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Sample records for picolinic acid n-oxide

  1. THE REACTIONS OF 2- AND 4-PICOLINE N-OXIDES WITH PHENYLACETIC ANHYDRIDE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    pyridinemethanol phenylacetate (X) and 2-phenylethylpyridine (XI) in the case of 2-picoline N-oxide and of 4 - pyridinemethanol phenylacetate (XIV) and 4 ...The reactions of 2- and 4 -picoline N-oxide with phenylacetic anhydride yield the oxidation-reduction products, benzaldehyde, carbon dioxide...phenylethylpyridine (XV) in the case of 4 -picoline N-oxide. The product composition is unchanged when the reactions are performed in the presence of the radical

  2. Picolinic and isonicotinic acids: a Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Peña, Isabel; Varela, Marcelino; Franco, Vanina G; López, Juan C; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2014-12-04

    The rotational spectra of laser ablated picolinic and isonicotinic acids have been studied using broadband chirped pulse (CP-FTMW) and narrowband molecular beam (MB-FTMW) Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies. Two conformers of picolinic acid, s-cis-I and s-cis-II, and one conformer of isonicotinic acid have been identified through the analysis of their rotational spectra. The values of the inertial defect and the quadrupole coupling constants obtained for the most stable s-cis-I conformer of picolinic acid, evidence the formation of an O-H···N hydrogen bond between the acid group and the endocyclic N atom. The stabilization provided by this hydrogen bond compensates the destabilization energy due to the adoption of a -COOH trans configuration in this conformer. Its rs structure has been derived from the rotational spectra of several (13)C, (15)N, and (18)O species observed in their natural abundances. Mesomeric effects have been revealed by comparing the experimental values of the (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in the isomeric series of picolinic, isonicotinic, and nicotinic acids.

  3. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to chromium picolinate or picolinic acid on neurological development in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Melissa M; Boohaker, Jonathan G; Jernigan, Peter L; Townsend, Megan B; Sturdivant, John; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B; Hood, Ronald D

    2008-07-01

    Chromium picolinate, Cr(pic)3, a popular dietary supplement marketed as an aid in fat loss and lean muscle gain, has also been suggested as a therapy for women with gestational diabetes. The current study investigated the effects of maternal exposure to Cr(pic)3 and picolinic acid during gestation and lactation on neurological development of the offspring. Mated female CD-1 mice were fed diets from implantation through weaning that were either untreated or that contained Cr(pic)3 (200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or picolinic acid (174 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). A comprehensive battery of postnatal tests was administered, including a modified Fox battery, straight-channel swim, open-field activity, and odor-discrimination tests. Pups exposed to picolinic acid tended to weigh less than either control or Cr(pic)3-exposed pups, although the differences were not significant. Offspring of picolinic acid-treated dams also appeared to display impaired learning ability, diminished olfactory orientation ability, and decreased forelimb grip strength, although the differences among the treatment groups were not significant. The results indicate that there were no significant effects on the offspring with regard to neurological development from supplementation of the dams with either Cr(pic)3 or picolinic acid.

  4. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  5. Octadentate picolinic acid-based bispidine ligand for radiometal ions.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Jermilova, Una; Orvig, Chris; Patrick, Brian O; Ramogida, Caterina F; Rück, Katharina; Schneider, Christina; Starke, Miriam

    2017-08-16

    The synthesis of the octadentate bispidine ligand H2bispa2 bearing two picolinic acid pendant arms and its coordination chemistry with metal ions with radionuclides relevant for nuclear medicine, i.e. indium(III) (111In), lutetium(III) (177Lu) and lanthanum(III) (as surrogate for 225Ac), are reported. The non-radioactive metal complexes of the N6O2-type bispa ligand were characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray analysis. Experimental structural data, a computational analysis, complex stabilities determined by potentiometric titration and "radiostabilities", determined by competition studies in the presence of human serum reveal complex stabilities of H2bispa2 comparable to those of the macrocyclic "gold standard" DOTA. After an incubation time of 1 day for example, 86 and 87 % of [177Lu(bispa2)]+ and [177Lu(DOTA)]-, respectively, remain intact. Importantly, unlike DOTA, H2bispa2 is radiolabeled quantitatively with 111InIII and 225AcIII under ambient conditions, which is an essential aspect, when working with heat-sensitive antibodies as targeting vectors. In the case of 111InIII, room temperature radiolabeling of H2bispa2 yields molar activities as high as 70 MBq/nmol within 10 minutes. These are promising results for radiopharmaceutical applications of H2bispa2. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Biodegradation of 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid by novel identified co-metabolizing degrader Achromobacter sp. f1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Fang; Ning, Li-Qun; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Yang, Zong-Zheng; Cao, Jing-Guo; Sheng, Hong-Jie; Jiang, Xin

    2017-02-02

    Several bacteria have been isolated to degrade 4-chloronitrobenzene. Degradation of 4-chloronitrobenzene by Cupriavidus sp. D4 produces 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid as a dead-end by-product, a potential pollutant. To date, no bacterium that degrades 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid has been reported. Strain f1, isolated from a soil polluted by 4-chloronitrobenzene, was able to co-metabolize 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid in the presence of ethanol or other appropriate carbon sources. The strain was identified as Achromobacter sp. based on its physiological, biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The organism completely degraded 50, 100 and 200 mg L(-1) of 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid within 48, 60, and 72 h, respectively. During the degradation of 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid, Cl(-) was released. The initial metabolic product of 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid was identified as 6-hydroxy-5-chloro-2-picolinic acid by LC-MS and NMR. Using a mixed culture of Achromobacter sp. f1 and Cupriavidus sp. D4 for degradation of 4-chloronitrobenzen, 5-chloro-2-picolinic acid did not accumulate. Results infer that Achromobacter sp. f1 can be used for complete biodegradation of 4-chloronitrobenzene in remedial applications.

  7. Isolation of a 2-picolinic acid-assimilating bacterium and its proposed degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Qiaorui; Ning, Yanli; Fan, Yurui; Feng, Shanshan; He, Chi; Zhang, Tian C; Shen, Zhenxing

    2017-09-06

    Burkholderia sp. ZD1, aerobically utilizes 2-picolinic acid as a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy, was isolated. ZD1 completely degraded 2-picolinic acid when the initial concentrations ranged from 25 to 300mg/L. Specific growth rate (μ) and specific consumption rate (q) increased continually in the concentration range of 25-100mg/L, and then declined. Based on the Haldane model and Andrew's model, μmax and qmax were calculated as 3.9 and 16.5h(-1), respectively. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to determine the main intermediates in the degradation pathway. Moreover, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was innovatively used to deduce the ring cleavage mechanism of N-heterocycle of 2-picolinic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on not only the utilization of 2-picolinic acid by a Burkholderia sp., but also applying FT-ICR-MS and ATR-FTIR for exploring the biodegradation pathway of organic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The iron-chelating agent picolinic acid enhances transferrin receptors expression in human erythroleukaemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Testa, U; Louache, F; Titeux, M; Thomopoulos, P; Rochant, H

    1985-07-01

    Picolinic acid, a metal chelating molecule, was administered to human erythroleukaemic cell lines (K 562 and HEL) that were grown in serum-containing media. Picolinic acid inhibited both iron uptake and cell growth. Furthermore, picolinic acid was shown to markedly decrease the level of ferritin in the cells. In spite of the inhibition of cell growth, picolinic acid induced a marked increase in the transferrin-binding capacity of the cells. This phenomenon was due to a two-five-fold enhancement of the rate of transferrin receptor biosynthesis. Other iron-chelating compounds, capable of reducing the level of intracellular iron, also elicited a marked enhancement of the transferrin-binding capacity of the cells. However, the addition of iron, as ferric ammonium citrate, in the culture medium elicited a marked increase in the level of ferritin and a strong decrease in the transferrin-binding capacity of the cells. On the basis of these data we propose that a feed-back mechanism is involved in the regulation of transferrin receptors: when the cells accumulate iron they decrease the number of transferrin receptors in order to prevent further accumulation of iron; when no or low iron is available to the cells, the number of transferrin receptors markedly increases as a compensatory mechanism.

  9. Experimental and theoretical IR and Raman spectra of picolinic, nicotinic and isonicotinic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koczoń, P.; Dobrowolski, J. Cz.; Lewandowski, W.; Mazurek, A. P.

    2003-07-01

    The experimental and theoretical (B3PW91/6-311++G**) vibrational (IR and Raman) spectra of picolinic, nicotinic and isonicotinic acids (pyridine-2-, -3-, and -4-carboxylic acid, respectively) were studied. Three stable calculated structures were found for picolinic acid: the structure with intramolecular hydrogen COOH⋯N bond, and the two without hydrogen bond. For the nicotinic acid two stable theoretical structures differ in orientation of the COOH group with respect to the nitrogen atom, whereas for the isonicotinic acid only one form was stable. The theoretical vibrational spectra of the three acids were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions (PEDs) using VEDA 3 program. Next, selected experimental bands were assigned based on the scaled theoretical wavenumbers. Finally, the wavenumbers and intensities for the three isomeric acids were compared and discussed in terms of location of the carboxylic group.

  10. Synthesis and structural characterisation of amides from picolinic acid and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Prarthana; Barry, Sarah M.; Houlihan, Kate M.; Murphy, Michael J.; Turner, Peter; Jensen, Paul; Rutledge, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling picolinic acid (pyridine-2-carboxylic acid) and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid with N-alkylanilines affords a range of mono- and bis-amides in good to moderate yields. These amides are of interest for potential applications in catalysis, coordination chemistry and molecular devices. The reaction of picolinic acid with thionyl chloride to generate the acid chloride in situ leads not only to the N-alkyl-N-phenylpicolinamides as expected but also the corresponding 4-chloro-N-alkyl-N-phenylpicolinamides in the one pot. The two products are readily separated by column chromatography. Chlorinated products are not observed from the corresponding reactions of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid. X-Ray crystal structures for six of these compounds are described. These structures reveal a general preference for cis amide geometry in which the aromatic groups (N-phenyl and pyridyl) are cis to each other and the pyridine nitrogen anti to the carbonyl oxygen. Variable temperature 1H NMR experiments provide a window on amide bond isomerisation in solution. PMID:25954918

  11. Extraction of Palladium from Nitric Acid by Diamides of Di-picolinic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Babain, V.A.; Pokhitonov, Yu.A.; Esimantovskiy, V.M.

    2007-07-01

    The most complicated and urgent problem of atomic industry consists in the safe isolation and storage of radioactive wastes. The long-lived radionuclides presented in high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) pose a potential threat to environment for hundreds and thousands of years. One of the possible ways to reduce the danger of HLLW storages is concerned with treatment of HLLW intended to recovery of long-lived radionuclides and their partitioning into separate fractions. The separation of the most hazardous radionuclides (like transplutonium elements (TPE)) to the individual fraction of low volume leads to decrease of the total volume of HLLW and therefore to decrease of solidified waste storage costs. It should be noted that only in the case of reprocessing it can be possible to recover individual radionuclides (or their fractions) into separate flows with further special approach to each of them. Partitioning of different HLLW is under investigation in many countries now. Numerous processes for recovery of Cs, Sr, TPE and REE have been already developed and tested. At the same time partitioning is only the first step on the road to the following synthesis of materials providing the safe storage of long-lived radionuclides over many thousands of years. The metallic palladium contained in HLLW seems to be a promising material for producing of matrices for incorporation of radioactive wastes. Different methods for palladium recovery have been investigated: reductive precipitation, electrochemical precipitation, sorption and extraction. Of prime importance are extraction methods. Phosphine oxides, carbamoyl-phosphine oxides, crown-ethers, oximes, sulfides and some other compounds were proposed as extractants towards palladium from nitric acid media. It is reasonable to recover palladium into individual fraction during waste partitioning. Diamides of malonic, di-glycolic and pyridine-dicarboxylic (di-picolinic) acids are intensively investigated as extractants for HLLW

  12. Synthesis and Coordination Chemistry of Hexadentate Picolinic Acid Based Bispidine Ligands.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Grimm, Laura; Orvig, Chris; Rück, Katharina; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2016-12-19

    The synthesis and Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), and Ga(III) coordination chemistry of the two isomeric hexadentate N5O ligands 6-[[9-hydroxy-1,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-7-methyl-6,8-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-yl]methyl]picolinic acid (Hbispa(1a)) and 6-[[9-hydroxy-1,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-7-methyl-2,4-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-yl]methyl]picolinic acid (Hbispa(1b)), picolinic acid-appended bispidines, are described. The two ligands are highly preorganized for octahedral coordination geometries and are particularly well suited for tetragonal symmetries, i.e., for Jahn-Teller labile ground states. This is confirmed by all data presented: solid-state structures, solution spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and Cu(II) complex stabilities. Differences in the preorganization of the two isomers for the Jahn-Teller labile Cu(II) centers are thoroughly analyzed on the basis of the crystal structures and an angular-overlap-model-based ligand-field analysis.

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Thermal Decomposition of the Cobalt(II) Complex with 2-Picolinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di

    2014-01-01

    The cobalt(II) complex of 2-picolinic acid (Hpic), namely, [Co(pic)2(H2O)2] · 2H2O, was synthesized with the reaction of cobalt acetate and 2-picolinic acid as the reactants by solid-solid reaction at room temperature. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The crystal structure of the complex belongs to monoclinic system and space group P2(1)/n, with cell parameters of a = 9.8468(7) Å, b = 5.2013(4) Å, c = 14.6041(15) Å, β = 111.745(6)°, V = 747.96(11) Å3, Z = 2, D c = 1.666 g cm−3, R 1 = 0.0297, and wR 2 = 0.0831. In the title complex, the Co(II) ion is six-coordinated by two pyridine N atoms and two carboxyl O atoms from two 2-picolinic acid anions, and two O atoms from two H2O molecules, and forming a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The thermal decomposition processes of the complex under nitrogen include dehydration and pyrolysis of the ligand, and the final residue is cobalt oxalate at about 450°C. PMID:24578654

  14. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic, kojic and picolinic acids

    PubMed Central

    Çevik, Kübra; Ulusoy, Seyhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The inhibitory effects of iron chelators, and FeCl3 chelation on biofilm formation and swarming motility were investigated against an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory activity of 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic acid, kojic acid and picolinic acid on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and three clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAK01, P. aeruginosa PAK02 and P. aeruginosa PAK03) were investigated, based on crystal violet assay, and swarming motility test. Results: The kojic, lipoic and picolinic acid inhibited biofilm formation by 5-33% in all tested P. aeruginosa isolates. When chelated iron was added, biofilm inhibition rates were determined to be 39-57%. Among the tested chelators against P. aeruginosa, lipoic acid (84%) and kojic acid (68%) presented the highest inhibition of swarming motility. This is the first study to report the inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: It is considered that lipoic and picolinic acids can serve as alternatives for the treatment of the P. aeruginosa infections by inhibiting biofilm formation. PMID:26557964

  15. Chromium-picolinate induced ocular changes: Protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Amany A; Karam, Sawsan H; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2006-09-21

    Chromium-picolinate (Cr-picolinate) is a popular nutritional supplement; however its safety has been questioned with regard to its ability to act as a clastogen. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biochemical, histological and morphological changes in the cornea and lens following oral administration of Cr-picolinate and the possible protective effect of Vitamin C. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups included the control group, the groups treated with Cr-picolinate (0.8 and 1.5 mg/100 g b.w.) alone or in combination with Vitamin C (0.5 mg/100 g b.w.) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the high dose of Cr-picolinate induced a significant decrease in SOD, GSH, Na(+)-, K(+)-ATPase levels, and a significant increase in MDA level. Severe morphological and histological changes in the cornea and lens accompanied with a decrease in the total soluble protein of the lens homogenate and changes in the crystalline fractions in lens. Vitamin C supplementation succeeded to restore these changes to great extent. It could be concluded that consumption of Cr-picolinate for a long time induced several hazards to cornea and lens. Supplementation with extra amounts of Vitamin C may be useful to restrain the Cr-picolinate induced ocular changes.

  16. Terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory calculations of structural isomers: Nicotinic acid, isonicotinic acid and 2-picolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ling; Fan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Xu; Chen, Ze-You; Song, Chao

    2017-05-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the terahertz (THz) spectra of isonicotinic acid and 2-picolinic acid. The distinct THz spectral differences among these two isomers and nicotinic acid have also been observed, indicating that the THz vibrational modes are highly sensitive to the structural differences even in similar molecular crystals. Besides, solid-state density functional theory calculations reveal better qualitative agreement with the measured absorption features, which are related to the molecular vibrations of nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid. As for 2-picolinic acid, the calculation based on the primitive cell reproduces the absorption features at 1.46, 1.82 and 2.46 THz originating from intermolecular vibrations. These results suggest that THz spectra can identify the complex intermolecular interactions even in similar molecular crystals, which shows potential applications in identifying isomers in food and pharmaceutical production.

  17. Biodegradation of Picolinic Acid by a Newly Isolated Bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis Strain JQ135.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiguo; Zhang, Junjie; Zhang, Yanting; Wang, Yuhong; Tong, Lu; Hong, Qing; He, Jian

    2017-04-01

    We isolated a bacterial strain JQ135 from municipal wastewater, which was capable of efficiently degrading picolinic acid (PA). Based on the physico-biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis, strain JQ135 was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. In addition, strain JQ135 produced an orange pigment when cultured in the Luria-Bertani medium, which is different from the previously reported strains of A. faecalis. During the degradation of PA by the resting strain JQ135 cells, only one intermediate, 6-hydroxypicolinic acid (6HPA), was detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A random transposon mutagenesis library of strain JQ135 was constructed. One mutant, Mut-G31, could convert PA into 6HPA without further degradation. The disrupted gene (orf2) was amplified from Mut-G31, and its product showed 32% identity to the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase (KdkA) from Haemophilus influenzae. Results from complementation analysis confirmed that GTG was the initiation codon of the kdkA-like orf2, and that it was essential for PA biodegradation by strain JQ135. This study provides the first genetic evidence for the bacterial degradation of PA.

  18. Spectrophotometric study of the charge transfer complex between 2-amino-4-picoline with chloranilic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghanmi, Reem M.; Al-Attas, Amirah S.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.

