively on acorns, 'cebo' (CE) fed on a commercial diet and 'recebo' (RE), fed on acorns and a commercial diet]. Fatty acids from the Masseter muscle, lard and liver were analysed. In the lard, fatty acid profiles from MO and RE pigs presented minor differences; however, in the liver, RE pigs showed differences to MO pigs in most of the fatty acids studied. This suggests that the muscle and especially the liver fatty acid profile reflects the feeding regime during the last phase of feeding, while the lard reflects longer term differences.

  16. Skatole metabolism in the pigs with reduced testicular oestrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zamaratskaia, G; Berger, T

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the involvement of oestrogens in the regulation of skatole levels in pigs. In total, 44 intact male pigs, siblings from 10 litters, were included in the study. Pigs were orally treated weekly with either 0.1 mg letrozole/kg body weight to reduce endogenous oestrogens or the canola oil vehicle. Fat and liver samples were collected at slaughter at 16, 20 and 40 weeks of age. Skatole and androstenone levels in fat and activities of hepatic cytochrome P4501A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A19 and CYP2E1 were analysed. Letrozole treatment did not significantly change either the levels of skatole or activities of skatole-metabolising enzymes, suggesting that oestrogens are not responsible for gender-related differences in skatole concentrations in porcine tissues. PMID:24460981

  17. [Effects of Mebendazole and Cambendazole on enterohelminths in pigs].

    PubMed

    Chroustová, E; Staroveský, E

    1979-06-01

    Mebendazole, administered at a dose of 30 mg active substance per 1 kg of feed, was found to have 100% effectiveness on Ascaris suum and Cambendazole, administered at a dose of 1.5 g per 1 kg of liver weight, showed the same effectiveness in the control of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. The effectiveness of both drugs on Trichocephalus suis and Strongyloides ransomi was low. Mebendazole and Cambendazole can be recommended for mass dehelminthization of pigs in affected stocks. Helminthoovoscopical examination of sows and fattened pigs showed an 88.6% extensity of invasion in sows, and a 28.3% and 33.9% extensity in three- and five-month-old pigs, respectively. Coccidiosis was found in 51.4% of the sows and Balantidium coli had an occurrence rate of 80.7 to 98.2%. PMID:111399

  18. The effect of pig farming on copper and zinc accumulation in cattle in Galicia (north-western Spain).

    PubMed

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2000-11-01

    Copper and zinc are frequently added at high concentrations to pig diets as growth promoters. Livestock grazing pasture contaminated with pig slurry may, therefore, be at risk from excessive intake of these elements. High liver copper concentrations have been detected in cattle from the agricultural region of Galicia (NW Spain), especially where there is intensive pig farming. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pig farming does affect accumulation of copper and zinc in cattle in Galicia. Hepatic copper and zinc concentrations in calves were elevated in areas with naturally high levels of these elements in the soil. The densities of young pigs (piglets and growing-finishing pigs), but not reproductive sows, also influenced copper accumulation in calves. Liver copper levels in calves were significantly and positively related to the density of young pigs in the region. In areas with the highest pig densities, more than 20% of the cattle analysed had hepatic copper concentrations that exceeded the potentially toxic concentration of 150 mg/kg fresh weight. There was no evidence that zinc accumulation in calves was affected by pig density.

  19. Effects of increased dietary cholesterol with carbohydrate restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    deOgburn, Ryan; Leite, Jose O; Ratliff, Joseph; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-04-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, or hepatic steatosis, is the pathognominic feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) improve these conditions and were implemented in this study to potentially attenuate hepatic steatosis in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group) were randomly assigned to consume high cholesterol (0.25 g/100 g) in either a LCD or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 12 wk. As compared with HCD, plasma LDL cholesterol was lower and plasma triglycerides were higher in animals fed the LCD diet, with no differences in plasma free fatty acids or glucose. The most prominent finding was a 40% increase in liver weight in guinea pigs fed the LCD diet despite no differences in hepatic cholesterol or triglycerides between the LCD and the HCD groups. Regardless of diet, all livers had severe hepatic steatosis on histologic examination. Regression analysis suggested that liver weight was independent of body weight and liver mass was independent of hepatic lipid content. LCD livers had more proliferating hepatocytes than did HCD livers, suggesting that in the context of cholesterol-induced hepatic steatosis, dietary carbohydrate restriction enhances liver cell proliferation.

  20. Effects of Increased Dietary Cholesterol with Carbohydrate Restriction on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    deOgburn, Ryan; Leite, Jose O; Ratliff, Joseph; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-01-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, or hepatic steatosis, is the pathognominic feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) improve these conditions and were implemented in this study to potentially attenuate hepatic steatosis in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group) were randomly assigned to consume high cholesterol (0.25 g/100 g) in either a LCD or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 12 wk. As compared with HCD, plasma LDL cholesterol was lower and plasma triglycerides were higher in animals fed the LCD diet, with no differences in plasma free fatty acids or glucose. The most prominent finding was a 40% increase in liver weight in guinea pigs fed the LCD diet despite no differences in hepatic cholesterol or triglycerides between the LCD and the HCD groups. Regardless of diet, all livers had severe hepatic steatosis on histologic examination. Regression analysis suggested that liver weight was independent of body weight and liver mass was independent of hepatic lipid content. LCD livers had more proliferating hepatocytes than did HCD livers, suggesting that in the context of cholesterol-induced hepatic steatosis, dietary carbohydrate restriction enhances liver cell proliferation. PMID:22546916

  1. Liver transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  2. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  3. Dyslipidemia and vascular dysfunction in diabetic pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Dixon, J L; Stoops, J D; Parker, J L; Laughlin, M H; Weisman, G A; Sturek, M

    1999-12-01

    Diabetic patients typically have not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia. Study of the pathogenic components of the diabetic milieu and mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis is hindered by inadequate animal models. A potentially suitable animal model for human diabetic dyslipidemia is the pig, because it carries a large fraction of total cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), similar to humans. In this study, male Sinclair miniature pigs were made diabetic by destroying the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas with alloxan and then were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for comparison with pigs fed a nondiabetic high fat and high cholesterol diet and control pigs. Diabetic pigs exhibited hyperglycemia, but plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and transaminase levels were in the normal range, indicating no adverse effects on kidney and liver function. The lipoprotein profile in diabetic pigs was similar to that found in human diabetic patients and was characterized by hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold increase versus control and high fat-fed pigs) and a profound shift of cholesterol distribution into the LDL fraction (81%) versus the distribution in high fat-fed (64%) and control (57%) pigs. LDL particles were lipid-enriched and more heterogeneous in diabetic pigs. Apolipoprotein B was distributed among a much broader spectrum of LDL particles, and apolipoprotein E was partially redistributed from high-density lipoprotein to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in diabetic pigs. There was little change in apolipoprotein A-I distribution. Diabetic pigs showed several early signs of excess vascular disease. In diabetic pigs, 75% of the coronary artery segments showed contractile oscillations in response to prostaglandin F(2alpha) compared with 25% in high fat-fed pigs and 10% in control pigs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of brachial arteries was nearly abolished in diabetic pigs but unchanged in high fat-fed versus control pigs. Carotid

  4. Preservation of non-heart-beating donor livers in extracorporeal liver perfusion and histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate solution

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jin; Lao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xi-Mo; Long, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Shi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the preservation of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) livers in cold histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and extracorporeal liver perfusion (ECLP). METHODS: Livers harvested from health pigs were stored for 10 h in cold HTK solution (group A, n = 4) or perfused with oxygenated autologous blood at body temperature (group B, n = 4). Both groups were then tested on the circuit for 4 h. Bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of extracorporeal livers were tested in each group. Liver tissues from each group were examined at the end of reperfusion. RESULTS: At 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after reperfusion, bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of livers in group A were statistically different from those in group B (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: ECLP is better than HTK solution to preserve NHBD livers. ECLP can assess the graft viability before liver transplantation. PMID:18416459

  5. Immunogenicity of Decellularized Porcine Liver for Bioengineered Hepatic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Sullivan, David C.; Zimmerman, Cynthia; Shupe, Thomas D.; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease affects millions of patients each year. The field of regenerative medicine promises alternative therapeutic approaches, including the potential to bioengineer replacement hepatic tissue. One approach combines cells with acellular scaffolds derived from animal tissue. The goal of this study was to scale up our rodent liver decellularization method to livers of a clinically relevant size. Porcine livers were cannulated via the hepatic artery, then perfused with PBS, followed by successive Triton X-100 and SDS solutions in saline buffer. After several days of rinsing, decellularized liver samples were histologically analyzed. In addition, biopsy specimens of decellularized scaffolds were seeded with hepatoblastoma cells for cytotoxicity testing or implanted s.c. into rodents to investigate scaffold immunogenicity. Histological staining confirmed cellular clearance from pig livers, with removal of nuclei and cytoskeletal components and widespread preservation of structural extracellular molecules. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed preservation of an intact liver capsule, a porous acellular lattice structure with intact vessels and striated basement membrane. Liver scaffolds supported cells over 21 days, and no increased immune response was seen with either allogeneic (rat-into-rat) or xenogeneic (pig-into-rat) transplants over 28 days, compared with sham–operated on controls. These studies demonstrate that successful decellularization of the porcine liver could be achieved with protocols developed for rat livers, yielding nonimmunogenic scaffolds for future hepatic bioengineering studies. PMID:23747949

  6. Decomposed liver has a significantly adverse affect on the development rate of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

    PubMed

    Richards, Cameron S; Rowlinson, Catherine C; Cuttiford, Lue; Grimsley, Rebecca; Hall, Martin J R

    2013-01-01

    The development rate of immature Calliphora vicina reared on decomposed liver was significantly slower, by as much as 30 h (55.4 % of total development time) for mid-sized larvae, and 71 h (35.0 %) and 58 h (14.6 %) if using times to the onset of pupariation and eclosion, respectively, than those of immatures that developed on fresh whole pig's liver. Development rates of larvae reared on decomposed liver were also slower than those of larvae reared on minced pig's liver and frozen/thawed pig's liver. These results suggest that any estimate of minimum post-mortem interval may result in an over estimate if the blowflies used were developing on an already decomposed body.

  7. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  8. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  9. Fructose utilization for nucleic acid synthesis in the fetal pig.

    PubMed

    White, C E; Piper, E L; Noland, P R; Daniels, L B

    1982-07-01

    Eight fetal pigs, in utero, were injected ip with 20 microCi/fetus [U14C]-fructose between d 55 and 65 pregnancy. The isotope was allowed to equilibrate between blood and tissues within injected fetuses for a period of 240 min. Fetal pigs were then sacrificed and nucleic acids were extracted from cold tissue homogenates of skeletal muscle and liver. Nuclide disintegrations per minute recovered in extracted DNA and RNA were used to calculate incorporation of labeled C from fructose. The recovery of labeled C per mmol of nucleic acids from skeletal muscle was greater (P less than .05) than that from liver. Relative incorporation of labeled C into skeletal muscle RNA (395.9 pmol/mmol) was greater (P less than .05) than for DNA (189.5 pmol/mmol). The same trend was observed for liver RNA (78.0 pmol/mmol) and DNA (55.6 pmol/mmol), but differences were nonsignificant. These data suggest that at least part of the high concentration of endogenous fructose measured in fetal pigs in utero is involved in synthesis of nucleic acids, thereby providing substrate for anabolic functions necessary for fetal growth and development. PMID:6181047

  10. A facilitated technique for hepatectomy of porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, S S; Jones, J W; Bentley, F R

    1996-01-01

    The swine liver has been used for experimental transplantation and as an ex vivo support system for patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Preservation of liver function after the cold storage period can be accomplished by complying with several key steps during the procurement: Keep the procedure short, provide extensive exposure, allow only minimal dissection, irrigate the portal system through the splenic vein and thereby obtain regular blood flow through the organ up to the clamping point, and ice the liver abruptly in situ. This retrieval technique was used and evaluated in 10 pigs. The method allowed a short and successful organ procurement while preserving normal function of the liver ex vivo. PMID:8951663

  11. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  12. Comparison of Gene Expression and Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling between Phenotypically Normal Cloned Pigs and Conventionally Bred Controls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengting; Li, Jian; Lin, Lin; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Vajta, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Du, Yutao; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver), using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK) and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls, though a small set of genes showed altered expression. Cloned pigs presented a more different pattern of DNA methylation in unique sequences in both tissues. Especially a small set of genomic sites had different DNA methylation status with a trend towards slightly increased methylation levels in cloned pigs. Molecular network analysis of the genes that contained such differential methylation loci revealed a significant network related to tissue development. In conclusion, our study showed that phenotypically normal cloned pigs were highly similar with normal breeding pigs in their gene expression, but moderate alteration in DNA methylation aspects still exists, especially in certain unique genomic regions. PMID:22022462

  13. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  14. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  15. Bioengineered transplantable porcine livers with re-endothelialized vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Kap; Peng, Li; Peloso, Andrea; Smith, Charesa J; Dhal, Abritee; Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cindy; Clouse, Cara; Zhao, Weixin; Shupe, Thomas D; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    Donor shortage remains a continued challenge in liver transplantation. Recent advances in tissue engineering have provided the possibility of creating functional liver tissues as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. Small bioengineered liver constructs have been developed, however a major challenge in achieving functional bioengineered liver in vivo is the establishment of a functional vasculature within the scaffolds. Our overall goal is to bioengineer intact livers, suitable for transplantation, using acellular porcine liver scaffolds. We developed an effective method for reestablishing the vascular network within decellularized liver scaffolds by conjugating anti-endothelial cell antibodies to maximize coverage of the vessel walls with endothelial cells. This procedure resulted in uniform endothelial attachment throughout the liver vasculature extending to the capillary bed of the liver scaffold and greatly reduced platelet adhesion upon blood perfusion in vitro. The re-endothelialized livers, when transplanted to recipient pigs, were able to withstand physiological blood flow and maintained for up to 24 h. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that vascularized bioengineered livers, of clinically relevant size, can be transplanted and maintained in vivo, and represents the first step towards generating engineered livers for transplantation to patients with end-stage liver failure.

  16. Bioengineered transplantable porcine livers with re-endothelialized vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Kap; Peng, Li; Peloso, Andrea; Smith, Charesa J; Dhal, Abritee; Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cindy; Clouse, Cara; Zhao, Weixin; Shupe, Thomas D; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    Donor shortage remains a continued challenge in liver transplantation. Recent advances in tissue engineering have provided the possibility of creating functional liver tissues as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. Small bioengineered liver constructs have been developed, however a major challenge in achieving functional bioengineered liver in vivo is the establishment of a functional vasculature within the scaffolds. Our overall goal is to bioengineer intact livers, suitable for transplantation, using acellular porcine liver scaffolds. We developed an effective method for reestablishing the vascular network within decellularized liver scaffolds by conjugating anti-endothelial cell antibodies to maximize coverage of the vessel walls with endothelial cells. This procedure resulted in uniform endothelial attachment throughout the liver vasculature extending to the capillary bed of the liver scaffold and greatly reduced platelet adhesion upon blood perfusion in vitro. The re-endothelialized livers, when transplanted to recipient pigs, were able to withstand physiological blood flow and maintained for up to 24 h. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that vascularized bioengineered livers, of clinically relevant size, can be transplanted and maintained in vivo, and represents the first step towards generating engineered livers for transplantation to patients with end-stage liver failure. PMID:25433603

  17. Liver glutamine synthetase activity is markedly reduced in chronic ethanol-fed micropigs

    SciTech Connect

    Olin, K.L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Villanueva, J.; Halsted, C.H.; Keen, C.L. )

    1992-02-26

    The authors have reported that chronic ethanol (Et) feeding in the micropig results in changes in antioxidant defense including reductions in liver CuZnSOD and GSHPX activities, in vitamin E and A levels, and increases in liver MnSOD activity. Despite these alterations, liver mitochondria (mit) and microsome (mic) TBARS were lower in Et-fed than control (C) pigs. The significance of lower TBARS is unclear since the saturated to PUFA ratio was higher in mit and mic from Et than from C pigs. Thus in the current study they measured a non-lipid target of oxidative damage. Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was measured as this protein is an excellent marker for oxidative damage due to the sensitivity of histidine residues to free radicals at the active site. Micropigs were fed high PUFA diets containing 40% of kcals as either Et or cornstarch (C) and 34% of kcals as corn oil. After 12 mo pigs were killed and livers removed. Fatty infiltration, inflammation and necrosis were observed in livers from Et pigs by 5 mo; collagen infiltration was apparent in 2 pigs by 12 mo. Et pigs had GS activities that were 90% lower than C pigs. The finding that liver Mn levels were higher in Et than in C pigs suggests that the low GS activity is not due to a reduction in Mn availability, although a shift in the distribution of Mn from GS to MnSOD may be involved. These data support the idea that chronic Et feeding is associated with oxidative damage and underscore the need to evaluate non-lipid targets as markers for oxidative damage.

  18. Evaluation of Rhesus Monkey and Guinea Pig Hepatic Cytosol Fractions as Models for Human Aldehyde Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Choughule, Kanika V.; Barr, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a cytosolic enzyme expressed across a wide range of species, including guinea pig and rhesus monkey. These species are believed to be the best preclinical models for studying human AOX-mediated metabolism. We compared AOX activity in rhesus monkeys, guinea pigs, and humans using phthalazine and N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridone-4-carboxamide (DACA) as substrates and raloxifene as an inhibitor. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed for phthalazine oxidation in rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human liver cytosol, whereas substrate inhibition was seen with DACA oxidase activity in all three livers. Raloxifene inhibited phthalazine and DACA oxidase activity uncompetitively in guinea pig, whereas mixed-mode inhibition was seen in rhesus monkey. Our analysis of the primary sequence alignment of rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human aldehyde oxidase isoform 1 (AOX1) along with homology modeling has led to the identification of several amino acid residue differences within the active site and substrate entrance channel of AOX1. We speculate that some of these residues might be responsible for the differences observed in activity. Overall, our data indicate that rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs would overestimate intrinsic clearance in humans and would be unsuitable to use as animal models. Our study also showed that AOX metabolism in species is substrate-dependent and no single animal model can be reliably used to predict every drug response in humans. PMID:23918666

  19. Hepatitis E virus RNA in commercial porcine livers in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; van der Poel, Wim H M; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2007-12-01

    Human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by genotype 3 strains in industrialized countries are hypothesized to be caused by pigs. To examine this hypothesis, the potential health risks of transmission routes should be examined. Possible foodborne transmission was studied by quantifying the presence and infectivity of HEV in commercial porcine livers in The Netherlands. A comparison of four tissue disruption and seven RNA extraction methods revealed that mechanical disruption followed by silica-based RNA extraction gave the highest RNA yields and was therefore employed on commercial porcine livers. Four (6.5%) of 62 porcine livers were HEV RNA positive by reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Each positive liver was estimated to contain approximately 65 PCR-detectable units per g. Sequences were obtained for three of four positive livers and classified as HEV genotype 3. Ninety-three percent similarity to Dutch human HEV sequences and 97% similarity to Dutch swine HEV sequences were observed. To determine whether positive livers contained infectious HEV particles, extracts from livers with known HEV RNA sequences were inoculated intravenously in pigs. Two control pigs were included: one was inoculated with a high dose known to result in infection (10(4) PCR-detectable units of HEV RNA), and the other was inoculated with a lower concentration of virus that equaled the concentration of PCR-detectable units in commercial livers ( approximately 20 PCR-detectable units). Infection was observed in the high-dose control, but not in other pigs, suggesting a dose-dependent response in pigs. Hence, the implications of HEV RNA in commercial porcine livers in The Netherlands are unknown. However, HEV RNA is present in commercial porcine livers, and sufficient heating of porcine livers before consumption as precautionary measure is recommended. PMID:18095450

  20. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

  1. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics about liver cancer What is liver cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  2. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search: Your Liver Liver Health and Wellness Recipes Liver Disease Information Patients & Families Caregiver's FAQ Become an Organ ... 2013 Liver Awareness Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy ...

  3. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver; the best test for detecting hepatitis Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) – an enzyme related to the bile ducts ... only moderately elevated or close to normal. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ALP may be significantly increased with obstructed ...

  4. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxins in the blood Storing sugars, fats, iron, copper, and vitamins The most common reason for a ... cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis Metabolic disorders of copper or iron ( Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis ) Liver transplant ...

  5. Liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, E. J.; Iredale, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Liver fibrosis and its related complications continue to represent a significant worldwide healthcare burden. Over the past decade there has been considerable improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying hepatic fibrosis. This greater insight into the relevant basic sciences may lead to the development of novel treatment strategies designed to block the fibrogenic cascade or even enhance matrix degradation. In addition, there have been significant advances in the management of the complications of cirrhosis, with specific treatments now available for some conditions. Perhaps most notably, liver transplantation is now a highly successful treatment for end-stage liver disease and should be considered in all patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:9683971

  6. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parentally fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100...

  7. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights.

  8. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.

  9. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development. PMID:26139838

  10. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  11. Causes of reduced survival of neonatal pigs by medium-chain triglycerides: blood metabolite and behavioral activity approaches.

    PubMed

    Lin, C L; Chiang, S H; Lee, H F

    1995-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the causes of the failure of orally dosed medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in improving the survival of neonatal pigs. In Exp. 1, four litters consisting of 24 unsuckled neonatal pigs were either dosed with 6 mL/kg BW.75 of MCT or the dosing process was mimicked by inserting and withdrawing the feeding tube at 10 and 18 h after birth. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was increased (P < .06) and the depletion of liver glycogen was reduced (P < .05) by MCT. Plasma octanoate (C8) concentration peaked at 1 h and was minimized at 4 to 8 h after each MCT dosage; decanoate (C10) concentration increased (P < .001) gradually after each dosage. Activity of pigs was decreased (P < .01) by MCT. In Exp. 2, 94 litters consisting of 887 neonatal pigs were dosed with either 6 mL/kg BW.75 of MCT, coconut oil (CO), or saline at 10 to 14 and 20 to 28 h after birth. Milk intake (P < .05) and weight gain were reduced (P < .01) in 1- to 2-d-old pigs dosed with MCT compared with intake and gain of pigs dosed with saline. Mortality of large pigs (> 1 kg) was increased (P < .05) but mortality of small pigs (< 1 kg) was not affected by MCT. Mortality of small pigs was reduced (P < .05) but mortality of large pigs (> 1 kg) was not affected by CO. Standing, walking, and suckling behaviors of pigs were not affected by MCT or CO. Coma was evident in 9.7% of pigs dosed with MCT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592086

  12. Effect of dietary copper amount and source on copper metabolism and oxidative stress of weanling pigs in short-term feeding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Ashwell, M S; Fry, R S; Lloyd, K E; Flowers, W L; Spears, J W

    2015-06-01

    Forty-eight weanling barrows were used to determine the effects of amount and source of dietary Cu on Cu metabolism, oxidative stress in the duodenum, and VFA ratios in the cecum of weanling pigs in short-term feeding. At 21 d of age, newly weaned pigs were stratified by BW (7.03 ± 1.20 kg) and equally assigned to 1 of the following dietary treatments: 1) control (5 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4), 2) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from CuSO4, or 3) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC). Pigs were housed 2 pigs per pen and were fed a complex diet until harvest on d 11 and 12. During harvest, bile and liver were obtained for mineral analysis, and liver samples were obtained for analysis of mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Digesta of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were collected for soluble Cu analysis. Mucosal scrapings of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were obtained for analysis of mucosal Cu concentration and mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Duodenal mucosal scrapings were also collected for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA). Pigs fed high Cu had markedly greater (P < 0.0001) Cu concentrations in the duodenal, proximal jejunal, and ileal mucosa than controls. Copper in the duodenal mucosa was greater (P = 0.003) in CuSO4 than TBCC pigs. Duodenal MDA concentrations were greater (P = 0.003) in CuSO4 vs. control pigs and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater than in TBCC pigs. Duodenal antioxidant 1 (Atox1) mRNA was downregulated (P < 0.01) in pigs fed high Cu compared to controls and was not affected by Cu source. Compared with control pigs, those fed CuSO4 and TBCC had greater (P < 0.001) liver and bile Cu concentrations. Liver Cu was also greater (P = 0.0007) in TBCC than CuSO4-fed pigs. Hepatic Cu transporting β-polypeptide ATPase (Atp7b) was upregulated (P = 0.02) in the Cu-supplemented pigs compared with controls and did not differ among Cu sources. The acetate:propionate ratio in cecal contents was

  13. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  14. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  15. Development of biodegradable radiopaque microsphere for arterial embolization-a pig study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Syuan-Fong; Kang, Jui-Wen; Chou, Chen-Miao; Chen, Chiung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To develop a new type of calibrated, biodegradable, and imaging detectable microsphere and evaluated its embolization safety and efficacy on pig’s liver and spleen. METHODS: Six kinds of pharmaceutical excipient were combined and atomized to form our microsphere. Twenty-four male Lanyu pigs weighing 25-30 kg were used. The arteries of spleen and liver were embolized with Gelfoam, Embosphere, or our microsphere. The serum biochemical tests, computed tomography (CT), liver perfusion scan, and tissue microscopy examination were done to evaluate the safety and efficacy of embolization. RESULTS: Radiopaque microspheres with a size ranging from 300 to 400 μm were produced. Embolization of hepatic and splenic artery of pigs with our microsphere significantly reduced the blood flow of liver and resulted in splenic infarction. The follow-up CT imaging and the microscopic examination showed intraarterial degradation of Gelfoam and microsphere. The blood tests demonstrated insignificant changes with regards to liver and renal functions. CONCLUSION: Our microspheres, with the unique characteristics, can be used for transcatheter arterial embolization with effects equivalent to or better than Gelfoam and Embosphere in pigs. PMID:26339465

  16. Electrophoretically unique amylases in rat livers: phylogenic and ontogenic study on the mammalian liver.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Iwao; Komine, Shin-Ichi; Hokari, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Koh-Ich; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2002-09-01

    Liver amylase activity in rodents was assayed with Blue Starch as substrate, and found to be higher than in humans or pigs. Based on the result of concanavalin A affinity chromatography, we found that the sugar moieties of amylase molecules increased in parallel with amylase activity in the tested mammals. However, the amounts of amylase proteins determined by Western bloting with anti-human salivary-type antibody as the probe, were similar to the levels in mammalian livers. Moreover, a similar expression of amylase mRNA was also detected in the mammalian livers by a reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the human salivary and/or pancreatic amylase complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. The amylase was detected at the catalytic activity, protein molecule and mRNA levels in rat liver at all ages from fetus to adult. Salivary-type liver amylase activity increased up to one week after birth, and was maintained at the adult level thereafter. However, based on the results of the electrophoretic mobility test, livers with accelerated amylase activity, e.g., at 2-4 weeks after birth or during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, were also found to express an amylase electrophoretical identical to pancreatic-type amylase in addition to salivary-type activity. These results suggest that the liver may express an etopic amylase in a certain condition.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni: migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated parasites in naive guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, H.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Compressed tissue autoradiography using (75Se)selenomethionine labelled parasites has been used to investigate the migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in naive guinea pigs. By Day 14 after infection. 44% of normal parasites were detected as reduced silver foci in the liver; this value corresponded well with the number of liver parasites recovered by retrograde perfusion of the hepatic portal system on Day 42 (42% of the challenge). In contrast, cercariae subjected to 50 krad of gamma irradiation failed to migrate out of the skin. The migration capacity of 20 krad irradiated parasites was less severely affected in that about half of the challenge parasites reached the lungs, but virtually none moved to the liver. These data are discussed in relation to the kinetics of immunity induced in guinea pigs by infection or vaccination with normal or radiation attenuated parasites.

  18. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    PubMed Central

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  19. Hepatocyte Transfection in Small Pigs After Weaning by Hydrodynamic Intraportal Injection of Naked DNA/Minicircle Vectors.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Fabienne; Schlegel, Andrea; Viecelli, Hiu Man; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Cesarovic, Nikola; Viecelli, Claudio; Deplazes, Sereina; Bettschart, Regula; Hurter, Karin; Schmierer, Philipp; Sidler, Xaver; Kron, Philipp; Dutkowski, Philipp; Graf, Rolf; Thöny, Beat; Häberle, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Liver is an attractive organ for gene delivery in order to correct various genetic (metabolic) diseases. Hydrodynamic vein injection of naked DNA/minicircles devoid of viral or plasmid backbones was demonstrated in, for example, murine phenylketonuria to allow sustained therapeutic transduction of hepatocytes. Here we show successful hepatocyte transfusion in domestic small pigs immediately after weaning upon portal vein catheterization and hydrodynamic injection of naked DNA/minicircle vectors expressing the luciferase gene from the CMV or a liver-specific promoter. First, we established a surgical method allowing hydrodynamic portal vein pressurization up to 120 mmHg and infusion of naked DNA in pigs (n = 5) with long-term survival. No acute adverse effects such as changes in liver transaminases or signs of liver cell damage were observed. We then showed efficiency of stable hepatocyte transfection at 10 and 28 days in single experiments (n = 7) where we found that up to 60% of samples (45/75) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for minicircle-DNA. Of these samples, 13% of the positive specimen (6/45) showed low but stable luciferase expression when driven by a liver-specific promoter, as well as appropriate copy numbers per diploid genome. In conclusion, we accomplished a safe procedure for stable transfection of liver cells upon hydrodynamic gene delivery using minicircle vectors in small pigs as a prerequisite to potentially treat infants with genetic liver diseases.

  20. Corset liver

    SciTech Connect

    Philips, D.M.; LaBrecque, D.R.; Shirazi, S.S.

    1985-08-01

    The authors describe four patients with a benign hepatic malformation most consistent with the rarely described anomaly known as corset liver. Three of these patients were extensively evaluated to rule out a malignancy because of an abdominal mass. These patients illustrate several features which may help in making the diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary surgery.

  1. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  2. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  3. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Liver cancer stages Tests for liver cancer If you have some of the signs ... cancer has come back (recurred). Other blood tests Liver function tests (LFTs): Because liver cancer often develops ...

  4. Distribution Channel and Microbial Characteristics of Pig By-products in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungsil

    2014-01-01

    The distribution channel of meat by-products from the pig farm to the final consumer can include a meat processor, wholesale market, wholesaler, retailer, and butcher shop. Bacterial contamination at any of these steps remains to be a serious public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution channel and microbial characteristics of pig by-products in Korea. Upon evaluation of pig by-products in cold storage, we found that the small and large intestine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in pH value compared to the heart and liver. The total plate counts were not significantly different among offals until cold storage for 7 d. The coliform count after 1 d of cold storage was significantly (p<0.05) higher in small and large intestine than in the other organs. The coliform count of heart, liver, and stomach showed a higher coliform count than small and large intestine until 7 d of cold storage. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, contamination of major pig by-products with Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and other bacterial species occurred. Therefore, our results suggest that a more careful washing process is needed to maintain quality and hygiene and to ensure the safety of pig by-products, especially for small and large intestine. PMID:26761676

  5. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parenterally fed preterm pigs

    PubMed Central

    Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Ng, Kenneth; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy; Chacko, Shaji; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Kulik, Wim; Squires, E. James; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Schady, Deborah; Finegold, Milton L.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100% soybean oil (IL), 100% fish oil (OV), or a mixture of soybean oil, medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil, and fish oil (SL); a group was fed formula enterally (ENT). In TPN-fed pigs, serum direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and plasma bile acids increased after the 14 day treatment but were highest in IL pigs. All TPN pigs had suppressed hepatic expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) concentrations, yet hepatic CYP7A1 protein abundance was increased only in the IL versus ENT group. Organic solute transporter alpha (OSTα) gene expression was the highest in the IL group and paralleled plasma bile acid levels. In cultured hepatocytes, bile acid-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression was inhibited by phytosterol treatment. We show that TPN-fed pigs given soybean oil developed cholestasis and steatosis that was prevented with both OV and SL emulsions. Due to the presence of phytosterols in the SL emulsion, the differences in cholestasis and liver injury among lipid emulsion groups in vivo were weakly correlated with plasma and hepatic phytosterol content. PMID:24478031

  6. [Expression analysis of green fluorescent protein in tissues and organs in α-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pigs].