    2013-02-01

    Charge transfer complex formation between 2-amino-4-picoline (2A4P) as the electron donor with chloranilic acid (CLA) as the electron acceptor has been studied spectrophotometrically in different polar solvents included acetone (AcN), ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (AN). The molecular composition of the formed complex was recognized utilizing Job's, photometric and conductometric titration methods to be 1:1. The formation constants and molecular extinction coefficients were estimated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation; they recorded high values confirming high stability of the formed complex. Moreover, the results showed that the complex is more stable in acetone with lower electric permittivity compared with ethanol or acetonitrile of higher ones. The values of some spectroscopic physical parameters like oscillator strength f, transition dipole moment μ, resonance energy RN, charge transfer energy ECT, dissociation energy W, ionization potential IP and standard free energy ΔGo were determined and evaluated. The solid complex was isolated and its molecular composition was determined by elemental analysis to be 1:1. Furthermore, the solid complex was characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR measurements. They confirmed the presence of proton transfer beside charge transfer in the obtained complex. Molecular orbital calculations utilizing GAMESS computations were carried out to predict infrared spectra. They also confirmed the presence of proton transfer beside charge transfer in the formed complex.

  19. New complexes of cobalt(II) ions with pyridinecarboxylic acid N-oxides and 4,4‧-byp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Kubicki, Maciej; Lis, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a study concerning the isolation and characterization of mixed ligand complexes of the Co(II) ions with pyridinecarboxylic acids N-oxides (picolinic (PNO), nicotinic (NNO) and isonicotinic (INO)), [Co(PNO)2(4,4'-byp)]·6H2O 1, [Co(NNO)(4,4'-byp)NO3]·8H2O 2 and [Co(INO)(4,4'-byp)NO3]·7H2O 3; (4,4'-byp = 4,4'-bipyridine). The complexes 2 and 3 were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis. The structures of the complexes were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis, thermal decomposition, IR and mass spectroscopy. IR spectra show that N-oxides act as bidentate ligands, in which both the N-oxide and the carboxylate groups are involved in coordination. In 2 and 3 the Co(II) ion exists in the same coordination environment. For 1, the X-ray crystal structure has been determined and it turned out that it contains the coordination polymers, created by the chains of Co ions joined by 4,4'-byp ligands. The Co(II) ion occupies the center of symmetry in the space group C2/c. This ion is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms (from two 4,4'-byp ligands) and four oxygen atoms from two PNO anions. The extensive network of hydrogen bonds involving six different water molecules connects the one-dimensional polymers into three-dimensional crystal structure.

  20. Picolinic acid based Cu(II) complexes with heterocyclic bases--crystal structure, DNA binding and cleavage studies.

    PubMed

    Pulimamidi, Rabindra Reddy; Nomula, Raju; Pallepogu, Raghavaiah; Shaik, Hussain

    2014-05-22

    In view of the importance of picolinic acid (PA) in preventing cell growth and arresting cell cycle, new PA based metallonucleases were designed with a view to study their DNA binding and cleavage abilities. Three new Cu(II) complexes [Cu(II)(DPPA)].4H2O (1),[Cu(II)(DPPA)(bpy)].5H2O (2) and [Cu(II)(DPPA)(phen)].5H2O (3), were synthesized using a picolinic acid based bifunctional ligand (DPPA) and heterocyclic bases (where DPPA: Pyridine-2-carboxylic acid {2-phenyl-1-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-carbonyl]-ethyl}-amide; bpy: 2, 2'-bipyridine and phen: 1, 10-phenanthroline). DPPA was obtained by coupling 2-picolinic acid and 2-picolyl amine with l-phenylalanine through amide bond‌‌. Complexes were structurally characterized by a single crystal X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure of 1 shows Cu(II) center essentially in a square planar coordination geometry, while complex 2 shows an approximate five coordinated square-pyramidal geometry. Eventhough we could not isolate single crystal for complex (3), its structure was established based on other techniques. The complex (3) also exhibits five coordinate square pyramidal geometry. The complexes show good binding affinity towards CT-DNA. The binding constants (Kb) decrease in the order 1.35 ± 0.01 × 10(5) (3) > 1.23 ± 0.01 × 10(5) (2) > 8.3 ± 0.01 × 10(4) (1) M(-1). They also exhibit efficient nuclease activity towards supercoiled pUC19 DNA both in the absence and presence of external agent (H2O2). The kinetic studies reveal that the hydrolytic cleavage reactions follow the pseudo first-order rate constant and the hydrolysis rates are in the range of (5.8-8.0) × 10(7) fold rate enhancement compared to non-catalyzed double stranded DNA (3.6 × 10(-8) h(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid as actinide and lanthanide extractants in a variation of the UNEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, D.R.; Herbst, R.S.; Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Garn, T.G.; Todd, T.A.; Romanovskiy, V.N.; Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M. Yu.; Smirnov, I.V.

    2007-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl- N,N-di-n-butyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (Ph{sub 2}CMPO) in the diluent tri-fluoro-methyl-phenyl sulfone (CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}SO{sub 2}, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO{sub 3} solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of {approx} 0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetra-butyl-diamide of di-picolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process. (authors)

  2. Vanadyl complexes with dansyl-labelled di-picolinic acid ligands: synthesis, phosphatase inhibition activity and cellular uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Collins, Juliet; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Fedorova, Marina; Whyte, Gillian; Mak, Lok Hang; Guterman, Inna; Leatherbarrow, Robin; Woscholski, Rudiger; Vilar, Ramon

    2016-04-28

    Vanadium complexes have been previously utilised as potent inhibitors of cysteine based phosphatases (CBPs). Herein, we present the synthesis and characterisation of two new fluorescently labelled vanadyl complexes (14 and 15) with bridged di-picolinic acid ligands. These compounds differ significantly from previous vanadyl complexes with phosphatase inhibition properties in that the metal-chelating part is a single tetradentate unit, which should afford greater stability and scope for synthetic elaboration than the earlier complexes. These new complexes inhibit a selection of cysteine based phosphatases (CBPs) in the nM range with some selectivity. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies (including fluorescence anisotropy) were carried out to demonstrate that the complexes are not simply acting as vanadyl delivery vehicles but they interact with the proteins. Finally, we present preliminary fluorescence microscopy studies to demonstrate that the complexes are cell permeable and localise throughout the cytoplasm of NIH3T3 cells.

  3. Application of Protocols Devised to Study Bi(III) Complex Formation by Voltammetry: The Bi(III)-Picolinic Acid System.

    PubMed

    Billing, Caren; Cukrowski, Ignacy

    2016-12-22

    Bi(III) coordination chemistry has been largely neglected due to the difficulties faced when studying these systems even though Bi(III) is used in various medicinal applications. This study of the Bi(III)-picolinic acid system by voltammetry applies the rigorous methodologies already developed to enable the study of Bi(III) systems starting in very acidic solutions to prevent precipitation. This includes calibrating the glass electrode accurately at these low pHs, compensating for the diffusion junction potential below pH 2 and determining the reduction potential of uncomplexed Bi(III) which cannot be directly measured. The importance of including nitrate from the background electrolyte as a competing species is highlighted, especially for data acquired below pH ∼ 2. From analysis of the voltammetric data, it was not clear whether a ML3OH species formed in solution or whether it was a combination of ML4 and ML4OH. Information from crystal structures and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry measurements was thus used to propose the most probable species model. The log β values determined were 7.77 ± 0.07 for ML, 13.89 ± 0.07 for ML2, 18.61 ± 0.01 for ML3, 22.7 ± 0.2 for ML4, and 31.4 ± 0.2 for ML4OH. Application of these methodologies thus opens the door to broaden our understanding of Bi(III) complexation.

  4. Screening and structural elucidation of the zwitterionic cocrystal o-picolinic acid with p-nitro aniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekala, R.; Jagdish, P.; Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.

    2017-04-01

    The cocrystal was screened by solvent drop grinding method and the crystals were grown by slow evaporation method at ambient conditions. The cocrystal formation of o-picolinic acid with p-nitro aniline was initially analysed by powder X-ray diffraction. Further the structural properties of the grown crystal were confirmed by the single X-ray diffraction which indicates that the cocrystal were connected by the strong N+sbnd H-⋯O hydrogen bond interaction. The cell parameters of the grown crystal were a = 14.2144(5) Å, b = 5.7558(2) Å, c = 16.0539(6) Å. The functional groups were identified using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectral analysis. The excitation and emission state of the sample was analysed by the UV-Visible and Fluorescence studies. The red emission was observed from the Fluorescence studies. NMR studies revealed the chemical shift of the cocrystal. Thermal stability and its melting behaviour were studied by TGA and DSC analytical techniques. Electrical behaviour was studied using the dielectric studies. The intermolecular charge transfer within the molecule were analysed using HOMO- LUMO plots.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic, DFT calculations and biological activity studies of ruthenium carbonyl complexes with 2-picolinic acid and a secondary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohayeb, Shahera M.; Mohamed, Rania G.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, Samir M.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal reaction of [Ru3(CO)12] with 2-picolinic acid (Hpic) in the absence and presence of a secondary ligand (pyridine, Py, bipyridine, Bipy, or thiourea, Tu) was investigated. Four complexes with molecular formulae: [Ru(CO)3(Hpic)], 1, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Py)], 2, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Tu)], 3 and [Ru2(CO)4(Hpic)(Bipy)], 4, were isolated. All complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic studies, mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligands. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using B3LYP method and LANL2DZ basis set. The extent of natural charge population (core, valence and rydberg), exact electronic configuration, total Lewis and total non-Lewis are estimated and discussed in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis.

  6. Removal of alpha-picoline, beta-picoline, and gamma-picoline from synthetic wastewater using low cost activated carbons derived from coconut shell fibers.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Kunwar P; Ghosh, Deblina

    2005-07-01

    In the present study the ability of activated carbons developed from coconut shell fibers to remove alpha-picoline, beta-picoline, and gamma-picoline from aqueous solution in the broad range of concentrations (1-100 mg/L) is investigated. The derived carbons are designated as FAC (activated carbon derived from coconut shell fibers without any treatment) and ATFAC (activated carbon derived from acid treated coconut shell fibers). Systematic equilibrium and kinetic adsorption studies at different pH, temperatures, particle size, and solid-to-liquid ratio were carried out to determine various parameters necessary to establish the fixed bed reactors. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied and the data are not fitted well by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations, but the Langmuir model has an edge over Freundlich model. The monolayer adsorption capacity (Q0) as calculated using Langmuir adsorption isotherm of the activated carbons viz., FAC and ATFAC is found to increase with an increase in temperature confirming the endothermic process. The ATFAC has a higher sorption capacity than FAC. Overall the adsorption of alpha-picoline, beta-picoline, and y-picoline on FAC and ATFAC follow the order FACalpha-picoline < ATFACalpha-picoline < FAC gamma-picoline < ATFACbeta-picoline < FACbeta picoline < ATFAC gamma-picoline. The adsorption of alpha-,beta-, and gamma-picoline followed the pseudosecond-order rate kinetics. On the basis of these studies, various parameters such as effective diffusion coefficients, activation energy, and entropy of activation were evaluated to establish the mechanisms. It was concluded that the adsorption occurred through particle diffusion at low temperatures viz., 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C (except alpha-picoline where it was film diffusion), while at 40 degrees C it occurred through film diffusion. Similarly at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/L the adsorption was particle diffusion controlled (except for alpha-picoline where it was film

  7. Phytotoxicity of fusaric acid and analogs to cotton.

    PubMed

    Stipanovic, R D; Puckhaber, L S; Liu, J; Bell, A A

    2011-01-01

    We developed a cotton cotyledonary leaf bioassay to test the phytotoxicity of fusaric acid (5-butylpicolinic acid), picolinic acid and related analogs. The compounds were dissolved in aqueous Tween 80, and 20 μL of the test solution was placed at three positions on the leaf, and a needle was used to puncture the leaf through each drop; the results were evaluated after 48 h. In contrast to previous studies, we found the carboxylic acid group is essential for phytotoxicity. Nicotinic acid was considerably less phytotoxic than picolinic acid and conversion of picolinic acid to the amide or N-oxide decreased phytotoxicity. Increasing the alkyl chain length at the 5-position on picolinic acid from two up to five carbons atoms increased phytotoxicity. Fusaric acid methyl ester, the most phytotoxic compound tested, is a naturally occurring compound; as such it has potential as a herbicide in organic farming. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Regulation of organic nucleic acids and serum biochemistry parameters by dietary chromium picolinate supplementation in swine model.

    PubMed

    Jiajun, Yang; Aiyun, Han; Shanshan, Zheng; Minhong, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    The relationships between chromium and metabolism are sophisticated. Organic nucleic acids and serum biochemistry parameters are affected by dietary chromium levels. The objective of this work was to study the effect of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation on total DNA and RNA contents, the ratio of RNA/DNA in muscle and in pancreatic tissue, the level of insulin receptor (IR) mRNA and some serum biochemistry parameters in a porcine model. Young animals (48) were assigned randomly into three groups of 16 piglets, fed with three different dietary levels of Cr (common basal feedstuff alone or supplemented with CrPic at a dose of 1.61 μg/g or 3.22 μg/g, which corresponds to 0.2 μg/g and 0.4 μg/g Cr). After 80 days, the animals were sacrificed and skeletal muscle and pancreatic tissues were analyzed to detect differences caused by different levels of dietary Cr. The total content of RNA in muscle was increased significantly (P<0.05) in the CrPic supplemented groups. There was no significant difference between groups in the concentrations of total RNA in the pancreas or DNA in the muscle and pancreatic tissues. The RNA/DNA ratio in pancreas showed no significant change but the ratio was increased significantly (P<0.05) in muscle. There was a slight increase of the mRNA level of IR but there was no significant difference between groups. The content of serum cholesterol and insulin were reduced significantly (P<0.05) in the CrPic-supplemented groups and the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was increased significantly (P<0.05) as the CrPic dose increased. There was a slight (non-significant) reduction of the concentrations of serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) in the CrPic supplementation groups. Supplementary CrPic caused no significant change of muscular mRNA level of IR in healthy animals. An increased content of RNA in muscle, improved cholesterol metabolism and improved insulin sensitivity were found in

  9. Deficit, but Not Nondeficit, Schizophrenia Is Characterized by Mucosa-Associated Activation of the Tryptophan Catabolite (TRYCAT) Pathway with Highly Specific Increases in IgA Responses Directed to Picolinic, Xanthurenic, and Quinolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Carvalho, André F; Geffard, Michel; Ormstad, Heidi; Anderson, George; Maes, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Evidence suggests that activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, no previous study examined whether TRYCAT pathway activation is associated with deficit schizophrenia. We measured IgA responses to TRYCATs, namely quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and anthranilic acid and 3-OH-kynurenine, in 40 healthy controls and in schizophrenic patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 40) deficit, defined according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS). Primary deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by an activated TRYCAT pathway as compared to controls and nondeficit schizophrenia. Participants with deficit schizophrenia show increased IgA responses to xanthurenic acid, picolinic acid, and quinolinic acid and relatively lowered IgA responses to kynurenic and anthranilic acids, as compared to patients with nondeficit schizophrenia. Both schizophrenia subgroups show increased IgA responses to 3-OH-kynurenine as compared to controls. The IgA responses to noxious TRYCATs, namely xanthurenic acid, picolinic acid, quinolinic acid, and 3-OH-kynurenine, but not protective TRYCATS, namely anthranilic acid and kunyrenic acid, are significantly higher in deficit schizophrenia than in controls. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are significantly and positively associated with increased IgA responses directed against picolinic acid and inversely with anthranilic acid, whereas no significant associations between positive symptoms and IgA responses to TRYCATs were found. In conclusion, primary deficit schizophrenia is characterized by TRYCAT pathway activation and differs from nondeficit schizophrenia by a highly specific TRYCAT pattern suggesting increased excitotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, as well as inflammation and oxidative stress. The specific alterations in IgA responses to TRYCATs provide further insight for the biological delineation of deficit

  10. Increased Efficacy of Zinc Complexes With Picolinic and Aspartic Acids Against Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infection When Combined With the Pavine Alkaloid (-)-Thalimonine

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Assia L.

    2000-01-01

    Complexes of zinc with picolinic and aspartic acids inhibit key steps of HSV-1 replication affecting different virus-specific targets. As was recently demonstrated by us, the pavine alkaloid (-)-thalimonine irreversibly inhibits HSV-1 infection in cultured cells. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the combined effect of zinc complexes and (-)-thalimonine on uninfected and HSV-1 infected cells. The data obtained have shown that zinc complexes and the alkaloid exert decreased cytotoxicity (antagonistic effect) and significantly increased anti-HSV-1 activity (synergistic effect) when applied in dual chess-board combinations as compared to the individual effects of compounds tested. These combinations are also effective against the infection caused by a resistant to acyclovir (ACV) HSV-1 mutant and the effect has been recognised as synergistic. PMID:18475954

  11. Mutual Exclusion of Urea and Trimethylamine N-Oxide from Amino Acids in Mixed Solvent Environment.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Pritam; Hajari, Timir; Shea, Joan-Emma; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2015-02-19

    We study the solvation of amino acids in pure-osmolyte and mixed-osmolyte urea and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) solutions using molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of Kirkwood-Buff integrals between the solution components provides evidence that in the mixed osmolytic solution, both urea and TMAO are mutually excluded from the amino acid surface, accompanied by an increase in osmolyte-osmolyte aggregation. Similar observations are made in simulations of a model protein backbone, represented by triglycine, and suggest that TMAO stabilizes proteins under urea denaturation conditions by effectively removing urea from the protein surface. The effects of the mixed osmolytes on the solvation of the amino acids and the backbone are found to be highly nonlinear in terms of the effects of the individual osmolytes and independent of differences in the strength of the TMAO-water interactions, as observed with different TMAO force fields.

  12. Genomic and Functional Analyses of the 2-Aminophenol Catabolic Pathway and Partial Conversion of Its Substrate into Picolinic Acid in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Agulló, Loreine; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    2-aminophenol (2-AP) is a toxic nitrogen-containing aromatic pollutant. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 possess an amn gene cluster that encodes the 2-AP catabolic pathway. In this report, the functionality of the 2-aminophenol pathway of B. xenovorans strain LB400 was analyzed. The amnRJBACDFEHG cluster located at chromosome 1 encodes the enzymes for the degradation of 2-aminophenol. The absence of habA and habB genes in LB400 genome correlates with its no growth on nitrobenzene. RT-PCR analyses in strain LB400 showed the co-expression of amnJB, amnBAC, amnACD, amnDFE and amnEHG genes, suggesting that the amn cluster is an operon. RT-qPCR showed that the amnB gene expression was highly induced by 2-AP, whereas a basal constitutive expression was observed in glucose, indicating that these amn genes are regulated. We propose that the predicted MarR-type transcriptional regulator encoded by the amnR gene acts as repressor of the amn gene cluster using a MarR-type regulatory binding sequence. This report showed that LB400 resting cells degrade completely 2-AP. The amn gene cluster from strain LB400 is highly identical to the amn gene cluster from P. knackmussi strain B13, which could not grow on 2-AP. However, we demonstrate that B. xenovorans LB400 is able to grow using 2-AP as sole nitrogen source and glucose as sole carbon source. An amnBA− mutant of strain LB400 was unable to grow with 2-AP as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source and to degrade 2-AP. This study showed that during LB400 growth on 2-AP this substrate was partially converted into picolinic acid (PA), a well-known antibiotic. The addition of PA at lag or mid-exponential phase inhibited LB400 growth. The MIC of PA for strain LB400 is 2 mM. Overall, these results demonstrate that B. xenovorans strain LB400 posses a functional 2-AP catabolic central pathway, which could lead to the production of picolinic acid. PMID:24124510

  13. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg.

  14. Building new discrete supramolecular assemblies through the interaction of iso-tellurazole N-oxides with Lewis acids and bases.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peter C; Jenkins, Hilary A; Britten, James F; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio

    2017-10-13

    The supramolecular macrocycles spontaneously assembled by iso-tellurazole N-oxides are stable towards Lewis bases as strong as N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) but readily react with Lewis acids such as BR3 (R = Ph, F). The electron acceptor ability of the tellurium atom is greatly enhanced in the resulting O-bonded adducts, which consequently enables binding to a variety of Lewis bases that includes acetonitrile, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4,4'-bipyridine, triphenyl phosphine, a N-heterocyclic carbene and a second molecule of iso-tellurazole N-oxide.

  15. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 2. Effects of short-term fish oil, chromium picolinate, and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during late lactation

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Mink nursing sickness is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that is similar to the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus. This research studied the effects of short-term administration of antidiabetic supplements on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during late lactation. Female mink that had blood glucose levels < 5.5 mmol/L (normoglycemic [NG]) or ≥ 5.5 mmol/L (hyperglycemic [HG]) early in lactation were given daily supplements of various combinations of herring oil (HerO, 3% in diet), chromium picolinate (CrPic, 200 μg), and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg) for 1 wk starting at day 21 post partum. In the NG mink, most of the treatments did not significantly change the blood glucose concentration from day 28 to 42 post partum. However, treatment with ASA alone and treatment with the combination HerO-CrPic-ASA elevated the blood glucose levels when compared with those of the control group, which had received just the basal diet. In the HG mink, all treatment combinations except CrPic alone and ASA alone, reduced the blood glucose concentration. Thus, in lactating mink with hyperglycemia, the blood glucose concentration may be effectively lowered by dietary antidiabetic supplementation; however, because hyperglycemia also occurs before nursing, preventive measures are recommended throughout the year. PMID:17955898

  16. Trimethylamine N-oxide impairs pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation in cardiac mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Volska, Kristine; Antone, Unigunde; Vilskersts, Reinis; Grinberga, Solveiga; Bandere, Dace; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-02-05

    Increased plasma concentration of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a proatherogenic metabolite, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes; however, it remains unclear whether TMAO is a biomarker or whether it induces direct detrimental cardiovascular effects. Because altered cardiac energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction play crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesized that increased TMAO concentration may alter mitochondrial energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TMAO on cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism. Acute exposure of cardiac fibers to TMAO decreased LEAK (substrate-dependent) and OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation-dependent) mitochondrial respiration with pyruvate and impaired substrate flux via pyruvate dehydrogenase. The administration of TMAO at a dose of 120mg/kg for 8 weeks increased TMAO concentration in plasma and cardiac tissues 22-23 times to about 15μM and 11nmol/g, respectively. Long-term TMAO administration decreased mitochondrial LEAK state respiration with pyruvate by 30% without affecting OXPHOS state respiration. However, no significant changes in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production were observed after acute exposure of cardiac fibers to TMAO under physiological conditions. In addition, both long-term TMAO administration and acute exposure to TMAO decreased respiration with palmitoyl-CoA indicating impaired β-oxidation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased TMAO concentration impairs pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation in cardiac mitochondria. Thus, the accumulation of TMAO in cardiac tissues leads to disturbances in energy metabolism that can increase the severity of cardiovascular events.

  17. Two-dimensional assembly of [Mn(III)₂Mn(II)₂] single-molecule magnets and [Cu(pic)₂] linking units (Hpic = picolinic acid).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ie-Rang; Ababei, Rodica; Lecren, Lollita; Li, Yang-Guang; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Roubeau, Olivier; Mathonière, Corine; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2010-05-28

    In an attempt to develop novel coordination networks of SMMs, a Cu(II) picolinate complex has been used to coordinate S(T) = 9 tetranuclear Mn-based SMMs resulting in an intriguing 2D framework exhibiting a magnet-like behavior at low temperature.

  18. Synergistic effects of conjugated linoleic acid and chromium picolinate improve vascular function and renal pathophysiology in the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Proctor, S D; Kelly, S E; Stanhope, K L; Havel, P J; Russell, J C

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural constituent of dairy products, specific isomers of which have recently been found to have insulin sensitizing and possible antiobesity actions. Chromium is a micronutrient which, as the picolinate (CrP), has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in animal models, including the JCR:LA-cp rat. We tested the hypothesis that these agents may have beneficial synergistic effects on the micro- and macrovasculopathy associated with hyperinsulinaemia and early type 2 diabetes. Insulin-resistant cp/cp rats of the JCR:LA-cp strain were treated with mixed isomers of CLA (1.5% w/w in the chow) and/or CrP at 80 microg/kg/day (expressed as Cr) from 4 weeks of age to 12 weeks of age. Plasma insulin, lipid and adiponectin levels, aortic vascular function, renal function and glomerular sclerosis were assessed. CLA administration reduced food intake, body weight and fasting insulin in JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly elevated in rats treated with both CLA and CrP. Aortic hypercontractility was reduced and the relaxant response to the nitric oxide-releasing agent acetylcholine (Ach) was increased in CrP-treated rats. Striking reductions were also observed in the level of urinary albumin and the severity of glomerular sclerosis in rats treated specifically with CLA. CLA and CrP have beneficial effects ameliorating several of the pathophysiologic features of an insulin-resistant rat model. These supplements may be useful adjuncts in the management of patients with the metabolic syndrome and warrant further study.

  19. Mutagenicity of chromium picolinate and its components in Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Paul; San, Richard H C; Clarke, Jane J; Seifried, Harold E; Dunkel, Virginia C

    2005-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is one of the most commonly used chromium dietary supplements available in the United States, and it has been marketed to consumers for use in weight loss, increasing muscle mass, and lowering serum cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is a synthetic compound that provides a bioavailable form of Cr(III) that is absorbed better than dietary chromium. However, there are several reports that it can have adverse effects. In order to study the mechanism of observed cellular toxicity and mutagenicity, chromium picolinate and its component compounds, chromium (III) chloride and picolinic acid, were evaluated in Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Neither chromium picolinate nor chromium chloride induced a mutagenic response in S. typhimurium. However, in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma mutation assay, chromium picolinate induced mutagenic responses without and with the addition of S9.

  20. Solid state synthesis, spectroscopic and X-ray studies of metal complexes of 2-picolinic acid and vapochromic behavior of [Co(Pic)2(H2O)2]·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tella, Adedibu C.; Oladipo, Adetola C.; Adeyemi, Olalere G.; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S.; Oguntoye, Stephen O.; Alimi, Lukman O.; Ajayi, Joseph T.; Degni, Sylvestre K.

    2017-06-01

    Three compounds, [Cu(Pic)2(H2O)] (1a), [M(Pic)2(H2O)2]·2H2O] (M=Co (2a), Zn (3a), Pic = 2-picolinic acid) were obtained by solvent-free synthesis through grinding of metal acetate salt with 2-picolinic acid. Favorable comparison of solvent-free with solution based method of 1b, 2b and 3b was observed. Good resemblance of identity of compounds obtained through the two methods was confirmed by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis and FTIR), TGA and PXRD. The single crystal diffraction data for [Co(Pic)2(H2O)2]·2H2O obtained from the Cambridge structure database (CSD), its PXRD simulated patterns closely matched that of complex 2a by solvent-free synthesis. Vapochromic behavior of this complex was studied using colour change, FT-IR, TGA, PXRD and solid state UV-visible spectroscopies. This complex generated specific colour which is also evident in the shifting of the vibrational frequencies (νO-H and ν C=O bands). The resulting inclusion compounds have different colours depending on the solvent used. In addition, exposure of the resultant inclusion compounds to ambient environment or heating for a few minutes regenerate the original material without degradation even after exposure/heating cycles as evident from TGA/DTG thermograms.

  1. Use of bacteria for rapid, pH-neutral, hydrolysis of the model hydrophobic carboxylic acid ester p-nitrophenyl picolinate

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Alexandra E.; Goldstine, Gordon G.; Schrodi, Yann; Murray, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis cultures promote the hydrolysis of the model ester p-nitrophenyl picolinate (PNPP) at neutral pH with high efficiency. Hydrolysis is related to cell concentration, while the interaction of PNPP with both bacterial cells and their extracellular molecules is required for a maximum rate of PNPP hydrolysis in C. crescentus cultures. Furthermore, C. crescentus cultures hydrolyze PNPP at concentrations useful in synthetic chemistry. PMID:23144558

  2. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Press, R. I.; Geller, J.; Evans, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium has been implicated as a cofactor in the maintenance of normal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A deficiency of chromium results from diets low in biologically available chromium. Picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan, forms stable complexes with transitional metal ions, which results in an improved bioavailability of the metal ion chromium. To determine whether or not chromium picolinate is effective in humans, 28 volunteer subjects were given either chromium tripicolinate (3.8 micromol [200 micrograms] chromium) or a placebo daily for 42 days in a double-blind crossover study. A 14-day period off capsules was used between treatments. Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, the principal protein of the LDL fraction, decreased significantly while the subjects were ingesting chromium picolinate. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I, the principal protein of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, increased substantially during treatment with chromium picolinate. The HDL-cholesterol level was elevated slightly but not significantly during ingestion of chromium picolinate. Only apolipoprotein B, of the variables measured, was altered significantly during supplementation with the placebo. These observations show that chromium picolinate is efficacious in lowering blood lipids in humans. PMID:2408233

  3. The reaction of [Fe(pic)3] with hydrogen peroxide: a UV-visible and EPR spectroscopic study (Hpic = picolinic acid).

    PubMed

    Jain, Sneh L; Bhattacharyya, Pravat

    2005-08-21

    The Gif family of catalysts, based on an iron salt and O2 or H2O2 in pyridine, allows the oxygenation of cyclic saturated hydrocarbons to ketones and alcohols under mild conditions. The reaction between [Fe(pic)3] and hydrogen peroxide in pyridine under GoAgg(III)(Fe(III)/Hpic catalyst) conditions was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Reactions were monitored at 430 and 520 nm over periods ranging from a few minutes to several hours at 20 degrees C. A number of kinetically stable intermediates were detected, and their relevance to the processes involved in the assembly of the active GoAgg(III) catalyst was determined by measuring the kinetics in the presence and absence of cyclohexane. EPR measurements at 110 K using hydrogen peroxide and t-BuOOH as oxidants were used to further probe these intermediates. Our results indicate that in wet pyridine [Fe(pic)3] undergoes reversible dissociation of one picolinate ligand, establishing an equilibrium with [Fe(pic)2(py)(OH)]. Addition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide rapidly generates the high-spin complex [Fe(pic)2(py)(eta1-OOH)] from the labilised hydroxy species. Subsequently the hydroperoxy species undergoes homolysis of the Fe-O bond, generating HOO. and [Fe(pic)2(py)2], the active oxygenation catalyst.

  4. Chromium picolinate attenuates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Bhuvaneshwari; Aggarwal, Aanchal; Sandhir, Rajat

    2013-04-01

    Chromium picolinate is advocated as an anti-diabetic agent for impaired glycemic control. It is a transition metal that exists in various oxidation states and may thereby act as a pro-oxidant. The present study has been designed to examine the effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight) and chromium was administered orally as chromium picolinate (1mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of four weeks after the induction of diabetes. As is characteristic of diabetic condition, hyperglycemia was associated with an increase in oxidative stress in liver in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione levels. The activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were significantly reduced in liver of diabetic animals. Levels of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid were found to be considerably lower in plasma of diabetic rats. Chromium picolinate administration on the other hand was found to have beneficial effect in normalizing glucose levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. The results from the present study demonstrate potential of chromium picolinate to attenuate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.

  5. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fox, G N; Sabovic, Z

    1998-01-01

    Chromium picolinate is a widely available nutritional supplement marketed for a plethora of afflictions. There is some evidence, including results from human studies, that it has a role in glucose homeostasis. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with an 18-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus whose glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) declined from 11.3% to 7.9% 3 months after initiation of chromium picolinate, 200 micrograms 3 times daily. Chromium picolinate continues to fall squarely within the scope of "alternative medicine," with both unproven benefits and unknown risks. It deserves closer scrutiny with additional prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to evaluate its efficacy in improving outcomes in patients with diabetes. A brief review of the literature was done to assist physicians who are being called upon to counsel and treat patients who are engaging in alternative therapies.

  6. Enantiomeric in vitro DNA binding, pBR322 DNA cleavage and molecular docking studies of chiral L- and D-ternary copper(II) complexes of histidine and picolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Shazia; Arjmand, Farukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-01-05

    Novel chiral ternary Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes of l/d-histidine and picolinic acid, 1 and 2(a and b) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance and spectroscopic data (IR, NMR, EPR, UV-vis). In vitro DNA binding profile of both Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been investigated by UV-vis titrations, while fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and viscosity measurements were carried out for Cu(II) complexes 1(a and b). Both the enantiomers of 1 and 2(a and b) bind to CT DNA via electrostatic interactions and the intrinsic binding constant, Kb values for complexes 1 and 2(a and b) were found to be 5.6×10(4), 9.8×10(3), 8.2×10(3) and 6.7×10(3)M(-1), respectively suggesting greater binding propensity of l-form of Cu(II) complex 1a. The DNA cleavage activity of complexes 1(a and b), investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis suggested an oxidative pathway for DNA cleavage. Further, the molecular docking studies of complexes 1(a and b) were carried out with B-DNA revealing that the complexes bind to the adenine-thymine residues in the minor groove of the DNA. The resulting binding energies of docked metal complexes 1(a and b) were found to be -265.1 and -218.9KJmol(-1), respectively. Furthermore, enantiomeric complexes 1 and 2(a and b) were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity.

  7. Oxycodone N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2012-11-01

    The title compound, (5R,9R,13S,14S,17R)-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methyl-4,5-epoxymorphinan-6-one N-oxide, C(18)H(21)NO(5), has been prepared in a diastereomerically pure form by the reaction of oxycodone with 3-chloroperbenzoic acid and subsequent crystallization of the product from chloroform. The crystal packing shows that the molecule exhibits intramolecular O-H···O [D···A = 2.482 (2) Å] hydrogen bonding. In addition, there are weak intermolecular C-H...O interactions which, along with van der Waals forces, stabilize the structure. The new chiral center at the 17-position is demonstrated to be R.

  8. Redox reactions of V(III) and Cr(III)picolinate complexes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayakumar, C. K.; Dey, G. R.; Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P. N.

    1996-12-01

    Reactions of e aq-, H-atoms, OH, (CH 3) 2COH, and CO 2- radicals with V(III)picolinate and Cr(III)picolinate have been studied by the pulse radiolysis technique. The spectra of V(II)picolinate, V(IV)picolinate, Cr(II)picolinate, OH adduct of Cr(III)picolinate and Cr(IV)picolinate have been obtained and the rate constants of the reactions of various radicals with V(III) and Cr(III)picolinate have been determined. The implications of these results to the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor systems are discussed.

  9. Thermally Reactive Phenylethynyl-Terminated Bis (benzylester) and Bis (amide) Monomers Based on Semi-Enzymatically Produced 6-Phenylethynyl Picolinic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    electron-withdrawing properties of the pyridine moiety would increase the reactivity of PEPCA in a Diels – Alder reaction if PEPCA were to serve as a...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermally...addition funnel, a condenser and nitrogen inlet and outlet were added 6-bromopicolinic acid (Aldrich; 2.02 g, 10 mmol) and methanol (50 mL). Thionyl

  10. Tertiary amine N-oxides as bioreductive drugs: DACA N-oxide, nitracrine N-oxide and AQ4N.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W R; Denny, W A; Pullen, S M; Thompson, K M; Li, A E; Patterson, L H; Lee, H H

    1996-07-01

    Tertiary amine N-oxides of DNA intercalators with alkylamino sidechains are a new class of bioreductive drugs. N-oxidation masks the cationic charge of the amines, forming prodrugs with low DNA binding affinity and low toxicity which can be activated selectively by metabolic reduction under hypoxic conditions. This study compares three intercalator N-oxides (NC-NO, DACA-NO and AQ4N), which, respectively, give nitracrine (NC), DACA and AQ4 on reduction. In aerobic cell culture all three N-oxide were much less toxic than the corresponding amines, and showed large increases in cytotoxicity under hypoxia. The topoisomerase poisons DACA and AQ4 (and their N-oxides) were less active against non-cycling than cycling cells. However, only AQ4N was active against the mouse mammary tumour MDAH-MCa-4. This dialkylaminoanthraquinone-di-N-oxide has activity at least as great as the reference bioreductive drug RB 6145 against this tumour, both with and without radiation and when combined with the tumour blood flow inhibitor 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA). It is suggested that the high in vivo activity of AQ4N relative to the other topoisomerase-targeted N-oxide, DACA-NO, may be in part due to release in hypoxic cells of an intracalator with sufficiently high DNA binding affinity that it is retained long enough to kill non-cycling cells when they eventually re-enter the cell cycle.

  11. Tertiary amine N-oxides as bioreductive drugs: DACA N-oxide, nitracrine N-oxide and AQ4N.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. R.; Denny, W. A.; Pullen, S. M.; Thompson, K. M.; Li, A. E.; Patterson, L. H.; Lee, H. H.