    PubMed

    Zhifang, Li; Chong, Feng; Huili, Ji; Ningning, Shi; Xiaofeng, Song; Qinli, Zhao; Chuan, Long; Dengke, Pan; Xiaogan, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The pig is an ideal source to provide organs because its organ size and physiology are similar to humans. However, an acute rejection will ensue after pig-to-human xenotransplantation. The α-1,3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) pigs were generated in recent years, and could solve the problem of hyperacute rejection. But due to lack of reporting genes, the rejection status of cells and organs post pig-to-human xenotransplantation cannot be visualized. In this study, we introduced the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by the CAG promoter into GTKO porcine ear fibroblasts. Then we produced transgenic pigs expressing the EGFP gene by nuclear transfer technology. Expression levels of EGFP in different tissues and organs of the cloned pig were investigated by Nightsea DFP-1 Fluorescent Protein Flashlight, fluorescence microscope and quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that the protein and transcript of EGFP were expressed in all tissues and organs of the GTKO pig, but the expression was weak in the liver and central nervous system. In conclusion, we have successfully produced the transgenic GTKO pigs expressing EGFP in all tested tissues and organs, which builds up a good basis to track transplanted cells or tissues.

  7. [Expression analysis of green fluorescent protein in tissues and organs in α-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pigs].

    PubMed

    Zhifang, Li; Chong, Feng; Huili, Ji; Ningning, Shi; Xiaofeng, Song; Qinli, Zhao; Chuan, Long; Dengke, Pan; Xiaogan, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The pig is an ideal source to provide organs because its organ size and physiology are similar to humans. However, an acute rejection will ensue after pig-to-human xenotransplantation. The α-1,3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) pigs were generated in recent years, and could solve the problem of hyperacute rejection. But due to lack of reporting genes, the rejection status of cells and organs post pig-to-human xenotransplantation cannot be visualized. In this study, we introduced the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by the CAG promoter into GTKO porcine ear fibroblasts. Then we produced transgenic pigs expressing the EGFP gene by nuclear transfer technology. Expression levels of EGFP in different tissues and organs of the cloned pig were investigated by Nightsea DFP-1 Fluorescent Protein Flashlight, fluorescence microscope and quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that the protein and transcript of EGFP were expressed in all tissues and organs of the GTKO pig, but the expression was weak in the liver and central nervous system. In conclusion, we have successfully produced the transgenic GTKO pigs expressing EGFP in all tested tissues and organs, which builds up a good basis to track transplanted cells or tissues. PMID:26704946

  8. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls.

  9. In utero Transplanted Human Hepatocytes Allows for Postnatal Engraftment of Human Hepatocytes in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James E; Lillegard, Joseph B; Mckenzie, Travis J; Rodysill, Brian R; Wettstein, Peter J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2012-01-01

    In utero cell transplantation (IUCT) can lead to postnatal engraftment of human cells in the xenogeneic recipient. Most reports of IUCTs have involved hematopoietic stem cells. It is unknown if human hepatocytes used for IUCT in fetal pigs will lead to engraftment of these same cells in the postnatal environment. In this study, fetal pigs received direct liver injections of 1×107 human hepatocytes in utero and were delivered by cesarean-section at term. Piglets received a second direct liver injection of 5×107 human hepatocytes 1 week postnatally. Serum was analyzed for human albumin at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-engraftment. Piglet livers were harvested 6 weeks after transplantation and examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization for human specific sequences. Piglets receiving IUCT with human hepatocytes that were postnatally engrafted with human hepatocytes showed significant levels of human albumin production in their serum at all post-engraftment time points. Human albumin gene expression, the presence of human hepatocytes and the presence of human beta-2 microglobulin were all confirmed 6 weeks post-engraftment. IUCT in fetal pigs using human hepatocytes early in gestation allowed for engraftment of human hepatocytes, which remained viable and functional for weeks after transplantation. IUCT followed by postnatal engraftment may provide a future means for large scale expansion of human hepatocytes in genetically-engineered pigs. PMID:23280879

  10. Intestinal atrophy has a greater impact on nitrogen metabolism than liver by-pass in piglets fed identical diets via gastric, central venous or portal venous routes.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, R F; Chen, C Z; Pencharz, P B; Ball, R O

    1999-05-01

    Whole-body nitrogen metabolism is altered during parenteral feeding as a result of gut atrophy and/or lack of splanchnic first-pass metabolism. We developed in vivo models to describe the metabolic and physiologic effects of first-pass metabolism by the small intestine/liver, liver or non-splanchnic tissues. Fifteen 2- to 4-d-old piglets were fed identical diets continuously for 8 d via gastric (IG), portal (IP) or central venous (IV) catheters. Despite similar weight gain, IV and IP pigs had higher nitrogen output and hence lower nitrogen retention (80%) compared with IG pigs (87%) (P = 0.002). Body protein content was also higher in IG pigs (583 mg/g dry matter) compared with IV (550) and IP pigs (534) (P = 0.003). Despite similar intestinal lengths, total small intestinal and mucosal weights were approximately 40% lower in IV and IP pigs than in IG pigs. Free urea cycle amino acids were altered in plasma and mucosa, suggesting that limited arginine synthesis by an atrophied gut may have limited protein deposition. Although villous atrophy was observed in the duodena and jejuna of IV and IP pigs, reduced crypt depth was observed only in IV pigs. Crypt depth was similar in all four gut sections from IG and IP pigs, suggesting that nutrient flux through the liver affects gut growth. Overall, metabolic responses to IV (non-splanchnic) and IP (liver) feeding were similar as a result of gut atrophy, whereas responses to IG (small intestine + liver) and IP (liver) feeding were different, suggesting that small intestinal atrophy affects nitrogen metabolism to a greater extent than liver by-pass.

  11. Guinea pig models of asthma.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Alice E; Mazzone, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    Described in this unit are methods for establishing guinea pig models of asthma. Sufficient detail is provided to enable investigators to study bronchoconstriction, cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. PMID:25446291

  12. Molecular basis of non-responsiveness to peroxisome proliferators: the guinea-pig PPARalpha is functional and mediates peroxisome proliferator-induced hypolipidaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, A R; Savory, R; Horley, N J; Choudhury, A I; Dickins, M; Gray, T J; Salter, A M; Bell, D R

    1998-01-01

    The guinea pig does not undergo peroxisome proliferation in response to peroxisome proliferators, in contrast with other rodents. To understand the molecular basis of this phenotype, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) from guinea-pig liver was cloned; it encodes a protein of 467 amino acid residues that is similar to rodent and human PPARalpha. The guinea-pig PPARalpha showed a high substitution rate: maximum likelihood analysis was consistent with rodent monophyly, but could not exclude rodent polyphyly (P approximately 0.06). The guinea-pig PPARalpha cDNA was expressed in 293 cells and mediated the induction of the luciferase reporter gene by the peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14,643, dependent on the presence of a peroxisome proliferator response element. Moreover the PPARalpha RNA and protein were expressed in guinea-pig liver, although at lower levels than in a species which is responsive to peroxisome proliferators, the mouse. To determine whether the guinea-pig PPARalpha mediated any physiological effects, guinea pigs were exposed to two selective PPARalpha agonists, Wy-14, 643 and methylclofenapate; both compounds induced hypolipidaemia. Thus the guinea pig is a useful model for human responses to peroxisome proliferators. PMID:9620871

  13. Bioavailability of PCDDs and PCDFs of fly ash after semi-chronic oral ingestion by guinea pig and Syrian golden hamster

    SciTech Connect

    van den Bery, M.; de Vroom, E.; Olie, K.; Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of guinea pigs and syrian golden hamster were fed 2.5% HCl pre-treated fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal incinerator during one, two, and three months, respectively, in the diet. The livers were analyzed for tetra-, penta-, and hexa-chlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxines (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In the livers of the hamsters 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were the major isomers retained. In the livers of the guinea pigs 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDDs and PCDF congeners were retained, but also a number of otherwise substituted PCDFs. The PCDF congener which had the highest retention in the livers of guinea pigs was 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF, 11.3% after 95 days. In the livers of the hamsters highest retention was found for 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 8.4% after 95 days. For most 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs the retention in the livers of the guinea pigs and hamsters was not significantly different during the whole period, which could indicate a bioconcentration approaching a linear relationship to the administered dose. Constant relative concentrations in the livers were found for the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and hexa-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDF in both species during the three time periods.

  14. Review: influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology.

  15. Evaluation of hepatitis E virus infection between different production systems of pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lana, Marconni Victor; Gardinali, Noemi Rovaris; da Cruz, Raquel Aparecida Sales; Lopes, Letícya Lerner; Silva, Gustavo Sousa; Caramori Júnior, João Garcia; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; de Almeida Souza, Marcos; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Pescador, Caroline Argenta

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pigs from large-scale and family-scale farms, (2) genetically characterize the strains isolated, and (3) study the pathogenesis of swine HEV infection via immunohistochemistry. A total of 50 pigs from 10 farms in Mato Grosso State, Brazil were divided according to type of production system into either large-scale farms (n = 5) or family-scale farms (n = 5). Samples of liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines, bile, and feces from the pigs were analyzed by nested PCR with primers targeting the ORF2 region of HEV and by immunohistochemistry. Of the eight HEV-positive samples from pigs of family-scale farms, phylogenetic analysis revealed that seven of the swine HEV isolates clustered with subtype 3b of genotype 3 and one isolate was categorized with subtype 3 f. The HEV antigen was detected mainly in the small intestine samples from family-scale farms, suggesting an early stage HEV infection. HEV was not detected in the samples of pigs from large-scale farms, reinforcing the need for additional studies to evaluate the risk of transmission of HEV to humans from pigs from family-scale farms in Mato Grosso State.

  16. Xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 in pig, a promising animal model.

    PubMed

    Puccinelli, Emanuela; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Longo, Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    The pig has been used as an important animal model for human studies because of its similarity in size, physiology and disease development. However, in contrast to the extensive data available on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system for humans and rodents, the data related to pig are limited because of, among others, the presence of intra-species differences (domestic pigs and minipigs). The knowledge of the CYP superfamily in a given experimental animal is crucial for pharmacological and toxicological tests in developing drugs and for understanding the metabolic pathways of toxicants and carcinogens. In addition, information on the CYP system in pigs is important since it plays a dominant role in the metabolism of veterinary drugs, whose residues remain in the porcine tissues which are food for humans. The aim of the present review is to examine - in the liver and extrahepatic tissues of pig - our current knowledge of the xenobiotic-metabolizing CYPs belonging to families 1-4, in terms of drug metabolism, substrate specificity, inhibition, gene expression and receptor-driven regulation, in comparison with human data. It is hoped, furthermore, that this review may stimulate research on the porcine drug-metabolizing enzymes in order to evaluate the hypothesis whereby pig data may better reflect human drug metabolism and toxicity than those obtained from the traditional non-rodent models.

  17. [The system of hemostasis in experimental liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, I L; Michailov, I E; Broun, N K; Smirnova, L A; Buianov, V V; Eramishantsev, A K

    1997-01-01

    The status of haemostatic factors in 28 pigs after orthotopic liver transplantation was evaluated. The major changes took place in fibrinolytic system during the "non-liver" stage: rapid increase of fibrinolytic activity, plasmin activity, plasmin activator activity. From the moment of blood supply restoration to a transplanted liver the tendency to normalisation of fibrinolysis was detected. The deficiency of plasma haemostatic factors and platelets has increased during all the follow-up period and should be corrected in time. The following principles of corrective therapy are formulated: inhibition of fibrinolysis, correction of antithrombin-3 and blood clotting factors. Correction of haemostasis should be done in "pre-non-liver" period and later in "non-liver" reperfusion periods.

  18. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  19. Production of alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout pigs expressing both human decay-accelerating factor and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III.

    PubMed

    Takahagi, Yoichi; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Miyagawa, Shuji; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Shigehisa, Tamotsu; Shirakura, Ryota; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2005-07-01

    Heterozygous alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GT) gene knockout pigs were produced with transgenic pig fetal cells expressing both human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF) and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III). In this study, we assessed the gene targeting efficiency in the transgenic pig fetal cells derived from different fetal tissues such as brain, skin, heart, and liver, or fetal carcass. Targeted cell colonies were selected by hygromycin B. The GT-knockout colonies (KO colonies) were obtained equally from the cells derived from all tissues except liver. Staining with five antibodies against intermediate filaments, all examined KO cell lines stained positive for vimentin with the exception of a colony that stained positive for both vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein simultaneously. This is the first study to produce KO cells from the astrocytes. Some of these KO cell lines were used for nuclear transfer (NT) to obtain KO pig fetuses. Fourteen fetuses were obtained from two recipients of the embryo transfer and eight of them had normal ploidy. The cells from the KO pig fetuses were also used for NT to produce cloned KO pigs. Two healthy clone pigs were born. These pigs were determined to have a heterozygous knockout GT gene and the two transgenes. The cells collected from the KO pigs were shown to have similar expression levels of hDAF and GnT-III compared to their original transgenic pigs and less than a half levels of the alphaGal epitopes existed in wild-type pig cells.

  20. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( < 0.05) in 18 traits, and overall, there was a more pronounced influence of genetic group than of finishing system. In most variables, particularly those related with fat deposition, the interaction reflected mostly changes in mean differences among genetic groups rather than in their ranking, where IB pigs consistently produced fatter carcasses, regardless of the finishing system. Liver weight in IB-EX pigs was lower by nearly 8% when compared with F-EX or IB-IN pigs, but the opposite pattern was found in F pigs, where liver weight in F-EX pigs was higher by 16% relative to IB-EX pigs or to F-IN pigs. The deposition of adipose tissue was much larger ( < 0.05) in IB pigs compared with F pigs, with means for fat depots in IB pigs that were higher by about 25% in total abdominal fat, 94% in dorsal fat depth, 72% in intermuscular plus subcutaneous fat in the leg, and over 300% in intramuscular fat (IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( < 0.05), with means for trimmed loin weight corresponding to about one-half of the means obtained in F pigs, whereas lean percentage in the leg of IB pigs was about two-thirds of the mean in F pigs and the mean area of the LT was nearly one-half of that observed in F pigs in the same finishing system ( < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the various fat depots when the full data set was considered (correlations

  1. Molecular Structure of Human-Liver Glycogen

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Bin; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Chen, Cheng; Li, Jialun; Powell, Prudence O.; Hu, Zhenxia; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen is a highly branched glucose polymer which is involved in maintaining blood-sugar homeostasis. Liver glycogen contains large composite α particles made up of linked β particles. Previous studies have shown that the binding which links β particles into α particles is impaired in diabetic mice. The present study reports the first molecular structural characterization of human-liver glycogen from non-diabetic patients, using transmission electron microscopy for morphology and size-exclusion chromatography for the molecular size distribution; the latter is also studied as a function of time during acid hydrolysis in vitro, which is sensitive to certain structural features, particularly glycosidic vs. proteinaceous linkages. The results are compared with those seen in mice and pigs. The molecular structural change during acid hydrolysis is similar in each case, and indicates that the linkage of β into α particles is not glycosidic. This result, and the similar morphology in each case, together imply that human liver glycogen has similar molecular structure to those of mice and pigs. This knowledge will be useful for future diabetes drug targets. PMID:26934359

  2. Effects of heat stress on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Victoria Sanz Fernandez, M; Johnson, Jay S; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Stoakes, Sara K; Seibert, Jacob T; Cox, Lindsay; Kahl, Stanislaw; Elsasser, Theodore H; Ross, Jason W; Clay Isom, S; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes human and animal health and reduces animal agriculture productivity; however, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Study objectives were to evaluate the direct effects of HS on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Female pigs (57 ± 5 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 20°C) and were ad libitum fed. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (1) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 7), or (2) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 10) to minimize the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. All pigs received an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an epinephrine challenge (EC) in period 1, and during the early and late phases of period 2. After 8 days of environmental exposure, all pigs were killed and tissue samples were collected. Despite a similar reduction in feed intake (39%), HS pigs tended to have decreased circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; 20%) and a blunted NEFA response (71%) to the EC compared to PFTN pigs. During early exposure, HS increased basal circulating C-peptide (55%) and decreased the insulinogenic index (45%) in response to the GTT. Heat-stressed pigs had a reduced T3 to T4 ratio (56%) and hepatic 5′-deiodinase activity (58%). After 8 days, HS decreased or tended to decrease the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in liver and skeletal muscle, and ATGL in adipose tissue. In summary, HS markedly alters both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism independently of nutrient intake. PMID:25716927

  3. Extracorporeal liver assist device to exchange albumin and remove endotoxin in acute liver failure: Results of a pivotal pre-clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Karla C.L.; Baker, Luisa A.; Stanzani, Giacomo; Alibhai, Hatim; Chang, Yu Mei; Jimenez Palacios, Carolina; Leckie, Pamela J.; Giordano, Paola; Priestnall, Simon L.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Goldring, Christopher E.; Park, B. Kevin; Andreola, Fausto; Agarwal, Banwari; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Davies, Nathan A.; Jalan, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims In acute liver failure, severity of liver injury and clinical progression of disease are in part consequent upon activation of the innate immune system. Endotoxaemia contributes to innate immune system activation and the detoxifying function of albumin, critical to recovery from liver injury, is irreversibly destroyed in acute liver failure. University College London-Liver Dialysis Device is a novel artificial extracorporeal liver assist device, which is used with albumin infusion, to achieve removal and replacement of dysfunctional albumin and reduction in endotoxaemia. We aimed to test the effect of this device on survival in a pig model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Methods Pigs were randomised to three groups: Acetaminophen plus University College London-Liver Dialysis Device (n = 9); Acetaminophen plus Control Device (n = 7); and Control plus Control Device (n = 4). Device treatment was initiated two h after onset of irreversible acute liver failure. Results The Liver Dialysis Device resulted in 67% reduced risk of death in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure compared to Control Device (hazard ratio = 0.33, p = 0.0439). This was associated with 27% decrease in circulating irreversibly oxidised human non-mercaptalbumin-2 throughout treatment (p = 0.046); 54% reduction in overall severity of endotoxaemia (p = 0.024); delay in development of vasoplegia and acute lung injury; and delay in systemic activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway. Liver Dialysis Device-associated adverse clinical effects were not seen. Conclusions The survival benefit and lack of adverse effects would support clinical trials of University College London-Liver Dialysis Device in acute liver failure patients. PMID:25937432

  4. Pharmacokinetics of activated protein C in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H. Jr.; Kirstein, C.G.; Orthner, C.L. )

    1991-05-15

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen of the serine protease, activated protein C (APC), an important regulatory enzyme in hemostasis. In view of the potential of human APC as an anticoagulant and profibrinolytic agent, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of APC were studied in guinea pigs. The plasma elimination of a trace dose of {sup 125}I-APC was biphasic following an initial rapid elimination of approximately 15% of the injected dose within 1 to 2 minutes. This rapid removal of {sup 125}I-APC from the circulation was found to be a result of an association with the liver regardless of the route of injection. Essentially identical results were obtained with active site-blocked forms of APC generated with either diisopropylfluorophosphate or D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone, which indicates that the active site was not essential for the liver association. Accumulation of all three forms of APC in the liver peaked at 30 minutes and then declined as increasing amounts of degraded radiolabeled material appeared in the gastrointestinal tract and urine. Removal of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) domain of diisopropylphosphoryl-APC resulted in a 50% reduction in the association with liver and an accumulation in the kidneys. Protein C and protein S were cleared from the circulation at rates approximately one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of APC. Both in vitro and in vivo, APC was found to form complexes with protease inhibitors present in guinea pig plasma. Complex formation resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the enzymatic activity of APC than elimination of the protein moiety. These findings indicate two distinct mechanisms for the elimination of APC. One mechanism involves reaction with plasma protease inhibitors and subsequent elimination by specific hepatic receptors. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Pathological and virological features of arenavirus disease in guinea pigs. Comparison of two Pichinde virus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, J. F.; Herzog, N. K.; Jerrells, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    A guinea pig passage-adapted strain of the arena-virus Pichinde (adPIC) is highly virulent in inbred guinea pigs, whereas the related strain PIC3739 is attenuated. Both viruses were macrophage tropic and infected peritoneal, splenic, liver, and alveolar macrophages during experimental Pichinde virus infection. Infection with the virulent strain was associated with unlimited viral replication in the face of exaggerated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, manifested by the macrophage disappearance reaction. Histopathological lesions unique to adPIC-infected guinea pigs included intestinal villus blunting with mucosal infiltration by pyknotic debris-laden macrophages and apoptosis of crypt epithelial cells. Splenic red pulp necrosis was also significantly associated with adPIC infection but not PIC3739 infection. These findings may provide clues to the pathogenesis of a group of poorly understood human viral hemorrhagic fevers. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8030751

  6. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The physicochemical and biological properties of purified guinea-pig reaginic antibody were studied. It is a labile protein different to γ1. Its antibody activity is completely destroyed by heating at 56° for 6 hours and by treatment with mercaptoethanol. The capacity to give PCA is decreased by repeated freezing and thawing. It is a bivalent antibody, haemagglutinating, does not fix complement and is capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA reaction after a latent period of a week but not after 3 hours. Reaginic antibody appears on day 7–8 after the first inoculation and the higher levels (PCA reaction) are obtained at the eleventh to thirteenth days. After the fifteenth to seventeenth days the PCA is negative. The reaginic antibody does not pass the placenta. Higher levels of reaginic antibody were obtained when the guinea-pigs were inoculated with the antigen in saline with simultaneous inoculation, intraperitoneally, of killed Bordetella pertussis, phase I. PMID:4354828

  7. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The methods for isolation and purification of a guinea-pig serum protein with homocytotropic antibody activity and characteristics of IgE are described. By precipitation in the equivalence zone or immunoadsorption and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, we isolated an homocytotropic antibody, that was not able to give a precipitin line when it was reacted directly with the antigen. It was capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA after a latent period of 24–48 hours but not after 3 hours; it was sensitive to treatment with mercaptoethanol. It had antigenic determinants present in the other guinea-pig immunoglobulins and particular antigenic determinants. All these properties make us believe that this protein belongs to an immunoglobulin different from γ1 and similar to the reaginic antibody (IgE) described in other species. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4126261

  8. Cloning and expression characteristics of the pig Stra8 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tingfeng; Song, Chengyi; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Yani

    2014-07-15

    Stra8 (Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8) is considered a meiotic gatekeeper gene. Using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the complete sequence of the pig Stra8 gene was cloned. Bioinformatics analyses of this sequence were performed. Using semi-quantitative methods, the expression characteristics of Stra8 in Testis, cauda epididymis, body epididymis, caput epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Cowper's gland, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus of adult Meishan boar and sow tissues were examined. The expression pattern in the testis of 2-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 150-day old Meishan boars were analyzed using real-time PCR. We constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for the Stra8 gene and used it to transfect NIH-3T3 cells and third generation pig spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cultured in vitro. Testes weight and sperm count in the cauda epididymis were evaluated at various time points. The results showed that the length of the pig Stra8 gene cDNA was 1444 bp encoding 366 amino acids with one typical helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain. It is testes-specific expression. Expression was first detected in boar testis starting at day 2, and its expression significantly (p<0.05) increased with age and body weight. When NIH-3T3 cells and pig SSCs were transfected with the eukaryotic expression vector EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein)-N1-pStra8, it was expressed in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells. However, in SSCs, Stra8 was expressed predominantly in cytoplasm and few in nucleus. Our data suggest that perhaps Stra8 acts as a transcription factor to initiate meiosis in young boar.

  9. Cloning and Expression Characteristics of the Pig Stra8 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tingfeng; Song, Chengyi; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Stra8 (Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8) is considered a meiotic gatekeeper gene. Using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the complete sequence of the pig Stra8 gene was cloned. Bioinformatics analyses of this sequence were performed. Using semi-quantitative methods, the expression characteristics of Stra8 in Testis, cauda epididymis, body epididymis, caput epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Cowper’s gland, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus of adult Meishan boar and sow tissues were examined. The expression pattern in the testis of 2-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 150-day old Meishan boars were analyzed using real-time PCR. We constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for the Stra8 gene and used it to transfect NIH-3T3 cells and third generation pig spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cultured in vitro. Testes weight and sperm count in the cauda epididymis were evaluated at various time points. The results showed that the length of the pig Stra8 gene cDNA was 1444 bp encoding 366 amino acids with one typical helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain. It is testes-specific expression. Expression was first detected in boar testis starting at day 2, and its expression significantly (p < 0.05) increased with age and body weight. When NIH-3T3 cells and pig SSCs were transfected with the eukaryotic expression vector EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein)-N1-pStra8, it was expressed in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells. However, in SSCs, Stra8 was expressed predominantly in cytoplasm and few in nucleus. Our data suggest that perhaps Stra8 acts as a transcription factor to initiate meiosis in young boar. PMID:25029539

  10. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  11. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  12. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  13. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  14. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  15. Coccidiosis in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, P A; Wright, A E

    1961-07-01

    The attention of laboratory workers is drawn to the possibility of coccidiosis as a cause of death in guinea-pigs. The purchase of a number of guinea-pigs infected with this protozoon was followed by 12 deaths when these animals were injected with material for diagnostic purposes. No deaths occurred in the laboratory stock herd, as these were kept separate from the newcomers and were not infected. The life history of the parasite is described, together with the post-mortem findings in our series of animals.

  16. Reduction of biliverdin and placental transfer of bilirubin and biliverdin in the pregnant guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, A F; Palma, L A; Schmid, R

    1981-01-01

    Biliverdin was reduced to bilirubin in pregnant and foetal guinea pigs, and the 100000 g supernatant from homogenates of foetal liver, placenta and maternal liver showed high biliverdin reductase activity. The placental transport of unconjugated bilirubin and biliverdin was compared by injecting unlabelled and radiolabelled pigments into the foetal or maternal circulation and analysing blood collected from the opposite side of the placenta. Injected bilirubin crossed the placenta from foetus to mother and vice versa, but injected biliverdin did not appear to cross without prior reduction to bilirubin. The guinea-pig placenta is apparently more permeable to bilirubin than biliverdin. Reduction of biliverdin to bilirubin in the foetus may, therefore, be essential for efficient elimination of haem catabolites from the foetus in placental mammals. PMID:7305981

  17. LIVER MICROSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Palade, G. E.; Siekevitz, P.

    1956-01-01

    Rat liver, liver homogenates, and microsome fractions separated therefrom were examined systematically in the electron microscope in sections of OsO4-fixed, methacrylate-embedded tissue and pellets. It was found that most microsomes are morphologically identical with the rough surfaced elements of the endoplasmic reticula of hepatic cells. They appear as isolated, membrane-bound vesicles, tubules, and cisternae which contain an apparently homogeneous material of noticeable density, and bear small, dense particles (100 to 150 A) attached to their outer aspect. In solutions of various osmolar concentrations they behave like osmometers. The findings suggest that they derive from the endoplasmic reticulum by a generalized pinching-off process rather than by mechanical fragmentation. The microsome fractions contain in addition relatively few vesicles free of attached particles, probably derived from the smooth surfaced parts of the endoplasmic reticula. Dense, peribiliary bodies represent a minor component of the same fractions. The microsomes derived from 1 gm. wet weight liver pulp contained (averages of 10 experiments) 3.09 mg. protein N, 3.46 mg. RNA (RNA/protein N = 1.12), and 487 µg. phospholipide P. They displayed DPNH-cytochrome c reductase activity and contained an alcohol-soluble hemochromogen. The microsome preparations proved resistant to washing and "aging." Treatment with versene and incubation with ribonuclease (30 minutes at 37°C.) resulted in appreciable losses of RNA and in partial or total disappearance of attached particles. Treatment with deoxycholate (0.3 to 0.5 per cent, pH = 7.5) induced a partial clarification of the microsome suspensions which, upon centrifugation, yielded a small pellet of conglomerated small, dense particles (100 to 150 A) with only occasionally interspersed vesicles. The pellet contained ∼80 to 90 per cent of the RNA and ∼20 per cent of the protein N of the original microsomes. The supernatant accounted satisfactorily

  18. Effects of a Chelated Copper as Growth Promoter on Performance and Carcass Traits in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Allee, G.; Gerlemann, G.; Ma, L.; Gracia, M. I.; Parker, D.; Vazquez-Anon, M.; Harrell, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate whether a chelated Cu can replace CuSO4 as a growth promoter in pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 piglets (Large White×Landrace, 7.36±0.10 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments with 8 replicates and 10 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (CuSO4, 6 mg/kg), two Cu supplementations from either CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 at 170 mg/kg. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 were 6.0% heavier than pigs fed either the NRC control or 170 mg/kg CuSO4 (p = 0.03) at the end of the experiment. During the 42 days of experimental period, pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 gained 9.0% more (p = 0.01), tended to eat more feed (p = 0.09), and had better feed efficiency (p = 0.06) than those fed CuSO4. Compared with the 6 mg/kg CuSO4 NRC control, liver Cu was increased 2.7 times with 170 mg/kg CuSO4 supplementation, and was further increased with Cu(HMTBa)2 (4.5 times, p<0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 616 crossbred piglets (PIC, 5.01±0.25 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments with 7 replicates and 22 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (from CuSO4), and three pharmaceutical levels of Cu (150 mg/kg) supplemented either from CuSO4, tri-basic copper chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl), or Cu(HMTBa)2. Pigs fed CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 had better feed efficiency (p = 0.01) and tended to gain more (p = 0.08) compared with those fed the NRC control. Pigs fed Cu2(OH)3Cl were intermediate. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had the highest liver Cu, which was significantly higher than those fed (Cu2[OH]3Cl) or the negative control (p = 0.01). In Exp. 3, a total of 1,048 pigs (PIC, 32.36±0.29 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 20 to 22 pigs per pen. The treatments included a NRC control with 4 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, a positive control with 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, and incremental levels of Cu(HMTBa)2 at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg. During the overall experimental period of 100 days, no benefit from 160 mg/kg CuSO4 was observed. Pigs fed Cu

  19. Growth and intestinal morphology of pigs from sows fed two zinc sources during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Payne, R L; Bidner, T D; Fakler, T M; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of organic (Zn AA complex, ZnAA) and inorganic Zn (ZnSO4) sources on sows and their progeny during gestation and lactation and on the pigs during the nursery period. The dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 ppm Zn from ZnSO4 (control); 2) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnSO4; and 3) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA. Dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. Thirty-one primaparous and multiparous sows were allotted to the treatment diet beginning on d 15 of gestation and continuing through lactation. At weaning (d 17 of age), 202 pigs (63, 55, and 84 pigs for treatments 1 to 3, respectively) were allotted to the same dietary treatment as their dam. The pigs were fed a 3-phase diet regimen during the nursery period: d 0 to 7 (phase I); d 7 to 21 (phase II); and d 21 to 28 (phase III). At weaning and at the end of phase III, 1 gilt per replicate was killed, and the left front foot, liver, pancreas, and entire small intestine were removed. Diet had no effect (P > 0.10) on any response during gestation. During lactation, there was an increase (P < 0.10) in litter birth weight in sows fed ZnAA compared with those fed the control or ZnSO4 diets. The sows fed ZnAA nursed more pigs (P < 0.10) than sows fed the ZnSO4 diet, and they weaned more pigs (P < 0.05) than sows fed the control diet. Jejunal villus height of the weaned pigs from sows fed ZnSO4 was increased (P < 0.05) compared with those from the sows fed the control diet. During the nursery period, growth performance was not affected (P > 0.10) by diet. Pigs fed ZnSO4 had greater duodenal villus width (P < 0.05) than those fed ZnAA, and pigs fed ZnSO4 or the control diet had greater ileal villus width (P < 0.05) than those fed ZnAA. Pigs fed ZnSO4 or ZnAA had more (P < 0.05) bone Zn than those fed the control diet. Liver Zn concentration was greatest in pigs fed ZnSO4, followed by those fed ZnAA, and then by those fed the control

  20. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver in response to an intestinal parasite called Entamoeba histolytica . ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This ... dysentery. After an infection has occurred, the parasite may ...