    1996-01-01

    Tertiary amine N-oxides of DNA intercalators with alkylamino sidechains are a new class of bioreductive drugs. N-oxidation masks the cationic charge of the amines, forming prodrugs with low DNA binding affinity and low toxicity which can be activated selectively by metabolic reduction under hypoxic conditions. This study compares three intercalator N-oxides (NC-NO, DACA-NO and AQ4N), which, respectively, give nitracrine (NC), DACA and AQ4 on reduction. In aerobic cell culture all three N-oxide were much less toxic than the corresponding amines, and showed large increases in cytotoxicity under hypoxia. The topoisomerase poisons DACA and AQ4 (and their N-oxides) were less active against non-cycling than cycling cells. However, only AQ4N was active against the mouse mammary tumour MDAH-MCa-4. This dialkylaminoanthraquinone-di-N-oxide has activity at least as great as the reference bioreductive drug RB 6145 against this tumour, both with and without radiation and when combined with the tumour blood flow inhibitor 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA). It is suggested that the high in vivo activity of AQ4N relative to the other topoisomerase-targeted N-oxide, DACA-NO, may be in part due to release in hypoxic cells of an intracalator with sufficiently high DNA binding affinity that it is retained long enough to kill non-cycling cells when they eventually re-enter the cell cycle. PMID:8763844

  12. Global kinetic model: a case study on the N-oxidation of alkylpyridines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Papadaki, Maria

    2006-03-17

    The homogeneous catalytic N-oxidation of two picolines and two lutidines by hydrogen peroxide has been studied calorimetrically using a heat flow and power compensation SIMULAR reaction calorimeter. The objective of this work was to extend a previously developed kinetic model [J. Sempere, R. Nomen, J.L. Rodriguez, M. Papadaki, Modelling of the reaction of 2-methylpyridine using hydrogen peroxide and a complex metal catalyst, Chem. Eng. Process. 37 (1998) 33-46] for 2-methylpyridine to more reactions in the same family. The kinetic model is in good agreement with our experimental data on beta-picoline. 3,5-Lutidine is in adequately good agreement with the model. However, the formation of two phases during the course of the reaction imposes the need for modifications to allow for mass transfer considerations. The N-oxidation of 2,6-lutidine is controlled by the addition or availability of hydrogen peroxide. A different reactor design is necessary for operation at the kinetic regime. High temperatures and catalyst concentrations enhance the selectivity towards N-oxidation of all alkylpyridines studied. The power evolution of all reactions has similar profiles thus indicating that similar kinetics are followed. The study of the N-oxidation of this family of compounds indicates that it is possible to design a process where hydrogen peroxide decomposition can be practically totally suppressed.

  13. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, Henry C; Siders, William A; Penland, James G

    2007-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic), 200 microg Cr/d, compared with an equivalent amount of picolinic acid (1720 microg) in CrPic and placebo, decreases body weight, alters body composition, and reduces iron status of women fed diets of constant energy and nutrients. We fed 83 women nutritionally balanced diets, used anthropometry and dual x-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition, and measured serum and urinary Cr and biochemical indicators of iron status before and serially every 4 wk for 12 wk in a double-blind, randomized trial. CrPic supplementation increased (P < 0.0001) serum Cr concentration and urinary Cr excretion compared with picolinic acid and placebo. CrPic did not affect body weight or fat, although all groups lost (P < 0.05) weight and fat; it did not affect fat-free, mineral-free mass or measurements of iron status. Under conditions of controlled energy intake, CrPic supplementation of women did not independently influence body weight or composition or iron status. Thus, claims that supplementation of 200 microg of Cr as CrPic promotes weight loss and body composition changes are not supported.

  14. Quantum chemical calculation (electronic and topologic) and experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) analysis of isonicotinic acid N-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, Caglar; Atac, Ahmet; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic analysis of isonicotinic acid N-oxide (iso-NANO) were presented in the ground state using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The geometry optimization and energies associated possible two conformers (Rot-I and Rot-II) were computed. The vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. The obtained structures were analyzed with the Atoms in Molecules (AIMs) methodology. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of iso-NANO as the Rot-I form. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (OPDOS) diagrams analysis for the most stable conformer (Rot-I) were calculated using the same method. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated. As a result, the optimized geometry and calculated spectroscopic data show a good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Quantum chemical calculation (electronic and topologic) and experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) analysis of isonicotinic acid N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Caglar; Atac, Ahmet; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2015-04-05

    In this work, the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic analysis of isonicotinic acid N-oxide (iso-NANO) were presented in the ground state using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The geometry optimization and energies associated possible two conformers (Rot-I and Rot-II) were computed. The vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. The obtained structures were analyzed with the Atoms in Molecules (AIMs) methodology. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of iso-NANO as the Rot-I form. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (OPDOS) diagrams analysis for the most stable conformer (Rot-I) were calculated using the same method. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated. As a result, the optimized geometry and calculated spectroscopic data show a good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Elemental speciation for chromium in chromium picolinate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Olson, Lisa K.; Caruso, Joseph A.

    1996-12-01

    Chromium picolinate products have been examined for different forms of chromium, using chromatographic separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection. The brands we evaluated contained no detectable amount of elemental chromium(VI), the toxic form. Since chromium picolinate might have other chromium forms as impurities, different products may contain different forms of chromium species. Compared with ion-exchange, reversed-phase chromatography showed excellent chromium recovery based on the amount stated on the product label.

  17. A quantitative comparison of spectroscopic and energy data, in solution, of NHO and OHO hydrogen bonds and gas-phase proton affinities: complexes of pyridines and pyridine N-oxides with acetic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Zofia; Hrynio, Andrzej; Szafran, Miroslaw

    1990-11-01

    The correlations between the centre of gravity (ν H) of the broad IR vibrations, chemical shifts (δ H) of hydrogen-bonded protons and enthalpies of hydroben bonds (-Δ H) of two series of complexes (pyridines and pyridine N-oxides) with trifluoroacetic, dichloroacetic, chloroacetic and acetic acids, and the difference between the gas-phase proton affinity of bases ( PA(B)) and that of conjugate bases ( PA(A -)) were investigated. Complexes of pyridines with all these acids can be treated as one category and complexes of pyridine N-oxides as another. On the other hand, correlations of ν H and δ H with aqueous p Ka values consist of separate lines for each acid. The PA(A -) and PA(B) values provide an excellent basicity scale for hydrogen bonds in solvents of low and medium polarity.

  18. Two series of reactant's ratio-dependent lanthanide organic frameworks derived from nicotinic acid N-oxide and oxalate: synthesis, crystal structures and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yunshan; Zuhra, Zareen

    2015-03-14

    Two series of lanthanide(III)–organic frameworks with the molecular formula [Ln2(NNO)2(OX)2(H2O)4]n (Ln = Eu 1, Tb 2, Sm 3, Dy 4, Gd 5) and [Ln2(NNO)4(OX)(H2O)2]n (Ln = Eu 6, Tb 7, Sm 8, Dy 9, Gd 10) were synthesized successfully under the same hydrothermal conditions with nicotinic N-oxide (HNNO) and oxalic acid (H2OX) as the mixed ligands merely through varying the molar ratio of the reactants. The compounds were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, UV, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses of compounds 1 and 7 selected as representatives and powder XRD analysis of the compounds revealed that both the series of compounds feature three-dimensional (3-D) open frameworks, and crystallize in the triclinic P1 space group while with different unit cell parameters. In compound 1, pairs of Eu(3+) ions and pairs of NNO(−) ligands connect with each other alternately to form a 1-D infinite Eu-NNO double chain, the adjacent 1-D double-chains are then joined together through OX(2−) ligands leading to a 2D layer, the 2-D layers are further ‘pillared’ by OX(2−) ligands resulting in a 3-D framework. In compound 7, the 1-D Tb-NNO infinite chain and its 2-D layer are formed in an almost similar fashion to that in compound 1. The difference between the structures of the two compounds 1 and 7 is that the adjacent 2-D layers in compound 7 are further connected by NNO(−) ligands resulting in a 3-D framework. The photoluminescence properties and energy transfer mechanism of the compounds were studied systematically. The energy level of the lowest triplet states of the HNNO ligand (23148 cm(−1)) was determined based on the phosphorescence spectrum of compound 5 at 77 K. The (5)D0 (Eu(3+)) and (5)D4 (Tb(3+)) emission lifetimes are 0.46 ms, 0.83 ms, 0.69 ms and 0.89 ms and overall quantum yields are 1.03%, 3.29%, 2.58% and 3.78% for the compounds 1, 2, 6 and 7, respectively.

  19. The remote-oxyfunctionalization of unactivated carbons in (5 beta)-3-oxobile acids by 2,6-dichloropyridine N-oxide catalyzed by ruthenium-porphyrin and HBr: a direct lactonization at C-20.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio

    2004-04-07

    Remote-oxyfunctionalization induced by 2,6-dichloropyridine N-oxide (DCP N-oxide) as an oxygen donor and a (5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrinate) ruthenium(II) carbonyl complex (Ru-porphyrin) and HBr as catalysts was examined for a series of methyl ester-peracetylated derivatives of (5 beta)-3-oxobile acids. Using the DCP-N-oxide/Ru-porphyrin/HBr system, 5 beta-hydroxylation predominated for the substrates having a 12-acetoxyl substituent due to steric hindrance, but the presence of a 7-acetoxyl substituent decreased the reactivity of the 5 beta-position allowing for the competitive (20S)-20-oxyfunctionalization, subject to electronic constraints. A variety of novel 5 beta-hydroxylation and (20S)-24,20-gamma-lactonization products, as well as their double-oxyfunctionalization and dehydration products, were obtained in one-step. The alkaline hydrolysis of the gamma-lactones gave the corresponding stereoselective (20S)-20-hydroxy-carboxylic acids.

  20. Chemical properties and biotoxicity of several chromium picolinate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanfei; Chai, Jie; Hu, Xiangquan; Wu, Duoming; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-11-01

    As a man-made additive, chromium picolinate Cr(pic)3 has become a popular dietary supplement worldwide. In this paper Cr(pic)3 and its new derivatives Cr(6-CH3-pic)3 (1), [Cr(6-NH2-pic)2(H2O)2]NO3 (2) and Cr(3-NH2-pic)3 (3) were synthesized, and complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by X-ray crystal structure (where pic=2-carboxypyridine). The relationship between the chemical properties and biotoxicity of these complexes was fully discussed: (1) The dynamics stability of chromium picolinate complexes mainly depends on the CrN bonds length. (2) There is a positive correlation between the dynamics stability, electrochemical potentials and generation of reactive oxygen species through Fenton-like reaction. (3) However, no biological toxicity was observed through MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and sub-chronic oral toxicity study for these chromium picolinate compounds. Together, our findings establish a framework for understanding the structure-property-toxicity relationships of the chromium picolinate complexes.

  1. Chromium picolinate does not produce chromosome damage.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, James R; Greenberg, Danielle; Juturu, Vijaya

    2008-04-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is used as a dietary supplement and has beneficial effects in reducing diabetes risk factors. The present study evaluated the cytogenetic effects of CrPic in bone marrow cells of Sprague-Dawley rats (5 animals/sex/group). Test animals were dosed orally with 33, 250 or 2000 mg/kg of CrPic, which corresponded to doses of 4.1, 30.8 and 246 mg/kg of chromium. The lowest dose of CrPic, 33 mg/kg is estimated to be the human equivalent for a 50 kg person (200 mcg Cr). The animals were dosed once, and sacrificed either 18 or 42 hours (h) later. The mitotic index was determined for each rat. Metaphase cells (50 or 100/rats) were examined for interstitial deletions, chromatid and chromosome gap, breaks or other anomalies. The average percentage of damaged cells at 18 h in vehicle treated males and females were 1.2% and 0.6%, respectively. The mean values at 18 h for doses of 33, 250 and 2000 mg/kg, were 0.4%, 0.8%, 0.4% for males and 0.6%, 0.2% and 0.6% for females, respectively. At 42 h, the mean values for vehicle treated males and females were 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. For doses of 33, 250 and 2000 mg/kg at 42 h the average percent damage was 14%, 0.8% and 0.4% for males and 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.0% for females, respectively. None of these values were statistically increased compared to the vehicle controls. The positive control Cyclophosphamide (CPM) induced a significant increase in chromosomal damage at 18 h averaging 30% in males and 37% in females, respectively (p<0.001). In the current study CrPic did not induce chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells at single doses of 33, 250 and 2000 mg/kg of body weight and thus there was no indication of any toxicity of CrPic.

  2. Social isomers of picolines in a small space.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Dariush; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D; Rebek, Julius

    2013-12-09

    Encapsulation complexes permit the observation of molecules under conditions of limited motion. Inside capsules, molecular encounters are prolonged, prearranged, and protected from the medium, in contrast to the short-lived and random encounters that occur in bulk solution. Herein, the interaction of α-, β-, and γ-picolines in a cylindrical capsule is described. Two picolines were taken up, and NMR spectra indicated dynamic combinations of various social isomers. The stabilities of the complexes are interpreted through computational methods. The shape of the space in the capsule allowed the alignment of molecules and revealed delicate, atom-to-atom interactions and attractive forces that elude observation in dilute solution. These weak forces were amplified in the isolated small space of the capsule.

  3. Oxidative demethylation of 2-picolines on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Glubokovskikh, L.K.; Demin, V.V.; Kan, I.I.

    1988-07-10

    One of the known methods for the preparation of pyridine is based on the dealkylation of alkylpyridines in the presence of vanadium-containing catalysts, molecular oxygen and steam. By using the oxidative demethylation of 2-picoline in the presence of steam on a fused vanadium(V) oxide, pyridine can be obtained in a yield of up to 88% of theory. To lower the consumption of vanadium(V) oxide and increase the thermostability of the catalyst, they studied the possible use of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalysts on various carriers (diatomite, silica gel, porcelain balls), including the industrially produced brand SVD and SVS catalysts. The SVS brand catalyst has a satisfactory activity and selectivity in the oxidation demethylation of 2-picoline into pyridine. Under optimal conditions, pyridine is formed on this catalyst in a yield of 88% of the theoretical.

  4. Asymmetric allylation of α-ketoester-derived N-benzoylhydrazones promoted by chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides Lewis bases: highly enantioselective synthesis of quaternary α-substituted α-allyl-α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rangel, Gloria; Bandala, Yamir; García-Flores, Fred; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2013-09-01

    Chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides (R)-1 and (R,R)-2 are effective chiral promoters in the enantioselective allylation of α-keto ester N-benzoylhydrazone derivatives 3a-g to generate the corresponding N-benzoylhydrazine derivatives 4a-g, with enantiomeric excesses as high as 98%. Representative hydrazine derivatives 4a-b were subsequently treated with SmI2, and the resulting amino esters 5a-b with LiOH to obtain quaternary α-substituted α-allyl α-amino acids 6a-b, whose absolute configuration was assigned as (S), with fundament on chemical correlation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 4,4',4"-trimethyl-2,2':6',2"-terpyridine by oxidative coupling of 4-picoline.

    PubMed

    Robo, Michael T; Prinsell, Michael R; Weix, Daniel J

    2014-11-07

    Alkylated terpyridine ligands are an increasingly important component of catalysis and dyes but are costly because their synthesis is challenging and often low-yielding. We report an improved method for the Pd/C-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling of 4-picoline to form the bi- and terpyridine. The addition of MnO2 improves the yield of the reaction, making the reaction useful on a large scale (up to 200 mmol). The use of Pd(OAc)2 or Pd/C/pivalic acid leads to the selective formation of bipyridine.

  6. Oral chromium picolinate and control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

    PubMed

    Schachter, S; Nelson, R W; Kirk, C A

    2001-01-01

    Chromium is an essential dietary trace mineral involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium is required for cellular uptake of glucose, and chromium deficiency causes insulin resistance. Chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity and has been used as adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus in humans. In this study, 13 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus were treated with insulin for 3 months, then with insulin and chromium picolinate for 3 months. Dogs weighing <15 kg (33 lb: n = 9) were administered 200 microg of chromium picolinate PO once daily for I month, then 200 microg of chromium picolinate twice daily for 2 months. Dogs weighing >15 kg (n = 4) received 200 microg of chromium picolinate once daily for 2 weeks, then 200 microg twice daily for 2 weeks, then 400 microg twice daily for 2 months. Type of insulin, frequency of insulin administration, and diet were kept constant, and insulin dosage was adjusted, as needed, to maintain optimal control of glycemia. Mean body weight, daily insulin dosage, daily caloric intake, 10-hour mean blood glucose concentration, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were not markedly different when dogs were treated with insulin and chromium picolinate, compared with insulin alone. Adverse effects were not identified with chromium picolinate administration. Results of this study suggest that, at a dosage range of 20-60 microg/kg/d, chromium picolinate caused no beneficial or harmful effects in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10718 - Substituted picolinic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for... than as a pesticide intermediate. (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of...

  8. Insulin sensitising action of chromium picolinate in various experimental models of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shindea, Urmila A; Sharma, Geeta; Xu, Yan J; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2004-01-01

    Although chromium is an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, its effects in diabetic patients are still debated. We have studied the effect of 6 week treatment with chromium picolinate (8 microg/ml in drinking water) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 and type 2 diabetic rat models. The mechanism of anti-diabetic action of chromium picolinate was studied using C2C12 myoblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Chromium picolinate significantly decreased the area under the curve over 120 min for glucose of both STZ-induced type 1 (40mg/kg, i.v. in adult rats) and type 2 (90 mg/kg, i.p. in 2 day old rat neonates) diabetic rats without any significant change in area under the curve over 120 min for insulin as compared to controls. The composite insulin sensitivity index and insulin sensitivity index (KITT) values of both type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats were increased significantly by chromium picolinate. Treatment with chromium picolinate produced a significant decrease in elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both types of diabetic rats. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, chromium picolinate (0-10 micromol) per se did not produce any effect, however, when co-incubated with insulin it significantly increased the intracellular triglyceride synthesis (EC50 = 363.7nmol/1). Similarly in C2C12 myoblasts, chromium picolinate alone did not produce any effect, however, it significantly increased insulin-induced transport of 14C-glucose. In conclusion, chromium picolinate significantly improves deranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of experimental chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of in vivo anti-diabetic action appears to be peripheral (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) insulin enhancing action of chromium.

  9. Chromium picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail.

    PubMed

    Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Gursu, M F; Cikim, G; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2005-08-01

    1. The effects of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation alone and in combination on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C, vitamin E, glucose and cholesterol levels were evaluated in Japanese quail exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. Two hundred and forty quails (10d old) were assigned randomly to 4 dietary treatments at room temperature (22 degrees C; thermoneutral, TN) or ambient (34 degrees C for 8 h/d; heat stress, HS). Both TN and HS were fed either on a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 400 microg of Cr/kg (Cr group), 0.5 mg of biotin/kg of diet (biotin group) or both (Cr + Biotin group). 3. Supplementing the diet of heat-stressed quails with chromium picolinate improved live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and carcase traits. Biotin supplementation during TN and HS conditions did not have any beneficial effects on body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency or carcase traits. 4. Either in combination or alone, chromium picolinate increased serum concentrations of vitamins C and E, but decreased MDA, glucose and cholesterol concentrations in birds kept at high ambient temperature. There was no difference in vitamins C and E and MDA concentrations between birds given chromium picolinate and birds receiving chromium picolinate plus biotin, while glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in all groups. The lowest concentrations of cholesterol and glucose were found in the combination group under both TN and HS conditions. An interaction between diet and temperature was detected for glucose and cholesterol concentrations. 5. Excretion rates for zinc, iron and chromium were lower in TN groups than in the corresponding HS groups. Supplementing diet with chromium picolinate and chromium picolinate plus biotin decreased excretion of minerals while biotin alone did not effect excretion of minerals. 6. Chromium supplementation, but not biotin supplementation, attenuated the

  10. Azido and tetrazolo 1,2,4,5-tetrazine N-oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Chavez, David E.; Parrish, Damon A.; Mitchell, Lauren; ...

    2017-02-23

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the oxidation products of 3,6-diazido-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1) and 6-amino-[1,5-b]tetrazolo-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (2). 3,6-Diazido-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide was produced from oxidation with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid, and more effectively using hypofluorous acid, and 2 can be oxidized to two different products, 6-amino-[1,5-b]tetrazolo-1,2,4,5-tetrazine mono-N-oxide and di-N-oxide. These N-oxide compounds display promising performance properties as energetic materials.

  11. Effects of chromium picolinate on oxidative damage in primary piglet hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Bi, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Min-Hong; Feng, Jing-Hai; Xie, Peng; Zheng, Shan-Shan

    2008-12-01

    Chromium picolinate is a popular nutritional supplement whose safety has been questioned because of the potential risk of oxidative DNA damage. To investigate this possibility, a dose-dependent study was performed in piglet hepatocyte cultures in which low (8 microM), medium (200 microM), and high (400 microM) doses of chromium picolinate were tested and compared to untreated controls. After 48 h incubation, there were no significant differences in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, medium lactate dehydrogenase activity, and comet indicators between the three experimental groups and controls (p > 0.05). In the 8 microM-treated group, the intracellular malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased relative to controls (p < 0.05). All of the studied parameters showed a dose-dependent increase that was statistically significant between the low and high doses (p < 0.05). These results suggest that: (1) chromium picolinate may affect the oxidative status of piglet hepatocytes; (2) the appropriate dose (approximately physiological concentration) of chromium picolinate can inhibit lipid peroxidation, and (3) high doses of chromium picolinate have no significant effects on oxidative damage in piglet hepatocytes, but the existing evidence also imply that exposure to a higher dose appears to be unwarranted.

  12. Reductive amination of glutaraldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone using 2-picoline borane and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Sakamoto, Hironari; Ohno, Akiko; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2012-09-21

    A typical method for the measurement of glutaraldehyde (GLA) employs 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form GLA-DNPhydrazone derivatives. However, this method is subject to analytical errors because GLA-DNPhydrazone is a quaternary bis-derivative and forms three geometric isomers (E-E, E-Z and Z-Z) as a result of the two C[double bond, length as m-dash]N double bonds. To overcome this issue, a method for transforming the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N double bond into a C-N single bond, using reductive amination of DNPhydrazone derivatives, has been applied. The amination reaction of GLA-DNPhydrazones with 2-picoline borane is accelerated with catalytic amounts of acid and is completed within 10 minutes in the presence of 100 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid. Reduction of GLA-DNPhydrazone by 2-picoline borane is unique and results in the formation of N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-1-piperidinamine (DNPPA). NMR and LC-APCI-MS data confirmed the product identification. DNPPA is very stable and did not change when stored for at least four weeks at room temperature. DNPPA has excellent solubility of 14.6 g L(-1) at 20 °C in acetonitrile. The absorption maximum wavelength and the molar absorptivity of DNPPA were 351 nm and 4.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) respectively. Complete separation between the reduced forms of C1-C10 aldehyde DNPhydrazones, including DNPPA, can be achieved by operating the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatograph at 351 nm in gradient mode using a C18 amide column. The reductive amination method for GLA overcomes analytical errors caused by E-E, E-Z and Z-Z geometrical isomers.

  13. Humoral and cellular immunity in chromium picolinate-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, B S L; McManus, C M; Caldeira, D F; Campeche, A; Burtet, R T; Paim, T P; Gomes, E F; Branquinho, R P; Braz, S V; Louvandini, H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on humoral and cellular immunity in sheep were investigated. Twenty-four male lambs divided into four treatments and received different dosages of CrPic: placebo (0), 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg of chromium/animal/day during 84 days. The base ration was Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Blood samples were collected fortnightly for total and differential leukocyte counts. On days 28 and 56, the lambs were challenged with chicken ovalbumin I.M. Serum samples were collected on days 46 and 74 and subjected to an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure IgG anti-ovalbumin. The cell-mediated immune response was determined by a delay-type hypersensitivity test using phytohemagglutinin. CrPic did not significantly affect humoral immunity in lambs but there was a negative effect on cellular immunity (P < 0.05) as Cr supplementation increased. Therefore, the level of Cr supplementation for lambs must be better studied to address its effect on stressed animals or the possible toxic effects of Cr on the animal itself or its immune system.

  14. Effect of chromium picolinate on histopathological alterations in STZ and neonatal STZ diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Urmila A; Goyal, R K

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated insulin sensitizing action of chromium picolinate as the mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity in experimental models of type I and type II diabetes. In the present investigation, we have evaluated the effects of chronic administration of chromium picolinate on the functional and histological alterations of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Type I diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of STZ (40 mg/kg) in adult rats, whereas, type II diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg) in 2-day old rat pups which in adulthood develop abnormalities resembling type II diabetes. Chromium picolinate was administered at 8 microg/ml in drinking water for 6 weeks and was found to improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin sensitivity of STZ-diabetic rats. This treatment decrease elevated serum creatinine and urea levels as well as elevated serum levels of hepatic enzymes of both groups of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies of kidney and liver show decrease in the intensity and incidence of vacuolations, cellular infiltration and hypertrophy of STZ and nSTZ (neonatal STZ) diabetic rats. Chronic treatment with chromium picolinate however, did not alter the normal function or morphology of control rats. Chronic chromium picolinate at the therapeutic doses that improved glucose tolerance, was observed to have no hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic potential. It was rather found to improve renal and hepatic function and to reduce abnormalities associated with STZ-diabetes. Chromium picolinate could play an important role in the long term management of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Use of chromium picolinate and biotin in the management of type 2 diabetes: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuhr, Joseph P; He, Hope; Goldfarb, Neil; Nash, David B

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses the potential economic benefits of chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) use in people with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The economic model was developed to estimate the impact on health care systems' costs by improved HbA1C levels with chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome). Lifetimes cost savings were estimated by adjusting a benchmark from the literature, using a price index to adjust for inflation. The cost of diabetes is highly dependent on the HbA1C level with higher initial levels and higher annual increments increasing the cost. Improvement in glycemic control has proven to be cost-effective in delaying the onset and progression of T2DM, reducing the risk for diabetes-associated complications and lowering utilization and cost of care. Chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) showed greater improvement of glycemic control in poorly controlled T2DM patients (HbA(1C) > or = 10%) compared to their better controlled counterparts (HbA(1C) < 10%). This improvement was additive to that achieved by oral hypoglycemic medications and correlates to calculated levels of cost savings. Average 3-year cost savings for chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) use could range from 1,636 dollars for a poorly controlled patient with diabetes without heart diseases or hypertension, to 5,435 dollars for a poorly controlled patient with diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension. Average 3-year cost savings was estimated to be between 3.9 billion dollars and 52.9 billion dollars for the 16.3 million existing patients with diabetes. Chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) use among the 1.17 million newly diagnosed patients with T2DM each year could deliver lifetime cost savings of 42 billion dollars, or 36,000 dollars per T2DM patient. Affordable, safe, and convenient, chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) could prove to be a cost-effective complement to existing pharmacological therapies for controlling T2DM.

  16. Effect of chromium picolinate on modified forced swimming test in diabetic rats: involvement of serotonergic pathways and potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Razia; Pillai, K K

    2006-02-01

    Depression occurs frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus. Chromium picolinate, an essential trace element is recommended for diabetes and also has been reported to benefit depression, but its mechanism is still debated. To investigate the mechanism, we studied its effects on serum insulin, serum glucose and on modified forced swimming test, a behavioural paradigm for depression in rats. The study involving co-administration of sub-active doses of glimepiride, a K(+) channel blocker and chromium picolinate on blood glucose levels and modified forced swimming test was also performed to probe any role of K(+) channels in its antidiabetic and antidepressants effects. Streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was injected in rats to induce diabetes (Type 1). After a week, chromium picolinate (8 microg/ml in drinking water) was administered for 4 weeks. Normal rats received similar drug treatment. The sub-active doses of chromium picolinate (4 microg/ml in drinking water) and glimeperide (2.5 mg/kg, orally) were co-administered and their effects on modified forced swimming test and on glucose levels were measured. Chromium picolinate (8 microg/ml in drinking water) produced hypoglycaemia in diabetic and normal rats. It had no effects on the streptozotocin-induced reduction in insulin levels. Chromium picolinate (8 microg/ml in drinking water) increased swimming with subsequent decrease in immobility. The sub-active doses of chromium picolinate and glimeperide showed significant additive effects in modified forced swimming test and reduction in serum glucose concentrations, though statistically insignificant. In conclusion chromium picolinate shows antidepressant action on modified forced swimming test affecting only swimming that suggests serotonergic pathways involvement. The additive effects on swimming in modified forced swimming test and reduction in serum glucose levels shows involvement of K(+) channels in antidiabetic and antidepressant actions of

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization and nonlinear optical properties of manganese (II) complex of picolinate: A combined experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin; Zorlu, Yunus; Erkovan, Mustafa; Yerli, Yusuf

    2016-02-01

    A novel manganese (II) complex with picolinic acid (pyridine 2-carboxylic acid, Hpic), namely, [Mn(pic)2(H2O)2] was prepared and its crystal structure was fully characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Picolinate (pic) ligands were coordinated to the central manganese(II) ion as bidentate N,O-donors through the nitrogen atoms of pyridine rings and the oxygen atoms of carboxylate groups forming five-membered chelate rings. The spectroscopic characterization of Mn(II) complex was performed by the applications of FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis and EPR techniques. In order to support these studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out by using B3LYP level. IR and Raman spectra were simulated at B3LYP level, and obtained results indicated that DFT calculations generally give compatible results to the experimental ones. The electronic structure of the Mn(II) complex was predicted using time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method with polarizable continuum model (PCM). Molecular stability, hyperconjugative interactions, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and bond strength were investigated by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical properties of Mn(II) complex were investigated by the determining of molecular polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) parameters.

  18. Bis(oxazoline) Lewis acid catalyzed aldol reactions of pyridine N-oxide aldehydes--synthesis of optically active 2-(1-hydroxyalkyl)pyridine derivatives: development, scope, and total synthesis of an indolizine alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Landa, Aitor; Minkkilä, Anna; Blay, Gonzalo; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2006-04-24

    A new, short, and simplified procedure for the synthesis of optically active pyridine derivatives from pro-chiral pyridine-N-oxides is presented. The catalytic and asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction between ketene silyl acetals and 1-oxypyridine-2-carbaldehyde derivatives catalyzed by chiral copper(II)-bis(oxazoline) complexes gave optically active 2-(hydroxyalkyl)- and 2-(anti-1,2-dihydroxyalkyl)pyridine derivatives in good yields and diastereoselectivities, and in excellent enantioselectivities-up to 99 % enantiomeric excess. As a synthetic application of the developed method, a full account for the asymmetric total synthesis of a nonnatural indolizine alkaloid is provided.

  19. Organometallic osmium(II) arene anticancer complexes containing picolinate derivatives.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Sabine H; Peacock, Anna F A; Johnstone, Russell D L; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J

    2009-02-16

    Chlorido osmium(II) arene [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Os(II)(X-pico)Cl] complexes containing X = Br (1), OH (2), and Me (3) as ortho, or X = Cl (4), CO(2)H (5), and Me (6) as para substituents on the picolinate (pico) ring have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structures of 1 and 6 show typical "piano-stool" geometry with intermolecular pi-pi stacking of the biphenyl outer rings of 6. At 288 K the hydrolysis rates follow the order 2 > 6 > 4 > 3 > 5 > 1 with half-lives ranging from minutes to 4.4 h illustrating the influence of both electronic and steric effects of the substituents. The pK(a) values of the aqua adducts 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6A were all in the range of 6.3-6.6. The para-substituted pico complexes 4-6 readily formed adducts with both 9-ethyl guanine (9EtG) and 9-ethyl adenine (9EtA), but these were less favored for the ortho-substituted complexes 1 and 3 showing little reaction with 9EtG and 9EtA, respectively. Density-functional theory calculations confirmed the observed preferences for nucleobase binding for complex 1. In cytotoxicity assays with A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human ovarian, A549 human lung, and HCT116 colon cancer cells, only complexes 4 (p-Cl) and 6 (p-Me) exhibited significant activity (IC(50) values < 25 microM). Both of these complexes were as active as cisplatin in A2780 (ovarian) and HCT116 (colon) cell lines, and even overcome cisplatin resistance in the A2780cis (ovarian) cell line. The inactivity of 5 is attributed to the negative charge on its para carboxylate substituent. These data illustrate how the chemical reactivity and cancer cell cytotoxicity of osmium arene complexes can be controlled and "fine-tuned" by the use of steric and electronic effects of substituents on a chelating ligand to give osmium(II) arene complexes which are as active as cisplatin but have a different mechanism of action.

  20. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of chromium picolinate monohydrate administered in feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Stout, M D; Nyska, A; Collins, B J; Witt, K L; Kissling, G E; Malarkey, D E; Hooth, M J

    2009-04-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) has been proposed to be an essential element, which may increase sensitivity to insulin and thus participate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Humans ingest Cr(III) both as a natural dietary constituent and in dietary supplements taken for weight loss and antidiabetic effects. Chromium picolinate (CP), a widely used supplement, contains Cr(III) chelated with three molecules of picolinic acid and was formulated in an attempt to improve the absorption of Cr(III). In order to examine the potential for CP to induce chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity, the NTP conducted studies of the monohydrate form (CPM) in groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed in feed to concentrations of 0, 2000, 10,000 or 50,000 ppm for 2 years; exposure concentrations were selected following review of the data from NTP 3-month toxicity studies. Exposure to CPM did not induce biologically significant changes in survival, body weight, feed consumption, or non-neoplastic lesions in rats or mice. In male rats, a statistically significant increase in the incidence of preputial gland adenoma at 10,000 ppm was considered an equivocal finding. CPM was not carcinogenic to female rats or to male or female mice.

  1. Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Chromium Picolinate Monohydrate Administered in Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice for 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Stout, M.D.; Nyska, A.; Collins, B.J.; Witt, K.L.; Kissling, G.E.; Malarkey, D.E.; Hooth, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) has been proposed to be an essential element, which may increase sensitivity to insulin and thus participate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Humans ingest Cr(III) both as a natural dietary constituent and in dietary supplements taken for weight loss and antidiabetic effects. Chromium picolinate (CP), a widely used supplement, contains Cr(III) chelated with three molecules of picolinic acid and was formulated in an attempt to improve the absorption of Cr(III). In order to examine the potential for CP to induce chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity, the NTP conducted studies of the monohydrate form (CPM) in groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed in feed to concentrations of 0, 2,000, 10,000 or 50,000 ppm for 2 years; exposure concentrations were selected following review of the data from NTP 3-month toxicity studies. Exposure to CPM did not induce biologically significant changes in survival, body weight, feed consumption, or non-neoplastic lesions in rats or mice. In male rats, a statistically significant increase in the incidence of preputial gland adenoma at 10,000 ppm was considered an equivocal finding. CPM was not carcinogenic to female rats or to male or female mice. PMID:19166900

  2. Regioselective introduction of heteroatoms at the C-8 position of quinoline N-oxides: remote C-H activation using N-oxide as a stepping stone.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Heejun; Kim, Jinwoo; Jeong, Jisu; Chang, Sukbok

    2014-07-30

    Reported herein is the metal-catalyzed regioselective C-H functionalization of quinoline N-oxides at the 8-position: direct iodination and amidation were developed using rhodium and iridium catalytic systems, respectively. Mechanistic study of the amidation revealed that the unique regioselectivity is achieved through the smooth formation of N-oxide-chelated iridacycle and that an acid additive plays a key role in the rate-determining protodemetalation step. While this approach of remote C-H activation using N-oxide as a directing group could readily be applied to a wide range of heterocyclic substrates under mild conditions with high functional group tolerance, an efficient synthesis of zinquin ester (a fluorescent zinc indicator) was demonstrated.

  3. Synthesis of 4-benzylpyridines via Pd-catalyzed CH3-arylation of 4-picoline.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Dadian; Chen, Xiang; Gui, Qingwen; Li, Hua; Tan, Ze; Huang, Genping; Wang, Guangwei

    2017-09-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of 4-benzylpyridines was developed via Pd-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H arylation between 4-picoline and aryl halides. It was found that the best yields were achieved with a simple Pd(PPh3)4 catalyst and Cs2CO3 as the base. Compared with the known methods, our reaction does not require the use of a strong organometallic reagent as the base.