  1. Isolated hepatic perfusion in the pig with TNF-alpha with and without melphalan.

    PubMed

    Borel Rinkes, I H; de Vries, M R; Jonker, A M; Swaak, T J; Hack, C E; Nooyen, P T; Wiggers, T; Eggermont, A M

    1997-01-01

    Isolated limb perfusion with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and melphalan is well tolerated and highly effective in irresectable sarcoma and melanoma. No data are available on isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with these drugs for irresectable hepatic malignancies. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of such an approach by analysing hepatic and systemic toxicity of IHP with TNF-alpha with and without melphalan in pigs. Ten healthy pigs underwent IHP. After vascular isolation of the liver, inflow catheters were placed in the hepatic artery and portal vein, and an outflow catheter was placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC). An extracorporeal veno-venous bypass was used to shunt blood from the lower body and intestines to the heart. The liver was perfused for 60 min with (1) 50 microg kg(-1) TNF-alpha (n = 5), (2) 50 microg kg(-1) TNF-alpha plus 1 mg kg(-1) melphalan (n = 3) or (3) no drugs (n = 2). The liver was washed with macrodex before restoring vascular continuity. All but one pigs tolerated the procedure well. Stable perfusion was achieved in all animals with median perfusate TNF-alpha levels of 5.1 +/- 0.78 x 10(6) pg ml(-1) (+/- s.e.m). Systemic leakage of TNF-alpha from the perfusate was consistently < 0.02%. Following IHP, a transient elevation of systemic TNF-alpha levels was observed in groups 1 and 2 with a median peak level of 23 +/- 3 x 10(3) pg ml(-1) at 10 min after washout, which normalized within 6 h. No significant systemic toxicity was observed. Mild transient hepatotoxicity was seen to a similar extent in all animals, including controls. IHP with TNF-alpha with(out) melphalan in pigs is technically feasible, results in minimal systemic drug exposure and causes minor transient disturbances of liver biochemistry and histology.

  2. An improved model of galactosamine-induced fulminant hepatic failure in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, K; Ong, H S; Soo, K C; Tan, S Y; Prema Raj, J

    1999-04-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is a serious condition with very high mortality. Development of new therapies designed to bridge the patient through the acute period of their disease has been hampered by the lack of a large animal model that closely reproduces the changes in humans. We have established an improved model of fulminant hepatic failure in the pig by administration of an aminosugar d-galactosamine hydrochloride. Galactosamine in a dose of 1.0 g/kg was dissolved in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) and given intravenously to seven young pigs weighing 8 to 15 kg. Seven control pigs received an equal volume of D5W alone. Two days prior to injection, a baseline ultrasound-guided liver biopsy was done in each pig under general anesthesia using isofluorane. Clinical data were recorded and blood for laboratory determinations was drawn at 0 h (baseline), 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after infusion of galactosamine or D5W alone, under general anesthesia. Neurological data were recorded at the same intervals before inducing anesthesia. Galactosamine-treated animals showed 100% mortality. All of them died by 86 h after injection of galactosamine, with death resulting from fulminant hepatic failure characterized by marked increases in total bilirubin, liver enzymes, ammonia, and lactate; associated coagulopathy; hypoglycemia; and coma. Liver histology showed massive hepatocellular necrosis in all seven galactosamine-treated animals. This large and highly reproducible animal model appears promising for future evaluation of bioartificial liver support systems designed to treat fulminant hepatic failure in humans.

  3. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Zhou, K F; Hu, H M; Zhao, H B; Zhang, Y; Ying, W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  4. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Zhou, K. F.; Hu, H. M.; Zhao, H. B.; Zhang, Y.; Ying, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  5. Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bruzinskaite, R; Sarkūnas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    2009-03-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs. PMID:19111990

  6. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

  7. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  8. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in pigs: migratory pattern and pathological response in early phase.

    PubMed

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  9. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  10. Functional and association studies of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene in a Wannan Black pig model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, M Q; Fu, K; Chen, W P; Ding, C; He, X L; Zhang, X D; Huang, L; Yin, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Some polymorphisms of the human CETP gene are causally and significantly associated with serum lipids levels; however, the information regarding this gene in pigs is sparse. To evaluate the effects of CETP on blood lipid traits and fat deposition in pig, porcine CETP tissue expression patterns were observed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) first. High expression was detected in liver, spleen, gluteus medius (GM) muscle and backfat. A de novo polymorphism (AF333037:g.795C>T) in the intron 1 region of porcine CETP was identified. This polymorphism was further genotyped by direct sequencing of the PCR products of 390 Wannan Black pigs, a Chinese native breed population. Association analyses at 45 and 300 days of age revealed highly significant associations between CETP genotypes and serum lipid traits. Furthermore, this polymorphism was proved to be associated with differences in liver CETP mRNA levels: pigs at 300 days of age with the TT genotype had higher levels than did those with other genotypes (P = 0.021). Additionally, analysis at 300 days of age showed that GM CETP mRNA expression correlated positively with serum lipids levels as well as with carcass backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content in GM. These results indicate that CETP is involved in serum, adipose and muscle lipid metabolism in pigs. The mechanisms underlying such relationships and their functional implications are worthy of further research. PMID:26477338

  11. A Simple Model for Learning Improvement: Weigh Pig, Feed Pig, Weigh Pig. Occasional Paper #23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Good, Megan R.; Coleman, Chris M.; Smith, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learning does not by itself result in increased student accomplishment, much like a pig never fattened up because it was weighed. Indeed, recent research shows that while institutions are more regularly engaging in assessment, they have little to show in the way of stronger student performance. This paper clarifies how assessment results…

  12. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  13. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  14. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure. PMID:25951555

  15. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  16. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis.

  17. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase isozymes from rat liver. Purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Q K; Sakakibara, R; Watanabe, T; Wada, H

    1980-07-01

    Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase isozymes were purified simultaneously to homogeneity from rat liver with high yields. Three subforms of mitochondrial isozyme and three subforms of cytosolic isozyme were separated by chromatography on CM-Sephadex and electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. The general enzymatic properties of the purified isozymes such as their kinetic parameters, isoelectric points, molecular weights, amino acid compositions, NH2-terminal amino acid sequences and COOH-terminal amino acids were determined. Most of these properties of the isozymes are similar to those of the corresponding isozymes from other sources, such as rat brain and pig and human heart. In amino acid compositions, cytosolic isozyme from rat liver has more proline and glycine and less arginine, threonine and leucine than pig heart cytosolic isozyme; the mitochondrial isozyme has more glutamic acid and glycine and less serine than the corresponding pig heart isozyme. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of GOT isozymes from rat liver were identical with those of the GOT isozymes from pig heart up to the 10th residues except for the 5th residues. The subforms of mitochondrial isozyme from rat liver were generated on storage at 4 degrees C for 4-8 weeks.

  18. Identification of quantitative trait transcripts for growth traits in the large scales of liver and muscle samples.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinwei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-07-01

    Growth-related traits are economically important traits to the pig industry. Identification of causative gene and mutation responsible for growth-related QTL will facilitate the improvement of pig growth through marker-assisted selection. In this study, we applied whole genome gene expression and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses in 497 liver and 586 longissimus dorsi muscle samples to identify candidate genes and dissect the genetic basis of pig growth in a white Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts in liver and 23,728 transcripts in muscle with expression values were used for association analysis between gene expression level and phenotypic value. At the significance threshold of P < 0.0005, we identified a total of 169 and 168 QTTs for nine growth-related traits in liver and muscle, respectively. We also found that some QTTs were correlated to more than one trait. The QTTs identified here showed high tissue specificity. We did not identify any QTTs that were associated with one trait in both liver and muscle. Through an integrative genomic approach, we identified SDR16C5 as the important candidate gene in pig growth trait. These findings contribute to further identification of the causative genes for porcine growth traits and facilitate improvement of pig breeding.

  19. Detecting mitochondrial signatures of selection in wild Tibetan pigs and domesticated pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhou; Jin, Long; Ma, Jideng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Selection in genomic regions is prevalent in mammals; however, the effects of selection on the mitogenome are not clearly understood. We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from six wild Tibetan pigs from the Tibetan plateau and four domestic pig breeds from the lowland of neighboring southwest China. Nucleotide diversity analysis using the sliding window method showed that the nucleotide diversity of wild Tibetan pigs in most regions of the mitogenome was higher than that of domestic pigs. The 12 s ribosomal RNA showed relatively lower nucleotide diversity in Tibetan pigs, suggesting purifying selection of these genes during high-altitude adaptation. More non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions in the ATP6 were found in wild Tibetan pigs, indicating adaptive selection in Tibetan pigs. The results suggested distinct impacts of natural selection and artificial selection upon the mitogenome, especially the mitochondrial signatures of adaptive evolution in wild Tibetan pigs under natural selection.

  20. Metabolic effects of dietary sugar beet pulp or wheat bran in growing female pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Kerr, B J

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a moderate level of 2 different fiber sources on energy metabolites; mitochondrial biogenesis in the intestine, liver, and muscle; and the expression of some genes that regulate energy metabolism in intestine, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Female pigs (n = 36; BW = 15.0 ± 0.7 kg) were fed diets containing no added fiber, 12.5% sugar beet pulp (SBP), or 12.5% wheat bran (WB) for 24 d. Blood samples were collected on d 7 and 24 for cholesterol, glucose, NEFA, and triglyceride analyses. At completion of the experiment, ileum, colon, subcutaneous adipose, and LM samples were obtained from a subset (n = 6) of pigs fed each diet for analysis of tissue mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mRNA abundance by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Glycogen and triglyceride content of liver and LM were determined, and colon content VFA was also determined. The addition of SBP or WB to the diet had no effect (P > 0.55) on ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Serum NEFA and triglycerides were increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed SBP compared with pigs fed the control diet or WB on d 7, and NEFA remained increased (P < 0.05) on d 24 in pigs fed SBP. Dietary fiber had no effect (P > 0.24) on glycogen and triglyceride content of liver or LM, but colonic acetate concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed either SBP or WB. Pigs fed WB had an increased (P < 0.05) mtDNA content in ileum tissue and increased (P < 0.05) citrate synthase mRNA in colon tissue. In the liver, feeding either SBP or WB led to a decrease (P < 0.05) in mtDNA content, whereas feeding WB decreased (P < 0.05) mtDNA abundance in the LM, and feeding either SBP or WB decreased (P < 0.05) expression of citrate synthase mRNA. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed that feeding WB increased (P < 0.05) proliferating cell nuclear antigen mRNA abundance in the ileum and colon. Feeding WB increased (P < 0.05) mRNA abundance of a regulator of

  1. Studies on the site of biosynthesis of acidic glycoproteins of guinea-pig serum

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, J. L.; Jamieson, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. Studies were carried out to determine the cellular and subcellular site of biosynthesis of components of fraction I, an α-globulin fraction containing acidic glycoproteins isolated from guinea-pig serum. l-[U-14C]Leucine or -valine and d-[1-14C]glucosamine were used as precursors. 2. A lag of about 10min. occurred before appreciable label appeared in fraction I of serum after injection of leucine or glucosamine. Label in fraction I after 60min. labelling with glucosamine was present almost entirely in hexosamine and sialic acid. 3. Site of synthesis was investigated by studies in vivo up to 17min. after injection of precursor. Particulate subcellular fractions isolated from liver, spleen and kidney or homogenates of the latter two tissues were extracted with Lubrol. Extracts were allowed to react by double diffusion with antisera to fraction I or to subfractions isolated from it, and gels were subsequently subjected to radioautography. With either amino acid or glucosamine as precursor, only extracts of the microsome fraction of liver formed precipitin lines that were appreciably radioactive. 4. The role of the microsome fraction of liver in the synthesis of these glycoproteins was confirmed by immunological studies after incubation of liver slices with leucine or glucosamine. Incorporation of leucine was also investigated in a cell-free microsome system. 5. Material was also precipitated from certain Lubrol extracts of liver microsomes by direct addition of antiserum and its radioactivity measured. Degradation of material thus precipitated and use of heterologous immune systems showed that labelling of precipitin lines represented biosynthesis. 6. A study of extraction procedures suggested that the substances present in the microsome fraction of liver that react with specific antisera are associated with membranous structures. 7. Most or all precipitin lines formed by Lubrol extracts of liver microsomes interacted with precipitin lines given by guinea-pig

  2. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients. PMID:25009372

  3. Effects of pre-slaughter stressor and feeding preventative Chinese medicinal herbs on glycolysis and oxidative stability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiumei; Yan, Xue; Xie, Linqi; Hu, Xiaodong; Lin, Xi; Wu, Changzheng; Zhou, Ningcong; Wang, Anru; See, Miles Todd

    2016-08-01

    A total of 64 5-month-old Pietrain pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates per treatment according to body weight. The pigs were fed either a standard corn-soybean meal based control diet (treatments 1 and 2), the standard diet with 1% Lycium barbarum (LB) (treatment 3), or the standard diet with 1% Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PT) (treatment 4). Serum lactic acid and glucose concentrations were increased in stressed pigs (P < 0.05). Addition of the herbs in the diet had no effect on the serum lactic acid concentration, but 1% LB decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose concentration in the stressed pigs. Pre-slaughter stress also decreased (P < 0.01) liver glycogen concentration and the decrease could be inhibited by addition of 1% LB in the diet (P > 0.05). Pre-slaughter stress increased the concentration of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, while dietary 1% LB increased (P < 0.05) the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in the serum. In conclusion, pre-slaughter stress induces oxidative stress in pigs and dietary supplementation with 1% LB improves antioxidant capacity in stressed pigs before slaughtering. PMID:26497952

  4. Effects of pre-slaughter stressor and feeding preventative Chinese medicinal herbs on glycolysis and oxidative stability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiumei; Yan, Xue; Xie, Linqi; Hu, Xiaodong; Lin, Xi; Wu, Changzheng; Zhou, Ningcong; Wang, Anru; See, Miles Todd

    2016-08-01

    A total of 64 5-month-old Pietrain pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates per treatment according to body weight. The pigs were fed either a standard corn-soybean meal based control diet (treatments 1 and 2), the standard diet with 1% Lycium barbarum (LB) (treatment 3), or the standard diet with 1% Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PT) (treatment 4). Serum lactic acid and glucose concentrations were increased in stressed pigs (P < 0.05). Addition of the herbs in the diet had no effect on the serum lactic acid concentration, but 1% LB decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose concentration in the stressed pigs. Pre-slaughter stress also decreased (P < 0.01) liver glycogen concentration and the decrease could be inhibited by addition of 1% LB in the diet (P > 0.05). Pre-slaughter stress increased the concentration of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, while dietary 1% LB increased (P < 0.05) the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in the serum. In conclusion, pre-slaughter stress induces oxidative stress in pigs and dietary supplementation with 1% LB improves antioxidant capacity in stressed pigs before slaughtering.

  5. Different in vitro metabolism of paclitaxel and docetaxel in humans, rats, pigs, and minipigs.

    PubMed

    Vaclavikova, Radka; Soucek, Pavel; Svobodova, Lenka; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Simek, Petr; Guengerich, F Peter; Gut, Ivan

    2004-06-01

    We investigated cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed metabolism of the important cancer drugs paclitaxel and docetaxel in rat, pig, minipig, and human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes. In rat microsomes, paclitaxel was metabolized mainly to C3'-hydroxypaclitaxel (C3'-OHP) and to a lesser extent to C2-hydroxypaclitaxel (C2-OHP), di-hydroxypaclitaxel (di-OHP), and another unknown monohydroxylated paclitaxel. In pig and minipig microsomes, this unknown hydroxypaclitaxel was the main metabolite, whereas C3'-OHP was a minor product. In minipigs, C2-OHP was the next minor product. In human liver microsomes, 6 alpha-hydroxypaclitaxel (6 alpha-OHP) was the main metabolite, followed by C3'-OHP and C2-OHP. Among different cDNA-expressed human P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2C9, 2E1, and 3A4), only CYP3A4 enzyme formed C3'-OHP and C2-OHP. Docetaxel was metabolized in pig, minipig, rat, and human liver microsomes mainly to hydroxydocetaxel (OHDTX), whereas CYP3A-induced rat microsomes produced primarily diastereomeric hydroxyoxazolidinones. Human liver microsomes from 10 different individuals formed OHDTX at different rates correlated with CYP3A4 content. Troleandomycin as a selective inhibitor of CYP3A inhibited the formation of C3'-OHP, C2-OHP, and di-OHP, as well as the unknown OHP produced in rat, minipig, and pig microsomes. In human liver microsomes, troleandomycin inhibited C3'-OHP and C2-OHP formation, and a suitable inhibitor of human CYP2C8, fisetin, strongly inhibited the formation of 6 alpha-OHP, known to be catalyzed by human CYP2C8. In conclusion, the metabolism of docetaxel is the same in all four species, but metabolism of paclitaxel is different, and 6 alpha-OHP remains a uniquely human metabolite. Pigs and minipigs compared with each other formed the same metabolites of paclitaxel.

  6. Decomposition Rate and Pattern in Hanging Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lynch-Aird, Jeanne; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-09-01

    Accurate prediction of the postmortem interval requires an understanding of the decomposition process and the factors acting upon it. A controlled experiment, over 60 days at an outdoor site in the northwest of England, used 20 freshly killed pigs (Sus scrofa) as human analogues to study decomposition rate and pattern. Ten pigs were hung off the ground and ten placed on the surface. Observed differences in the decomposition pattern required a new decomposition scoring scale to be produced for the hanging pigs to enable comparisons with the surface pigs. The difference in the rate of decomposition between hanging and surface pigs was statistically significant (p=0.001). Hanging pigs reached advanced decomposition stages sooner, but lagged behind during the early stages. This delay is believed to result from lower variety and quantity of insects, due to restricted beetle access to the aerial carcass, and/or writhing maggots falling from the carcass.

  7. Salmonella Prevalence and Microbiological Contamination of Pig Carcasses and Slaughterhouse Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fois, Federica; Mazza, Roberta; Putzolu, Miriam; Delogu, Maria Luisa; Lochi, Pier Giorgio; Pani, Sergio Pino; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-01-01

    In seven EC swine abattoirs Salmonella prevalence (ISO 6579/2002) and serotypes of 25 piglets, 61 finishing pigs (lymph nodes, colon content, carcass and liver surface) and slaughterhouse environments (scalding water, surfaces in contact with meat and not in contact with meat) were investigated. Moreover, aerobic colony count [total viable count (TVC); ISO 4833] and Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-2) of piglets and finishing pigs’ carcasses were evaluated, and the results compared with EU process hygiene criteria (Reg. EC 2073/2005). Salmonella was not isolated in any of the piglets samples. Prevalence differed between slaughterhouses (P<0.5), and Salmonella was isolated from 39 of 244 samples of finishing slaughtered pigs (15.9%) and from 4 of 45 environmental samples (8.9%). In pig samples, carcasses showed the highest prevalence (18%) followed by colon content (14.8%), lymph nodes (13%) and liver (1.6%). S. Anatum was the most prevalent serotype (71.8%), followed by S. Derby (33.3%), S. Bredeney (5%) and S. Holcomb (2.5%). Between environmental samples, S. Anatum (50%), S. Bredeney and S. Derby (25%) were identified. Total viable mean counts (log10 CFU/cm2) of carcass surfaces ranged from 4.6 and 5.7 for piglets, and from 4.6 and 5.9 for finishing pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 1.1 and 5 for piglets and between 2.1 and 5.3 for finishing pigs. These results were not in compliance with EU performance criteria. Total aerobic viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae mean levels of environmental samples appeared critical, particularly referred to surfaces in contact with meat (splitting equipment) and indicated an inadequate application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during slaughtering and sanitisation. PMID:27800371

  8. Metabolism and disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.

    1986-09-15

    Marked interspecies variability exists in the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with the guinea pig being the mammalian species most sensitive to the acute toxicity of TCDD. The metabolism and disposition of TCDD was investigated in guinea pigs for 45 days following a single exposure to purified (/sup 3/H)TCDD (0.56 microgram/kg, ip). Guinea pigs included in the toxicokinetic study gained body weight, maintained a normal relative body composition, and exhibited no gross signs of toxicity during the 45-day study. Approximately 36% of the dose of TCDD-derived /sup 3/H remained in the adipose tissue at 45 days following exposure to (/sup 3/H)TCDD, while the liver, pelt, and skeletal muscle and carcass each contained about 7% of the administered dose. Although most of the TCDD-derived radioactivity in liver, kidney, perirenal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle represented unchanged TCDD, from 4 to 28% of the /sup 3/H was associated with metabolites of TCDD. This unexpected finding suggests that TCDD metabolites are not efficiently excreted from guinea pigs. The urinary and fecal excretion of TCDD-derived radioactivity followed apparent first-order kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 93.7 +/- 15.5 days (mean +/- SD). HPLC analysis of urine and bile from (/sup 3/H)TCDD-treated guinea pigs showed that all of the radioactivity represented metabolites of TCDD, indicating that these routes of elimination are dependent on prior metabolism of TCDD. However, 70 to 90% of the radioactivity in fecal samples was found to represent unmetabolized TCDD throughout the 45-day excretion study. The presence of TCDD in feces and its absence in bile suggest that the fecal excretion of unchanged TCDD resulted from the direct intestinal elimination of the lipophilic toxin.

  9. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-κB and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-κB and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P < 0.05). Concentrations of α-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and plasma and total antioxidant capacity of plasma and relative mRNA abundances of NF-κB and Nrf2 target genes in the liver did not differ between the two groups. However, the ratio of villus height:crypt depth and the gain:feed ratio was higher in the pigs fed GSGME than in control pigs (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation of a polyphenol rich GSGME suppresses the activity of NF-κB in the duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  10. Cloning pigs: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Polejaeva, I A

    2001-01-01

    Although mouse embryonic stem cells have been used widely for over a decade as an important tool for introducing precise genetic modification into the genome, demonstrating the great value of this technology in a range of biomedical applications, similar technology does not exist for domestic animals. However, the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer has bypassed the need for embryonic stem cells from livestock. The production of offspring from differentiated cell nuclei provides information and opportunities in a number of areas including cellular differentiation, early development and ageing. However, the primary significance of cloning is probably in the opportunities that this technology brings to genetic manipulation. Potential applications of gene targeting in livestock species are described with particular emphasis on the generation of pigs that can be used for xenotransplantation, and the production of improved models for human physiology and disease. The development of techniques for somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs and the challenges associated with this technology are also reviewed.

  11. Assessing learning and memory in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gieling, Elise Titia; Nordquist, Rebecca Elizabeth; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in (mini) pigs (Sus scrofa) as species for cognitive research. A major reason for this is their physiological and anatomical similarity with humans. For example, pigs possess a well-developed, large brain. Assessment of the learning and memory functions of pigs is not only relevant to human research but also to animal welfare, given the nature of current farming practices and the demands they make on animal health and behavior. In this article, we review studies of pig cognition, focusing on the underlying processes and mechanisms, with a view to identifying. Our goal is to aid the selection of appropriate cognitive tasks for research into pig cognition. To this end, we formulated several basic criteria for pig cognition tests and then applied these criteria and knowledge about pig-specific sensorimotor abilities and behavior to evaluate the merits, drawbacks, and limitations of the different types of tests used to date. While behavioral studies using (mini) pigs have shown that this species can perform learning and memory tasks, and much has been learned about pig cognition, results have not been replicated or proven replicable because of the lack of validated, translational behavioral paradigms that are specially suited to tap specific aspects of pig cognition. We identified several promising types of tasks for use in studies of pig cognition, such as versatile spatial free-choice type tasks that allow the simultaneous measurement of several behavioral domains. The use of appropriate tasks will facilitate the collection of reliable and valid data on pig cognition.

  12. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014.

  13. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  14. Association between microbiological and serological prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and the microbiological and serological prevalence of this pathogen differs between pig farms. The infection status of pig batches at moment of slaughter is unknown while it is a possibility to classify batches. A relation between the presence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and the presence of antibodies could help to predict the infection of the pigs prior to slaughter. Pigs from 100 different batches were sampled. Tonsils and pieces of diaphragm were collected from 7047 pigs (on average 70 pigs per batch). The tonsils were analyzed using a direct plating method and the meat juice collected from the pieces of diaphragm was analyzed by Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. The microbiological and serological results were compared using a mixed-effects logistic regression at pig and batch level. Yersinia spp. were found in 2031 (28.8%) pigs, antibodies were present in 4692 (66.6%) pigs. According to the logistic regression, there was no relation at pig level between the presence of Yersinia spp. in tonsils and the presence of antibodies. Contrarily, at batch level, a mean activity value of 37 Optical Density (OD)% indicated a Yersinia spp. positive farm and the microbiological prevalence in pig batches could be estimated before shipment to the slaughterhouse. This offers the opportunity to classify batches based on their potential risk to contaminate carcasses with human pathogenic Yersinia spp.

  15. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  16. Gastric zygomycosis (mucormycosis) in 4 suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanford, S E

    1985-02-15

    Acute gastric zygomycosis (mucormycosis) was diagnosed in four 6- to 7-day-old pigs with large venous infarcts in the gastric fundus. Two pigs were from one farm where several dams had developed fever at parturition and most of their litters had died. The other 2 pigs, from separate farms, had diarrhea that was unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Histologically there was severe hemorrhagic, ulcerative gastritis associated with numerous transmurally invading, mucoraceous fungi. The discussion includes speculation on the pathogenesis of this lesion in neonatal pigs.

  17. Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes.

    PubMed

    Taira, N; Yoshifuji, H; Boray, J C

    1997-07-01

    Mice were successfully infected with metacercariae of the Japanese Fasciola sp., resulting in the recovery of a mean number of 110 live immature flukes per mouse 4-5 days after inoculation. Twenty-four mice were then inoculated orally, each with a mean number of 68 freshly recovered immature flukes. The livers of 7 of the 24 recipient mice showed migratory lesions of capsular and subcapsular granulomatous infiltration and 2 of those mice also had haemorrhagic lesions. The lesions were typical of those caused by active migration of early immature flukes. However, no flukes were found in the livers of the recipient mice at necropsy when the flukes were aged 14 weeks. In another experiment, 10 piglets were given fresh livers of mice harbouring approximately 2000 live immature flukes aged 3-7 days. Two additional piglets were inoculated with 2000 metacercariae of Fasciola. All pigs were killed when the flukes were 14 days old. Granulomatous lesions were present in all pigs, except in those that were given livers containing flukes aged 7 days. The lesions were localized, forming well-defined foci, different from the typical migratory lesions normally observed in mouse or sheep liver at the early stage of fluke migration. From the 10 pigs given livers, 65 live flukes were recovered at necropsy, 0.29% of the estimated number of immature flukes given. From the 2 pigs which received 2000 metacercariae each, a total of 198 flukes were recovered (5%). The results of the experiments suggest that humans consuming raw liver dishes prepared from fresh livers infected with immature Fasciola spp. could become infected with liver fluke. PMID:9279579

  18. Malnutrition induces gut atrophy and increases hepatic fat infiltration: studies in a pig model of childhood malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lykke, Mikkel; Hother, Anne-Louise; Hansen, Christian F; Friis, Henrik; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Larsen, Torben; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a problem in developing countries, and pathological changes in digestive organs such as the intestine and liver are poorly understood. An animal model to study the progression of severe acute malnutrition could elucidate pathological changes in the intestine and liver. We sought to characterize growth and clinical changes during malnutrition related to structural and functional indices in the intestine and liver. Newly weaned piglets were given ad libitum access to a maize flour diet (MAIZE, n=9) or a nutritionally optimized reference diet (REFERENCE, n=12) for 7 weeks. Growth, hematology and clinical biochemistry where recorded weekly. After 7 weeks, the MAIZE pigs had lower body weights than the REF pigs (8.3 kg vs. 32.4 kg, P < 0.001), indicating severe stunting and moderate to severe wasting. This was paralleled by lower values for hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean cell volume in MAIZE vs. REFERENCE (P < 0.01), indicating anemia. Although the observed temporal changes in MAIZE were associated with atrophy of the small intestinal mucosa (P < 0.001), digestive enzyme activity was only marginally reduced. Serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and albumin were increased in the MAIZE pigs (P < 0.001), and the liver had a vacuolated appearance and tendency toward increased triglyceride content (P=0.054). We conclude that liver and intestinal indices are compromised during malnutrition and are associated with temporal changes in growth and hematological and biochemical endpoints. The pig model is relevant for malnourished infants and can act as a valuable tool for understanding the pathophysiology of malnutrition. PMID:23977413

  19. The pig as a model for translational research: overview of porcine animal models at Jichi Medical University.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Hishikawa, Shuji; Teratani, Takumi; Lefor, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    To improve the welfare of experimental animals, investigators seek to respect the 3R principle (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement). Even when large animal studies are essential before moving to clinical trials, it is important to look for ways to reduce the number of experimental animals used. At the Center for the Development of Advanced Medical Technology, we consider 'medical' pigs to be ideal preclinical model systems.We have been using both wild-type and genetically modified pigs. We began using this approach about 10 years ago with a 'total pig system' to model human health and disease for the purposes of both medical skill education and the development of new devices and therapeutic strategies.At our Center, medical students and residents use pigs to gain experience with surgical skills and train for emergency procedures after appropriate simulation training. Senior clinicians have also used these models to advance the development of innovative tools for endo- and laparoscopic procedures. The Center focuses on translational research for organ transplantation and stem cell therapy. Several pig models have been established for liver, intestine, kidney, pancreas, and lung transplantation. Mesenchymal stromal cells have been established in green fluorescent protein- and red fluorescent protein-transgenic pigs and tested to trans-differentiate organogenesis. A program to establish induced pluripotent stem cells in the pig is ongoing at our Center.Here, we review our 10 years of activity in this field. Based on our experience in surgical education and research, experimental pigs are valuable models in translational research.

  20. Improved survival of porcine acute liver failure by a bioartificial liver device implanted with induced human functional hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Yimeng; Yan, Yupeng; Ma, Hucheng; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Pengyu; Ni, Xuan; Zhang, Ludi; Zhao, Xin; Ren, Haozhen; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Feng; Ji, Yuan; Cheng, Xin; Pan, Guoyu; Ding, Yi-Tao; Hui, Lijian

    2016-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening illness. The extracorporeal cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) system could bridge liver transplantation and facilitate liver regeneration for ALF patients by providing metabolic detoxification and synthetic functions. Previous BAL systems, based on hepatoma cells and non-human hepatocytes, achieved limited clinical advances, largely due to poor hepatic functions, cumbersome preparation or safety concerns of these cells. We previously generated human functional hepatocytes by lineage conversion (hiHeps). Here, by improving functional maturity of hiHeps and producing hiHeps at clinical scales (3 billion cells), we developed a hiHep-based BAL system (hiHep-BAL). In a porcine ALF model, hiHep-BAL treatment restored liver functions, corrected blood levels of ammonia and bilirubin, and prolonged survival. Importantly, human albumin and α-1-antitrypsin were detectable in hiHep-BAL-treated ALF pigs. Moreover, hiHep-BAL treatment led to attenuated liver damage, resolved inflammation and enhanced liver regeneration. Our findings indicate a promising clinical application of the hiHep-BAL system.

  1. Improved survival of porcine acute liver failure by a bioartificial liver device implanted with induced human functional hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Yimeng; Yan, Yupeng; Ma, Hucheng; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Pengyu; Ni, Xuan; Zhang, Ludi; Zhao, Xin; Ren, Haozhen; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Feng; Ji, Yuan; Cheng, Xin; Pan, Guoyu; Ding, Yi-Tao; Hui, Lijian

    2016-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening illness. The extracorporeal cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) system could bridge liver transplantation and facilitate liver regeneration for ALF patients by providing metabolic detoxification and synthetic functions. Previous BAL systems, based on hepatoma cells and non-human hepatocytes, achieved limited clinical advances, largely due to poor hepatic functions, cumbersome preparation or safety concerns of these cells. We previously generated human functional hepatocytes by lineage conversion (hiHeps). Here, by improving functional maturity of hiHeps and producing hiHeps at clinical scales (3 billion cells), we developed a hiHep-based BAL system (hiHep-BAL). In a porcine ALF model, hiHep-BAL treatment restored liver functions, corrected blood levels of ammonia and bilirubin, and prolonged survival. Importantly, human albumin and α-1-antitrypsin were detectable in hiHep-BAL-treated ALF pigs. Moreover, hiHep-BAL treatment led to attenuated liver damage, resolved inflammation and enhanced liver regeneration. Our findings indicate a promising clinical application of the hiHep-BAL system. PMID:26768767

  2. Improved survival of porcine acute liver failure by a bioartificial liver device implanted with induced human functional hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Yimeng; Yan, Yupeng; Ma, Hucheng; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Pengyu; Ni, Xuan; Zhang, Ludi; Zhao, Xin; Ren, Haozhen; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Feng; Ji, Yuan; Cheng, Xin; Pan, Guoyu; Ding, Yi-Tao; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening illness. The extracorporeal cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) system could bridge liver transplantation and facilitate liver regeneration for ALF patients by providing metabolic detoxification and synthetic functions. Previous BAL systems, based on hepatoma cells and non-human hepatocytes, achieved limited clinical advances, largely due to poor hepatic functions, cumbersome preparation or safety concerns of these cells. We previously generated human functional hepatocytes by lineage conversion (hiHeps). Here, by improving functional maturity of hiHeps and producing hiHeps at clinical scales (3 billion cells), we developed a hiHep-based BAL system (hiHep-BAL). In a porcine ALF model, hiHep-BAL treatment restored liver functions, corrected blood levels of ammonia and bilirubin, and prolonged survival. Importantly, human albumin and α-1-antitrypsin were detectable in hiHep-BAL-treated ALF pigs. Moreover, hiHep-BAL treatment led to attenuated liver damage, resolved inflammation and enhanced liver regeneration. Our findings indicate a promising clinical application of the hiHep-BAL system. PMID:26768767

  3. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs.