  4. Vibrational and microbiological study on alkaline metal picolinates and o-iodobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Koczoń, P; Piekut, J; Borawska, M; Swisłocka, R; Lewandowski, W

    2006-01-01

    FT-IR and Raman experimental data were assigned to appropriate bond vibrations and used to compare the different electronic charge distributions in the aromatic rings and carboxylic anions of various lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium o-iodobenzoates and picolinates. Then principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to attempt to distinguish the biological activities of these compounds according to selected band wavenumbers. The growth of the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula anomala under optimal growth conditions were measured after 24 hours of incubation by the classical plate method. The influence of the picolinates and o-iodobenzoates on the growth of these microorganisms, again after 24 hours of incubation, was also measured and compared to the effect of sodium benzoate, which was used as a reference material. In general, the o-iodobenzoates exhibited more activity against the microorganisms than the picolinates. A statistically significant linear correlation between the spectral data and the degree of influence of a given compound on microorganism growth was established. The correlation coefficients for the o-iodobenzoates were 0.696, -0.628, 0.693 and 0.755 for E. coli, B. subtilis, H. anomala and S. cerevisiae, respectively, and for the picolinates they were 0.818, 0.826, 0.821 and 0.877 for E. coli, B. subtilis, H. anomala and S. cerevisiae, respectively. Therefore, IR spectroscopy is shown to be a rapid and reliable analytical tool for preliminary estimation of the antimicrobial properties of newly synthesized compounds, that can be applied before microbial performance tests.

  5. Effects of chromium picolinate on micronucleus frequency and morphology of lymphocytes in calves.

    PubMed

    Imamoğlu, Nalan; Uyanik, Fatma; Kocaoğlu Güçlü, Berrin; Erdem, Onur; Cem Liman, Bilal; Dönmez Altuntaş, Hamiyet

    2008-11-01

    We report the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on micronucleus frequency, morphology of lymphocytes, and lipid peroxidation in calves. Twenty-four Holstein calves were selected for the study. They were kept in a farm and were fed a commercially available calf diet and alfalfa, ad libitum. The animals were divided into three groups of eight subjects each and were treated as follows: The first group was supplemented with a daily dose of 200 microg Cr as chromium picolinate; a second group received 400 microg Cr per day and a third group that served as control received no supplemental chromium. After 12-week supplementation, blood samples were collected to determine the micronucleus frequency, the apoptotic cell percentage, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood chromium levels. In both supplemented groups, the cells had irregularly shaped and segmented nuclei. Supplementation also increased the percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.001) and serum MDA (p < 0.01) and slightly increased the chromium levels. The animals supplemented with 400 microg showed a significant increase of micronucleus frequency (p < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that supplementation with 200 and 400 microg chromium as chromium picolinate may lead to cytotoxicity. The higher level of supplementation may also have genotoxic effects. However, further studies investigating the mechanism of the action of CrPic are required.

  6. Stable Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Ln(3+) complexes with cyclen-based ligands functionalized with picolinate pendant arms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Aurora; Garda, Zoltán; Ruscsák, Erika; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Lima, Luís M P; Beyler, Maryline; Tripier, Raphaël; Tircsó, Gyula; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2015-03-21

    In this study we present the results of the equilibrium, dissociation kinetics, DFT and X-ray crystallographic studies performed on the complexes of metal ions of biomedical importance (Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Gd(3+)) formed with octadentate ligands based on a cyclen platform incorporating two picolinate pendant arms (dodpa(2-) and Medodpa(2-)). The stability constants of the complexes were accessed by multiple methods (pH-potentiometry, direct and competition UV-vis spectrophotometry and (1)H-relaxometry). The stability constants of the complexes formed with dodpa(2-) and Medodpa(2-) do not differ significantly (e.g. log K[Mn(dodpa)] = 17.40 vs. log K[Mn(Medodpa)] = 17.46, log K[Cu(dodpa)] = 24.34-25.17 vs. log K[Cu(Medodpa)] = 24.74 and log K[Gd(dodpa)](+) = 17.27 vs. log K[Gd(Medodpa)](+) = 17.59), which indicates that the steric hindrance brought by the methyl groups has no significant effect on the stability of the complexes. The stability constants of the Mn(2+) complexes formed with the cyclen dipicolinates were found to be ca. 3 log K units higher than those determined for the complex of the cyclen monopicolinate (dompa(-)), which indicates that the second picolinate moiety attached to the backbone of the macrocycle is very likely coordinated to the Mn(2+) ion. However, the stability of the [Cu(dodpa)] and [Cu(Medodpa)] complexes agrees well with the stability constant of [Cu(dompa)](+), in line with the hexadentate coordination around the metal ion observed in the X-ray structure of [Cu(Medodpa)]. The [Gd(dodpa)](+) and [Gd(Medodpa)](+) complexes display a fairly high kinetic inertness, as the rate constants of acid catalysed dissociation (k1 = 2.5(4) × 10(-3) and 8.3(4) × 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) for [Gd(dodpa)](+) and [Gd(Medodpa)](+), respectively) are smaller than the value reported for [Gd(do3a)] (k1 = 2.5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1)). The [Mn(dodpa)] complex was found to be more inert than [Mn(Medodpa)]. The results of the diffusion-ordered NMR

  7. Metachelins, mannosylated and N-oxidized coprogen-type siderophores from Metarhizium robertsii.

    PubMed

    Krasnoff, Stuart B; Keresztes, Ivan; Donzelli, Bruno G G; Gibson, Donna M

    2014-07-25

    Under iron-depleted culture conditions, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii (Bischoff, Humber, and Rehner) (= M. anisopliae) produces a complex of extracellular siderophores including novel O-glycosylated and N-oxidized coprogen-type compounds as well as the known fungal siderophores N(α)-dimethylcoprogen (NADC) and dimerumic acid (DA). Metachelin A (1), the most abundant component in the M. robertsii siderophore mixture, was characterized as a 1094 Da analogue of NADC that is O-glycosylated by β-mannose at both terminal hydroxyl groups and N-oxidized at the dimethylated α-nitrogen. The mixture also contained a 1078 Da analogue, metachelin B (2), which lacks the N-oxide modification. Also characterized were the aglycone of 1, i.e., the N-oxide of NADC (3), and the monomannoside of DA (6). N-Oxide and O-glycosyl substituents are unprecedented among microbial siderophores. At high ESIMS source energy and at room temperature in DMSO, 1 underwent Cope elimination, resulting in loss of the N(α)-dimethyl group and dehydration of the α-β bond. High-resolution ESIMS data confirmed that all tri- and dihydroxamate siderophores (1-6) complex with trivalent Fe, Al, and Ga. In a chrome azurol S assay, all of the M. robertsii siderophores showed iron-binding activity roughly equivalent to that of desferrioxamine B.

  8. Gastrointestinal function in chronic radiation enteritis--effects of loperamide-N-oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, E K; Horowitz, M; Russo, A; Muecke, T; Robb, T; Chatterton, B E

    1993-01-01

    The effects of loperamide-N-oxide, a new peripheral opiate agonist precursor, on gastrointestinal function were evaluated in 18 patients with diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis. Each patient was given, in double-blind randomised order, loperamide-N-oxide (3 mg orally twice daily) and placebo for 14 days, separated by a washout period of 14 days. Gastrointestinal symptoms; absorption of bile acid, vitamin B12, lactose, and fat; gastric emptying; small intestinal and whole gut transit; and intestinal permeability were measured during placebo and loperamide-N-oxide phases. Data were compared with those obtained in 18 normal subjects. In the patients, in addition to an increased frequency of bowel actions (p < 0.001), there was reduced bile acid absorption, (p < 0.001) a higher prevalence of lactose malabsorption (p < 0.05) associated with a reduced dietary intake of dairy products (p < 0.02), and faster small intestinal (p < 0.001) and whole gut transit (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal subjects. There was no significant difference in gastric emptying between the two groups. Treatment with loperamide-N-oxide was associated with a reduced frequency of bowel actions (p < 0.001), slower small intestinal (p < 0.001), and total gut transit (p < 0.01), more rapid gastric emptying (p < 0.01), improved absorption of bile acid (p < 0.01), and increased permeability to 51Cr EDTA (p < 0.01). These observations indicate that: (1) diarrhoea caused by chronic radiation enteritis is associated with more rapid intestinal transit and a high prevalence of bile acid and lactose malabsorption, and (2) loperamide-N-oxide slows small intestinal transit, increases bile acid absorption, and is effective in the treatment of diarrhoea associated with chronic radiation enteritis. PMID:8491393

  9. Phytotoxicity of fusaric acid and analogues to cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed a bioassay to test the phytotoxicity of chemicals to cotton and used it to determine the relative toxicity of fusaric acid (3-butylpicolinic acid), picolinic acid, and related analogs. In contrast to previous studies, we found the carboxylic acid group is essential for phytotoxicity. ...

  10. An efficient, regioselective amination of 3,5-disubstituted pyridine N-oxides using saccharin as an ammonium surrogate.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Robert P; Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Bartberger, Michael D; Tedrow, Jason S; Vounatsos, Filisaty

    2013-01-04

    A process for the regioselective amination of unsymmetrical 3,5-substituted pyridine N-oxides has been developed utilizing cheap, readily available saccharin as an ammonium surrogate. High conversions of the corresponding saccharin adducts have been achieved under mild reaction conditions. In situ deprotection under acidic conditions allows for a one-pot process to substituted aminopyridines. High regioselectivities were obtained from a variety of 3,5-disubstituted pyridine N-oxides.

  11. The methyl group as a source of structural diversity in heterocyclic chemistry: side chain functionalization of picolines and related heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Victor; Aubert, Emmanuel; Fort, Yves

    2007-09-14

    The reaction of 2-picoline at the methyl group with NDA and KDA followed by dimethyldisulfide trapping furnished, respectively, dithioacetals and trithioortho esters with high selectivity. The method was successfully applied to other methyl-substituted pyridines, quinolines, and pyrazines. Dithioketals were prepared by a one-pot procedure involving the reaction of metalated 2-picoline with 2 equiv of dimethyldisulfide followed by in situ trapping with a second electrophile. All of the generated thio-substituted compounds were efficiently transformed in presence of mercury salts or under oxidizing conditions to other functional groups comprising aldehydes, ketones, ketals, thiol esters, orthoesters, and esters.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic chromium (picolinate) on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen and carcass traits of male turkeys.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Avishek; Divya, Sharma; Mandal, A B; Majumdar, S; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-30

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary chromium (Cr as picolinate) on physical and biochemical characteristics of semen and carcass traits of adult male turkey. Seventy-two (72) male turkeys (16 weeks old) were randomly distributed into four dietary treatment groups (4×3×6) for a period of 24 weeks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 250, 500 and 750μg Cr/kg (T2, T3 and T4 respectively) in basal diet (T1 considered as control). Semen physical characteristics viz. sperm concentration, progressive motility, live and dead count of spermatozoa and fertility differed significantly (P<0.05). Sperm concentration, progressive motility and fertility were higher and dead count was lower in T4 (750μg) group than control (T1) or other dietary treatments (T2 or T3) group. Semen biochemical parameters like creatinine, acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration did not differ significantly among the dietary treatment groups, whereas, total protein, glucose, malondialdehyde (MAD) and cholesterol concentration differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the treatment groups. Protein and MAD were higher while glucose and cholesterol concentrations were lower in T3 and T4 group than control or T1 group. The shrinkage loss, eviscerated yield, relative weight (as percent of body weight) of breast, thigh and liver improved on supplementation of Cr leading to significantly higher in T4 group in comparison to control. From this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of chromium as chromium picolinate, at 750μg/kg level in diet was beneficial for improving physical characteristics of semen, carcass yield and breast yield of adult male turkeys. However, Cr levels of 500 or 750μg/kg in diet were beneficial for semen biochemical parameters of adult male turkeys.

  13. Vibrational structure and antimicrobial activity of selected isonicotinates, potassium picolinate and nicotinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koczoń, P.; Piekut, J.; Borawska, M.; Lewandowski, W.

    2003-06-01

    The lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium isonicotinates, potassium picolinate and nicotinate (microbiological data) as well as sodium benzoate (as a referee for microbiological tests) were under study. The selected experimental bands occurring in the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of studied alkaline metal isonicotinates and potassium picolinate were assigned. The change of wavenumber of those bands was observed along the metal series and along the change of position of nitrogen in the aromatic ring. The linear combination of wavenumber of assigned bands (the principal component analysis) was performed to estimate the change in the electronic properties of the molecule along the metal series. The antimicrobial activity of studied complexes against yeasts Hansenula anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was measured after 24 and 48 h of incubation. The attempt was made, to find out if there is any correlation between the first principal component and the degree of growth inhibition exhibited by studied complexes in relation to studied microorganisms.

  14. Reduction of Amine N-Oxides by Diboron Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Kokatla, Hari Prasad; Thomson, Paul F.; Bae, Suyeal; Doddi, Venkata Ramana; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Facile reduction of alkylamino-, anilino-, and pyridyl-N-oxides can be achieved via the use of diboron reagents, predominantly bis(pinacolato)- and in some cases bis(catecholato)diboron [(pinB)2 and (catB)2, respectively]. Reductions occur upon simply mixing the amine N-oxide and the diboron reagent in a suitable solvent, at a suitable temperature. Extremely fast reductions of alkylamino- and anilino-N-oxides occur, whereas pyridyl-N-oxides undergo slower reduction. The reaction is tolerant of a variety of functionalities such as hydroxyl, thiol, and cyano groups, as well as halogens. Notably, a sensitive nucleoside N-oxide has also been reduced efficiently. The different rates with which alkylamino- and pyridyl-N-oxides are reduced has been used to perform stepwise reduction of the N,N’-dioxide of (S)-(–)-nicotine. Because it was observed that (pinB)2 was unaffected by the water of hydration in amine oxides, the feasibility of using water as solvent was evaluated. These reactions also proceeded exceptionally well, giving high product yields. In constrast to the reactions with (pinB)2, triethylborane reduced alkylamino-N-oxides, but pyridine N-oxide did not undergo efficient reduction even at elevated temperature. Finally, the mechanism of the reductive process by (pinB)2 has been probed by 1H and 11B NMR. PMID:21812467

  15. Chromium-picolinate therapy in diabetes care: individual outcomes require new guidelines and navigation by predictive diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Schild, Hans H.; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nephropathy is the leading secondary complication of metabolic syndrome. Nutritional supplement by chromium-picolinate is assumed to have renoprotective effects. However, potential toxic effects reported increase concerns about safety of chromium-picolinate. The experimental design aimed at determining, whether the treatment with clinically relevant doses of chromium-picolinate can harm individual oucomes through DNA damage and extensive alterations in central detoxification / cell-cycle regulating pathways in treatment of diabetes. Methods The study was performed in a double-blind manner. Well-acknowledged animal model of db/db-mice and clinically relevant doses of chromium-picolinate were used. As an index of DNA-damage, measurement of DNA-breaks was performed using “Comet Assay”-analysis. Individual and group-specific expression patterns of SOD-1 and P53 were evaluated to get insights into central detoxification and cell-cycle regulating pathways under treatment conditions. Results Experimental data revealed highly individual reaction under treatment conditions. Highest variability of DNA-damage was monitored under prolonged treatment with high dosage of CrPic. Expression patterns demonstrated a correlation with subcellular imaging and dosage-dependent suppression under chromium-picolinate treatment. Interpretation and recommendations Population at-risk for diabetes is huge and increasing in pandemic scale. One of the reasons might be the failed attempt to prevent the disease by application of artificial supplements and drugs with hardly recognised individual risks. Consequently, a multimodal approach of integrative medicine by predictive diagnostics, targeted prevention and individually created treatment algorithms is highly desirable. PMID:23017160

  16. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of N-oxide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cerecetto, H; Dias, E; Di Maio, R; González, M; Pacce, S; Saenz, P; Seoane, G; Suescun, L; Mombrú, A; Fernández, G; Lema, M; Villalba, J

    2000-07-01

    As part of an ongoing program on the chemistry and biological activity of N-oxide-containing molecules, a number of novel 1,2, 5-oxadiazole N-oxide, benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxide, and quinoxaline N,N'-dioxide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their herbicidal activity. Many of these compounds exhibited moderate to good herbicidal pre-emergence activity against Triticum aestivum. Dose-response studies were done on the more representative compounds (12, 20, and 26). The most active compound, butylcarbamoylbenzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxide, 26, displayed herbicidal activity at concentrations as low as 24 g/ha.

  17. An analytical method for the measurement of acid metabolites of tryptophan-NAD pathway and related acids in urine.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiangjun; Zhu, Jiping; Rubab, Mamoona; Feng, Yong-Lai; Poon, Raymond

    2010-04-15

    An analytical method has been developed for the measurements of five urinary acids namely, quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, nicotinic acid, 2-pyridylacetic acid and 3-pyridylacetic acid. The high performance liquid chromatograph-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was operated in positive polarity under selected ion monitoring mode, with a column flow rate of 0.2 ml/min and an injection volume of 20 microl. The method used isotope-labelled picolinic acid (PA-d(4)) and nicotinic acid (NA-d(4)) as internal standards for the quantification. The sample preparation involved parallel use of two different types of mixed-mode solid phase extraction cartridges (Strata-X-AW for the extraction of quinolinic acid, and Strata-X-C for the remaining acids). Quantitative analysis of five target acids in several human and rat urine samples showed that the levels of acids were relatively uniform among rats while larger variations were observed for human samples.

  18. Structurally simple pyridine N-oxides as efficient organocatalysts for the enantioselective allylation of aromatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Pignataro, Luca; Benaglia, Maurizio; Annunziata, Rita; Cinquini, Mauro; Cozzi, Franco

    2006-02-17

    A series of structurally simple pyridine N-oxides have readily been assembled from inexpensive amino acids and tested as organocatalysts in the allylation of aldehydes with allyl(trichloro)silane to afford homoallylic alcohols. (S)-proline-based catalysts afforded the products derived from aromatic aldehydes in fair to good yields and in up to 84% enantiomeric excess (ee). The allylation of heteroaromatic, unsaturated, and aliphatic aldehydes was less satisfactory. By running the reaction in the presence of achiral and chiral additives and structurally different catalysts, we collected some insights into the relationship between the stereochemical outcome and the catalyst's structural features. Even if the ee's obtained are inferior to the best values observed with other catalysts, this work concurs to show that structurally simple pyridine N-oxides can also promote the allylation reaction with satisfactory stereocontrol.

  19. Methyl rotor quantum states and the effect of chemical environment in organic crystals: γ -picoline and toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaei, Somayeh; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Using a set of first-principles calculations, we have studied the methyl tunnel splitting for molecular crystals of γ-picoline and toluene. The effective rotational potential energy surface of the probe methyl rotor along the tunneling path is evaluated using first-principles electronic structure calculations combined with the nudged elastic band method. The tunnel splitting is calculated by an explicit diagonalization of the one-dimensional time-independent Hamiltonian matrix. The effects of chemical environment and rotor-rotor coupling on the rotational energy barriers were investigated. It is found that more dense packing of the molecules in toluene compared to that in γ-picoline gives rise to a larger rotational barrier which in turn yields a considerably smaller tunnel splitting. Moreover, it turned out that coupled motion of the face-to-face methyl groups in γ-picoline has a significant effect on the reduction of the rotational barrier. Our results are in good agreement with the experimentally observed tunnel splitting.