    PubMed

    Orsel, K; de Jong, M C M; Bouma, A; Stegeman, J A; Dekker, A

    2007-08-21

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not suitable to start an infection chain, as inoculated vaccinated pigs resisted challenge. Therefore, we carried out two experiments in which we used direct contact to a non-vaccinated pig as route of infection. In the first experiment only the vaccine effect on susceptibility was quantified by exposing pigs, either vaccinated 14 days before or not vaccinated, each to a non-vaccinated seeder pig inoculated with FMD virus O/NET/2001. Since no significant differences were observed between contact infections in vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs, we performed a second experiment in which both susceptibility and infectivity were subject to vaccination. We quantified virus transmission in homogenous groups of vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs in which the infection chain was started by exposure to a third group of non-vaccinated infected pigs. Transmission occurred to all contact-exposed pigs in the non-vaccinated groups and to 9 out of 10 contact-exposed pigs in the vaccinated groups. The rate of transmission (beta) was significantly reduced in the vaccine group. Yet, the estimated reproduction ratio in both groups was still above 1. In conclusion, by adjusting our transmission study design and challenge method, we were able to quantify transmission of FMDV among vaccinated pigs. According to this study a single vaccination was not sufficient to stop pig to pig virus transmission. With these results major outbreaks may still be expected, even in groups of vaccinated pigs. PMID:17658199

  4. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  5. The "kidney-liver" multiorgan ex vivo perfused model improves the circuit's biochemical milieu during perfusion compared to the "liver-kidney" counterpart.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen Yuan; Gravante, Gianpiero; Eltweri, Amar; Sorge, Roberto; Ong, Seok Ling; Pollard, Cristina; Metcalfe, Mathew; Dennison, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    The multiorgan ex vivo perfused liver-kidney model allows studying the hepatic pathophysiology and purifying waste products. We tested if the addition of the kidney first followed by the liver (KL circuit) produces better results compared to the classic liver-first approach (LK). Intact livers and kidneys were obtained post mortem from ten female domestic white pigs, five experiments were conducted with the KL circuit and five with the LK. Bile, urine production, arterial blood gases, glucose, renal and liver tests were collected hourly during the perfusions. The KL circuit had values more close to physiological ranges, more stable over time and showed less variability compared to the LK circuit for urine production, glucose, PH, anion gap, lactate, urea, sodium, potassium and Alanine Transaminase (ANOVA test for repeated measures p < 0.05). The KL circuit produced a more physiological and reliable biochemical milieu.

  6. Immunomodulating effects of intestinal absorbed maternal colostral leukocytes by neonatal pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P P

    1993-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled maternal colostral leukocytes (FITC-CL) was studied in 49 neonatal colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs from nine Minnesota miniature sows. Within 2 h postfeeding (pf), maternal FITC-CL were absorbed from the sibling's digestive tract and migrated into blood. The peak appearance of FITC-CL in blood occurred in samples at 5 and 7 h pf. By 24 h pf, cells were detected in liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen and gastrointestinal tissues. To confirm intercellular migration of FITC-CL, gastrointestinal explant cultures from neonatal CD pigs were used. Maternal FITC-CL were observed to intercellularly migrate in 24 to 48 h pf between duodenal- and jejunal-epithelial cells to lamina propria cells and submucosal spaces. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled maternal colostral leukocytes were not absorbed via ileal explant cultures. Unlike FITC-CL, maternal FITC-peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (FITC-PBL) were not absorbed either in vivo or in vitro by gastrointestinal tissues. When maternal FITC-PBL were intravenously administered to siblings they were distributed in blood and organs similar to FITC-CL. Following exposure to FITC-labelled cells, treated- and mock (untreated)-pigs were compared on the basis of PBL proliferative responses to phytomitogens. Sibling CD-pigs fed maternal FITC-CL showed higher PBL T-cell responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA), and a significant stimulation (p < or = 0.01) of B-cell responses to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Pigs fed FITC-PBL showed little PBL responses to PHA, ConA and PWM over PBL from mock pigs. Similarly, the influence of noncellular constituents of colostrum were also assessed by proliferative studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:8431798

  7. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Pig Carrying a DsRed-Monomer Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mei-Han; Yang, Cho-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kui; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Lin, Yao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Pigs are an optimal animal for conducting biomedical research because of their anatomical and physiological resemblance to humans. In contrast to the abundant resources available in the study of mice, few fluorescent protein-harboring porcine models are available for preclinical studies. In this paper, we report the successful generation and characterization of a transgenic DsRed-Monomer porcine model. Methods The transgene comprised a CMV enhancer/chicken-beta actin promoter and DsRed monomeric cDNA. Transgenic pigs were produced by using pronuclear microinjection. PCR and Southern blot analyses were applied for identification of the transgene. Histology, blood examinations and computed tomography were performed to study the health conditions. The pig amniotic fluid progenitor/stem cells were also isolated to examine the existence of red fluorescence and differentiation ability. Results Transgenic pigs were successfully generated and transmitted to offspring at a germ-line transmission rate of 43.59% (17/39). Ubiquitous expression of red fluorescence was detected in the brain, eye, tongue, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, spleen, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, testis, and muscle; this was confirmed by histology and western blot analyses. In addition, we confirmed the differentiation potential of amniotic fluid progenitor stem cells isolated from the transgenic pig. Conclusions This red fluorescent pig can serve as a host for other fluorescent-labeled cells in order to study cell-microenvironment interactions, and can provide optimal red-fluorescent-labeled cells and tissues for research in developmental biology, regenerative medicine, and xenotransplantation. PMID:25187950

  8. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks.

    PubMed

    Mejer, H; Roepstorff, A

    2006-09-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June 2001, 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered at week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum-specific antibodies. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated by regular examination of soil samples and in late June and late November using parasite naïve tracer pigs. Paddock contamination was high but eggs developed slowly resulting in a low initial transmission to the experimental pigs. By week 5 p.p. transmission had increased and the numbers of infective eggs in the soil increased during the study. The results indicate a continuous uptake of infective eggs, but visceral larval migration was reduced with time, probably due to the development of a pre-hepatic barrier. Nevertheless, a rather large population of adult worms remained in the pigs throughout the study, and it may primarily have been eggs ingested in the early infection phase that gave rise to the patent infections. It is suggested that neonatal exposure may result in increased persistence and size of adult worm burden and that the higher 'life-time worm burden' may be of significant economic importance. PMID:16740179

  9. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  10. Production of septal fibrosis of the liver by means of foreign protein injections into rats.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Bruna Magalhães; Andrade, Rodrigo Guimarães; Oliveira, Ludmila Fernandes; Andrade, Zilton A

    2003-01-01

    Similarities and differences in antigenic humoral responses and electrophoretic patterns between Capillaria hepatica and pig-serum were investigated as a contribution to the understanding of hepatic fibrosis induced by the parenteral administration of foreign proteins. Only two out of 10 rats receiving repeated intraperitoneal injections of an extract of Capillaria hepatica-infected mouse liver presented septal hepatic fibrosis (20%). Under the same experimental conditions, 4 out of 9 rats (44.4%) developed septal fibrosis following whole pig-serum administration. Injections of normal mouse liver extracts did not result in hepatic fibrosis. Since a 100% septal fibrosis rate is observed in experimentally Capillaria hepatica-infected rats, it appeared that Capillaria hepatica products continuously released from inside the liver creates a much more effective fibrosis inducing mechanism than the parenteral administration of such factors. Thus, repeated peritoneal administration of a foreign protein to rats would not reveal the full fibrogenic potential it may have under natural conditions.

  11. Method and a horizontal pipeline pig launching mechanism for sequentially launching pipeline pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.

    1992-08-18

    This patent describes a method for timed automatic sequential launching of serially oriented pipeline pigs from a pig launching system having a tubular pig storage and launching magazine into a gas transmission pipeline. It comprises providing a source of hydraulic fluid medium; locating a free piston within the tubular pig storage and launching magazine for motive contact with the last of the serially oriented pipeline pigs; employing gas pressure from the gas transmission pipeline for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid medium from the source; introducing the pressurized hydraulic fluid medium into the hydraulic chamber; controllably releasing the restraining of the first of the serially oriented pipeline pigs from the tubular pig storage and launching magazine.

  12. Phytase properties and locations in tissues of transgenic pigs secreting phytase in the saliva.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Murray, D; Keirstead, N D; Hayes, M A; Fan, M Z; Ganeshapillai, Jeyabarathy; Monteiro, M A; Golovan, S P; Phillips, J P

    2014-08-01

    A transgenic Cassie (CA) line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs was developed using a transgene composed of the mouse parotid secretory protein promoter linked to the Escherichia coli phytase gene integrated in chromosome 4. Previous studies documented that salivary secretion of phytase was sufficient to enable efficient digestion of plant feed phytate P. In the present study the catalytic properties and tissue distribution of the phytase in CA pigs were determined by a combination of enzymatic assays, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblots of tissue samples. The E. coli phytase had a mass of 44.82 kDa whereas the phytase secreted in CA saliva had a mass of 52.42 kDa as a result of glycosylation of the enzyme in the parotid gland. Despite the difference in size, the 2 enzymes exhibited similar substrate specificities, and substrate affinity ( K: m) and maximum hydrolytic activity ( V: max) catalytic properties. Phytase assays showed that the enzyme was present at high specific activity in the salivary glands with low activity in the soft palate and essentially none in the kidney, lean (muscle), liver, or skin of CA pigs and none in YK pigs. This conclusion was supported by immunoblot analysis using a polyclonal anti-phytase antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 different tissue locations of CA and YK pigs confirmed the ubiquitous presence of phytase in serous cells of the salivary glands and the localized presence of phytase in both serous and mixed cell types in the submucosal glands of the oropharynx; in the pharynx, tonsils, and esophagus; in some Bowman's glands in the nasal mucosa and eustachian tube; and in the prostate gland of CA boars. Furthermore, it showed the absence of phytase from the kidney, lean, liver, and skin of CA pigs. Phytase was not detected in any of the conventional YK tissues tested. The phytase was found to be glycosylated with the allergenic galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) epitope by immunoblotting using α-gal specific monoclonal

  13. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  14. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Liver failure causes many problems, including malnutrition, problems with blood clotting, bleeding form the gastrointestinal tract, and jaundice. Frequently, patients who undergo liver transplantation are quite ill, and require ...

  15. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American men, have an increased ...

  16. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  17. Carry-over of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) from naturally contaminated wheat to pigs.

    PubMed

    Goyarts, Tanja; Dänicke, Sven; Valenta, Hana; Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz

    2007-04-01

    The frequent contamination of grain with the Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON), is an important issue in animal and human nutrition. However, data on the exposure of humans to these toxins through consumption of animal tissues exposed to Fusarium toxins (carry-over) are fragmentary. Therefore, residues of DON, ZON and their metabolites were determined in tissues and body fluids of pigs (female and castrated male) from a fattening trial. Pigs were fed a control (n = 6, 0.24 mg DON and 0.009 mg ZON per kg diet as fed) or a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (n = 12, 6.68 mg DON and 0.056 mg ZON per kg diet as fed) either ad libitum or for restrictive consumption for 12 weeks. After slaughter (96.3 +/- 11.6 kg live weight), the concentrations of DON and its metabolite, de-epoxy-DON, were measured in serum, bile, liver, kidney, musculus longissimus and back fat, while ZON and its metabolites, alpha- and beta-zearalenol (alpha-/beta-ZOL), were determined in serum, bile and liver. The mean carry-over factor of DON + de-epoxy-DON, defined as the concentration of both substances in the tissue/fluid divided by the DON concentration in the diet, for all pigs decreased from bile (0.1046 +/- 0.0653) > kidney (0.0151 +/- 0.0070) > liver (0.0057 +/- 0.0043) > serum (0.0023 +/- 0.0018) > muscle (0.0016 +/- 0.0016) > back fat (0.0002 +/- 0.0004). The time interval between the end of feeding and slaughter had no consistent effect on DON + de-epoxy-DON concentrations in the analysed specimen of Fusarium toxin-exposed pigs fed restrictively. No transfer of ZON and its metabolites could be observed into serum of pigs, while the mean carry-over factors of ZON + alpha-ZOL + beta-ZOL were 0.0094 +/- 0.0123 and 4.0 +/- 2.2 for liver and bile, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that serum is a reliable indicator for DON exposure, but an inappropriate parameter to deduce ZON exposure, which is better represented by bile concentration of ZON + alpha

  18. Disposition of 14C-derived residues in tissues of pigs fed radiolabelled fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Prelusky, D B; Miller, J D; Trenholm, H L

    1996-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of radioactive material-derived residues were determined in tissues of growing pigs consuming 14C-labelled fumonisin B1 (FB1) in the diet. Animals were fed 3.0 mg (3.0 microCi) 14C-FB1/kg feed from days 1-12, followed by 2.0 mg (2.0 microCi) 14C-FB1/kg feed during days 13-24, followed by a 9-day withdrawal period where pigs received clean feed only. Of the tissues analysed, residues were found to accumulate only in liver and kidney. Radioactivity was detected at the first sampling time (day 3), and continued to increase until the 14C-toxin was removed from the diet. Peak tissue levels (dpm/g tissue +/- SD, N = 2) in liver and kidney were 347 +/- 28 and 146 +/- 14, respectively, on day 24, which were equivalent to about 160 and 65 ng FB1 and/or metabolites per g tissue, respectively. Once pigs were placed on clean feed, tissue levels declined rapidly; down to approximately 35% of peak levels after 3 days, and only marginally above detection limits (approximately 25 dpm/g) after 9 days. Delayed recovery of the radioactive material consumed indicated a persistence within the body of FB1-derived residues, which could be eliminated only upon removal of the contaminated diet. PMID:9064240

  19. Acute nontraumatic liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Caremani, Marcello; Tacconi, Danilo; Lapini, Laura

    2013-11-26

    The principal conditions requiring emergency/urgent intervention in patients with nontraumatic liver lesions are hemorrhage (with or without tumor rupture), rupture of hydatid cysts (with or without infection), complications arising from liver abscesses or congenital liver cysts, rupture related to peliosis hepatis, and in rare cases spontaneous hemorrhage. This article examines each of these conditions, its appearance on ultrasound (the first-line imaging method of choice for assessing any urgent nontraumatic liver lesion) and indications for additional imaging studies.

  20. Percutaneous liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Newton, Eric; Kar, Premashish

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsy has been performed for more than 120 years, and remains an important diagnostic procedure for the management of hepatobiliary disorders. Modern biochemical, immunologic, and radiographic techniques have facilitated the diagnosis and management of liver diseases but have not made liver biopsy obsolete. This comprehensive review article will discuss the history of development of percutaneous liver biopsy, its indications, contraindications, complications and the various aspects of the biopsy procedure in detail.

  1. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blastocystis subtype 5, a subtype known to infect humans, was detected by molecular methods in the feces of 36 naturally infected market age pigs. At necropsy, 6 heavily infected pigs were selected to determine the tropism of the infection within the gastrointestinal tract. Because so little is know...

  2. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  3. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  4. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  5. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  6. Ultrastructural and Metabolic Determinants of Resistance to Azo-dye and Susceptibility to Nitrosamine Carcinogenesis of the Guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, G. M.; Sohal, R. S.; Argus, M. F.; Arcos, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    During diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration, a distinctive difference was observed between rats and guinea-pigs in the sequence of ultrastructural changes in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In DEN-induced hepatic tumour cells in the guinea-pig there was extensive proliferation of the rough ER, while the smooth ER was quite sparse; in the premalignant liver the opposite was noted. This is in contrast to the rat, in which administration of either DEN or 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3′-Me-DAB) brings about, in both premalignant and malignant hepatic tissue, proliferation of the smooth ER and sparsity of the rough ER. Yet, as in the rat, the number of ribosomes on the outer surface of the guinea-pig liver rough ER is greatly reduced and this is paralleled by a 49% decrease of the RNA/protein ratio as early as 4 weeks of nitrosamine administration. The decrease of RNA/protein ratio and ultrastructurally observed loss of ribosomes from the ER, following nitrosamine administration, correlate with a decrease of photometric response of microsomal suspensions to the sulphydryl probe, p-chloromercuribenzoate. While azo-dye-reductase activity is higher in untreated rats than in untreated guinea-pigs, feeding 3′-Me-DAB for 6 weeks brings about a 76% decrease in the rat, but no significant decrease in the guinea-pig, which is refractory to azo-dye carcinogenesis. Thus, the ability of the liver to inactivate the dye is greatly decreased in the rat, but not in the guinea-pig, as administration progresses toward the threshold dose for tumorigenesis. On the other hand, constitutive levels of nitrosamine dealkylase are identical in the 2 species and remain essentially unchanged following administration of DEN for 10 weeks. Inasmuch as nitrosamine dealkylation represents activating metabolism, this provides a rationale for the comparable susceptibility of the rat and guinea-pig to DEN carcinogenesis. Of the 2 enzymes in the 2 species, it is only azo

  7. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB₁ in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB₁ to form AFB₁-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB₁ by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB₁. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB₁ binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB₁. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB₁ in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB₁. PMID:27626447

  8. Toxicology of aflatoxin B1, warfarin, and cadmium in young pigs: performance and hematology.

    PubMed

    Osuna, O; Edds, G T

    1982-08-01

    Observations on the interactions of cadmium (Cd) x aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Cd x warfarin included several variables of animal performance and hematology. Cadmium was fed daily for 40 days (groups IV, V, VI) and a Cd-free diet was fed to groups I, II, and III. Groups II and V were treated with AFB1, and groups III and VI were treated with warfarin--each for 5 days during the 5th week of the experiment and the effects were observed for 10 days. All pigs fed the diet with added Cd had developed severe anemia by the 4th week of the experiment. The incorporation of this toxic concentration of Cd (83 micrograms/g) in the diet seemed to have blocked the liver microsomal enzyme system (cytochrome P-450), diminishing the toxic effects of 5 daily oral doses (0.2 mg/kg of body wt) of AFB1 (group V pigs), but enhancing synergistically the toxic anticoagulant effects of the same doses of warfarin in young pigs (group VI). The data presented also indicated that the feeding of toxic concentrations of Cd stimulated increased glutathione peroxidase activity, which conjugated the AFB1 epoxides with their excretion as reduced glutathione but enhanced the toxic anticoagulant effects of warfarin in young pigs.

  9. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1. PMID:27626447

  10. Glucose tolerance normalization following transplantation of pig pancreatic primordia into non-immunosuppressed diabetic ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sharon A; Chen, Feng; Talcott, Mike; Liapis, Helen; Hammerman, Marc R

    2006-11-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation in humans is limited by organ availability, and success of the latter is negatively impacted upon by tissue loss post-transplantation and limited potential for expansion of beta cells. A way to overcome the supply and expansion problems is to xenotransplant embryonic tissue. Previously, we have shown that beta cells originating from embryonic day (E) 28 (E28) pig pancreatic primordia transplanted into the mesentery of streptozotocin-diabetic (type 1) Lewis rats engraft without the need for host immune-suppression and normalize glucose tolerance. Here we show long-term engraftment of pig beta cells within liver, pancreas and mesenteric lymph nodes post-transplantation of E28 pig pancreatic primordia into diabetic ZDF rats, a model for type 2 diabetes. Porcine insulin is present in circulation after an oral glucose load. Glucose tolerance is normalized in transplanted ZDF hosts and insulin sensitivity restored in formerly diabetic ZDF males. Release of porcine insulin in vitro from tissue originating in transplanted rats occurs within 1 min of glucose stimulation characteristic of first-phase secretion from beta cells. Of potential importance for application of this transplantation technology to treatment of type 2 diabetes in humans and confirmatory of our previous findings in Lewis rats, no host immunosuppression is required for engraftment of E28 pig pancreatic primordia. PMID:17138051

  11. Dietary supplementation with carnosine improves antioxidant capacity and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Y; Jiang, Z Y; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T; Zhou, G L

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) supplementation on antioxidant capacity and meat quality of pigs. 72 pigs approximately 60 kg were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg carnosine per kg diet for 8 weeks. Carnosine supplementation did not affect growth performance and carcass traits of pigs. However, the addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet increased pH value of muscle at 45 min, 24 h and 48 h postmortem. It also decreased drip loss at 48 h postmortem and increased redness value of muscle at 45 min postmortem (p < 0.05). The addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet enhanced glycogen concentration and Ca-ATPase activity at 24 and 48 h postmortem, and reduced malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein complexes concentrations in muscle at 24 h postmortem (p < 0.05). The addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in plasma, liver or muscle, as well as SOD and GSH-Px genes expression in muscle (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings indicate that carnosine supplementation improves antioxidant capacity and meat quality of pigs. PMID:20626506

  12. Imaging in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Settimo; Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging tools such as ultrasonography, multi-detector row computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric and adult liver recipients and potential liver donors, and in the detection of potential complications arising from liver transplantation. PMID:19222090

  13. Immune mediated liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of “immune coagulation”, which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:26417328

  14. Isolation and characterization of Guinea pig properidin.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A; Austen, K F

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pig properdin was purified to homogeneity by employing as an assay during isolation its capacity to augment the hemolytic activity of a heterologous human C3b-dependent C3 convertase, C3B. The purified protein elicited a monospecific antibody response in a rabbit. The antiserum, by immunodiffusion, gave a reaction of identity between a protein in whole guinea pig serum and the immunogen. A solid phase immunoadsorbent prepared with the antiserum removed properdin function from the purified protein. The purified guinea pig protein exhibited the classical properdin function of reconstituting a human RP for zymosan-induced C3 inactivation. The guinea pig properdin also agglutinated red cell intermediates bearing either guinea pig or human C3b and retarded the decay of homologous C3 convertase, C3B. These activities are the same as those observed for purified human properdin and validate the amplification function of properdin on terminal component activation in a second species.

  15. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. PMID:26542368

  16. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide.

  17. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe. PMID:25421429

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid on growth performance and tissue selenium retention in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jlali, M; Briens, M; Rouffineau, F; Geraert, P-A; Mercier, Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new organic Se (2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid [HMSeBA]) source (SO) with sodium selenite (SS) and selenized yeast (SY) at various dietary levels for growth performance and tissue Se deposition in growing pigs. A total of 112 crossbred (Pietrain × [Large White × Landrace]) gilts were allotted at an average body weight of 26.73 kg to 7 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens of 2 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed basal diets unsupplemented or supplemented either with SS, SY, or SO each at 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg of diet for 32 d. Feed intake and BW were recorded during the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, and psoas major muscle of all gilts were collected for total Se and relative bioavailability determination. No differences were observed on final BW, ADG, ADFI, and G:F among dietary treatments. All Se-supplemented groups exhibited greater total Se contents in plasma (P < 0.01) and liver (P < 0.01) compared with unsupplemented control group. However, Se retention in psoas major muscle was improved only when organic Se source (SY or SO) was added to diets (P < 0.01). Regardless the Se level, the Se deposition in muscle was greater (P < 0.01) in pigs supplemented with SO than those supplemented with SY. Slope ratio assay confirmed the greater bioavailability of Se from organic compared with inorganic Se and also revealed that the relative bioavailability of Se from HMSeBA for plasma, liver, and muscle Se response was 170, 141, and 162%, respectively, for SY. This study shows a potential advantage of HMSeBA supplementation in the increase of Se contents in pig tissues, indicating that this new organic Se source could be an alternative source of Se in swine nutrition.

  19. l-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)—commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation—was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs—as in humans—is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. PMID:26609560

  20. Guinea Pig Ciliary Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D.; Carpenter, Ashley R.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Mutti, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a method for quantifying guinea pig ciliary muscle volume (CMV) and to determine its relationship to age and ocular biometric measurements. Methods Six albino guinea pigs eyes were collected at each of five ages (n=30 eyes). Retinoscopy and photography were used to document refractive error, eye size, and eye shape. Serial sections through the excised eyes were made and then labeled with an α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The CM was then visualized with an Olympus BX51 microscope, reconstructed with Stereo Investigator (MBF Bioscience) and analyzed using Neurolucida Explorer (MBF Bioscience). Full (using all sections) and partial (using a subset of sections) reconstruction methods were used to determine CMV. Results There was no significant difference between the full and partial volume determination methods (P = 0.86). The mean CMV of the 1, 10, 20, 30, and 90-day old eyes was 0.40 ± 0.16 mm3, 0.48 ± 0.13 mm3, 0.67 ± 0.15 mm3, 0.86 ± 0.35 mm3, and 1.09 ± 0.63 mm3, respectively. CMV was significantly correlated with log age (P = 0.001), ocular length (P = 0.003), limbal circumference (P = 0.01), and equatorial diameter (P = 0.003). It was not correlated with refractive error (P = 0.73) or eye shape (P = 0.60). Multivariate regression determined that biometric variables were not significantly associated with CMV after adjustment for age. Conclusions Three-dimensional reconstruction was an effective means of determining CMV. These data provide evidence that CM growth occurs with age in tandem with eye size in normal albino guinea pigs. Additional work is needed to determine the relationship between CMV and abnormal ocular growth. PMID:24901488

  1. Evaluation of in vivo genotoxicity induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in the Pig-a and gpt assays.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ukai, Akiko; Kimoto, Takafumi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Masumura, Kenichi; Nohmi, Takehiko; Honma, Masamitsu

    2013-12-01

    The recently developed Pig-a mutation assay is based on flow cytometric enumeration of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor-deficient red blood cells caused by a forward mutation in the Pig-a gene. Because the assay can be conducted in nontransgenic animals and the mutations accumulate with repeat dosing, we believe that the Pig-a assay could be integrated into repeat-dose toxicology studies and provides an alternative to transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation assays. The capacity and characteristics of the Pig-a assay relative to TGR mutation assays, however, are unclear. Here, using transgenic gpt delta mice, we compared the in vivo genotoxicity of single oral doses of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU, 40 mg/kg), benzo[a]pyrene (BP, 100 and 200 mg/kg), and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 50 mg/kg) in the Pig-a (peripheral blood) and gpt (bone marrow and liver) gene mutation assays. Pig-a assays were conducted at 2, 4, and 7 weeks after the treatment, while gpt assays were conducted on tissues collected at the 7-week terminal sacrifice. ENU increased both Pig-a and gpt mutant frequencies (MFs) at all sampling times, and BP increased MFs in both assays but the Pig-a MFs peaked at 2 weeks and then decreased. Although 4NQO increased gpt MFs in the liver, only weak, nonsignificant increases (two- or threefold above control) were detected in the bone marrow in both the Pig-a and the gpt assay. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to elucidate the kinetics of the Pig-a mutation assay in order to use it as an alternative to the TGR mutation assay.

  2. Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

    2013-09-01

    Ractopamine is a β-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P < 0.05) of creatine kinase concentrations in pigs receiving ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation.

  3. Acute liver failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the presence of coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio ≥ 1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy due to severe liver damage in patients without pre-existing liver disease. Although the mortality due to ALF without liver transplantation is over 80%, the survival rates of patients have considerably improved with the advent of liver transplantation, up to 60% to 90% in the last two decades. Recent large studies in Western countries reported 1, 5, and 10-year patient survival rates after liver transplantation for ALF of approximately 80%, 70%, and 65%, respectively. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has mainly evolved in Asian countries where organ availability from deceased donors is extremely scarce, has also improved the survival rate of ALF patients in these regions. According to recent reports, the overall survival rate of adult ALF patients who underwent LDLT ranges from 60% to 90%. Although there is still controversy regarding the graft type, optimal graft volume, and ethical issues, LDLT has become an established treatment option for ALF in areas where the use of deceased donor organs is severely restricted. PMID:25343108

  4. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the...

  5. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the...

  6. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the...

  7. Metformin overdose, but not lactic acidosis per se, inhibits oxygen consumption in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of metformin-induced lactic acidosis. However, patients with severe metformin intoxication may have a 30 to 60% decrease in their global oxygen consumption, as for generalized inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We developed a pig model of severe metformin intoxication to validate this clinical finding and assess mitochondrial function in liver and other tissues. Methods Twenty healthy pigs were sedated and mechanically ventilated. Ten were infused with a large dose of metformin (4 to 8 g) and five were not (sham controls). Five others were infused with lactic acid to clarify whether lactic acidosis per se diminishes global oxygen use. Arterial pH, lactatemia, global oxygen consumption (VO2) (metabolic module) and delivery (DO2) (cardiac output by thermodilution) were monitored for nine hours. Oxygen extraction was computed as VO2/DO2. Activities of the main components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex I, II and III, and IV) were measured with spectrophotometry (and expressed relative to citrate synthase activity) in heart, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle and platelets taken at the end of the study. Results Pigs infused with metformin (6 ± 2 g; final serum drug level 77 ± 45 mg/L) progressively developed lactic acidosis (final arterial pH 6.93 ± 0.24 and lactate 18 ± 7 mmol/L, P < 0.001 for both). Their VO2 declined over time (from 115 ± 34 to 71 ± 30 ml/min, P < 0.001) despite grossly preserved DO2 (from 269 ± 68 to 239 ± 51 ml/min, P = 0.58). Oxygen extraction accordingly fell from 43 ± 10 to 30 ± 10% (P = 0.008). None of these changes occurred in either sham controls or pigs infused with lactic acid (final arterial pH 6.86 ± 0.16 and lactate 22 ± 3 mmol/L). Metformin intoxication was associated with inhibition of complex I in the liver (P < 0.001), heart (P < 0.001), kidney (P = 0.003), skeletal muscle (P = 0.012) and platelets (P = 0

  8. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P < 0.05) the Fe, Cu, and Se levels in the plasma; Fe and Zn levels in the liver; and Se levels in heart. Furthermore, compared with ITM group, the concentration of Zn and Se in the liver and heart, and Se in plasma and longissimus muscle were greater (P < 0.05) in OTM group. Hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD and ALP activities were increased (P < 0.05) when either ITMs or OTMs were supplemented. Pigs supplemented with OTMs displayed greater activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px in the liver compared to pigs supplemented with ITMs. Dietary mineral supplementation to pig diets greatly increased (P < 0.05) fecal mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se) excretion in both grower and finisher phases. Fecal concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se excretion were lower (P < 0.05) with OTMs supplementation than that in pigs fed diets containing ITMs. These results indicate

  9. Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously

  10. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  11. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  12. Molecular cloning of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (form II) cDNA from adult human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Lomri, N; Gu, Q; Cashman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the adult human liver flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; dimethylaniline N-oxidase, EC 1.14.13.8) were isolated from lambda gt10 and lambda gt11 libraries. The cDNA libraries were screened with three synthetic 36-mer oligonucleotide probes derived from the nucleic acid sequence of the pig liver FMO cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence for the adult human liver FMO was quite distinct from the pig liver FMO, and adult human liver FMO was designated form II (HLFMO II). The full-length cDNA sequence of HLFMO II [2119 base pairs (bp)] had an open reading frame of 1599 nucleotides, which encoded a 533-amino acid protein of Mr 59,179, a 5'-noncoding region of 136 nucleotides and a 3'-noncoding region of 369 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. The deduced amino acid sequence of HLFMO II had 80% similarity with the rabbit liver FMO II but only a 52%, 55%, and 53% amino acid similarity with the rabbit liver (form I), the pig liver (form I), and fetal human liver (form I) FMOs, respectively. RNA analysis of adult human liver RNA showed that there was one HLFMO II mRNA species. Analysis of genomic DNA indicated that HLFMO II was the product of a single gene. These results indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence for HLFMO II contained highly conserved residues and suggested that FMO enzymes were closely related and, undoubtedly, derived from the same ancestral gene. Images PMID:1542660

  13. Porcine liver decellularization under oscillating pressure conditions: a technical refinement to improve the homogeneity of the decellularization process.

    PubMed

    Struecker, Benjamin; Hillebrandt, Karl Herbert; Voitl, Robert; Butter, Antje; Schmuck, Rosa B; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Geisel, Dominik; Joehrens, Korinna; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Raschzok, Nathanael; Puhl, Gero; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M

    2015-03-01

    Decellularization and recellularization of parenchymal organs may facilitate the generation of autologous functional liver organoids by repopulation of decellularized porcine liver matrices with induced liver cells. We present an accelerated (7 h overall perfusion time) and effective protocol for human-scale liver decellularization by pressure-controlled perfusion with 1% Triton X-100 and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate via the hepatic artery (120 mmHg) and portal vein (60 mmHg). In addition, we analyzed the effect of oscillating pressure conditions on pig liver decellularization (n=19). The proprietary perfusion device used to generate these pressure conditions mimics intra-abdominal conditions during respiration to optimize microperfusion within livers and thus optimize the homogeneity of the decellularization process. The efficiency of perfusion decellularization was analyzed by macroscopic observation, histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], Sirius red, and alcian blue), immunohistochemical staining (collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin), and biochemical assessment (DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans) of decellularized liver matrices. The integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) postdecellularization was visualized by corrosion casting and three-dimensional computed tomography scanning. We found that livers perfused under oscillating pressure conditions (P(+)) showed a more homogenous course of decellularization and contained less DNA compared with livers perfused without oscillating pressure conditions (P(-)). Microscopically, livers from the (P(-)) group showed remnant cell clusters, while no cells were found in livers from the (P(+)) group. The grade of disruption of the ECM was higher in livers from the (P(-)) group, although the perfusion rates and pressure did not significantly differ. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that important matrix components were still present after decellularization. Corrosion casting showed an intact

  14. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  15. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  16. Formation of (4R)- and (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A from ochratoxin A by liver microsomes from various species.

    PubMed Central

    Størmer, F C; Hansen, C E; Pedersen, J I; Hvistendahl, G; Aasen, A J

    1981-01-01

    Two metabolic products were formed from ochratoxin A by human, pig, and rat liver microsomal fractions in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. They were isolated from the incubation mixture in the presence of pig liver microsomes by extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography Their structures are suggested to be (4R)- and (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A on the basis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Km and the maximum velocity for the formation of the two metabolites by human, pig, and rat microsomes were determined. Their formation was inhibited by carbon monoxide and metyrapone. The results indicate that the microsomal hydroxylation system is a cytochrome P-450 and that different species are involved in the formation of the two epimeric forms of 4-hydroxyochratoxin A. PMID:7316512

  17. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laha, R

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620

  18. Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, Anne-Claude; Nicolas, Jacques; Cobut, Pierre; Delva, Julien; Nicks, Baudouin; Philippe, François-Xavier

    2013-10-01

    A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou s.pig-1), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean assessed odour emission factor with the pig mass. However, the variation within the same mass class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling.

  19. Covalent binding of nitroso-sulfonamides to glutathione S-transferase in guinea pigs with delayed type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Eyanagi, Reiko; Toda, Akihisa; Imoto, Masumi; Uchiyama, Hidemori; Ishii, Yuji; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Yukako; Soeda, Shinji; Shimeno, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Drug induced allergies are believed to be induced by conjugates consisting of biological macromolecules and active metabolites. The present study investigated whether guinea pig glutathione S-transferase (gpGST), a protein that binds with sulfanilamide (SA) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), could be detected in the liver cytosol fraction of guinea pigs that intraperitoneally received SA or SMX, and whether gpGST is a carrier protein. We synthesized three nitroso compounds, i.e., 4-nitroso-sulfanilamide (SA-NO), 4-nitrososulfamethoxazole (SMX-NO) and fluorescent-labeled nitroso compound (DNSBA-NO), and examined binding quantities of nitroso compounds to gpGST purified from untreated female guinea pigs. Furthermore, the concentrations of IgG in serum antibody for nitroso compounds were estimated using ELISA. When guinea pigs were sensitized using the three nitroso compounds, the dose dependent skin reactions were confirmed with each compound. In addition, sensitized guinea pigs using each nitroso compound showed positive skin reactions at an elicitation test performed using gpGST alone. The results confirmed synthesis of antibody against gpGST due to hapten sensitization. Therefore, when a nitroso compound binds with gpGST in the body of guinea pigs, nitroso-gpGST acts as a neoantigen, which induces synthesis of autoantibody. Thus, gpGST appears to be one of the carrier proteins that induce sulfa drug-induced allergies. Immunization of guinea pigs with active metabolite of drugs may give information for predicting the occurrence of delayed type hypersensitivity in human. PMID:22342371

  20. Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Maria C.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Rea, Mary C.; Gelencsér, Eva; Jánosi, Anna; Epstein, Michelle M.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFNγ production from mitogenic stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased (P<0.10) following 31 days of GM maize exposure. While Cry1Ab-specific IgG and IgA were not detected in the plasma of GM maize-fed pigs, the detection of the cry1Ab gene and protein was limited to the gastrointestinal digesta and was not found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, muscle, heart or blood. Feeding GM maize to weanling pigs had no effect on growth performance or body weight. IL-6 and IL-4 production from isolated splenocytes were increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize while the proportion of CD4+ T cells in the spleen decreased. In the ileum, the proportion of B cells and macrophages decreased while the proportion of CD4+ T cells increased in GM maize-fed pigs. IL-8 and IL-4 production from isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were also increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize. In conclusion, there was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or protein translocation to the organs and blood of weaning pigs. The growth of pigs was not affected by feeding GM maize. Alterations in immune responses were detected; however, their biologic relevance is questionable. PMID:22132091

  1. Effect of L-lysine on expression of selected genes, serum concentration of amino acids, muscle growth and performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; García, H; Arce, N; Cota, M; Zijlstra, R T; Araiza, B A; Cervantes, M

    2015-08-01

    Lysine (Lys) is the first limiting amino acid (AA) in most feed formulations for pigs and most abundant, along with leucine, in muscle proteins. An experiment was conducted with 17 pigs (17.7 ± 0.05 kg initial BW) to identify a role of dietary Lys in the control of protein synthesis in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly assigned to one of the two wheat-based dietary treatments: Lys-deficient, 3.0 g/kg (DEF) and Lys-adequate, 10.8 g/kg (ADE). Samples from jejunum mucosa, liver, Longissumus and Semitendinosus muscles, and blood were collected. The other three pigs were sacrificed at the beginning of the trial to measure basal carcass composition. Weight gain, gain:feed ratio, Lys intake and loin eye area were greater in ADE than in DEF pigs (p < 0.01). Muscle-related carcass characteristics were better, and myosin heavy chain IIb expression (MyHC IIb) in Semitendinosus was higher in ADE than in DEF pigs. Expression of AA transporters CAT-1 was lower (p < 0.05), serum Lys was higher and serum Val was lower in pigs fed the ADE diet. The higher muscularity, MyHC IIb expression in Semitendinosus muscle and Lys serum of pigs fed the ADE diet suggest that Lys increases growth rate not only by functioning as protein construction unit but also as potential control of the protein synthesis process.

  2. Porcine circovirus-2 DNA concentration distinguishes wasting from nonwasting pigs and is correlated with lesion distribution, severity, and nucleocapsid staining intensity.

    PubMed

    Harding, John C S; Baker, Crissie D; Tumber, Anju; McIntosh, Kathleen A; Parker, Sarah E; Middleton, Dorothy M; Hill, Janet E; Ellis, John A; Krakowka, Steven

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of severe porcine circoviral disease in North America is associated with Porcine circovirus-2 genotype b (PCV-2b), which has led to speculation that PCV-2b is more virulent than PCV-2a. The objectives of this study were to 1) correlate the PCV-2 DNA concentration and lesions in wasting (WST) and age-matched healthy (HLTH) pigs from 2 clinically affected farms, and unaffected (UNFCT) pigs from a farm with no prior clinical or diagnostic history of PCVD; and 2) to determine the initial estimates of sensitivity and specificity of PCV-2 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PCV-2b was confirmed in all 3 farms. Compared with HLTH pigs, WST pigs demonstrated significantly more prevalent thymic atrophy, failure of normal pulmonary collapse, and ascites (P < 0.017 for all). The HLTH and UNFCT pigs had significantly more pronounced lymphoid germinal centers and proliferative paracortical T-dependent zones, compared with WST pigs (P < 0.017). Across all tissues, PCV-2 DNA concentrations were significantly higher in WST compared with HLTH and UNFCT pigs (P < 0.017 for all). The PCV-2 DNA concentrations were strongly correlated with PCV-2 nucleocapsid staining intensity in lymph node, spleen, Peyer's patches, lung, liver, and kidney (0.60 < or = r < or = 0.84). In the current study, the PCV-2 DNA log10 cutoff concentrations best able to distinguish WST from HLTH and UNFCT pigs were between 7.0 and 8.0 per gram for tissues, and between 4.0 and 5.0 per milliliter for sera. The presence of PCV-2b in UNFCT pigs is evidence that PCV-2b by itself is not sufficient to induce severe disease.

  3. Measurement of liver adenine nucleotides and S-adenosyl amino acids by one-step high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gourdeau, H; Lavoie, R; Grose, J H; Bélanger, L

    1986-10-01

    A reverse-phase isocratic HPLC method is described for direct simultaneous assay of ATP, ADP, AMP, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylethionine, and other adenine derivatives in liver microbiopsies. The procedure was tested in conditions which alter the hepatic content of adenine nucleotides and sulfur-adenosyl amino acids in humans, rats, and guinea pigs.

  4. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    SciTech Connect

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  5. Aging and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Aging is a condition in which a person gradually loses the ability to maintain homeostasis, due to structural alteration or dysfunction. Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases. As the liver has a remarkable ability to regenerate, this review assessed the effect of aging on clinical liver disease with references to preclinical models when relevant to pathogenesis. Recent findings Aging has been shown to not only enhance vulnerability to acute liver injury but also increase susceptibility of the fibrotic response. Aging is associated with the severity and poor prognosis of various liver diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis C, and liver transplantation. Summary Treatment of older patients with liver disease may require different or longer interventions. Transplantation of an older liver will be less tolerant of subsequent injury. Future studies are needed to understand more about the molecular mechanism of aging and contribute to the development of a noble treatment strategy that can block the progression of aging-induced liver diseases. PMID:25850346

  6. Liver transplantatation- an overview.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rakesh

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a therapeutic option of choice for acute and chronic end-stage liver disease. Indications, contraindications, and surgical procedures for the liver transplantation have become well established. In most part of the world, the main source of liver for transplantation remains the donation after brain death (DBD), but in view of increasing death on the waiting list due to shortage of brain dead organs other options such as split liver transplantation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and donation after cardiac death (DCD) have been used. In the pretransplantation era, liver failure was nearly universally fatal, with mortality from fulminant hepatic failure of 80-90 %, and 1-year mortality in decompensated cirrhosis of more than 50 %. In contrast, liver transplantation patient survival is presently more than 85 % at 1 year and more than 70 % at 5 years, emphasizing the clinical benefit of liver transplantation for either acute or chronic liver failure. PMID:24426424

  7. Nuclear transfer and transgenesis in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kurome, Mayuko; Kessler, Barbara; Wuensch, Annegret; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Wolf, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically modified donor cells facilitates the generation of tailored pig models for biomedical research and for xenotransplantation. Up to now, SCNT is the main way to generate gene-targeted pigs, since germ line-competent pluripotent stem cells are not available for this species. In this chapter, we introduce our routine workflow for the production of genetically engineered pigs, especially focused on the genetic modification of somatic donor cells, SCNT using in vitro matured oocytes, and laparoscopic embryo transfer.

  8. Nuclear transfer and transgenesis in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kurome, Mayuko; Kessler, Barbara; Wuensch, Annegret; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Wolf, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically modified donor cells facilitates the generation of tailored pig models for biomedical research and for xenotransplantation. Up to now, SCNT is the main way to generate gene-targeted pigs, since germ line-competent pluripotent stem cells are not available for this species. In this chapter, we introduce our routine workflow for the production of genetically engineered pigs, especially focused on the genetic modification of somatic donor cells, SCNT using in vitro matured oocytes, and laparoscopic embryo transfer. PMID:25287337

  9. Effect of terramycin in balantidiosis of pigs.

    PubMed

    Mwamba, T; Pandey, V S

    1977-01-01

    In an industrial pig farm in Lubumashi, Zaïre, Balantidium coli produced severe clinical and fatal disease. Terramycin at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight administered twice daily with concentrates gave clinical recovery in all the pigs treated. The complete parasitological recovery was obtained in 14 out of 20 animals. In the remaining 6 there was significant reduction in the number of B. coli. Keeping in view the large spectrum of activity of terramycin in various infections as well as B. coli, terramycin can be useful in the treatment of balantidiosis of pigs. PMID:596795

  10. Meta-analytical study of productive and nutritional interactions of mycotoxins in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Hauschild, L; Vale, M M; Lovatto, P A

    2012-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to study the association of mycotoxins with performance and organ weights in growing pigs. A total of 85 articles published between 1968 and 2010 were used, totaling 1012 treatments and 13 196 animals. The meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation and variance-covariance. The presence of mycotoxins in diets was seen to reduce the feed intake by 18% and the weight gain in 21% compared with the control group. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest impact on the feed intake and growth of pigs, reducing by 26% and 16% in the feed intake and by 26% and 22% in the weight gain. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination in equations for estimating the effect of mycotoxins on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in younger animals. In addition, the residual analysis showed that the greater part of the variation in weight gain was explained by the variation in feed intake (87%). The protein and methionine levels in diets could influence the feed intake and the weight gain in challenged animals. The weight gain in challenged pigs showed a positive correlation with the methionine level in diets (0.68). The mycotoxin effect on growth was greater in males compared with the effect on females. The reduction in weight gain was of 15% in the female group and 19% in the male group. Mycotoxin presence in pig diets has interfered in the relative weight of the liver, the kidneys and the heart. Mycotoxins have an influence on performance and organ weight in pigs. However, the magnitude of the effects varies with the type and concentration of mycotoxin, sex and the animal age, as well as nutritional factors.

  11. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  12. Comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig grade standards.

    PubMed

    Siemens, A L; Lipsey, R J; Hedrick, H B; Williams, F L; Yokley, S W; Siemens, M G

    1990-08-01

    Two feeder pig grading systems were tested. Forty-five barrows were selected using current USDA Feeder Pig Grade Standards (U.S. No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3). Additionally, 45 barrows were selected using three frame sizes (large, medium and small). Pigs were slaughtered at 100, 113.5 of 127 kg live weight. Trimmed four lean cuts were separated into soft tissue, skin and bone. The skinless belly and soft tissue from the four lean cuts were ground separately and analyzed chemically. Data from each grading system were analyzed separately in a 3 X 3 factorial plan. Pigs selected using current USDA grade standards differed (P less than .05) for last rib backfat, 10th rib fat depth, longissimus muscle area, percentage of trimmed four lean cuts and USDA carcass grade. In the frame size system, pigs with large frame size had less last rib backfat, less 10th rib fat depth, longer carcasses, higher percentage of four lean cuts and superior USDA carcass grades than pigs with small frame size did (P less than .05). The Bradley and Schumann test of sensitivity showed that selection by frame size was more sensitive than current USDA grade standards for discriminating feeder pig foreleg length, body depth and ham width. In addition, selection by frame size was more sensitive than current USDA grade standards for discriminating carcass length and carcass radius length. No increase in sensitivity (P greater than .10) was noted for carcass composition or growth traits over the current USDA Feeder Pig Grade Standards.

  13. [Liver and sport].

    PubMed

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  14. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  15. Thyroid function, metabolic indices and growth performance in pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Svetina, A; Jerković, I; Vrabac, Ljiljana; Curić, S

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid function and morphology, liver morphology, some metabolic indices, haematological parameters and growth performance of fattening pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal (00-RPM) were examined. The control group was fed on a standard diet containing 6% sunflower seed meal (SM) during the growing period and 8% during the finishing period. The first experimental group was fed a diet in which SM was replaced by equal (6% and 8%) amounts of 00-RPM. The second experimental group was fed with a higher (8% and 10%) amount of 00-RPM. There were no significant differences between the control and experimental groups in the serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Thyroid gland and liver weights were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in both groups fed 00-RPM than in the group fed SM. The epithelium of the thyroid gland was cuboidal or columnar and the follicular area was moderately enlarged in pigs fed 00-RPM. Marked changes in liver histology were not observed. The 00-RPM diet increased (P < 0.01) the serum values of total proteins in the first fattening period. At the end of fattening both groups fed 00-RPM had higher (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) concentrations of plasma glucose than the control group. The inclusion of 10% of 00-RPM during the finishing period increased (P < 0.05) the serum values of insulin. Daily weight gain during the growing and the finishing period was higher (P < 0.05) in the experimental groups than in the control group. The results suggest that 6-10% 00-RPM can be used as a protein source in the diet of fattening pigs without poisonous side effects.

  16. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Hansen, Jeff A.; Kim, Yong B.; De Souza, Anna L. P.; Middleton, Tina F.; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. PMID:23867763

  17. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Hansen, Jeff A; Kim, Yong B; De Souza, Anna L P; Middleton, Teena F; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-07-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  18. Acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andy; Wendon, Julia

    2011-06-01

    ALF is a multisystem disorder necessitating both predictive and reactive management strategies to support and protect organs from the initial and subsequent insults encountered. Early referral to a specialist liver centre with the option of liver transplantation is recommended. Furthermore, a good understanding of the poor prognostic variables is necessary to determine those most at risk of developing ALF in order to facilitate timely, safe transfer and listing for liver transplantation. PMID:21902079

  19. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  20. Robotic liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  1. Gene expression profiling in hepatic tissue of newly weaned pigs fed pharmacological zinc and phytase supplemented diets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Hill, Gretchen M; Raney, Nancy E; Rilington, Valencia D; Tempelman, Robert J; Link, Jane E; Wilkinson, Christopher P; Ramos, Antonio M; Ernst, Catherine W

    2008-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element. However, Zn bioavailability from commonly consumed plants may be reduced due to phytic acid. Zn supplementation has been used to treat diarrheal disease in children, and in the U.S. swine industry at pharmacological levels to promote growth and fecal consistency, but underlying mechanisms explaining these beneficial effects remain unknown. Moreover, adding supplemental phytase improves Zn bioavailability. Thus, we hypothesized that benefits of pharmacological Zn supplementation result from changes in gene expression that could be further affected by supplemental phytase. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding newly weaned pigs dietary Zn (150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg) as Zn oxide with or without phytase [500 phytase units (FTU)/kg] for 14 d on hepatic gene expression. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg, or 1,000 mg Zn/kg with phytase (n = 4 per treatment) was reverse transcribed and examined using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg (n = 4 per treatment) was also evaluated using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. Results Expressed sequence tags for 61 putatively differentially expressed transcripts were cloned and sequenced. In addition, interrogation of a 13,297 element oligonucleotide microarray revealed 650 annotated transcripts (FDR ≤ 0.05) affected by pharmacological Zn supplementation. Seven transcripts exhibiting differential expression in pigs fed pharmacological Zn with sequence similarities to genes encoding GLO1, PRDX4, ACY1, ORM1, CPB2, GSTM4, and HSP70.2 were selected for confirmation. Relative hepatic GLO1 (P < 0.0007), PRDX4 (P < 0.009) and ACY1 (P < 0.01) mRNA abundances were confirmed to be greater in pigs fed 1,000 (n = 8) and 2,000 (n = 8) mg Zn/kg than in pigs fed 150 (n = 7) mg Zn/kg. Relative hepatic HSP70.2 (P < 0.002) mRNA abundance was confirmed to

  2. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  3. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Brunjes, Peter C; Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  4. Effective immune protection of pigs against cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, E; Costa, J O; Guimarães, M P; Tavares, C A

    1995-03-01

    A scolex protein antigen (SPA) was prepared from cysticerci of Taenia solium obtained from naturally infected pigs. Yorkshire pigs were vaccinated with SPA plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or with SPA plus Corynebacterium parvum (CP). Controls were given IFA plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or CP plus PBS. All animals were given three subcutaneous injections at 20-day intervals. Ten days after the third injection, the pigs were fed with 10(4) viable eggs of T. solium. All pigs developed a delayed type hypersensitivity, and a transient eosinophilia after the first dose of vaccine. High titers of specific antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated animals and in infected controls. A protection level of 71.43% was recorded in animals vaccinated with SPA plus IFA and of 75.00% in those vaccinated with SPA plus CP.

  5. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  6. Effective immune protection of pigs against cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, E; Costa, J O; Guimarães, M P; Tavares, C A

    1995-03-01

    A scolex protein antigen (SPA) was prepared from cysticerci of Taenia solium obtained from naturally infected pigs. Yorkshire pigs were vaccinated with SPA plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or with SPA plus Corynebacterium parvum (CP). Controls were given IFA plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or CP plus PBS. All animals were given three subcutaneous injections at 20-day intervals. Ten days after the third injection, the pigs were fed with 10(4) viable eggs of T. solium. All pigs developed a delayed type hypersensitivity, and a transient eosinophilia after the first dose of vaccine. High titers of specific antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated animals and in infected controls. A protection level of 71.43% was recorded in animals vaccinated with SPA plus IFA and of 75.00% in those vaccinated with SPA plus CP. PMID:7604530

  7. Blocking porcine sialoadhesin improves extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion with human blood

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Joshua P.; Vogel, Thomas; Burlak, Christopher; Coussios, Constantin; Dominguez, Javier; Friend, Peter; Rees, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients in fulminant hepatic failure currently do not have a temporary means of support while awaiting liver transplantation. A potential therapeutic approach for such patients is the use of extracorporeal perfusion with porcine livers as a form of “liver dialysis”. During a 72-hour extracorporeal perfusion of porcine livers with human blood, porcine Kupffer cells bind to and phagocytose human red blood cells (hRBC) causing the hematocrit to decrease to 2.5% of the original value. Our laboratory has identified porcine sialoadhesin expressed on Kupffer cells as the lectin responsible for binding N-acetylneuraminic acid on the surface of the hRBC. We evaluated whether blocking porcine sialoadhesin prevents the recognition and subsequent destruction of hRBCs seen during extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion. Ex vivo studies were performed using wild type pig livers perfused with isolated hRBCs for 72-hours in the presence of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody or isotype control. The addition of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody to an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model reduces the loss of hRBC over a 72 hour period. Sustained liver function was demonstrated throughout the perfusion. This study illustrates the role of sialoadhesin in mediating the destruction of hRBCs in an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model. PMID:23822217

  8. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P < 0.001), identifying 2 main dimensions of pig expression (dim1: playful/confident-cautious/timid; dim2: aggressive/nervous-relaxed/bored), on which pig scores for different observer groups were highly correlated (pearson r > 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P < 0.001); however, this difference did not distort the strong overall consistency of characterizations by observers of individual pigs. Questionnaire results indicated observer groups to differ in various ways, such as daily and lifetime contact with pigs (P < 0.001), some aspects of affection and empathy for pigs (P < 0

  9. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M.; Chesnut, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  10. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  11. NUCLEAR MEMBRANES FROM MAMMALIAN LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Werner W.; Deumling, Barbara; Ermen, Baerbel; Jarasch, Ernst-Dieter; Kleinig, Hans

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear membranes were isolated from rat and pig liver by sonication of highly purified nuclear fractions and subsequent removal of adhering nucleoproteins in a high salt medium. The fractions were examined in the electron microscope by both negative staining and thin sectioning techniques and were found to consist of nuclear envelope fragments of widely varying sizes. Nuclear pore complex constituents still could frequently be recognized. The chemical composition of the nuclear membrane fractions was determined and compared with those of microsomal fractions prepared in parallel. For total nuclei as well as for nuclear membranes and microsomes, various enzyme activities were studied. The results indicate that a similarity exists between both fractions of cytomembranes, nuclear envelope, and endoplasmic reticulum, with respect to their RNA:protein ratio and their content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Both membranous fractions had many proteins in common including some membrane-bound enzymes. Activities in Mg-ATPase and the two examined cytochrome reductases were of the same order of magnitude. The content of cytochrome b5 as well as of P-450 was markedly lower in the nuclear membranes. The nuclear membranes were found to have a higher buoyant density and to be richer in protein. The glucose-6-phosphatase and Na-K-ATPase activities in the nuclear membrane fraction were very low. In the gel electrophoresis, in addition to many common protein bands, some characteristic ones for either microsomal or nuclear membranous material were detected. Significant small amounts of DNA and RNA were found to remain closely associated with the nuclear envelope fragments. Our findings indicate that nuclear and endoplasmic reticulum membranes which are known to be in morphological continuity have, besides a far-reaching similarity, some characteristic differences. PMID:4317731

  12. A Genetic Analysis of Taoyuan Pig and Its Phylogenetic Relationship to Eurasian Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

    2015-01-01

    Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan’s early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

  13. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Korani, M; Rezayat, S M; Gilani, K; Arbabi Bidgoli, S; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  14. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

  15. Nutrition and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Teran, J C

    1999-08-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients with liver diseases. The pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in cirrhosis involves many factors, including poor oral intake, malabsorption, and metabolic abnormalities similar to stress. Encephalopathy may complicate cirrhosis but is usually not caused by diet. Protein restriction is only necessary in rare patients with refractory encephalopathy. The use of branched-chain amino-acid solutions is not supported by the literature. Chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis are not usually associated with protein-energy malnutrition, but vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common, especially with significant cholestasis. Fatty liver may result from excessive triglyceride uptake and production by the liver or by a secretory defect. Therapy for fatty liver depends on its cause. Chronic total parenteral nutrition may induce fatty liver and inflammation especially in patients with short-bowel syndrome. Deficiency of choline in parenteral nutrition has been proposed as the mechanism for liver disease. Acute liver diseases such as fulminant hepatic failure or alcoholic hepatitis are considered hypercatabolic diseases and thus require prompt nutritional intervention with a high-calorie enteral or parenteral formula. In fulminant hepatic failure, low-protein, fluid-restricted formulas are recommended. PMID:10980970

  16. Hepatitis C: liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Metts, Julius; Carmichael, Lesley; Kokor, Winfred; Scharffenberg, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma account for approximately 40% of the 6,000 adult liver transplantations performed each year in the United States. Survival rates are 76% to 83% at 2 years and 69% to 72% at 5 years. If eligible for surgery and in the absence of contraindications, any patient with HCV infection who develops decompensated liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma is a candidate for liver transplantation. Most transplantation programs require that a patient with a history of alcohol or drug abuse be abstinent for at least 6 months and active in a substance abuse rehabilitation program. Prioritization for transplantation is based primarily on a patient's model for end-stage liver disease score, though other factors are considered. Complications after liver transplantation include recurrence of HCV infection, rejection of the transplanted liver, and an increased rate of infection because of immunosuppression. Various drugs are used to prevent infection and organ rejection. Liver transplant recipients also develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal dysfunction, osteopenia, and cancers at high rates, likely because of the effects of immunosuppressive drugs, particularly steroids and calcineurin inhibitors. The family physician's role in caring for liver transplant recipients often involves detection and management of these conditions. PMID:25478647

  17. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-01

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease. PMID:25386057

  18. [Treatment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Marlene; Colmenero, Jordi; Bataller, Ramón

    2009-11-01

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver parenchyma that precedes the development of cirrhosis. In the last few years, knowledge of the cellular and molecular bases of liver fibrosis has increased considerably. Environmental and genetic factors have been described that influence the progression of liver fibrosis, while non-invasive methods have been developed that allow the grade of fibrosis to be estimated without the need for liver biopsy. Currently, the only clearly effective treatment to attenuate or reverse liver fibrosis is elimination of the causative agent. When this is not feasible, fibrogenic factors (such as insulin resistance, obesity, alcohol intake, cannabis consumption, etc.) should be identified and treated. However, several agents are able to reduce liver fibrosis in experimental models of chronic liver damage. Few controlled clinical trials have been performed that evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents and consequently the level of evidence supporting their use as anti-fibrogenic therapy is still low. The efficacy of the anti- fibrogenic drugs, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, is currently being evaluated.

  19. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  20. [Lung and pleural lesions before and after implementation of a national eradication program against enzootic pneumonia and actinobacillosis as well as changes of slaughter carcass organs in slaughter pigs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Sidler, X; Eichhorn, J; Geiser, V; Bürgi, E; Schüpbach, G; Overesch, G; Stephan, R; Schmitt, S; Hässig, M; Sydler, T

    2015-12-01

    In a representative cross-sectional study during 12 months of the years 2008/2009 in four abattoirs in Switzerland, lung and pleura lesions as well as lesions of slaughter carcasses and organs of 34 706 pigs were studied for frequency and type of macroscopic lesions. Of the 24276 examined pigs, 91.2% of the lungs, 94.4% of the heart and 95.5% of the livers showed no macroscopically visible lesions. Pigs that were produced for a label program had significantly less bronchopneumonia and pneumonia residuals, pleuritis and liver lesions due to echinococcosis. Pigs supervised by the Swiss Pig Health Service (SGD), showed significantly less bronchopneumonia and pneumonia residuals, diffuse pleuritis, pleuritis/pericarditis and milkspots compared to the non-SGD supervised farms. Thanks to the national eradication program for enzootic pneumonia (EP) and actinobacillosis, the health-status of lungs has been considerably improved and the prevalence of pleurisy decreased considerably. The results of this study indicate a good herd health in Swiss pig production. PMID:26891572

  1. An evaluation of the effects of added vitamin D3 in maternal diets on sow and pig performance.

    PubMed

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Bergstrom, J R

    2014-02-01

    A total of 84 sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of supplementing maternal diet with vitamin D3 on sow and pig performance, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), milk vitamin D3, neonatal bone mineralization, and neonatal tissue vitamin D3. After breeding, sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary vitamin D3 treatments (1,500, 3,000, or 6,000 IU/kg of complete diets). Sows were bled on d 0 and 100 of gestation and at farrowing and weaning (d 21). Pig BW was recorded at birth and weaning, and serum was collected from 2 pigs/litter at birth, on d 10 and at weaning. A total of 54 pigs (18/treatment) were euthanized at birth and necropsied to sample bones and tissues. Sow and suckling pig performance and neonatal bone ash and bone density did not differ among maternal vitamin D3 treatments; however, sow 25(OH)D3 and milk vitamin D3 increased (linear, P < 0.01) with increasing maternal vitamin D3 supplementation. Piglet serum 25(OH)D3 increased (quadratic, P < 0.03) with increased maternal vitamin D3. Neonatal kidney vitamin D3 tended (quadratic, P = 0.08) to decrease with increasing maternal vitamin D3, but liver vitamin D3 tended (linear, P = 0.09) to increase with increasing maternal vitamin D3. At weaning, a subsample of 180 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050) were used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal vitamin D3 and 2 levels of dietary vitamin D3 (1,800 or 18,000 IU/kg) from d 0 to 10 postweaning on nursery growth and serum 25(OH)D3. Overall (d 0 to 35), nursery ADG and G:F were not affected by either concentration of vitamin D3, but ADFI tended (quadratic, P < 0.06) to decrease with increasing maternal vitamin D3 as pigs from sows fed 3,000 IU had lower ADFI compared with pigs from sows fed 1,500 or 6,000 IU/kg. Nursery pig serum 25(OH)D3 increased with increasing maternal vitamin D3 (weaning) on d 0 (linear, P < 0.01), and maternal × diet interactions (P < 0.01) were observed on d 10 and 21

  2. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  3. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  4. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  5. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  6. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  7. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah−/− rats. The Fah−/− rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah−/− rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah−/− rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah−/− livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah−/− rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah−/− rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  8. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah(-/-) rats. The Fah(-/-) rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah(-/-) rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah(-/-) rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah(-/-) livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah(-/-) rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah(-/-) rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  9. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. PMID:24951302

  10. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice.