  20. Efficient organic sensitizers with pyridine-N-oxide as an anchor group for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Xichuan; Zhao, Jianghua; Zhang, Fuguo; Wang, Xiuna; Sun, Licheng

    2014-09-01

    Five organic dyes with pyridine-N-oxide as the anchor group and electron acceptor have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Benzothiadiazole was introduced in the conjugation system to increase the electron withdrawing properties, FTIR spectra showed that the coordination was between the pyridine-N-oxide and the Brønsted acid site on the TiO2 surface. The relationship between different dye structures and the performance of the DSSCs was investigated systematically. The location of the thiophene unit was studied, and the direct linkage of benzothiadiazole with pyridine-N-oxide was beneficial to broaden the absorption. The donor-acceptor-acceptor-configured dye WL307, which has 2-ethylhexyloxy chains in the donor part, showed the best efficiency of 6.08% under 100 mW cm(-2) light illumination. The dye series showed a fairly good stability during the one month test period.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and chromium picolinate in foods using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, YiQuan; Chen, JinFa; Xi, Zhiming; Yang, Guidi; Wu, Zujian; Li, JianRong; Fu, FengFu

    2015-05-01

    We herein reported a method for the simultaneous detection of trace Cr(VI), Cr(III), and chromium(III) picolinate (CrPic) in foods using CE-ICP-MS together with ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The Cr(III) (Cr(3+) ) was chelated with trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N´,N´-tetraacetic acid (DCTA) to form a single charged Cr-DCTA(-) complex. Then, Cr(VI) (CrO4 (2-) ), Cr-DCTA(-) , and CrPic were separated by CE within 8 min under a separation voltage of -13 KV followed by their monitoring with ICP mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The proposed method is simple, effective, and sensitive. It has an instrument detection limit of 0.10, 0.18, and 0.20 ngCr/mL for Cr(VI), Cr(III), and CrPic, respectively. With the help of the methods, we have successfully determined Cr(VI), Cr(III), and CrPic in nutritional supplement (CrPic yeast tablet) with an RSD (n = 5) <6% and a recovery of 93-103%. The experimental results showed that CrPic was the main speciation of chromium in the nutritional supplement, with a concentration of 1514.6 μg Cr/g.

  2. Synthesis of Propionamide Pyridine and Pyridine N-oxide Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Binyamin, Iris; Pailloux, Sylvie; Hay, Benjamin P; Rapko, Brian M; Duesler, Eileen N; Paine, Robert T

    2007-02-01

    A new set of pyridine and pyridine N-oxides functionalized with N,N-dimethylpropionamide pendant groups in the 2- and 2,6-positions have been prepared from the combination of 2-chloromethylpyridine and 2,6-bis(chloromethyl) pyridine with -lithio N,N-dimethyl acetamide. The coordination interaction between 2-(N,N-dimethylpropionamide) pyridine N-oxide (10) and Tb(NO3)3 has been unambiguously defined via single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of Tb(10)(NO3)3(H2O). Battelle operates PNNL for the USDOE

  3. Absorption, excretion and retention of 51Cr from labelled Cr-(III)-picolinate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Karin; Laschinsky, Niels; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The bioavailability of chromium from Cr-picolinate (CrPic(3)) and Cr-chloride (CrCl(3)) was studied in rats using (51)Cr-labelled compounds and whole-body-counting. The intestinal absorption of Cr was twice as high from CrPic(3) (1.16% vs 0.55%) than from CrCl(3), however most of the absorbed (51)Cr from CrPic(3) was excreted into the urine within 24 h. After i.v. or i.p. injection, the whole-body retention curves fitted well to a multiexponential function, demonstrating that plasma chromium is in equilibrium with three pools. For CrPic(3), a large pool exists with a very rapid exchange (T (1/2) = <0.5 days), suggesting that CrPic(3) is absorbed as intact molecule, from which the main part is directly excreted by the kidney before degradation of the chromium complex in the liver can occur. CrCl(3) is less well absorbed but the rapid exchange pool is much smaller, resulting in even higher Cr concentrations in tissue such as muscle and fat. However, 1-3 days after application, the relative distribution of (51)Cr from both compounds was similar in all tissues studied, indicating that both compounds contribute to the same storage pool. In summary, the bioavailability of CrPic(3) in rats is not superior compared to CrCl(3).

  4. Effects of chromium picolinate on the viability of chick embryo fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Zhao, X; Qi, C; Wang, L; Cheng, Z; Liu, M; Liu, J; Yang, D; Wang, S; Chai, T

    2014-04-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic), which is used as a nutritional supplement and to treat type 2 diabetes, has gained much attention because of its cytotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of CrPic on the viability of the chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, morphological detection, and flow cytometry. The results show that lower concentrations of CrPic (8 and 16 μM) did not damage CEF viability (p > 0.05). However, higher CrPic concentrations (400 and 600 μM) indicated a highly significant effect on the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium ion concentration, and the apoptosis rate (p < 0.01), contrary to lower CrPic concentrations (8 and 16 μM) and control group. Moreover, apoptotic morphological changes induced by these processes in CEF were confirmed using Hoechst 33258 staining. Cell death induced by higher concentrations of CrPic was caused by an apoptotic and a necrotic mechanism, whereas the main mechanism of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was apoptotic death.

  5. Chromium picolinate induced apoptosis of lymphocytes and the signaling mechanisms thereof.

    PubMed

    Jana, Mahadevan; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2009-06-15

    Cr(III)(picolinate)(3) [Cr(III)(pic)(3)] is currently used as a nutritional supplement and for treating Type-2 diabetes. The effect of Cr(III)(pic)(3) uptake in peripheral blood lymphocytes is investigated in this study. From the cytotoxicity data, DNA fragmentation pattern, Annexin V staining, TUNEL positivity and the ultrastructural characteristics such as chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies, it is clear that Cr(III)(pic)(3) induces a concentration dependent apoptosis. It is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by treatment with Cr(III)(pic)(3) leads to apoptosis, since we find that pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine inhibits the process. Using Western blotting technique and fluorescence measurements, the downstream signaling molecules have also been identified. Cr(III)(pic)(3) treatment leads to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax expression, increase in cytosolic cytochrome c content and active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation and all these manifestations are reduced by pretreating the lymphocytes with N-acetyl cysteine. Thus, it is shown that Cr(III)(pic)(3) is cytotoxic to lymphocytes with ROS and mitochondrial events playing a role in bringing about apoptosis.

  6. Blood Parameters and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate Oral Supplementation in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Braz, ShélidaVasconcelos; Marçola, Tatiana Guerrero; McManus, Concepta; Caldeira, Denise Ferreira; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Paim, Tiago Prado; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Louvandini, Helder

    2015-11-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on various blood parameters and their possible toxicity on the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and testis were investigated. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI) lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic (six animals/treatment): placebo, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of hay Panicum maximum cv Massai and concentrate. Blood and serum were collected fortnightly for analysis. On day 84, the animals were euthanized, and histopathological analysis in the liver, kidney, heart, lung, and testis was made. The liver and kidney were also submitted to electronic microscopy analysis. Differences between treatments (P < 0.05) were observed for packed cell volume (day 84), hemoglobin (day 84), total plasm protein (day 56 and day 84), and triglycerides (day 70). There was no statistically significant relationship between Cr supplementation and histopathology findings, although some animals treated with supplementary Cr showed morphological changes in the liver, kidney, and testis. Thus, the effectiveness of supplementation with Cr remains in doubt as to its physiological action and toxicity in sheep.

  7. Chromium picolinate induced apoptosis of lymphocytes and the signaling mechanisms thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Mahadevan; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2009-06-15

    Cr(III)(picolinate){sub 3} [Cr(III)(pic){sub 3}] is currently used as a nutritional supplement and for treating Type-2 diabetes. The effect of Cr(III)(pic){sub 3} uptake in peripheral blood lymphocytes is investigated in this study. From the cytotoxicity data, DNA fragmentation pattern, Annexin V staining, TUNEL positivity and the ultrastructural characteristics such as chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies, it is clear that Cr(III)(pic){sub 3} induces a concentration dependent apoptosis. It is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by treatment with Cr(III)(pic){sub 3} leads to apoptosis, since we find that pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine inhibits the process. Using Western blotting technique and fluorescence measurements, the downstream signaling molecules have also been identified. Cr(III)(pic){sub 3} treatment leads to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax expression, increase in cytosolic cytochrome c content and active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation and all these manifestations are reduced by pretreating the lymphocytes with N-acetyl cysteine. Thus, it is shown that Cr(III)(pic){sub 3} is cytotoxic to lymphocytes with ROS and mitochondrial events playing a role in bringing about apoptosis.

  8. Chromium picolinate modulates serotonergic properties and carbohydrate metabolism in a rat model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, James R; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya; Orhan, Cemal; Ulas, Mustafa; Sahin, Kazim

    2012-10-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has shown both antidepressant and antidiabetic properties. In this study, the effects of CrPic on serotonergic properties and carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic rats were evaluated. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. (1) The control group received only standard diet (8 % fat). (2) The CrPic group was fed standard diet and CrPic (80 μg CrPic per kilogram body mass (b.m.)/day), for 10 weeks (microgram/kilogram b.m./day). (3) The HFD/STZ group fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 40 % fat) for 2 weeks and then received streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, i.p.) (i.v.) HFD-STZ-CrPic group treated as the previous group and then were administered CrPic. CrPic administration to HFD/STZ-treated rats increased brain chromium levels and improved all measurements of carbohydrate metabolism and serotonergic properties (P<0.001). CrPic also significantly increased levels of insulin, tryptophan, and serotonin (P<0.001) in the serum and brain, and decreased cortisol levels in the serum (P<0.01). Except chromium levels, no significant effect of CrPic supplementation was detected on the overall measured parameters in the control group. CrPic administration was well tolerated without any adverse events. The results support the use of CrPic supplementation which improves serotonergic properties of brain in diabetes.

  9. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet.

  10. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Domenico, Philip

    2006-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) picolinate (CrPic) is a widely used nutritional supplement for optimal insulin function. A relationship among Cr status, diabetes, and associated pathologies has been established. Virtually all trials using CrPic supplementation for subjects with diabetes have demonstrated beneficial effects. Thirteen of 15 clinical studies (including 11 randomized, controlled studies) involving a total of 1,690 subjects (1,505 in CrPic group) reported significant improvement in at least one outcome of glycemic control. All 15 studies showed salutary effects in at least one parameter of diabetes management, including dyslipidemia. Positive outcomes from CrPic supplementation included reduced blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and reduced requirements for hypoglycemic medication. The greater bioavailability of CrPic compared with other forms of Cr (e.g., niacin-bound Cr or CrCl(3)) may explain its comparatively superior efficacy in glycemic and lipidemic control. The pooled data from studies using CrPic supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects show substantial reductions in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which equate to a reduced risk for disease complications. Collectively, the data support the safety and therapeutic value of CrPic for the management of cholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in subjects with diabetes.

  11. Modeling of the fundamental Raman and infrared CH stretching spectra of CHD{sub 2} picolines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapouge, C.; Cavagnat, D.

    1996-12-31

    The quasi-free internal rotation of the methyl group in the {alpha}, {Beta} and {gamma} CHD{sub 2} picolines leads to complex features observed in the Raman and infrared CH stretching spectra. A quantum theory has been developed to model these spectra, taking explicitly into account the coupling between the slow internal motion and the much faster CH stretching vibration. In the ground vibrational state (v=0), the effective potential of internal rotation is calculated by adding to the methyl rotation potential energy, the variation of the zero point vibrational energy during the internal motion, determined by ab-initio. In the CH stretching excited state, this effective potential is added to the CH stretching vibrational contribution, determined from the conformational dependence of the CH bond length. The CH transitions between the effective potentials in the ground (v=0) and the first excited (v=1) CH stretching states are then calculated to reconstruct the fundamental Raman and IR spectra. The Raman intensities are determined from simple Franck-Condom factors, and the IR intensities are calculated from dipole moment derivatives determined by ab-initio. The so calculated spectra agree well with the experimental ones.

  12. Luminescent sensor for carbonate ion based on lanthanide(III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A).

    PubMed

    Vaněk, Jakub; Lubal, Přemysl; Hermann, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (H(3)DO3A) are suggested as sensors for sensitive luminescence-based determination of a carbonate anion. Thermodynamic study of association of [Eu(H(2)O)(2)(DO3A)] with bidentate anionic ligands using luminescence spectroscopy reveals an affinity order CO(3)(2-) > oxalate(2-) > picolinate(-) > phthalate(2-) ≈ citrate(3-); presumably as a consequence of an increasing chelate ring size. The ternary [Eu(DO3A)(picolinate)](-) and [Tb(DO3A)(picolinate)](-) complexes show improved photophysical properties due to the antenna effect of the picolinate anion. High quenching effect of carbonate anion and, to a lesser extent also oxalate, enables construction of a linear calibration plot utilizing optimized experimental conditions (e.g. c(LnL) = 0.1 mM, c(picolinate) = 2-5 mM, pH = 7.4, λ(exc) = 286 nm, etc.) for carbonate determination in solution. Both sensors show a comparable sensitivity and the detection limit of about 0.4 mM. In order to improve the photophysical properties of Ln(III) sensor by shift of excitation wavelength about 40 nm to VIS range, the isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (IQCA) as antenna ligand was employed instead of picolinic acid. The analysis of commercial samples of European mineral waters was carried out and they were compared to the results obtained by capillary isotachophoresis to confirm there is no inherent (systematic) error to the present analysis. The Ln(III) sensor with IQCA is recommended since it has a better robustness than that with picolinate. The present analytical method is simple and rapid, and it is useful for sensitive determination of bicarbonate/carbonate concentration in water samples under aerobic conditions.

  13. Determination of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted SPE clean-up

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new liquid chromatography method to detect fusaric acid in maize is reported based on molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction clean-up (MISPE) using mimic-templated molecularly-imprinted polymers. Picolinic acid was used as a toxin analog for imprinting polymers during a thermolytic s...

  14. Chromium picolinate intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: an evidence-based review by the United States Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Paula R; Ellwood, Kathleen C

    2006-08-01

    The labeling of both health claims that meet significant scientific agreement (SSA) and qualified health claims on conventional foods and dietary supplements requires pre-market approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Approval by the FDA involves, in part, a thorough review of the scientific evidence to support an SSA or a qualified health claim. This article discusses FDA's evidence-based review of the scientific evidence on the role of chromium picolinate supplements in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Based on this evidence-based review, FDA issued a letter of enforcement discretion for one qualified health claim on chromium picolinate and risk of insulin resistance, a surrogate endpoint for type 2 diabetes. The agency concluded that the relationship between chromium picolinate intake and insulin resistance is highly uncertain.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of brucine and brucine N-oxide extracted from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wu; Wang, Tian-Shan; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2003-10-01

    To further understand the purpose of the traditional processing method of the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae) as well as analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of brucine and brucine N-oxide extracted from this medicinal plant, various pain and inflammatory models were employed in the present study to investigate their pharmacological profiles. Both brucine and brucine N-oxide revealed significant protective effects against thermic and chemical stimuli in hot-plate test and writhing test. However, on different phases they exerted analgesic activities in formalin test. Brucine N-oxide showed stronger inhibitory effect than brucine in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, both of them significantly inhibited the release of prostaglandin E2 in inflammatory tissue, reduced acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and the content of 6-keto-PGF1a in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis rat's blood plasma. In addition, brucine and brucine N-oxide were shown to reduce the content of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in FCA-induced arthritis rat's blood plasma, while increase the content of 5-hydroxytryindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) accordingly. These results suggest that central and peripheral mechanism are involved in the pain modulation and anti-inflammation effects of brucine and brucine N-oxide, biochemical mechanisms of brucine and brucine N-oxide are different even though they are similar in chemical structure.

  16. Pyridine N-oxide and pyridine-d5 N-oxide: an electrospray/tandem mass spectrometric study carried out at high mass resolution.

    PubMed

    March, Raymond E; Stadey, Christopher J; Lewars, Errol G

    2005-01-01

    A mass spectrometric study of pyridine N-oxide and pyridine-d5 N-oxide was carried out with a hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray (ES) source. In addition to the observation of protonated, sodiated, and proton-bound dimers of pyridine N-oxide and pyridine-d5 N-oxide, mass scans revealed the presence of several doubly-charged ion species. Doubly-charged ions of m/z 191 were identified as diprotonated tetramers of pyridine N-oxide; a structure has been proposed for the diprotonated tetramer and its energy relative to that of protonated pyridine N-oxide has been obtained from geometry optimizations. The principal ion species observed were subjected to collision-induced dissociation; accurate mass measurements were made of each fragment ion so as to determine its elemental composition. On the basis of mass spectrometric evidence, it is suggested that dissociation of pyridine N-oxide may occur during the ES process and the resulting fragments become embedded in doubly-charged ions. The proton affinity for both pyridine N-oxide and pyridine-d5 N-oxide was calculated; the difference between these proton affinities was compared with an experimentally determined difference between the proton affinities of pyridine N-oxide and pyridine-d5 N-oxide.

  17. The stability of amitriptyline N-oxide and clozapine N-oxide on treated and untreated dry blood spot cards.

    PubMed

    Temesi, David; Swales, John; Keene, Warren; Dick, Samuel

    2013-03-25

    Procedures for drug monitoring based on Dried Blood Spot (DBS) sampling are gaining acceptance for an increasing number of clinical and preclinical applications, where ease of use, small sample requirement, and improved sample stability have been shown to offer advantages over blood tube sampling. However, to-date, the vast majority of this work has described the analysis of well characterized drugs. Using amitriptyline, clozapine, and their potentially labile N-oxide metabolites as model compounds, we consider the merits of using DBS for discovery pharmacokinetic (PK) studies where the metabolic fate of test compounds are often unknown. Both N-oxide metabolites reverted to parent compound under standard drying (2hr) and extraction conditions. Card type significantly affected the outcome, with 14% and 22% degradation occurring for clozapine-N-oxide and amitriptyline-N-oxide on a brand of untreated DBS cards, compared to 59 and 88% on a brand of treated DBS cards. Enrichment of the parent compound ex vivo leads to overestimation of circulating blood concentration and inaccurate determination of the PK profile.