  11. Characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli from pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, V P; Gyles, C L; Friendship, R W

    1988-01-01

    Porcine verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were characterized with respect to frequency of occurrence, serogroup, and association with disease, weaning, and selected properties of the bacterium. Of 668 strains of E. coli from southern Ontario pigs with enteric disease, 32 (4.8%) produced verotoxin at 10(3)-10(7) cytotoxic doses per mL of culture supernatant. Of 22 isolates which belonged to O serogroups 138, 139 and 141, 15 produced verotoxin. Among other enterotoxigenic types of E. coli, two of 57 isolates of O157:K"V17" and two of 96 isolates of O149:K91 were verotoxigenic. The remaining 13 verotoxigenic E. coli belonged to O groups 2, 107, 120, 121 and 130. An additional 21 verotoxigenic E. coli belonging to O groups 138, 139 and 141 and three to O157:K"V17" were identified in a collection of 47 E. coli recovered from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Verotoxigenic E. coli were associated with postweaning diarrhea, bloody stools, sudden death and edema disease. They were isolated at similar frequencies (14%) from healthy weaned pigs, and from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Isolation rates from neonates were low and significantly different from rates in weaned pigs. Neutralizing antibody to verotoxin was not detected in the sera of 45 pigs, which included pigs from herds with a history of edema disease. Verotoxin was not associated with production of colicin, hemolysin, or enterotoxins or with any of 23 biochemical properties of the organisms. The serological data indicate that porcine verotoxigenic E. coli are not a common source of verotoxigenic E. coli for humans. Porcine verotoxin may play a role in postweaning diarrhea and absence of detectable neutralizing antibody in serum may be an important aspect of pathogenesis. PMID:3048621

  12. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  13. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte sequestration in the lungs and liver following soft-tissue trauma: an in vivo study

    SciTech Connect

    Thoerne, J.B.; Blomquist, S.; Elmer, O.; Grafstroem, G.M.; Martensson, L.

    1989-04-01

    Neutrophils are thought to sequestrate in the lungs and the liver in association with shock. Indications for this have previously been demonstrated in different in vitro studies. In this experiment an in vivo technique for dynamic studies of pulmonary and liver neutrophil sequestration (PNT and LNT, respectively) is described. Autologous neutrophils from ten pigs were labelled with indium-111 oxine. The pigs were placed under a scintillation camera for continuous recording of the activity distribution in the pigs during 105 minutes. Following a steady-state period of 15 minutes seven pigs were subjected to a standardized soft-tissue trauma. Three pigs were used as controls and not traumatized. Within 1-3 minutes after trauma the radioactivity over the lungs increased dramatically, indicating PNT. This was followed by a fast decrease but 90 minutes after trauma PNT levels were still significantly elevated. LNT showed a similar pattern, although the immediate increase was less dramatic. This study shows that PNT and LNT occur immediately after soft-tissue trauma and can be studied dynamically in vivo.

  14. Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

    2012-12-01

    The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs.

  15. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in a pig model of brain death (BD) and living donation (LD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As organ shortage is increasing, the acceptance of marginal donors increases, which might result in poor organ function and patient survival. Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischemic time (CIT) or after reperfusion due to oxidative stress or the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to study a panel of genes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis and compare these findings with immunohistochemistry from a BD and living donation (LD) pig model and after cold ischemia time (CIT). Methods BD was induced in pigs; after 12 h organ retrieval was performed; heart, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected in the BD (n = 6) and in a LD model (n = 6). PCR analysis for NFKB1, GSS, SOD2, PPAR-alpha, OXSR1, BAX, BCL2L1, and HSP 70.2 was performed and immunohistochemistry used to show apoptosis and nitrosative stress induced cell damage. Results In heart tissue of BD BAX, BCL2L1 and HSP 70.2 increased significantly after CIT. Only SOD2 was over-expressed after CIT in BD liver tissue. In kidney tissue, BCL2L1, NFKB, OXSR1, SOD2 and HSP 70.2 expression was significantly elevated in LD. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in activated Caspase 3 and nitrotyrosine positive cells after CIT in BD in liver and in kidney tissue but not in heart tissue. Conclusion The up-regulation of protective and apoptotic genes seems to be divergent in the different organs in the BD and LD setting; however, immunohistochemistry revealed more apoptotic and nitrotyrosine positive cells in the BD setting in liver and kidney tissue whereas in heart tissue both BD and LD showed an increase. PMID:24088575

  16. Dimethylnitrosamine—Formation in Fish Meal and Toxic Effects in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Koppang, Nils

    1974-01-01

    The production of fish meal from fresh and from formaldehyde- and sodium benzoate-preserved catches results in the formation of considerable dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA). This is in contrast to the prevailing opinion that only nitrite preservatives can be incriminated in producing this toxin. With capelin fish preserved in a mixture of 920 g of sodium benzoate and 920 ml of formaldehyde/hectoliter for 11 days, 7.5 mgs of DMNA/kg fish meal were produced. Pigs exposed to different daily levels of DMNA, of commercial source, proved to be rather resistant to intoxication compared with other domestic animals. Doses of 100, 200 and 500 ppm of DMNA added to a commercial pig diet, with a cumulative ingestion of 8.1 to 13.9 g pig or from 282 to 583 mg DMNA/kg body weight, resulted in extensive vasoobstructive disease over a period of 64 to 105 days. These lesions are most severe in the liver where they produce a diffuse form of cirrhosis. Additional findings include anaplastic changes in the tubules of the kidneys. A DMNA level of 15 ppm in the feed, in this experiment from fish meal, did not result in pathologic lesions over an observation period of up to 525 days. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4809317

  17. Aflatoxicol and aflatoxins B1 and M1 in the tissues of pigs receiving aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, M W; Stoloff, L; Brumley, W C; Wilson, D M; Hale, O M; Sangster, L T; Miller, D M

    1982-07-01

    Aflatoxicol (AFL) and aflatoxins B1 and M1 were found in tissues (kidney, liver, and muscle) of feeder pigs given an estimated LD50 oral dose of B1 (1.0 mg/kg body weight) provided as a rice culture of Aspergillus flavus and of market-weight pigs fed a naturally contaminated feed, containing aflatoxin B1 at a level of 400 ng/g from corn, for 14 days. The residues in all tissues decreased with time after treatment in both groups, with no detectable residues (approximate detection limits, ng/g, B1 0.03, M1 0.05, AFL 0.01) in pig tissues from the feeding experiment 24 h after withdrawal of aflatoxin-contaminated feed. B1 and M1, when found in the feeding experiment, were at about the same levels in all tissues except the kidney, in which M1 was the dominant aflatoxin. The level of AFL, when detected, was about 10% of the B1 level.

  18. Tissue deposition and residue depletion of melamine in fattening pigs following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of animal feed as well as milk products with melamine has led to concerns about the ability to establish appropriate withdrawal intervals to ensure food safety. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The first was to investigate the deposition and depletion of melamine in blood and tissues of pigs exposed to adulterated feed with high doses of melamine. A total of 500 or 1000 mg kg(-1) melamine was added to the diet for fattening pigs (initial BW = ±60.24 kg). Melamine residues were detected in tissues (brain, duodenum, liver, heart, muscle and kidney) by LC-MS/MS. Dose-dependent effects were found between melamine residual concentration and its dose in feed. Five days after the withdrawal of melamine from the diets, the residue concentration in tissues fell below 2.5 mg kg(-1). In the second experiment, blood samples were taken at different time points from fattening pigs (BW = 100 kg) fed with adulterated feed with 1000 mg kg(-1) of melamine for 42 days. Results from the pharmacokinetics analysis showed that it would take 83 h for the melamine level in plasma depleting to the safe level of 50 ng ml(-1) after an expose of 1000 mg kg(-1) melamine contaminated feed for 42 days.

  19. Multi-Etiological Nature of Tuberculosis-Like Lesions in Condemned Pigs at the Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Amarilla, Shyrley P.; Vela, Ana I.; Carrasco, Librado; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F.; Astorga, Rafael J.; Luque, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in pigs have been associated with microorganisms other than mycobacteria. In this work a histopathological and microbiological evaluation of TBL in pigs is shown. A total of 352 samples belonging to 171 pigs totally condemned at slaughterhouse due to generalized TBL were sampled and selected for analysis. Pyogranulomatous (56.2%) and granulomatous lesions (20.2%) were observed in all analysed organs. Most of the granulomas observed in both lymph nodes and lungs belonged to more advanced stages of development (stages III and IV) whereas in the liver and the spleen most of lesions belonged to intermediate stages (stages II and III). Different microorganisms were simultaneously detected from TBL in the 42.7% of the animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) (38%), coryneform bacteria (40.3%) and streptococci (28.1%) were the main groups of microorganisms detected after bacteriological analysis, with Trueperella pyogenes and Streptococcus suis as the most frequently isolated species. Mycobacteria belonging to MTC were the most frequently detected pathogens in granulomatous and pyogranulomatous lesions in submandibular lymph nodes (32.7%) and coryneform bacteria were the microorganisms more frequently isolated from lungs (25.9%) and spleen samples (37.2%). These results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this pathology. The importance of coryneform bacteria and streptococci in such processes must be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26418681

  20. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Haag, Karen Luisa; Musskopf, Germano; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Ribeiro, Tatiana Correa; de la Rue, Mário Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasitical etiologic agents of visceral cysts in pigs from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty-eight cysts were found in livers during veterinary inspection of swine slaughtered from January 2008 to 2012. Collected samples were submitted to macroscopic and molecular analyzes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment of sequences was used to molecular characterization of the samples. By PCR 10.3% (6/58) of tested samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and 56.9% (33/58) for Cysticercus tenuicollis. In this study, it was verified the occurrence of larval forms of E. granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig herds from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The presence of both parasites is relevant due to the economic losses for the meat industry. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu lato has zoonotic importance and may be infecting pig herds in southern Brazil.

  1. Examination of nocturnal blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposition on pig carcasses in mid-Michigan.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Kristi N; Benbow, M Eric; Miller, James R; Merritt, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    The most common application of forensic entomology involves estimating a portion of the postmortem interval (PMI), which usually assumes that blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) do not oviposit nocturnally. Research objectives were to (1) investigate blow fly nocturnal oviposition in relation to sunrise and sunset in Michigan; (2) evaluate abiotic variables postulated to affect blow fly oviposition; and (3) conduct laboratory experiments testing blow fly activity under complete darkness. In 2006, nocturnal oviposition was evaluated in relation to sunset by exposing pigs to fly colonization at 1-h intervals, beginning 2 h before and ending 2 h after sunset. This test was replicated in 2007; however, replicate pigs were placed in the field 2 h after sunset, and hourly observations were made into the following morning. Oviposition was never observed at night. In a laboratory experiment, Lucilia sericata (Meigen), never oviposited on liver hanging above or placed directly on the ground in a completely dark room, Another dark room laboratory study documented that adult flies launched into the air could not fly. This study documents that the probability of nocturnal oviposition on pig carcasses in Michigan was extremely low to nonexistent. These results should be considered when estimating a portion of the PMI in forensic entomological investigations.

  2. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  3. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. PMID:26253434

  4. Cytomegalovirus excretion in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Edington, N.; Watt, R. G.; Plowright, W.

    1976-01-01

    Germ-free piglets were infected intranasally with porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) at 1 day (group A) or 3 weeks of age (group B). Viraemia and virus excretion by the nasal, pharyngeal and conjunctival routes was studied up to the time of death or to 12 weeks. Virus was also sought in tissues at death or at slaughter, as well as in a few urine samples. Viraemia was detected in group A between days 5 and 19 after infection and in group B between days 14 and 16 inclusive. The chief route of virus excretion was the nasal mucosa, followed by the pharynx and conjunctiva; the maximal duration of excretion by these routes was 32, 25 and 14 days for pigs of group A and 9, 7 and 4 days for group B. The quantity of virus was also greater in the former group, of which died of generalized PCMV infection. A viruria was demonstrated in 2 animals. Antibody detectable in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests appeared towards the end of the third week, reaching maximal titres at 5 to 7 weeks after infection. The mean peak titre of antibody in group B was lower than in group A. Corticosteroid treatment at days 56--62 after infection resulted in some recrudescence of virus excretion, accompanied in group B by about a twofold increase in IIF antibody. PCMV was isolated in cultures of lung macrophages from 4 of 7 animals killed at about 12 weeks after inoculation. PMID:185292

  5. Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Kerr, B J

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In a 28-d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg of dietary tylosin. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate or tylosin on overall G:F, but there was a linear trend (P < 0.07) toward decreased ADFI and ADG as levels of sodium butyrate increased. In a second 28-d experiment, 108 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) no antibiotics, 2) 0.2% sodium butyrate, or 3) 55 mg/kg of carbadox. On d 14, a subset of pigs from the no-antibiotic and butyrate treatment groups was challenged with E. coli LPS or injected with sterile saline in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (+/-LPS challenge; +/-dietary butyrate; n = 6 pigs/treatment group). Four hours after LPS challenge, blood samples were obtained, and samples of LM, liver, and ileum were collected for gene expression analysis. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, cortisol, IGF-I, insulin, and metabolites. The relative abundance of tissue cytokine and IGF-I mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. Feeding diets containing sodium butyrate or carbadox did not alter ADG or ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed diets containing 0.2% sodium butyrate had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased G:F compared with animals fed diets containing carbadox. Challenge with LPS increased (P < 0.05) serum cytokines and cortisol and decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose and triglycerides. Injection with LPS increased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of hepatic IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA, increased (P < 0.05) LM TNFalpha mRNA content, and decreased (P < 0.05) IGF-I mRNA in LM. For serum cortisol, there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between dietary

  6. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

  7. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions.

  8. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  9. PigS and PigP regulate prodigiosin biosynthesis in Serratia via differential control of divergent operons, which include predicted transporters of sulfur-containing molecules.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, Tamzin; McNeil, Matthew B; Clulow, James S; Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2011-03-01

    Serratia sp. strain ATCC 39006 produces the red-pigmented antibiotic prodigiosin. Regulation of prodigiosin biosynthesis involves a complex hierarchy, with PigP a master transcriptional regulator of multiple genes involved in prodigiosin production. The focus of this study was a member of the PigP regulon, pigS, which encodes an ArsR/SmtB family transcriptional repressor. Mutations in pigS reduced production of prodigiosin by decreasing the transcription of the biosynthetic operon. The pigS gene is the first in a four-gene operon, which also encodes three membrane proteins (pmpABC) of the COG2391 (DUF395; YedE/YeeE) and COG0730 (DUF81; TauE/SafE) families that we propose constitute transport components for sulfur-containing compounds. We provide the first experimental evidence confirming the membrane localization of a COG2391 protein, that of PmpB. Divergently transcribed from pigS-pmpABC is a bicistronic operon (blhA-orfY), which encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and a coenzyme A-disulfide reductase containing a rhodanese homology domain, both of which may participate in reactions with sulfur-containing compounds. The overproduction of the BlhA and OrfY enzymes and the PmpABC membrane proteins differentially affected pigmentation. We have dissected the contributions of these various proteins and determined their importance in the control of prodigiosin production. PigS-mediated control of prodigiosin occurred via binding directly to a short inverted repeat sequence in the intergenic region overlapping the predicted -10 regions of both pigS and blhA promoters and repressing transcription. PigP was required for the activation of these promoters, but only in the absence of PigS-mediated repression.

  10. Effects of zinc sulfate pretreatment on heat tolerance of Bama miniature pig under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, F; Shan, T; Li, Z; Xu, W; Li, C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat tolerance of Bama miniature pigs under high ambient temperature (40°C) and Zn interactive functions during heat treatment (HT). Bama miniature pigs (male; n = 24; 6-mo old; BW = 10.79 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 groups and were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1,500 mg of Zn (ZnSO4·H2O)/kg diet for 38 d. At 7 mo of age (d 30), the thermal neutral (TN) groups remained at 25°C, whereas the HT groups were exposed to ambient temperature at 40°C for 5 h daily for 8 consecutive days. Pigs in 4 groups were sacrificed on d 38. Individual rectal temperatures, skin temperatures, and breathing rates were recorded at 3 h after the onset of HT and the blood samples were collected immediately after HT on d 30, 34, and 38. Pigs fed diets with or without Zn doubled their breathing rates (P < 0.05) and increased body surface, scrotal, and rectal temperatures during HT on d 30, 34, and 38, respectively. Zinc supplementation increased BW gain (BWG; P < 0.05) during 38-d experiment period, and HT decreased BWG only from d 30 to 34 (P < 0.05). Heat treatment increased serum testosterone on d 30 (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the heat-induced increase of testosterone in HT on d 30 and 34 (P < 0.05). The relative weight of liver increased in HT groups (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the relative weights of spleen (P < 0.05) and testis (P < 0.01). The values of abnormal lymphocyte count and large unstained cell count declined approximately 5 times in groups of Zn supplementation, whereas Zn supplementation increased the values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Zinc concentrations increased in serum, liver, kidney, epididymis, longissimus, hair, and feces in groups fed with Zn (P < 0.01). However, additional Zn decreased Zn concentrations in lung, spleen, and testis (P < 0.01). Moreover, HT decreased serum Zn

  11. Hepatic reconstruction from fetal porcine liver cells using a radial flow bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yuji; Saito, Ryota; Marushima, Hideki; Ito, Ryusuke; Sakamoto, Taro; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of the radial flow bioreactor (RFB) as an extracorporeal bioartificial liver (BAL) and the reconstruction of liver organoids using embryonic pig liver cells. METHODS: We reconstructed the liver organoids using embryonic porcine liver cells in the RFB. We also determined the gestational time window for the optimum growth of embryonic porcine liver cells. Five weeks of gestation was designated as embryonic day (E) 35 and 8 wk of gestation was designated as E56. These cells were cultured for one week before morphological and functional examinations. Moreover, the efficacy of pulsed administration of a high concentration hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was examined. RESULTS: Both cell growth and function were excellent after harvesting on E35. The pulsed administration of a high concentration of HGF promoted the differentiation and maturation of these fetal hepatic cells. Microscopic examination of organoids in the RFB revealed palisading and showed that bile duct-like structures were well developed, indicating that the organoids were mini livers. Transmission electron microscopy revealed microvilli on the luminal surfaces of bile duct-like structures and junctional complexes, which form the basis of the cytoskeleton of epithelial tissues. Furthermore, strong expression of connexin (Cx) 32, which is the main protein of hepatocyte gap junctions, was observed. With respect to liver function, ammonia detoxification and urea synthesis were shown to be performed effectively. CONCLUSION: Our system can potentially be applied in the fields of BAL and transplantation medicine. PMID:18461659

  12. Arsenic and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, D N

    2001-06-01

    The hepatotoxic action of arsenic, when used as a therapeutic agent, has long been recognised. Data on liver involvement following chronic exposure to arsenic-contaminated water are scanty. The nature and degree of liver involvement are reported on the basis of hospital based studies in patients who consumed arsenic contaminated drinking water for one to 15 years. Two hundred forty-eight patients with evidence of chronic arsenic toxicity underwent clinical and laboratory examination including liver function tests and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) status. Liver biopsy was done in 69 cases; in 29 patients, liver arsenic content was estimated by neutron activation analysis. Hepatomegaly was present in 190 of 248 patients (76.6%). Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis was the predominant lesion (91.3%) in liver histology. The maximum arsenic content in liver was 6 mg/kg (mean 1.46 [0.42], control value 0.16 [0.04]; p <0.001); it was undetected in 6 of 29 samples studied. The largest number of patients with liver disease due to chronic arsenicosis from drinking arsenic contaminated water are reported. Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis is the predominant lesion in this population. Hepatic fibrosis has also been demonstrated due to long term arsenic toxicity in an animal model. Initial biochemical evidence of hepatic membrane damage, probably due to reduction of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes, may be seen by 6 months. Continued arsenic feeding resulted in fatty liver with serum aminotransferases elevated at 12 months and hepatic fibrosis at 15 months.

  13. When pigs fly, UCP1 makes heat.

    PubMed

    Jastroch, Martin; Andersson, Leif

    2015-05-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue may represent important therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes and obesity as these organs dissipate nutrient energy as heat through the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). While mice are commonly used to mimic the potential effects of brown/beige adipose tissue that may act in human metabolism, new animal models are edging into the market for translational medicine. Pigs reflect human metabolism better than mice in multiple parameters such as obesity-induced hyperglycemia, cholesterol profiles and energy metabolism. Recently, it was reported that energy expenditure and body temperature in pigs is induced by the hormone leptin, and that leptin's action is mediated by UCP1 in adipose tissue. Given the tremendous importance of identifying molecular mechanisms for targeting therapeutics, we critically examine the evidence supporting the presence of UCP1 in pigs and conclude that methodological shortcomings prevent an unequivocal claim for the presence of UCP1 in pigs. Despite this, we believe that leptin's effects on energy expenditure in pigs are potentially more transformative to human medicine in the absence of UCP1, as adult and obese humans possess only minor amounts of UCP1. In general, we propose that the biology of new animal models requires attention to comparative studies with humans given the increasing amount of genomic information for various animal species.

  14. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  15. Current transcriptomics in pig immunity research.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, Martine; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-02-01

    Swine performance in the face of disease challenge is becoming progressively more important. To improve the pig's robustness and resilience against pathogens through selection, a better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic factors in the immune response is required. This review highlights results from the most recent transcriptome research, and the meta-analyses performed, in the context of pig immunity. A technological overview is given including wholegenome microarrays, immune-specific arrays, small-scale high-throughput expression methods, high-density tiling arrays, and next generation sequencing (NGS). Although whole genome microarray techniques will remain complementary to NGS for some time in domestic species, research will transition to sequencing-based methods due to cost-effectiveness and the extra information that such methods provide. Furthermore, upcoming high-throughput epigenomic studies, which will add greatly to our knowledge concerning the impact of epigenetic modifications on pig immune response, are listed in this review. With emphasis on the insights obtained from transcriptomic analyses for porcine immunity, we also discuss the experimental design in pig immunity research and the value of the newly published porcine genome assembly in using the pig as a model for human immune response. We conclude by discussing the importance of establishing community standards to maximize the possibility of integrative computational analyses, such as was clearly beneficial for the human ENCODE project.

  16. Vaccination of pigs to control human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Gauci, Charles G; Barber, Dylan; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H; Verastegui, Manuela; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2005-06-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease complex in which the pig is an obligate intermediate host. The infection is widespread, particularly in the developing world, and neurocysticercosis is a major cause of human neurologic disease where the parasite is endemic. Despite easy availability, effective anti-parasitic drugs have not been deployed effectively to control disease transmission. We have investigated a vaccine strategy to prevent parasite infection of the pig intermediate host. Such a strategy would interrupt the parasite's life cycle and eliminate the source of infection for humans. Two recombinant antigens selected from the parasite oncosphere life cycle stage were tested in vaccination trials in pigs that were challenged orally with Taenia solium eggs. Both antigens were highly effective in protecting the pigs against infection with the parasite (98.6% and 99.9% protection, respectively). No viable cysts were found in eight pigs vaccinated with one of the antigens. A recombinant subunit vaccine based on oncosphere antigens has the potential to improve the available control measures for T. solium and thereby reduce or eliminate neurocysticercosis.

  17. Computer tracks pigs to speed gas drying

    SciTech Connect

    Ashburner, M.

    1984-04-01

    Advanced pipeline drying techniques have been used to commission a 27-mile, 30-in. undersea natural gas pipeline in Malaysia's Luconia field. After first sending a series of torpedo-shape foam and rubber cup pigs through the line to force out some 4 million gal of seawater, a new technique combines a vacuum drying process with a sophisticated computer program to keep track of the pigs, thereby enabling the job to be completed in just 4 weeks. The program simulates pipeline conditions at the pig air/water interface under constant propelling flow conditions. The computer produces a pressure profile, calculates the overall time along the pipe, and then uses the resultant time-pressure model to interpret the actual results from the flow measurement-pressure plot for the pig's progress. The program was developed primarily to forecast the effects of changes in propelling capacity in deepwater conditions to ensure that adequate pressure capacity was available to maintain pig speeds above minimum self-cleaning velocities.

  18. Liver support systems.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Mancini, Elena; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Faenza, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Liver insufficiency is a dramatic syndrome with multiple organ involvement. A multiplicity of toxic substances (hydrophilic like ammonia and lipophilic like bilirubin or bile acids or mercaptans) are released into the systemic circulation, thus altering many enzymatic cellular processes. Patients frequently die while on the transplantation waiting list because of organ scarcity. Systems supporting liver function may be useful to avoid further complications due to the typical toxic state, 'bridging' the patients to the transplantation, or, in the event of an acute decompensation of a chronic liver disease, sustain liver function long enough to permit the organ's regeneration and functional recovery. An ideal liver support system should substitute the main functions of the liver (detoxification, synthesis and regulation). Extracorporeal systems now available may be totally artificial or bioartificial. While the first are only able to perform detoxification, the second may add the functions of synthesis (plasma proteins, coagulation factors) and regulation (neurotransmitters). Bioartificial liver working with isolated hepatocytes and a synthetic membrane in an extracorporeal system are however still far from being ready for clinical use. At present, liver insufficiency may be treated with an extracorporeal support technology aimed either at detoxification alone or at a real purification. Charcoal hemoperfusion or exchange/absorption resins may be used for blood detoxification. Blood or plasma exchange, from a theoretical point of view, could be suitable for a polyvalent intoxication, such as liver failure; however, the multicompartmental distribution of some solutes largely endangers the efficacy of these procedures. Selective plasmapheresis techniques are now available for some solutes (e.g. styrene for bilirubin) and may progressively reduce the plasma levels and presumably the deposits of the solute. Novel treatments introduced to improve detoxification, mainly of

  19. Robotic liver resection technique.

    PubMed

    Hart, Marquis E; Precht, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The robotic approach to hepatic resection has evolved because of advances in laparoscopy and digital technology and based on the modern understanding of hepatic anatomy. Robotic technology has allowed for the development of a minimally invasive approach, which is conceptually similar to the open approach. The major differences are improved visualization and smaller incisions without a haptic interface. As a result, the operative strategy is reliant on visual cues and knowledge of hepatic surgical anatomy. Development of a robotic liver resection program ideally occurs in the setting of a comprehensive liver program with significant experience in all aspects of surgical liver care.

  20. Pasteurella multocida liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Cortez, J C; Shapiro, M; Awe, R J

    1986-08-01

    A previously healthy 61-year-old woman was seen with an abnormal chest roentgenogram and a 3-week history of fever, chills, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. Blood cultures revealed Pasteurella multocida sensitive to penicillin. Liver spleen radioisotope scan and CT scan revealed space occupying lesions in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was a gardener with no pets or animal exposure. This case illustrates P. multocida septicemia and a liver abscess in a patient without animal exposure. In addition, the possibility of soil as another reservoir of infection is raised. PMID:3487981

  1. Toxicokinetics of seven perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids in pigs fed a contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Numata, Jorge; Kowalczyk, Janine; Adolphs, Julian; Ehlers, Susan; Schafft, Helmut; Fuerst, Peter; Müller-Graf, Christine; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Greiner, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    The transfer of a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from contaminated feed into the edible tissues of 24 fattening pigs was investigated. Four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic (PFSAs) and three perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were quantifiable in feed, plasma, edible tissues, and urine. As percentages of unexcreted PFAA, the substances accumulated in plasma (up to 51%), fat, and muscle tissues (collectively, meat 40-49%), liver (under 7%), and kidney (under 2%) for most substances. An exception was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with lower affinity for plasma (23%) and higher for liver (35%). A toxicokinetic model is developed to quantify the absorption, distribution, and excretion of PFAAs and to calculate elimination half-lives. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), a PFCA, had the shortest half-life at 4.1 days. PFSAs are eliminated more slowly (e.g., half-life of 634 days for PFOS). PFAAs in pigs exhibit longer elimination half-lives than in most organisms reported in the literature, but still shorter than in humans.

  2. Influence of immunomodulation on the development of Listeria monocytogenes infection in aged guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hoan-Jen E; Lo, Chih-Yu; Matthews, Karl R

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of immunomodulation on the development of listeriosis within an aged population of guinea pigs after an intragastric challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Supplementation with vitamin E for 35 days significantly increased the level of cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)), while treatment with cyclosporin A resulted in a 25% decrease of CD8(+) T cells. In the animals receiving the low dose (10(2) CFU) of L. monocytogenes, 50% of the control-group animals became infected. Only 22% of animals receiving the orthomolecular dose of vitamin E became infected, whereas animals that were immunosuppressed had an infection rate of 89%. In the immunosuppressed group three animals (16%) developed listerial infection with a quantifiable bacterial level of 0.3-3 log CFU g(-1) of organ in the spleen and liver. In the high-dose study, the population of L. monocytogenes was consistently 1 log CFU g(-1) lower in the spleen or liver of the vitamin E-supplemented group, compared with the control and cyclosporin A-treated animals. At day 4, a significant increase in the levels of CD8(+) during listerial infection occurred in vitamin E-supplemented animals, suggesting an increased ability to produce CD8(+) T cells. The results suggest that immunomodulation of the host can influence listerial infection within an aged population of guinea pigs. PMID:17378902

  3. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    PubMed Central

    Hellwing, Anne Louise F; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters. PMID:17996082

  4. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in rats, extrapolation to pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhou, Y-F; Yu, Y; Zhao, D-H; Shi, W; Fang, B-H; Liu, Y-H

    2015-02-01

    A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the disposition of cyadox (CYX) and its metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) after a single oral administration was developed in rats (200 mg/kg b.w. of CYX). Considering interspecies differences in physiology and physiochemistry, the model efficiency was validated by pharmacokinetic data set in swine. The model included six compartments that were blood, muscle, liver, kidney, adipose, and a combined compartment for the rest of tissues. The model was parameterized using rat plasma and tissue concentration data that were generated from this study. Model simulations were achieved using a commercially available software program (ACSLXL ibero version 3.0.2.1). Results supported the validity of the model with simulated tissue concentrations within the range of the observations. The correlation coefficients of the predicted and experimentally determined values for plasma, liver, kidney, adipose, and muscles in rats were 0.98, 0.98, 0.98, 0.99, and 0.95, respectively. The rat model parameters were then extrapolated to pigs to estimate QCA disposition in tissues and validated by tissue concentration of QCA in swine. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and observed values were over 0.90. This model could provide a foundation for developing more reliable pig models once more data are available.

  5. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, there is no information on E. bieneusi in pigs. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of E. bieneusi in pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 91 pigs (1- to 12-mo-old) ...

  6. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  7. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  8. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  9. Growth and skeletal development of the pig.

    PubMed

    Reiland, S

    1978-01-01

    Growth and skeletal development of the domestic pig (Swedish landrace and Yorkshire) are reported and the weight curve of males from birth to maturity included. Other parameters were tooth development and growth of certain bones. It was concluded that daily weight gain increases rapidly to an age of about 5 months. Sexual maturity is reached by both the male and female pig at about 5--6 months of age. At this time there is an inflection point on the weight curve. The period from 5--6 months to about 18 months of age is called adolescence. After 18 months of age the weight curve is flattened. The data from the domestic pigs were compared with the corresponding data of the wild European hog. It was found that the wild hog has a much slower weight gain. PMID:233594

  10. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 900 drugs and supplements.​​ Recent discoveries from NIDDK research include: New medication shows promise against liver fibrosis ... linked to biliary atresia in newborn animals Support Research NIDDK invests in basic, clinical and translational research ...

  11. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have the following tests to measure liver function: Complete blood count Prothrombin time Blood albumin level Your health care provider may ask for certain imaging tests, including: Ultrasound is often ...

  12. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory results. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ... liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  14. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... VHA Forms & Publications Quality & Safety Quality of Care Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data ... decreases the strain on your liver and other organs, and will make your recovery from surgery easier. ...

  15. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AST). This enzyme, which plays a role in processing proteins, is found in the liver, heart, muscles, ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  16. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight loss Nausea or belly pain Small, red spider-like blood vessels on the skin As liver ... result of too much fluid Reddened palms Red spider-like blood vessels on the skin Small testicles ...

  17. Liver transplantation: current concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, W J

    1988-01-01

    In this decade liver transplantation has been established as the preferred treatment for children and adults with irreversible end-stage liver disease. Biliary atresia in children and nonalcoholic cirrhosis in adults are the most common indications for the procedure. Transplantation currently plays only a minor role in the treatment of hepatic malignant disease. Blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is preferred, but histocompatibility matching (tissue typing) currently has no significant role in the selection of recipients. Approximately 70% of recipients survive for 1 year, and these patients have an excellent prospect of long-term survival. The emerging evidence indicates that the quality of life and rehabilitation of most liver recipients are good. The current success of liver transplantation can be attributed to critical selection of recipients, modern anesthetic and surgical techniques, improved perioperative care, accurate diagnosis of rejection and superior immunosuppression with cyclosporine. PMID:3289710

  18. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. PMID:23628170

  19. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease.

  20. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  1. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Karen Kristine; Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; McCuskey, Robert S; Smedsrød, Bård

    2015-10-01

    The liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) forms the fenestrated wall of the hepatic sinusoid and functions as a control post regulating and surveying the trafficking of molecules and cells between the liver parenchyma and the blood. The cell acts as a scavenger cell responsible for removal of potential dangerous macromolecules from blood, and is increasingly acknowledged as an important player in liver immunity. This review provides an update of the major functions of the LSEC, including its role in plasma ultrafiltration and regulation of the hepatic microcirculation, scavenger functions, immune functions, and role in liver aging, as well as issues that are either undercommunicated or confusingly dealt with in the literature. These include metabolic functions, including energy metabolic interplay between the LSEC and the hepatocyte, and adequate ways of identifying and distinguishing the cells.

  2. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. When taken in appropriate doses by mouth, cod ... young children. Heart disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Wound healing. Glaucoma. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to ...

  3. Biochemical, nutritional and genetic effects on boar taint in entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Zamaratskaia, G; Squires, E J

    2009-11-01

    Pork odour is to a great extent affected by the presence of malodorous compounds, mainly androstenone and skatole. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge about factors involved in the regulation of androstenone and skatole in entire male pigs. Androstenone is a pheromonal steroid synthesised in the testes and metabolised in the liver. Part of androstenone accumulates in adipose tissue causing a urine-like odour. Skatole is produced in the large intestine by bacterial degradation of tryptophan and metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulphotransferase. The un-metabolised part accumulates in adipose tissue, causing faecal-like odour. Androstenone levels are mostly determined by genetic factors and stage of puberty, whereas skatole levels in addition to genetic background and hormonal status of the pigs are also controlled by nutritional and environmental factors. To reduce the risk of tainted carcasses entering the market, male pigs are surgically castrated in many countries. However, entire males compared to castrates have superior production characteristics: higher growth rate, better feed efficiency and leaner carcasses. Additionally, animal welfare aspects are currently of particular importance in light of increasing consumers' concerns. Nutrition, hormonal status, genetic influence on boar taint compounds and the methods to develop genetic markers are discussed. Boar taint due to high levels of skatole and androstenone is moderately heritable and not all market weight entire males have boar taint; it should thus be possible to select for pigs that do not have boar taint. In these studies, it is critical to assess the steroidogenic potential of the pigs in order to separate late-maturing pigs from those with a low genetic potential for boar taint. A number of candidate genes for boar taint have been identified and work is continuing to develop genetic markers for low boar taint. More research is needed to clarify the factors

  4. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer Who Have Undergone a Liver Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer

  5. Constitutive and allergen-induced expression of eotaxin mRNA in the guinea pig lung

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Eotaxin is a member of the C-C family of chemokines and is related during antigen challenge in a guinea pig model of allergic airway inflammation (asthma). Consistent with its putative role in eosinophilic inflammation, eotaxin induces the selective infiltration of eosinophils when injected into the lung and skin. Using a guinea pig lung cDNA library, we have cloned full-length eotaxin cDNA. The cDNA encodes a protein of 96 amino acids, including a putative 23-amino acid hydrophobic leader sequence, followed by 73 amino acids composing the mature active eotaxin protein. The protein-coding region of this cDNA is 73, 71, 50, and 48% identical in nucleic acid sequence to those of human macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP) 3, MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1 alpha, and RANTES, respectively. Analysis of genomic DNA suggested that there is a single eotaxin gene in guinea pig which is apparently conserved in mice. High constitutive levels of eotaxin mRNA expression were observed in the lung, while the intestines, stomach, spleen, liver, heart, thymus, testes, and kidney expressed lower levels. To determine if eotaxin mRNA levels are elevated during allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized antigen. Compared with the lungs from saline-challenged animals, eotaxin mRNA levels increased sixfold within 3 h and returned to baseline by 6 h. Thus, eotaxin mRNA levels are increased in response to allergen challenge during the late phase response. The identification of constitutive eotaxin mRNA expression in multiple tissues suggests that in addition to regulating airway eosinophilia, eotaxin is likely to be involved in eosinophil recruitment into other tissues as well as in baseline tissue homing. PMID:7869037

  6. Health parameters in tail biters and bitten pigs in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Munsterhjelm, C; Simola, O; Keeling, L; Valros, A; Heinonen, M

    2013-05-01

    Health in relation to tail-biting behaviour was investigated on a problem farm. Quartets (n = 16) of age- and gender-matched fattening pigs including a tail biter (TB, n = 16), a victim (V, n = 16), a control in the same pen (Ctb, n = 10) and a control in a pen where no tail biting was observed (Cno, n = 14) were chosen by direct behavioural observation. Haematological and clinicochemical analyses, autopsy and histological examination of 16 different tissues were carried out. Tail lesion severity was evaluated both macroscopically, on the basis of inspection, and histologically, in the sagittally cut tail. Category effects were tested using Friedman's ANOVA by Ranks, Cochran's Q or a repeated-measure GLM and, if significant, pair-wise tests were conducted using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks or McNemar's Test. The number of received tail bites correlated better with histological than with macroscopic tail lesion scoring because of deep inflammation beneath healthy skin in some cases. Most individuals had mild inflammatory lesions in internal organs suggestive of generalized activation of the immune system, and 30% of the animals were anaemic, possibly because of systemic spread of infectious agents. V had more severe respiratory organ lesions and higher serum protein concentrations than all other categories of pigs. Liver- and muscle-specific enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase) differed between categories. In conclusion, most animals had signs of generalized activation of the immune system, possibly because of systemic spread of infectious agents. V pigs suffered from more severe inflammatory lesions than TB, Ctb or Cno. Deep infections may exist under healthy skin in the tail of bitten pigs. PMID:23190797

  7. Analgesia after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Zoka

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses postoperative analgesia in patients with end-stage liver disease who have undergone liver transplantation (LT). Postoperative analgesia determines how patients perceive LT. Although important, this topic is underrepresented in the current literature. With an increased frequency of fast tracking in LT, efficient intra- and postoperative analgesia are undergoing changes. We herein review the current literature, compare the benefits and disadvantages of the therapeutic options, and make recommendations based on the current literature and clinical experience. PMID:26413222

  8. Acute liver failure in children.

    PubMed

    Devictor, Denis; Tissieres, Pierre; Afanetti, Mickael; Debray, Dominique

    2011-06-01

    The management of children with acute liver failure mandates a multidisciplinary approach and intense monitoring. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing specific and supportive medical measures, but clinical studies have mainly concerned adult patients. There are no specific medical therapies, except for a few metabolic diseases presenting with acute liver failure. Liver transplantation still remains the only definitive therapy in most instances. Recent clinical studies suggest that hepatocyte transplantation may be useful for bridging patients to liver transplantation, for providing metabolic support during liver failure and for replacing liver transplantation in certain metabolic liver diseases.

  9. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group (178 g/day). The input output ratio was 1:1.7 for both crossbred and Burmese pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  10. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects.

  11. Oral Infection with Signature-Tagged Listeria monocytogenes Reveals Organ-Specific Growth and Dissemination Routes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melton-Witt, Jody A.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes a serious food-borne disease due to its ability to spread from the intestine to other organs, a process that is poorly understood. In this study we used 20 signature-tagged wild-type clones of L. monocytogenes in guinea pigs in combination with extensive quantitative data analysis to gain insight into extraintestinal dissemination. We show that L. monocytogenes colonized the liver in all asymptomatic animals. Spread to the liver occurred as early as 4 h after ingestion via a direct pathway from the intestine to the liver. This direct pathway contributed significantly to the bacterial load in the liver and was followed by a second wave of dissemination via the mesenteric lymph nodes (indirect pathway). Furthermore, bacteria were eliminated in the liver, whereas small intestinal villi provided a niche for bacterial replication, indicating organ-specific differences in net bacterial growth. Bacteria were shed back from intestinal villi into the small intestinal lumen and reinfected the Peyer's patches. Together, these results support a novel dissemination model where L. monocytogenes replicates in intestinal villi, is shed into the lumen, and reinfects intestinal immune cells that traffic to liver and mesenteric lymph nodes, a process that occurs even during asymptomatic colonization. PMID:22083714

  12. Liver disease and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Purnak, Tugrul; Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    Patients with hepatic disorders are exceptionally vulnerable to developing malnutrition because of the key role played by the liver in regulating the nutritional state and the energy balance. Moreover, the presence of chronic liver disorders could reduce the appetite and thus influence the nutrient intake. Poor nutritional status has been shown in various patient groups with hepatic disorders, and particularly in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis who are at high nutritional risk. It is well established that malnourished patients with liver diseases generally have a higher risk of developing adverse clinical outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Nutrition screening with the Subjective Global Assessment and anthropometric measurements are an important first step in the early identification of malnutrition and initiates the whole nutrition care process. It is therefore important for appropriate nutrition policies and protocols to be implemented so that all patients with chronic liver diseases are monitored closely from a nutritional standpoint. Early and evidence-based nutritional interventions are eagerly needed to minimize the nutritional decline associated with chronic liver disorders and ultimately improve the prognosis of such patients. This review includes a comprehensive analysis of methods to identify malnutrition in patients with chronic liver diseases as well as the extent and impact of the malnutrition problem in selected patient populations.

  13. Split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yersiz, H; Cameron, A M; Carmody, I; Zimmerman, M A; Kelly, B S; Ghobrial, R M; Farmer, D G; Busuttil, R W

    2006-03-01

    Seventy-five thousand Americans develop organ failure each year. Fifteen percent of those on the list for transplantation die while waiting. Several possible mechanisms to expand the organ pool are being pursued including the use of extended criteria donors, living donation, and split deceased donor transplants. Cadaveric organ splitting results from improved understanding of the surgical anatomy of the liver derived from Couinaud. Early efforts focused on reduced-liver transplantation (RLT) reported by both Bismuth and Broelsch in the mid-1980s. These techniques were soon modified to create both a left lateral segment graft appropriate for a pediatric recipient and a right trisegment for an appropriately sized adult. Techniques of split liver transplantation (SLT) were also modified to create living donor liver transplantation. Pichlmayr and Bismuth reported successful split liver transplantation in 1989 and Emond reported a larger series of nine split procedures in 1990. Broelsch and Busuttil described a technical modification in which the split was performed in situ at the donor institution with surgical division completed in the heart beating cadaveric donor. In situ splitting reduces cold ischemia, simplifies identification of biliary and vascular structures, and reduces reperfusion hemorrhage. However, in situ splits require specialized skills, prolonged operating room time, and increased logistical coordination at the donor institution. At UCLA over 120 in situ splits have been performed and this technique is the default when an optimal donor is available. Split liver transplantation now accounts for 10% of adult transplantations at UCLA and 40% of pediatric transplantations.

  14. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  15. The sequences of the coenzyme-binding peptide in the cytoplasmic and the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases from sheep liver.

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Cavieres, M; Milstein, C P

    1975-01-01

    The sequences of the coenzyme-binding peptide of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases from sheep liver were determined. The holoenzymes were treated with NaBH4 and digested with chymotrypsin; peptides containing bound pyridoxal phosphate were then isolated. One phosphopyridoxyl peptide was obtained from sheep liver cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. Its sequence was Ser-Ne-(phosphopyridoxyl)-Lys-Asn-Phe. This sequence is identical with that reported for the homologous peptide from pig heart cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. Two phosphopyridoxyl peptides with different RF values were isolated from the sheep liver mitochondrial isoenzyme. They had the same N-terminal amino acid and similar amino acid composition. The mitochondrial phosphopyridoxyl peptide of highest yield and purity had the sequence Ala-Ne-(phosphopyridoxyl)-Lys-Asx-Met-Gly-Leu-Tyr. The sequence of the first four amino acids is identical with that already reported for the phosphopyridoxyl tetrapeptide from the pig heart mitochondrial isoenzyme. The heptapeptide found for the sheep liver mitochondrial isoenzyme closely resembles the corresponding sequence taken from the primary structure of the pig heart cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:1180894

  16. Flooded Lung Generates a Suitable Acoustic Pathway for Transthoracic Application of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Thomas Günther; Boltze, Carsten; Schubert, Harald; Wolfram, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has gained increasing clinical interest as a non-invasive method for local therapy of liver malignancies. HIFU treatment of tumours and metastases in the liver dome is limited due to the adjacent ultrasound blocking lung. One-lung flooding (OLF) enables complete sonography of lung and adjoining organs including liver. HIFU liver ablation passing through the flooded lung could enable a direct intercostal beam path and thus improve dose deposition in liver. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of an ultrasound guided transthoracic, transpulmonary HIFU ablation of liver using OLF. Methods: After right-side lung flooding, ultrasound guided HIFU was applied transthoracic- transpulmonary into liver to create thermal lesions in three pigs. The HIFU beam was targeted five times into liver, two times at the liver surface and three times deeper into the tissue. During autopsy examinations of lung, diaphragm and liver located in the HIFU path were performed. The focal liver lesions and lung tissue out of the beam path were examined histologically. Results: Fifteen thermal liver lesions were generated by transpulmonary HIFU sonication in all targeted regions. The lesions appeared well-demarcated in grey color with a cigar-shaped configuration. The mean length and width of the superficial and deeper lesions were 15.8 mm (range: 13-18 mm) and 5.8 mm (range: 5-7 mm), and 10.9 mm (range: 9-13 mm) and 3.3 mm (range: 2-5 mm), respectively. Histopathological, all liver lesions revealed a homogeneous thermal necrosis lacking vitality. There were no signs of damage of the overlying diaphragm and lung tissue. Conclusions: Flooded lung is a suitable pathway for applying HIFU to the liver, thus enabling a transthoracic, transpulmonary approach. The enlarged acoustic window could enhance the ablation speed for targets in the hepatic dome. PMID:27766022

  17. Glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply-demand ratio in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.; Dillard, E.; Parks, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    The present study was performed on eight young pigs to test the hypothesis that glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply to a greater extent than hepatic oxygen uptake, providing a better hepatic oxygen supply-demand relationship. The experiments were performed under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia and controlled ventilation. Splanchnic blood flow was studied using radioactive microspheres. Glucagon was administered in doses of 1 and 5 ..mu..g x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/. During glucagon infusion, hepatic arterial blood flow substantially increased, splenic and pancreatic blood flows increased moderately, while stomach and intestinal blood flows, as well as portal blood flow did not change significantly. Shunting of both 9- and 15-..mu..m spheres through preportal tissues did not change significantly. Oxygen content in arterial or portal venous blood did not change significantly, while it increased in hepatic venous blood by 30%. There were no differences in the effects between the doses of glucagon administered. There was no correlation found between changes in hepatic oxygen supply and cardiac output or blood pressure. The changes observed during glucagon administration resulted in an increase in oxygen delivery to the liver and hepatic oxygen supply-uptake ratio.

  18. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Maria C; Watanabe, Pedro H; Pascoal, Leonardo A F; Assis, Murilo M; Ruiz, Urbano S; Amorim, Alessandro B; Silva, Susana Z; Almeida, Vivian V; Melo, Gabriel M P; Robles-Huaynate, Rizal A

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix); 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements); 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements); 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements); and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements). Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  19. The correlation between thermal and noxious gas environments, pig productivity and behavioral responses of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D; Chang, Won Kyung

    2011-09-01

    Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare.

  20. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    SciTech Connect

    Brückner, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Winkler, Sandra; Stock, Peggy; Dollinger, Matthias; Christ, Bruno

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  1. Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission among Pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the Potential Impact of Pig Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Salje, Henrik; Hannan, A.; Islam, Md. Atiqul; Bhuyan, A. A. Mamun; Islam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, M. Ziaur; Nahar, Nazmun; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection can cause severe disease in humans, resulting in death or permanent neurologic deficits among survivors. Studies indicate that the incidence of JE is high in northwestern Bangladesh. Pigs are amplifying hosts for JE virus (JEV) and a potentially important source of virus in the environment. The objectives of this study were to describe the transmission dynamics of JEV among pigs in northwestern Bangladesh and estimate the potential impact of vaccination to reduce incidence among pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive census of pigs in three JE endemic districts and tested a sample of them for evidence of previous JEV infection. We built a compartmental model to describe JEV transmission dynamics in this region and to estimate the potential impact of pig vaccination. We identified 11,364 pigs in the study area. Previous JEV infection was identified in 30% of pigs with no spatial differences in the proportion of pigs that were seropositive across the study area. We estimated that JEV infects 20% of susceptible pigs each year and the basic reproductive number among pigs was 1.2. The model suggest that vaccinating 50% of pigs each year resulted in an estimated 82% reduction in annual incidence in pigs. Conclusions/Significance The widespread distribution of historic JEV infection in pigs suggests they may play an important role in virus transmission in this area. Future studies are required to understand the contribution of pig infections to JE risk in humans and the potential impact of pig vaccination on human disease. PMID:25255286

  2. Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.

  3. THEMES OF LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Fung, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation was the product of 5 interlocking themes. These began in 1958-59 with canine studies of then theoretical hepatotrophic molecules in portal venous blood (Theme I) and with the contemporaneous parallel development of liver and multivisceral transplant models (Theme II). Further Theme I investigations showed that insulin was the principal, although not the only, portal hepatotrophic factor. In addition to resolving long-standing controversies about the pathophysiology of portacaval shunt, the hepatotrophic studies blazed new trails in the regulation of liver size, function, and regeneration. They also targeted inborn metabolic errors (e.g. familial hyperlipoproteinemia) whose palliation by portal diversion presaged definitive correction with liver replacement. Clinical use of the Theme II transplant models depended on multiple drug immunosuppression (Theme III, Immunology), guided by an empirical algorithm of pattern recognition and therapeutic response. Successful liver replacement was first accomplished in 1967 with azathioprine, prednisone, and ALG. With this regimen, the world’s longest surviving liver recipient is now 40 years postoperative. Incremental improvements in survival outcome occurred (Theme IV) when azathioprine was replaced by cyclosporine (1979) which was replaced in turn by tacrolimus (1989). However, the biologic meaning of alloengraftment remained enigmatic until multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism was discovered in 1992 in long surviving organ recipients. Seminal mechanisms were then identified (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) that linked organ engraftment and the acquired tolerance of bone marrow transplantation and eventually clarified the relationship of transplantation immunology to the immunology of infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders. With this insight, better strategies of immunosuppression have evolved. As liver and other kinds of organ transplantation became accepted as

  4. Macrophage-activating T-cell factor(s) produced in an early phase of Legionella pneumophila infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Y; Yoshida, S; Goto, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Kuroiwa, A

    1989-01-01

    Protective immunity of guinea pigs against Legionella pneumophila was studied by infecting the animals with a sublethal dose (about 2 x 10(4) CFU) of the organism. The bacteria multiplied in the liver, spleen, and lungs up to day 4 after the intraperitoneal infection. The live bacteria in these organs decreased quickly thereafter and were eliminated by day 7. A delayed-type skin reaction and lymphoproliferation of spleen cells to Formalin-killed L. pneumophila were detected from days 5 and 6, respectively, after infection. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from guinea pigs infected 6 days previously inhibited the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor prepared from infected guinea pigs inhibited the intracellular growth of the organism in macrophages obtained from uninfected animals. Antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor prepared from spleen cells treated with anti-guinea pig T-cell monoclonal antibody did not inhibit growth. The activity of antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor was labile to pH 2 treatment, and the factor could not be absorbed by L. pneumophila antigen, suggesting that it contains gamma interferon. Our data show that T-cell-mediated immunity begins to work from an early period of infection with L. pneumophila in guinea pigs. PMID:2807531

  5. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of organoleads, lead salts, and inorganic lead in guinea pig and human autopsy skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bress, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Using diffusion tubes, the degree of penetration of tetrabutyl lead, lead napthanate, lead nuolate, lead acetate and lead oxide through guinea pig skin and human skin from autopsy was measured. Tetrabutyl lead demonstrated the greatest absorption in both the guinea pig and man. Lead nuolate, lead napthanate and lead acetate followed in descending order with the human tissue. The same leads, applied to guinea pig skin, followed a similar pattern of absorption in most cases. There were no measureable amounts of lead oxide absorbed in either species. Tetrabutyl lead, lead nuolate, lead napthanate, lead acetate and lead oxide were applied to the shaved backs of guinea pigs at 300mg/kg, under an occluded wrapping, daily, for seven days. Tissue concentrations of lead were highest when tetrabutyl lead was applied. The application of lead nuolate caused higher concentrations of lead in liver and kidney, than the corresponding applicaiton of lead napthanate. Lead acetate was poorly absorbed. No absorption was evidenced in the case of the lead oxide application. Light microscopic examination of integument, treated with tetrabutyl lead, revealed marked inflammation within the dermis. Inflammation was less marked in the integument of animals treated with lead napthanate and lead nuolate. Staining with sodium rhodizonate proved unsuccessful, but treatment of tissues exposed to lead nuolate and lead napthanate with ammonium sulfide showed evidence of lead on the stratum corneum and hair shafts. Correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data, as well as the comparison of human and guinea pig results, are discussed.

  6. PIG-TO-MONKEY ISLET XENOTRANSPLANTATION USING MULTI-TRANSGENIC PIGS

    PubMed Central

    Bottino, R.; Wijkstrom, M.; van der Windt, D.J.; Hara, H.; Ezzelarab, M.; Murase, N.; Bertera, S.; He, J.; Phelps, C.; Ayares, D.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Trucco, M.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of pigs with genetic modifications has significantly advanced the field of xenotransplantation. New genetically-engineered pigs were produced on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout background with ubiquitous expression of human CD46 (GTKO/CD46 pigs), with islet beta cell-specific expression of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (hTFPI) and/or human CD39 and/or porcine CTLA4-lg. Isolated islets from pigs with 3, 4, or 5 genetic modifications were transplanted intraportally into streptozotocin-diabetic, immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys (n=5). Immunosuppression was based on anti-CD154mAb costimulation blockade. Monitoring included features of early islet destruction, glycemia, exogenous insulin requirement, and histopathology of the islets at necropsy. Using these modified pig islets, there was evidence of reduced islet destruction in the first hours after transplantation, compared with two series of historical controls that received identical therapy but were transplanted with islets from pigs with either no or only one genetic modification. Despite encouraging effects on early islet loss, these multi-transgenic islet grafts did not demonstrate consistency in regard to long-term success, with only 2 of 5 demonstrating function beyond 5 months. PMID:25220221

  7. Recent investigations into pig antigen and anti-pig antibody expression.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Guerard W; McGregor, Christopher G A; Breimer, Michael E

    2015-11-01

    Genetic engineering of donor pigs to eliminate expression of the dominant xenogeneic antigen galactose α1,3 galactose (Gal) has created a sea change in the immunobiology of xenograft rejection. Antibody mediated xenograft rejection of GGTA-1 α-galactosyltransferase (GTKO) deficient organs is now directed to a combination of non-Gal pig protein and carbohydrate antigens. Glycan analysis of GTKO tissues identified no new neo-antigens but detected high levels of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) modified glycoproteins and glycolipids. Humans produce anti-Neu5Gc antibody and in very limited clinical studies sometimes show an induced anti-Neu5Gc antibody response after challenge with pig tissue. The pathogenicity of anti-Neu5Gc antibody in xenotransplantation is not clear however as non-human transplant models, critical for modelling anti-Gal immunity, do not produce anti-Neu5Gc antibody. Antibody induced after xenotransplantation in non-human primates is directed to an array of pig endothelial cells proteins and to a glycan produced by the pig B4GALNT2 gene. We anticipate that immune suppression will significantly affect the T-cell dependent and independent specificity of an induced antibody response and that donor pigs deficient in synthesis of multiple xenogeneic glycans will be important to future studies.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of benzo[a]pyrene-induced Pig-a and lacZ mutations, micronuclei and DNA adducts in Muta™ Mouse.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Christine L; Douglas, George R; Gingerich, John; Phonethepswath, Souk; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M; White, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    In this study we compared the response of the Pig-a gene mutation assay to that of the lacZ transgenic rodent mutation assay, and demonstrated that multiple endpoints can be measured in a 28-day repeat dose study. Muta™Mouse were dosed daily for 28 days with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was determined in reticulocytes (RETs) 48 hr following the last dose. 72 h following the last dose, mice were euthanized, and tissues (glandular stomach, small intestine, bone marrow and liver) were collected for lacZ mutation and DNA adduct analysis, and blood was evaluated for Pig-a mutants. BaP-derived DNA adducts were detected in all tissues examined and significant dose-dependent increases in mutant Pig-a phenotypes (i.e., RET(CD24-) and RBC (CD24-)) and lacZ mutants were observed. We estimate that mutagenic efficiency (i.e., rate of conversion of adducts into mutations) was much lower for Pig-a compared to lacZ, and speculate that this difference is likely explained by differences in repair capacity between the gene targets, and differences in the cell populations sampled for Pig-a versus lacZ. The BaP doubling doses for both gene targets, however, were comparable, suggesting that similar mechanisms are involved in the accumulation of gene mutations. Significant dose-related increases in % MN were also observed; however, the doubling dose was considerably higher for this endpoint. The similarity in dose response kinetics of Pig-a and lacZ provides further evidence for the mutational origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor deficiencies detected in the Pig-a assay.

  9. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  10. Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure: lessons learnt from acute liver failure setting.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajalingam, Rajesh; Rela, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a clinical entity with high risk of mortality. These patients can have severe liver dysfunction complicated with multiple organ failure. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for these patients. Literature regarding management of acute liver failure with special emphasis on liver transplantation was reviewed. Lessons learnt from the management of patients with acute liver failure which could be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure are discussed. Significant improvement in outcomes of acute liver failure has been reported across the world. Several aspects in transplantation for acute liver failure were found to be relevant to the management of acute-on-chronic liver failure. These include defining criteria to identify patients needing early liver transplantation, prioritizing patients with acute liver failure on the waiting list, defining when to abandon transplantation in acute liver failure, emphasis on graft quality and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to manage multiple organ dysfunction. Useful lessons can be learnt from the progress made in the management of acute liver failure and these can be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:25788191

  11. Longitudinal in-vivo volumetry study for porcine liver regeneration from CT data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiayin; Huang, Weimin; Chang, Stephen K Y; Xiong, Wei; Oo, Thiha; Chen, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    The use of hepatic-like cloned cord lining epithelial cells (CLEC) to enhance liver regeneration has been proposed, but has not been properly investigated in a large animal study. The paper presents a system developed for the longitudinal in-vivo volumetry study on porcine liver regeneration from computed tomography (CT) data. In this system, a rough 3D liver volume is firstly automatically segmented by a 3D mesh deformation-based method. Then a refinement step to eliminate the segmentation error is carried out by a 3D post-editing tool, followed by mesh-volume conversion and volume calculation. This system was applied in a pilot study, which was composed of 4/4 pigs in the Experimental/Control Groups, to measure liver volumes over pre- to post-operative time course. Experimental results suggest that (1) the developed system can perform CT-based porcine liver volumetry efficiently, and (2) the infusion of CLEC to liver remnant may potentially enhance the liver regeneration. PMID:25571052

  12. Transmission in the guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Lowen, Anice C; Bouvier, Nicole M; Steel, John

    2014-01-01

    The ability of an influenza virus to transmit efficiently from human-to-human is a major factor in determining the epidemiological impact of that strain. The use of a relevant animal model to identify viral determinants of transmission, as well as host and environmental factors affecting transmission efficiency, is therefore critical for public health. The characterization of newly emerging influenza viruses in terms of their potential to transmit in a mammalian host is furthermore an important part of pandemic risk assessment. For these reasons, a guinea pig model of influenza virus transmission was developed in 2006. The guinea pig provides an important alternative to preexisting models for influenza. Most influenza viruses do not readily transmit among mice. Ferrets, while highly relevant, are expensive and can be difficult to obtain in high numbers. Moreover, it is generally accepted that efforts to accurately model human disease are strengthened by the use of multiple animal species. Herein, we provide an overview of influenza virus infectivity, growth, and transmission in the guinea pig and highlight knowledge gained on the topic of influenza virus transmission using the guinea pig model.

  13. W5 - If Pigs Could Fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Trina

    2012-10-01

    Centripetal force seems to be a challenge for students and we are typically using stoppers, string, tubes and slotted masses (that always crash to the floor). But if we use a toy that reminds them of an amusement park ride, we can get the message across and have some fun. Come and see if pigs can fly!

  14. A GWAS of teat number in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size continues to increase, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. The pig displays considerable variation for number of teats; therefore, a genome-wide association (GWA) an...

  15. Chlamydial pneumonitis induced in newborn guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Jacobs, R F; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    One- to three-day-old guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Physical signs of infection included a marked increase in respiration rate on days 5 to 10 of infection and radiographic evidence of pneumonia on day 6. When animals were killed at various times after infection and lung tissue was examined by histopathology, evidence of pneumonia was found beginning on day 4 and lasting as long as day 12, with maximal pathological changes on days 6 to 8. The pneumonia was generally unilateral and consisted of an acute inflammatory component in the bronchioles with granulocytes in both the lumen and the wall of the bronchioles and an interstitial and intra-alveolar mononuclear infiltrate in the parenchyma of the lung. Chlamydial antigen was detected in the bronchial epithelial cells by immunoperoxidase staining, and the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis organism was isolated from lung tissue on days 6 to 9. No other significant bacteria were isolated from lung tissue or seen on gram stains of lung sections. Both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G serum antibodies to the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent were detected as early as day 8 and reached peak levels on day 12. The infection was apparently self-limiting. This model presents the opportunity to investigate pathophysiological and immunological aspects of chlamydial respiratory infections in a neonatal animal. Images PMID:3980080

  16. Effect of different carotenoid-containing diets on the vitamin A levels and colour parameters in Iberian pigs' tissues: utility as biomarkers of traceability.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Vicario, I M; Meléndez-Martínez, A J; Alcalde, M J

    2014-10-01

    Retinol and fat colour parameters in Iberian pigs fed on different carotenoid-containing diets were assessed. Thirty animals in two groups were considered: Iberian breed pigs fed on acorns and grass (Montanera) and on concentrate (Cebo). Carotenoids and retinoids were analysed in the diets and in plasma, liver and perirenal fat of the animals by HPLC and HPLC-MS. Retinol levels in plasma and fat were similar in Montanera and Cebo animals. The utility of retonids and colour parameters as traceability index was also explored. Retinoids in liver classified correctly 93% of the animals according to their diet L* and hab. CIELAB parameters of the perirenal fat discriminated correctly 78.6% of the animals according to their diet. L* values for the Montanera animals were significantly different (P<0.01) from those fed on concentrate. It can be claimed that the liver retinol profile and fat colour parameters can be useful for feeding traceability purposes in Iberian pigs breed in Montanera and Cebo.

  17. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  18. Imaging in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Monti, L; Soglia, G; Tomà, P

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation has become an established curative treatment in adult patients with acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases. In pediatric cases the number of cadaveric donor livers is not sufficient and to overcome the shortage of appropriate-sized whole liver grafts, technical variants of liver transplantation have been practiced. Reduced-size cadaveric and split cadaveric allografts have become an important therapeutic option, expanding the availability of size-appropriate organs for pediatric recipients with terminal liver disease. The number of pediatric deaths awaiting liver transplantation has been reduced by the introduction of living-related liver transplantation, developed to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children. It is important for radiologists to know that children have distinct imaging of liver transplantation that distinguish them from adults. A multidisciplinary pediatric liver transplantation team should be skilled in pediatric conditions and in associated processes, risks and complications. Radiologists should know the common pediatric liver diseases that lead to liver transplantation, the anastomotic techniques and the expected postoperative imaging findings. The aim of this study is to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging such us ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric liver transplantation and in potential liver donors. PMID:26909515

  19. Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

  20. Liver dysfunction in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Steven, M M; Small, M; Pettigrew, A; Lowe, G D; Sturrock, R D; Follett, E A; Forbes, C D

    1986-04-01

    Liver function was studied in 139 of 291 haemophiliacs known to a single Regional Haemophilia Centre including patients with classical haemophilia, Christmas disease and von Willebrand's disease. In 57 patients, six-monthly liver function tests over a five year period were also available. Thirty-nine of the 139 patients had had jaundice or hepatitis and 56 had a positive test for HBsAb in the blood although few of these had had an identifiable clinical illness. Fifty-eight haemophiliacs had elevated serum aminotransferases at the time of study, but the five year review revealed only six patients who had had persistently abnormal results, although none had clinically evident liver disease. Liver dysfunction was unrelated to a history of hepatitis, to a positive HBsAb test, or to age, type of haemophilia, factor level or frequency of factor replacement treatment. Abnormalities of liver function in haemophilia appear to be unrelated to past or present hepatitis B infection in most cases and may not be related to any single transmitted infectious agent.

  1. Efficacy evaluation of SurgiGuard® in partially hepatectomized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Hye Sung; In, Chang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims This study evaluated the hemostatic effects of a novel oxidized regenerated cellulose, SurgiGuard®, during liver surgery, using a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model. Methods Fifteen mini-pigs underwent left partial hepatectomy. They were randomized to treatment of the resected surface with SurgiGuard® (Group C [test], n=5), Surgicel® (Group B [reference], n=5), or nothing (Group A [control], n=5). Blood loss was measured 5, 7 and 9 min after resection. Time to hemostasis was recorded. Mini-pigs were necropsied 4 or 6 weeks postoperatively to evaluate toxicity changes and material dissolution. Results The median resected liver weight was 2.13 g (2.02-2.20) in control group, 2.04 g (2.01-2.13) in reference group, and 2.01 g (1.99-2.12) in test group (p=0.024). Median total blood loss was 57.18 g (52.02-59.54) in control group, 32.52 g (27.66-35.10) in reference group, and 35.52 g (25.70-38.71) in test group (p=0.008). Blood loss at 0-5 minutes and 7-9 minutes was significantly different between groups (p=0.009 and p=0.006, respectively). At necropsy, no hematomas, granulomas, or adhesions were noted in any group. Histopathological analysis revealed no changes suggesting toxicity related to SurgiGuard®. Conclusions SurgiGuard® is as effective as Surgicel® in achieving hemostasis after porcine partial liver resection. PMID:27621746

  2. Efficacy evaluation of SurgiGuard® in partially hepatectomized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Hye Sung; In, Chang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims This study evaluated the hemostatic effects of a novel oxidized regenerated cellulose, SurgiGuard®, during liver surgery, using a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model. Methods Fifteen mini-pigs underwent left partial hepatectomy. They were randomized to treatment of the resected surface with SurgiGuard® (Group C [test], n=5), Surgicel® (Group B [reference], n=5), or nothing (Group A [control], n=5). Blood loss was measured 5, 7 and 9 min after resection. Time to hemostasis was recorded. Mini-pigs were necropsied 4 or 6 weeks postoperatively to evaluate toxicity changes and material dissolution. Results The median resected liver weight was 2.13 g (2.02-2.20) in control group, 2.04 g (2.01-2.13) in reference group, and 2.01 g (1.99-2.12) in test group (p=0.024). Median total blood loss was 57.18 g (52.02-59.54) in control group, 32.52 g (27.66-35.10) in reference group, and 35.52 g (25.70-38.71) in test group (p=0.008). Blood loss at 0-5 minutes and 7-9 minutes was significantly different between groups (p=0.009 and p=0.006, respectively). At necropsy, no hematomas, granulomas, or adhesions were noted in any group. Histopathological analysis revealed no changes suggesting toxicity related to SurgiGuard®. Conclusions SurgiGuard® is as effective as Surgicel® in achieving hemostasis after porcine partial liver resection.

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Shelton, N W; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Yang, H; Hill, D A; Holzgraefe, D; Hall, D H; Mahan, D C

    2014-10-01

    A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed in diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The 6 dietary treatments included DL-α-TAc at 44 and 66 mg/kg and D-α-TAc at 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg/kg. From breeding to d 69 of gestation, sows were fed 2.0 kg/d of a diet containing 40% DDGS, 0.30 mg/kg added Se, and no added vitamin E. Vitamin E treatments were fed from d 70 of gestation through weaning. Plasma was collected from sows on d 69 and 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Colostrum and milk samples were also collected. Plasma from 3 pigs per litter and heart and liver samples from 1 pig per litter were collected at weaning. Plasma, milk, and tissues from 6 litters per treatment were analyzed for α-tocopherol. Although tissue, plasma, and milk concentrations of α-tocopherol were the primary response criteria of interest, sow and litter performance were measured. As expected, treatment effects were not observed for lactation feed intake, sow BW, or backfat measurements. A trend (P = 0.085) for a treatment effect on average pig BW at weaning was detected, with pigs nursing sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc weighing less because of a younger weaning age. No other differences in litter performance were observed. As D-α-TAc increased in the diet, sow plasma, colostrum, and milk, pig plasma, and pig heart concentrations of α-tocopherol increased (linear, P < 0.03). Sows fed diets with 44 mg/kg D-α-TAc had increased (P < 0.03) plasma and colostrum and pig plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol compared with sows fed 44 mg/kg of DL-α-TAc. Sows fed 66 mg/kg DL-α-TAc also had greater (P = 0.022) plasma α-tocopherol at weaning than sows fed 44 mg

  4. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection.

  5. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection. PMID:22194233

  6. Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Liu, Dexi

    2013-01-01

    Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 40–65 kg) using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume) are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human α-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:24129227

  7. Guinea-pig alpha 1-fetoprotein: purification, characterization, developmental and hormonal regulation, and behavior in diethylnitrosamine hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gourdeau, H; Bélanger, L

    1983-10-01

    Physicochemical and immunological procedures were developed for the purification of guinea-pig alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP). A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed which can detect 0.1 ng of AFP. The E1%278 nm of guinea-pig AFP is 6.6. Its molecular weight is 73 000. Its amino acid composition is similar to other AFP's, but it has a higher carbohydrate content (8.5%), owing to larger amounts of mannose and N-acetylglucosamine. Guinea-pig AFP has a slower electrophoretic mobility than other AFP's, owing to its more basic ionic structure. It separates into three electrophoretic variants in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels; these are charge variants with isoelectric points of 5.0, 5.12, and 5.54. Changes in electrophoretic mobility after neuraminidase treatment indicate that charge heterogeneity is due to a variable content in sialic acid. Guinea-pig AFP has fatty-acid- and lectin-binding properties, but no affinity for sex hormones. Its biological half-life is 2.1 days. Its sites of synthesis are the liver and the yolk sac, with minor contributions by the upper gastrointestinal tract. AFP production appears to cease synchronously in the liver and yolk sac during the 8th week of gestation. From 4 to 8 weeks of gestation, AFP levels are at 2.5-3.5 mg/mL in fetal serum and 0.1-0.2 mg/mL in amniotic fluid. The proportion of electrophoretic and lectin-reactive AFP variants changes during development, reflecting the changing glycosylation of the protein. The gestational levels of AFP in the maternal compartment are indicative of a fetomaternal equilibration through transamniotic exchange. Serum AFP levels in normal adult guinea pigs are remarkably high, from 400 to 2000 ng/mL and occasionally up to over 5000 ng/mL. The administration of dexamethasone suppresses serum AFP levels. During liver carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine, serum AFP levels increase, moderately, when tumors develop.

  8. Coagulation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Maureane

    2015-07-01

    The liver plays a key role in hemostasis as the site of synthesis of many of the proteins involved in the coagulation, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems that interact to both establish hemostasis, and preventing thrombosis. The common laboratory tests, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), evolved from studies of plasma clotting in test tubes. Such studies laid the basis for the coagulation cascade model of hemostasis. However, thought has evolved to place a greater emphasis on the active roles of cells in localizing and regulating hemostasis. The PT and aPTT do not reflect the roles of cellular elements in hemostasis, nor do they reflect the crucial roles of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems. Thus, though the PT may indeed reflect the synthetic capacity of the liver, it does not accurately reflect the risk of bleeding or thrombosis in patients with liver failure.

  9. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  10. [Probiotics in liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Soriano, Germán; Sánchez, Elisabet; Guarner, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota and inflammatory response play a key role in disease progression and development of complications in liver diseases, mainly in cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Probiotics can be useful to delay disease progression and to prevent development of complications due to their ability to modulate intestinal flora, intestinal permeability and inflammatory response. Several studies have shown the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the prevention of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Probiotics have also been observed to prevent postoperative bacterial infections and to improve liver damage in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, more studies are needed in order to confirm the efficacy and safety of probiotics in patients with liver diseases, and to better understanding of the mechanisms implicated in their effects.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  12. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  13. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  14. Living related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, M; Kawarazaki, H; Iwanaka, T; Kamada, N; Takayama, T; Kumon, M

    1992-01-01

    Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver transplantations had already been performed in Japan, mainly for children with biliary atresia. Five of these patients subsequently died, however, our patient has survived more than 1 year, and she is presently leading a normal school life. The most important issue regarding living related liver transplantation is to ensure the donor's safety. For this purpose, we conducted a preoperative banking of the donor's own blood and plasma. In addition, a selective vascular occlusion was carried out to reduce blood loss during the resection of the liver. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was introduced for evaluating the circulation of the graft. By using this modality, the following three points were able to be accurately estimated in order to obtain optimal graft perfusion: 1) The most suitable position for the graft to be fixed to the abdominal wall, 2) whether or not the abdominal wall could be closed and 3) the indication for a ligation of the collateral veins to form a porto-systemic shunt. Thanks to these procedures, living related liver transplantations have now become an acceptable transplant method, however, a transplantation from a cadaver that is brain dead but still has a beating heart is still absolutely necessary for adult recipients. Therefore, in the future, both methods should be performed.

  15. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  16. Obesity and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Armstrong, John; Hurton, Scott; Molinari, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese patients (OPs) waiting for a liver transplant continues to increase. Despite the significant advances occurred in bariatric medicine, obesity is still considered a relative contraindication to liver transplantation (LT). The main aim of this review is to appraise the literature on the outcomes of OPs undergoing LT, treatments that might reduce their weight before, during or after surgery, and discuss some of the controversies and limitations of the current knowledge with the intent of highlighting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26421262

  17. Neoplasms of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, K.; Ishak, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    Primary Liver Cancer is perhaps the most prevalent malignancy in the world, particularly in South East Asia and Africa. After the discovery of hepatitis B virus as a cause of chronic liver disease often terminating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and, more recently, the integration of viral DNA into host chromosomal DNA, the progress made in this field has been remarkable. This book contains 35 chapters and covers all topical aspects, such as oncogenes, epidemiology, carcinogenic role of hepatitis viruses, histopathology, new imaging techniques and new treatment modalities that include ultrasound-guided intratumor injections of ethanol and targeting chemotherapy.

  18. Effects of alcohol consumption on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in ethanol-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Petitpas, F; Sichel, F; Hébert, B; Lagadu, S; Beljean, M; Pottier, D; Laurentie, M; Prevost, V

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to result in tissue injury, particularly in the liver, and is considered a major risk factor for cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Here we assessed the oxidative effects of subchronic ethanol consumption on DNA and lipids by measuring biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Physiological responses of pigs (n = 4) administered ethanol in drinking water for 39 days were compared with those of water-fed pigs (n = 4). Alcoholisation resulted in serum ethanol concentration of 1.90 g L(-1) and in a moderate but significant increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, an index of liver injury. However, between the alcoholised and control groups there were no significant differences in the levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxodG per 10(6) 2'deoxyguanosine) from leucocytes (2.52 ± 0.42 Vs 2.39 ± 0.34) or from target organs, liver, cardia and oesophagus. Serum MDA levels were also similar in ethanol-fed pigs (0.33 ± 0.04 μM) and controls (0.28 ± 0.03 μM). Interestingly, levels of 8-oxodG in cardia were positively correlated with those in oesophagus (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 1, P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that alcohol consumption may not cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as measured by 8-oxodG and MDA, respectively. The duration of alcoholisation and the potential alcohol-induced nutritional deficiency may be critical determinants of ethanol toxicity. Relevant biomarkers, such as factors involved in sensitization to ethanol-induced oxidative stress are required to better elucidate the relationship between alcohol consumption, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis.

  19. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.; Oneal, W. C.

    1982-09-01

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe runs from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe is filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6 inch diameter, 420 foot long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe.

  20. Stem Cells and Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    DUNCAN, ANDREW W.; DORRELL, CRAIG; GROMPE, MARKUS

    2011-01-01

    One of the defining features of the liver is the capacity to maintain a constant size despite injury. Although the precise molecular signals involved in the maintenance of liver size are not completely known, it is clear that the liver delicately balances regeneration with overgrowth. Mammals, for example, can survive surgical removal of up to 75% of the total liver mass. Within 1 week after liver resection, the total number of liver cells is restored. Moreover, liver overgrowth can be induced by a variety of signals, including hepatocyte growth factor or peroxisome proliferators; the liver quickly returns to its normal size when the proliferative signal is removed. The extent to which liver stem cells mediate liver regeneration has been hotly debated. One of the primary reasons for this controversy is the use of multiple definitions for the hepatic stem cell. Definitions for the liver stem cell include the following: (1) cells responsible for normal tissue turnover, (2) cells that give rise to regeneration after partial hepatectomy, (3) cells responsible for progenitor-dependent regeneration, (4) cells that produce hepatocyte and bile duct epithelial phenotypes in vitro, and (5) transplantable liver-repopulating cells. This review will consider liver stem cells in the context of each definition. PMID:19470389

  1. Use of released pigs as sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Graham; Whitford, Jackie; Young, Nigel

    2002-10-01

    Identifying the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB; Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife is crucial in guiding management aimed at eradicating the disease from New Zealand. Unfortunately, surveys of the principal wildlife host, the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), require large samples (> 95% of the population) before they can provide reasonable confidence that the disease is absent. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a more wide-ranging species, feral pig (Sus scrofa), as an alternative sentinel capable of indicating TB presence. In January 2000, 17 pigs in four groups were released into a forested area with a low density of possums in which TB was known to be present. The pigs were radiotracked at 2 wk intervals from February to October 2000, and some of them were killed and necropsied at various intervals after release. Of the 15 pigs successfully recovered and necropsied, one killed 2 mo after release had no gross lesions typical of TB, and the only other pig killed at that time had greatly enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. The remainder were killed at longer intervals after release and all had gross lesions typical of TB. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from all 15 pigs by mycobacterial culture. Home range sizes of pigs varied widely and increased with the length of time the pigs were in the forest, with minimum convex polygon range-size estimates averaging 10.7 km2 (range 4.7-20.3 km2) for the pigs killed after 6 mo. A 6 km radius around the kill site of each pig would have encompassed 95% of all of their previous locations at which they could have become infected. However, one pig shifted 35 km, highlighting the main limitation of using unmarked feral pigs as sentinels. This trial indicates use of resident and/or released free-ranging pigs is a feasible alternative to direct prevalence surveys of possums for detecting TB presence.

  2. Pigs shift too: foraging strategies and spatial memory in the domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Laughlin; Mendl

    2000-09-01

    In a previous experiment, we showed that domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, unlike many other species, performed accurately in a spatial memory task, where visits to a previously baited food trough were rewarded (win-stay). We investigated whether pigs have a predisposition for this strategy, by comparing their performance in a radial arm maze under either win-stay (N=10) or win-shift (N=10) reward contingencies. Contrary to our earlier results, only one of the animals in the win-stay condition was able to reach the imposed criterion level of accuracy. The performances of the other win-stay pigs did not deviate from random. All pigs in the win-shift condition reached criterion by day 25 of the experiment, and performed better than expected by chance. Analysis of the types of errors made matched our a priori predictions that shift movements would occur more frequently, especially within visits to the maze. We suggest that the difference in learning rates may reflect the fact that win-stay pigs needed to use two different rules, stay between trials and shift within trials, while win-shift pigs only needed to use the shift rule. In our previous study, win-stay pigs did not experience a conflict of rules and this may have facilitated stay learning. We found evidence of a recency effect in win-shift animals and a primacy effect in the win-stay group. However, we discuss the unsuitability of these specific terms in this type of experiment, and propose an alternative interpretation of the results. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

  4. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  5. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase and the activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites in vivo in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, E.; Coccia, P.; Romano, M.; Jiritano, L.; Noseda, A.; Salmona, M.

    1984-11-01

    The role of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in the in vivo activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites capable of interacting irreversibly with cellular macromolecules was studied in guinea pig liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, colon, and brain. DNA and protein covalent binding experiments were made after systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg) followed by radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (4 microgram/kg). Results are compared with a control situation in which the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase inhibitor (acetylsalicylic acid) was not administered. No decrease in the level of DNA or protein benzo(a)pyrene-derived covalent binding was observed in any of the tissues studied.

  6. Increased levels of hepatic and renal metallothionein in the rat and guinea pig after percutaneous application of zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, U.; BenZakine, S. )

    1991-02-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a cytoplasmic, low molecular weight, cysteine rich, heat stable protein. It was detected in various organs including liver, spleen, pancreas, testes, lung, intestine, brain, heart, adrenal, lacrimal and parotid glands. The most powerful inducers of metallothionein are cadmium and zinc. Water soluble zinc salts are common contaminants of the environment. In the present study dose-response relationship and the cumulative effect of topically applied zinc chloride have been demonstrated. For comparison, metal-binding protein induction by the same route of exposure has been also tested in the guinea pig.

  7. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  8. Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease There are a ... liver that can be treated with nonsurgical, interventional radiology techniques. Portal Hypertension Seen most frequently in patients ...

  9. Pig xenogeneic antigen modification with green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Wen, J; Luo, C; Cummings, R D; Cooper, D K

    1999-11-01

    Green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase can cleave the terminal alpha-galactose (alphaGal) on oligosaccharides that form the major antigen on pig endothelial cells recognized by primate-specific antibodies. Studies have been made of the conditions under which it is functional (e.g. temperature, pH) and of its biochemical and immunologic effects. Pig-to-rhesus monkey vein transplants were studied to identify the efficiency of the enzyme in delaying hyperacute rejection. When a graft became occluded, biopsies were taken for light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunostaining with Griffonia simplicifolia IB4 lectin (GSIB4), and for IgM, IgG and C3. alpha-Galactosidase was stable for 72-96 h and was effective at 4 degrees C and pH 6.9 (conditions of human liver graft storage), although better function was obtained at 20 degrees C and pH 6.5. Using the porcine PK15 cell assay, the cytotoxicity of human serum was reduced after treatment of the pig cells with the enzyme. In vitro studies demonstrated that porcine veins treated with alpha-galactosidase lost endothelial expression of the Gal epitope within 30 min. SEM, however, demonstrated endothelial damage beginning within 2 h, probably caused by the alpha-galactosidase, as no damage was found in phosphate-buffered saline-treated veins, where the Gal epitope was preserved for >3 h. No change was found in either group on light microscopy. In vivo studies demonstrated that patency of the alpha-galactosidase-treated veins (mean 2.5 h) was longer than that of untreated veins (0.23 h) (P < 0.01). Biopsies showed no GSIB4 lectin staining for alpha-Gal epitopes and much less IgM and C3 deposition in the treated group. Light microscopy and SEM demonstrated more severe endothelial damage, hemorrhage, and fibrin formation in the untreated group. Galactosidase is effective in removing the terminal alphaGal and delays the onset of hyperacute rejection of pig veins transplanted into monkeys

  10. Structure of rabbit liver fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase at 2.3 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Weeks, C M; Roszak, A W; Erman, M; Kaiser, R; Jörnvall, H; Ghosh, D

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the R form of rabbit liver fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-Pase; E.C. 3.1.3.11) has been determined by a combination of heavy-atom and molecular-replacement methods. A model, which includes 2394 protein atoms and 86 water molecules, has been refined at 2.3 A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 0.177. The root-mean-square deviations of bond distances and angles from standard geometry are 0.012 A and 1.7 degrees, respectively. This structural result, in conjunction with recently redetermined amino-acid sequence data, unequivocally establishes that the rabbit liver enzyme is not an aberrant bisphosphatase as once believed, but is indeed homologous to other Fru-1,6-Pases. The root-mean-square deviation of the Calpha atoms in the rabbit liver structure from the homologous atoms in the pig kidney structure complexed with the product, fructose 6-phosphate, is 0.7 A. Fru-1,6-Pases are homotetramers, and the rabbit liver protein crystallizes in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure contains a single endogenous Mg2+ ion coordinated by Glu97, Asp118, Asp121 and Glu280 at the site designated metal site 1 in pig kidney Fru-1,6-Pase R-form complexes. In addition, two sulfate ions, which are found at the positions normally occupied by the 6-phosphate group of the substrate, as well as the phosphate of the allosteric inhibitor AMP appear to provide stability. Met177, which has hydrophobic contacts with the adenine moiety of AMP in pig kidney T-form complexes, is replaced by glycine. Binding of a non-hydrolyzable substrate analog, beta-methyl-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, at the catalytic site is also examined.

  11. Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Joseph; Liu, Jie; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Cinar, Resat; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Kunos, George

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of CB receptors, endocannabinoids, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, and is present both in brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. The hepatic ECS is activated in various liver diseases, which contributes to the underlying pathologies. In cirrhosis of various etiologies, activation of vascular and cardiac CB1 receptors by macrophage- and platelet-derived endocannabinoids contribute to the vasodilated state and cardiomyopathy, which can be reversed by CB1 blockade. In mouse models of liver fibrosis, activation of CB1 receptors on hepatic stellate cells is fibrogenic, and CB1 blockade slows the progression of fibrosis. Fatty liver induced by high-fat diets or chronic alcohol feeding depend on activation of peripheral, including hepatic CB1 receptors, which also contribute to insulin resistance and dyslipidemias. Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB1 blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists. PMID:21254182

  12. Glycosylation and Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anand; Herrera, Harmin; Block, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is the 5th most common cancer, but the 2nd leading cause of cancer death, in the world, with more than 700,000 fatalities annually. The major etiology of liver cancer is infection with an hepatotropic virus such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). While chronic viral infection remains the main cause of liver disease and risk of HCC, rates of non –viral associated HCC are occurring at an alarmingly increasing rate. Like many cancers, survival rates are closely associated with time of detection. If HCC is caught early, survival rates can be as high as 50%. Regrettably, most cases of HCC are caught late where survival rates can be as low as 2–7%. Thus, there has been great interest in discovering serum biomarkers that could be used to identify those with HCC. To this end, many groups have examined the N-linked glycans to identify changes that occur with HCC. As the liver secretes the vast majority of proteins into the serum, this has often been a starting point for study. In serum, alterations in core fucosylation, outer-arm fucosylation, increased sialylation and glycan branching have been observed in patients with HCC. Similar findings have been found directly in HCC tissue suggesting that these glycan changes may play a role in tumor formation and development. PMID:25727150

  13. The EPA Liver Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The v-Liver is part of a broader EPA effort on Virtual Tissues (VT) aimed at reducing the magnitude and spectrum of animal testing by integrative in silico and in vitro models, which recapitulate the properties of intact organs. The other VT projects include the Virtual Embryo (...

  14. Ton That Tung's livers.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Born in the early 20th century, the Vietnamese surgeon Ton That Tung received his medical education in French colonial Indochina at the fledgling l'Ecole de Médecine de Hanoi, the first indigenous medical school in Southeast Asia. The benefactor of a postgraduate position at the medical school, Ton That Tung subsequently obtained his surgical training at the Phù Doãn Hospital in Hanoi and concurrently developed a passion for the study of liver anatomy, pathology, and surgery. His contributions to an understanding of liver anatomy based on meticulous dissection of autopsy specimens antedated and rivaled later work by the famous Western anatomists Couinaud, Healey, Schroy, and others. Ton That Tung's contributions, however, were overshadowed by the intense national struggles of the Vietnamese to establish independent rule and self-governance from the French and by eventual alignment with eastern bloc Communist countries, thus isolating much of his work behind the "Iron Curtain" until well after the end of the Cold War. Nevertheless, Ton That Tung remains a pioneer in liver anatomy and liver surgery. His commitment to surgical science and, more importantly, to the Vietnamese people stands as a tribute to the tireless pursuit of his ideals. PMID:24335785

  15. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Damgaard, Dana; Alexander, Trevor W; Dugan, Mike E R; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2006-03-01

    The persistence of plant-derived recombinant DNA in sheep and pigs fed genetically modified (Roundup Ready) canola was assessed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis of DNA extracted from digesta, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, and visceral organs. Sheep (n = 11) and pigs (n = 36) were fed to slaughter on diets containing 6.5 or 15% Roundup Ready canola. Native plant DNA (high- and low-copy-number gene fragments) and the cp4 epsps transgene that encodes 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase were tracked in ruminal, abomasal, and large intestinal digesta and in tissue from the esophagus, rumen, abomasum, small and large intestine, liver, and kidney of sheep and in cecal content and tissue from the duodenum, cecum, liver, spleen, and kidney of pigs. High-copy chloroplast-specific DNA (a 520-bp fragment) was detected in all digesta samples, the majority (89-100%) of intestinal tissues, and at least one of each visceral organ sample (frequencies of 3-27%) from sheep and swine. Low-copy rubisco fragments (186- and 540-bp sequences from the small subunit) were present at slightly lower, variable frequencies in digesta (18-82%) and intestinal tissues (9-27% of ovine and 17-25% of porcine samples) and infrequently in visceral organs (1 of 88 ovine samples; 3 of 216 porcine samples). Each of the five cp4 epsps transgene fragments (179-527 bp) surveyed was present in at least 27% of ovine large intestinal content samples (maximum = 64%) and at least 33% of porcine cecal content samples (maximum = 75%). In sheep, transgene fragments were more common in intestinal digesta than in ruminal or abomasal content. Transgene fragments were detected in 0 (esophagus) to 3 (large intestine) GI tract tissues from the 11 sheep and in 0-10 of the duodenal and cecal tissues collected from 36 pigs. The feed-ingested recombinant DNA was not detected in visceral tissues (liver, kidney) of lambs or in the spleen from pigs. Of note, however, one liver and one kidney sample from

  16. Development and Characterization of a Guinea Pig-Adapted Sudan Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gary; He, Shihua; Wei, Haiyan; Kroeker, Andrea; Audet, Jonathan; Leung, Anders; Cutts, Todd; Graham, Jill; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infections with Sudan virus (SUDV), a member of the genus Ebolavirus, result in a severe hemorrhagic fever with a fatal outcome in over 50% of human cases. The paucity of prophylactics and therapeutics against SUDV is attributed to the lack of a small-animal model to screen promising compounds. By repeatedly passaging SUDV within the livers and spleens of guinea pigs in vivo, a guinea pig-adapted SUDV variant (SUDV-GA) uniformly lethal to these animals, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 5.3 × 10−2 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50), was developed. Animals infected with SUDV-GA developed high viremia and died between 9 and 14 days postinfection. Several hallmarks of SUDV infection, including lymphadenopathy, increased liver enzyme activities, and coagulation abnormalities, were observed. Virological analyses and gross pathology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry findings indicate that SUDV-GA replicates in the livers and spleens of infected animals similarly to SUDV infections in nonhuman primates. These developments will accelerate the development of specific medical countermeasures in preparation for a future disease outbreak due to SUDV. IMPORTANCE A disease outbreak due to Ebola virus (EBOV), suspected to have emerged during December 2013 in Guinea, with over 11,000 dead and 28,000 infected, is finally winding down. Experimental EBOV vaccines and treatments were administered to patients under compassionate circumstances with promising results, and availability of an approved countermeasure appears to be close. However, the same range of experimental candidates against a potential disease outbreak caused by other members of the genus Ebolavirus, such as Sudan virus (SUDV), is not readily available. One bottleneck contributing to this situation is the lack of a small-animal model to screen promising drugs in an efficient and economical manner. To address this, we have generated a SUDV variant (SUDV-GA) that is uniformly lethal to guinea

  17. Cholecystojejunocholecystostomy: a new method of biliary drainage in auxiliary liver allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Crosier, J H; Immelman, E J; van Hoorn-Hickman, R; Uys, C J; van den Ende, J; Terblanche, J; van Schalkwyk, D J

    1980-05-01

    A subhepatic, whole auxiliary liver allotransplant technique, previously developed in the pig, was assessed for technical feasibility in 26 human cadaver transplants. All technical aspects of the subhepatic technique were feasible, with the exception of donor to recipient gallbladder-to-gallbladder anastomosis, which could only be performed in 50% of subjects due to excessive separation of the two gallbladders. To oversome the problem, an original technique was developed--namely, the use of an isolated, vascularized, isoperistaltic loop of jejunum to act as a conduit between donor and recipient gallbladders (cholecystojejunocholecystostomy). Cholecystojejunocholecystostomy was subsequently developed and studied in a series of live porcine auxiliary allografts. The local, reginal, and general effects seen in 14 allografted pigs with cholecystojejunocholecystostomy were compared with those seen in a parallel and identical series of 14 allografts with cholecystocholecystostomy. The subhepatic transplantation technique is described in detail for the first time. Liver biopsies, blood samples, and clinical data were obtained at weekly intervals and at 28 days all survivors were killed. Cholecystojejunocholecystostomy proved to be a successful method of biliary drainage in the pig. Thirteen of the 14 interposed jejunal loops were viable and essentially normal at autopsy, leaks and naked eye stasis were infrequent, and the histological incidence of intrahepatic cholangitis and cholestasis minimal. The local, regional, and general effects were comparable in every way with those obtained with cholecystocholecystostomy. PMID:6989003

  18. [Basic research on ultrasound surgery. VI: Comparative histological liver findings following treatment of the wound with ultrasound welding and suturing].

    PubMed

    Vetter, J; Mikus, E; Müller, T; Morgenstern, R; Wehner, W; Franke, T

    1984-01-01

    Liver cuts were performed on 21 Mini- Lewe pigs and then closed with suture in one case, and by ultrasonic welding of Fimomed - Gelaspon conglomerate in the other. Macroscopic assessment in situ and the histological examination of cut out liver areas regularly showed perifocal inflammatory peritoneal reactions and abscess formation for the sutured regions. From a histological point of view the liver tissue in the regions subjected to ultrasonic treatment reacted more strongly than after suture, particularly in the form of lobule structure disturbances, focal hepatitis, hepatic duct proliferation and destruction, and cholangitis. All of these were limited to the immediate vicinity of the conglomerate with its fibrous demarcation, which remained identifiable until the end of the experiment after a year and a half. The experiments resulted in the sucessful closure of the liver wounds in all cases where ultrasonic welding of Fimomed - Gelaspon compound was used. Application to human medicine is, however, not yet justified.

  19. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, R; Edwards, S A; Jensen, B B; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which the level of androstenone and skatole decreases with a decrease in live weight and/or age at slaughter of entire male pigs produced under organic standards, 1174 entire male pigs were raised in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches in summer and winter. The median androstenone level was high for organic entire male pigs (1.9 µg/g), but varied greatly both within and between herds. Median skatole level was 0.05 µg/g, also with a wide range both within and between herds. Decreasing live weight over the range of 110 ± 15.6 kg s.d. was found to decrease androstenone as well as skatole concentration, however, with different patterns of association. Age did not have significant direct effect on either androstenone or skatole levels. Androstenone levels were higher during winter than summer (P<0.0001), but no difference in skatole was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies are needed as great variation in boar taint was found also for low weight animals.

  20. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, R; Edwards, S A; Jensen, B B; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which the level of androstenone and skatole decreases with a decrease in live weight and/or age at slaughter of entire male pigs produced under organic standards, 1174 entire male pigs were raised in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches in summer and winter. The median androstenone level was high for organic entire male pigs (1.9 µg/g), but varied greatly both within and between herds. Median skatole level was 0.05 µg/g, also with a wide range both within and between herds. Decreasing live weight over the range of 110 ± 15.6 kg s.d. was found to decrease androstenone as well as skatole concentration, however, with different patterns of association. Age did not have significant direct effect on either androstenone or skatole levels. Androstenone levels were higher during winter than summer (P<0.0001), but no difference in skatole was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies are needed as great variation in boar taint was found also for low weight animals. PMID:25990807