  18. Photochemical activation of ruthenium(II)-pyridylamine complexes having a pyridine-N-oxide pendant toward oxygenation of organic substrates.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takahiko; Nakayama, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Miyuki; Ogura, Takashi; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2011-11-09

    Ruthenium(II)-acetonitrile complexes having η(3)-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) with an uncoordinated pyridine ring and diimine such as 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm), [Ru(II)(η(3)-TPA)(diimine)(CH(3)CN)](2+), reacted with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to afford corresponding Ru(II)-acetonitrile complexes having an uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide arm, [Ru(II)(η(3)-TPA-O)(diimine)(CH(3)CN)](2+), with retention of the coordination environment. Photoirradiation of the acetonitrile complexes having diimine and the η(3)-TPA with the uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide arm afforded a mixture of [Ru(II)(TPA)(diimine)](2+), intermediate-spin (S = 1) Ru(IV)-oxo complex with uncoordinated pyridine arm, and intermediate-spin Ru(IV)-oxo complex with uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide arm. A Ru(II) complex bearing an oxygen-bound pyridine-N-oxide as a ligand and bpm as a diimine ligand was also obtained, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis of the isolated O-coordinated Ru(II)-pyridine-N-oxide complex has been investigated to reveal the photodynamics. The Ru(IV)-oxo complex with an uncoordinated pyridine moiety was alternatively prepared by reaction of the corresponding acetonitrile complex with 2,6-dichloropyridine-N-oxide (Cl(2)py-O) to identify the Ru(IV)-oxo species. The formation of Ru(IV)-oxo complexes was concluded to proceed via intermolecular oxygen atom transfer from the uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide to a Ru(II) center on the basis of the results of the reaction with Cl(2)py-O and the concentration dependence of the consumption of the starting Ru(II) complexes having the uncoordinated pyridine-N-oxide moiety. Oxygenation reactions of organic substrates by [Ru(II)(η(3)-TPA-O)(diimine)(CH(3)CN)](2+) were examined under irradiation (at 420 ± 5 nm) and showed selective allylic oxygenation of cyclohexene to give cyclohexen-1-ol and cyclohexen-1-one and cumene oxygenation to afford cumyl alcohol

  19. Toxicity evaluation of chromium picolinate nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro in rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yi; Lien, Tu-Fa

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity of nanoCrpic is still not understood and needs further investigation. Thus, this study investigated the effect of chromium picolinate nanoparticles (nanoCrpic) on the toxicity in vivo and in vitro in rat. In the in vivo study, 36 rats (Wistar, 8-week-old) were randomly divided into the control group (fed basal diet), the low-dose (300 ppb, μg/kg), and high-dose (1,000 ppb) nanoCrpic groups. The trial was conducted for 2 months; at the final stage of the trial, the rats were sacrificed, liver and kidney were examined, and samples of tissues were taken for histological examination. Hepatocytes isolated from 10-week-old Wistar male rats were used for in vitro study to examine the degree of DNA damage following exposure to 0 and 0.294 mM of H(2)O(2) for 30 min. Incubation medium was supplemented with 0 (control), 100, and 300 ppb nanoCrpic. In vivo study indicated that no lesions of liver or kidney were detected in 300 and 1,000 ppb nanoCrpic fed rats. The in vitro study evaluated DNA damage according to the percentage and distance of the fragments migration and revealed that there was insignificant difference between the nanoCrpic and control groups (p > 0.05). This study indicated that nanoCrpic at 300-1,000 ppb in vivo and at 100-300 ppb in vitro showed no signs of toxicity to rats.

  20. Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate generates chromosomal aberrations and impedes progeny development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Dontarie M; Hepburn, Dion D D; Hannah, Meredith; Vincent, John B; O'Donnell, Janis

    2006-11-07

    Chromium picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], is a popular nutritional supplement found in a variety of consumer products. Despite its popularity, safety concerns over its use have arisen. The supplement has been shown to generate clastogenic damage, mitochondrial damage, oxidative damage, and mutagenic effects in cultured cells and oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in rats. Recently [Cr(pic)(3)] has been demonstrated to generate heritable genetic change and delays in progeny development in Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the damage to chromosomes of cultured cells and of animal models, similar chromosome damage appeared to be a likely source of the mutagenic effects of the supplement in Drosophila. The current three-part study examines the effects of several chromium-containing supplements and their components on hatching and eclosion rates and success of development of first generation progeny of adult Drosophila fed food containing these compounds. It further examines the effects of the compounds on longevity of virgin male and female adults. Finally, the chromosomes in the salivary glands of Drosophila late in the third instar larval stage, which were the progeny of Drosophila whose diets were supplemented with nutritional levels of [Cr(pic)(3)], are shown to contain on average over one chromosomal aberration per two identifiable chromosomal arms. No aberrations were observed in chromosomes of progeny of untreated flies. The results suggest that human consumption of the supplement should be a matter of concern and continued investigation to provide insight into the requirements of chromium-containing supplements to give rise to genotoxic effects.

  1. Molecular analysis of hprt mutations induced by chromium picolinate in CHO AA8 cells.

    PubMed

    Coryell, Virginia H; Stearns, Diane M

    2006-11-07

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is a popular dietary supplement, marketed to the public for weight loss, bodybuilding, and control of blood sugar. Recommendations for long-term use at high dosages have led to questions regarding its safety. Previous studies have reported that CrPic can cause chromosomal aberrations and mutations. The purpose of the current work was to compare the mutagenicity of CrPic as a suspension in acetone versus a solution in DMSO, and to characterize the hprt mutations induced by CrPic in CHO AA8 cells. Treatments of 2% acetone or 2% DMSO alone produced no significant increase in 6-thioguanine (6-TG)-resistant mutants after 48 h exposures. Mutants resistant to 6-TG were generated by exposing cells for 48 h to 80 microg/cm(2) CrPic in acetone or to 1.0mM CrPic in DMSO. CrPic in acetone produced an average induced mutation frequency (MF) of 56 per 10(6) surviving cells relative to acetone solvent. CrPic in acetone was 3.5-fold more mutagenic than CrPic in DMSO, which produced an MF of 16.2. Characterization of 61 total mutations in 48 mutants generated from exposure to CrPic in acetone showed that base substitutions comprised 33% of the mutations, with transversions being predominant; deletions made up 62% of the mutations, with one-exon deletions predominating; and 1-4 bp insertions made up 5% of the characterized mutations. CrPic induced a statistically greater number of deletions and a statistically smaller number of base substitutions than have been measured in spontaneously generated mutants. These data confirm previous studies showing that CrPic is mutagenic, and support the contention that further study is needed to verify the safety of CrPic for human consumption.

  2. A Bioorthogonal Reaction of N-Oxide and Boron Reagents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Justin; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2015-12-21

    The development of bioorthogonal reactions has classically focused on bond-forming ligation reactions. In this report, we seek to expand the functional repertoire of such transformations by introducing a new bond-cleaving reaction between N-oxide and boron reagents. The reaction features a large dynamic range of reactivity, showcasing second-order rate constants as high as 2.3×10(3)  M(-1)  s(-1) using diboron reaction partners. Diboron reagents display minimal cell toxicity at millimolar concentrations, penetrate cell membranes, and effectively reduce N-oxides inside mammalian cells. This new bioorthogonal process based on miniscule components is thus well-suited for activating molecules within cells under chemical control. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the metabolic diversity of nature enables the use of naturally occurring functional groups that display inherent biocompatibility alongside abiotic components for organism-specific applications.

  3. Energetic Salts Based on Tetrazole N-Oxide.

    PubMed

    He, Piao; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Yin, Xin; Wu, Jin-Ting; Wu, Le; Zhou, Zun-Ning; Zhang, Tong-Lai

    2016-06-01

    Energetic materials (explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) are used extensively for both civilian and military applications and the development of such materials, particularly in the case of energetic salts, is subject to continuous research efforts all over the world. This Review concerns recent advances in the syntheses, properties, and potential applications of ionic salts based on tetrazole N-oxide. Most of these salts exhibit excellent characteristics and can be classified as a new family of highly energetic materials with increased density and performance, alongside decreased mechanical sensitivity. Additionally, novel tetrazole N-oxide salts are proposed based on a diverse array of functional groups and ions pairs, which may be promising candidates for new energetic materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of unnatural derivatives of narciclasine: 7-aza-nornarciclasine and its N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Vshyvenko, Sergey; Reisenauer, Mary Rose; Rogelj, Snezna; Hudlicky, Tomas

    2014-09-01

    Several unnatural derivatives of narciclasine were prepared in which the C-7 carbon was replaced with nitrogen. The 7-aza derivative and its N-oxide were prepared by the coupling of iodopicolinic acid with a conduramine unit derived chemoenzymatically from bromobenzene. Intramolecular Heck reaction was used to construct the isocarbostyryl ring system. The compounds were submitted to biological screening against cancer cell lines. Full experimental and spectra data are provided for all new compounds.

  5. Synthesis of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Photochemical Ring Opening of Pyridazine N-Oxides.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Maribel; Maxwell, Michael A; Frederich, James H

    2016-10-07

    A photochemical method for the direct synthesis of 1H-pyrazoles from pyridazine N-oxides was developed. This chemistry features a regioselective approach to nonsymmetrically substituted pyridazine N-oxides. Herein, we highlight the first strategic use of photoinduced ring-opening reactions of 1,2-diazine N-oxides for the preparative synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles.

  6. Effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on growth performance and meat characteristics of swine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbing; Dong, Baojun; Zhang, Minhong; Yang, Jiajun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental chromium (Cr) in the form of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on swine growth performance, meat quality, and protein deposition in skeletal muscle. Forty-eight piglets were divided into three groups randomly, fed with three different dietary levels of Cr (common basal feedstuff supplemented with a dose of 1.61 μg/g or 3.22 μg/g CrPic, which corresponded to 0.2 and 0.4 μg/g Cr). Results indicated that during the growing period (1-35 days), pigs fed with the diet supplemented with CrPic showed no improvement in body mass, average daily gain (ADG), feed consumption, or feed conversion rate (FCR) (P > 0.05). During the finishing period, a supplementary dose of 0.2 μg Cr/g improved daily weight gain significantly (P < 0.05), while the situation had no significance with 0.4 μg Cr/g (P > 0.05) supplemented. For the entire growing-finishing period, body mass increased by 3.86%, ADG rose by 6.08%, and the FCR decreased by 3.30%; levels of total muscular pigment and that in the ribeye areas significantly improved (P < 0.05) when supplementation with 0.2 μg Cr/g (P < 0.05) was employed. However, there were no significant changes when supplemented with 0.4 μg Cr/g. While there were no changes in yield of carcass, back fat, water holding capacity, or levels of muscular crude protein and fat (P > 0.05) in treatment, the ratio of fat-lean and RNA/DNA increased significantly supplemented with 0.2 μg Cr/g (P < 0.05), but there were no significance with 0.4 μg Cr/g supplementation. In addition, the muscular levels of cholesterol had slightly decreased and the content of DNA in skeletal muscle showed no marked changes with 0.2 or 0.4 μg/g Cr supplementation. In conclusion, the present results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in the dose of 0.2 μg/g could promote the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and protein deposition.

  7. Effect of dietary chromium picolinate on growth performance and blood parameters in grass carp fingerling, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tailiang; Wen, Hua; Jiang, Ming; Yuan, Danning; Gao, Pan; Zhao, Yujiang; Wu, Fan; Liu, Wei

    2010-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary chromium picolinate supplement on growth and haematology parameters of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Six diets with increasing dietary chromium picolinate levels 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg kg(-1) were fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish (initial weight of 12.78 +/- 1.16 g, mean +/- SD) in a flow water system for 10 weeks. Fish fed the diet supplemented with 0.8 mg Cr kg(-1) had significantly improved weight gain (WG), feed efficiency ratio (FER), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein retention (PR). Fish fed high-chromium diets exhibited lower whole-body crude lipid contents than fish fed low-chromium diets. Liver glycogen concentrations for fish fed the diet with 0.2 mg Cr kg(-1) was the highest (77.67 mg g(-1)). Fish fed the diet supplemented with 1.6 and 3.2 mg Cr kg(-1) had significantly lower liver glycogen concentrations than other groups (P < 0.05). The highest serum insulin concentrations were observed in fish fed the diet supplemented with 0.8 mg Cr kg(-1), but serum insulin concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) when dietary supplementation of chromium was higher than 0.8 mg Cr kg(-1). Cholesterol concentrations decreased in direct proportion to dietary chromium level and achieved the lowest level when the fish were fed the 0.8 mg Cr kg(-1) diet, but increased when the fish were fed the diet with more than 0.8 mg Cr kg(-1) (P < 0.05). Fish fed the diet supplemented with 0.8 mg Cr kg(-1) had higher triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations compared to other treatments. The results of the present study suggested that chromium picolinate could modify serum carbohydrate and lipid metabolism profile, and that the optimal dietary chromium level was 0.8 mg kg(-1) for grass carp according to growth.

  8. A single-chain magnet based on {Co(II)₄} complexes and azido/picolinate ligands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Qu, Mei; Rouzières, Mathieu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2014-08-04

    A new homonuclear single-chain magnet self-assembles as a one-dimensional coordination network of defective dicubane {Co(II)4} complexes linked by single Co(II) ions with the assistance of azido and picolinate ligands. Dominating intrachain ferromagnetic interactions, intrinsic Ising-like Co(II) anisotropy, and negligible interchain magnetic interactions lead to a thermally activated relaxation time of the magnetization below 8 K. Two thermally activated regimes above and below 3.5 K are observed with the following energy barriers: Δ(τ1)/k(B) = 66 K (τ0 = 3.7 × 10(-11) s) and Δ(τ2)/k(B) = 51 K (τ0 = 2.3 × 10(-9) s), respectively. The difference between the two energy barriers of the relaxation time, 15 K, agrees well with the experimental energy, Δ(ξ), to create a domain wall along the chain.

  9. Trimethylamine N-Oxide From Gut Microbiota in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Focus on Diet.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Cristiane; Fouque, Denis; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Mafra, Denise

    2015-11-01

    Low-protein diet is the recommended nutritional intervention for nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients because excess protein intake can damage kidney function and produce uremic toxins. Some of these toxins are generated from amino acids breakdown by gut microbiota as p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate that have been clearly associated with cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients. Another uremic toxin, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a degradation product of choline and L-carnitine (which come mainly from animal protein such as red meat and eggs) is now considered as a proatherogenic metabolite. In the present review, we will highlight the relationship between TMAO, diet and cardiovascular aspects, and the potential concerns about TMAO in nondialysis CKD patients.

  10. Synthesis, X-Ray crystal structure, photophysical characterization and nonlinear optical properties of the unique manganese complex with picolinate and 1,10 phenantroline: toward the designing of new high NLO response crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    The first manganese complex of picolinic acid (also known as 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) and 1,10 phenantroline has been synthesized, and its structure has been fully characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction method as well as FT-IR, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. In order to provide a deep understanding about the relation among the nonlinear optical properties, structural, spectroscopic and electronic behaviors, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed by using hybrid B3LYP level. The intensive interactions between the bonding orbitals of donor O/N atoms and antibonding orbitals of Mn(II) lone pairs confirm the X-Ray diffraction results. Each of the conditions such as small energy gap between HOMO and LUMO, high energy second order perturbation interaction, elongation of conjugated π system and high spin Mn(II) ion induce the first static hyperpolarizability (β) parameter of investigated complex. The β parameter for [Mn(pic)2(phen)]·H2O complex has been found to be approximately 22 times higher than p-nitroaniline.

  11. Purification and characterization of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xue-Yan; Xue, Chang-Hu; Miao, Ben-Chun; Liang, Jun-Ni; Li, Zhao-Jie; Cui, Feng-Xia

    2006-02-08

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) was purified from Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) and characterized in detail herein. The TMAOase was extracted from squid with 20 mM Tris-acetate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1.0 M NaCl, followed by acid treatment and heat treatment. Then it was purified by deithylaminoethyl-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, subsequently resulting in an 839-fold purification. The molecular mass of the TMAOase was defined to be 17.5 kDa. The optimum pH of the purified TMAOase was 7.0, and its optimum temperature was confirmed to be 55 degrees C. The TMAOase was stable to heat treatment up to 50 degrees C and stable at pH 7.0-9.0. Reducing agents such as DTT, Na2SO3, and NADH were effective at activating TMAOase, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, as well as Mg2+ and Ca2+, could also enhance the activity of TMAOase remarkably, whereas the TMAOase could be significantly inhibited by tea polyphenol, phytic acid and acetic acid. In addition, the TMAOase converted TMAO to dimethylamine and formaldehyde stoichiometrically with a K(m) of 26.2 mM.

  12. Influence of deuteration and fluorination on the supramolecular architecture of pyridine N-oxide crystals.

    PubMed

    Shishkin, Oleg V; Shishkina, Svitlana V; Maleev, Andrey V; Zubatyuk, Roman I; Vasylyeva, Vera; Merz, Klaus

    2013-03-18

    To understand how deuterium and fluorine substituents influence the supramolecular architecture of pyridine N-oxide crystals, the crystal structure of 3-fluoropyridine N-oxide (PNO-3F) was determined and the crystal packing motives of non-deuterated pyridine-N-oxide (PNO), partial-deuterated pyridine-N-oxide (PNO-D) and PNO-3F were analyzed based on ab initio quantum-chemical calculations of the intermolecular interaction energy, using the MP2/6-311G(d,p) method. The appearance of the weak-directing substituents deuterium and fluorine leads to significant changes in the crystal organization of the isotropic packing of PNO molecules.

  13. Synthesis of amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as Potential Radiation Protective Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    ation Management S SI ____ K> AD Synthesis of Amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as Potential Radiation Protective Agents * 0 Annual Report "TIi: o DTIC...Sftcuntiy Clatuftcatio") Synthesis of Amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as PotentitI- Radiation Protective Agents 12l PERISONAL. Ak.TI4OR(S) * William...methyl- picoline derivatives was accomplished. Use of N-mthyl-2,6-dimethylpyridine also allowed the synthesis of a bis(dithioacetic acid) function not

  14. The Use of Optical Electronegativities to Assign Electronic Spectra of Semiquinone Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    8217-bipyrazine and 2- picolinic acid N-oxide are also reported. -3 DiS 7 ON, AwAiLAdq_<y 0; AJ7A 71 2* a)PAC7 -)C.A~jY C.ASS.’CA4’.ON M ..’CL.%SS ;-r0’.N %IITC...assignments are discussed. Optical electronegativitites for 2,2"-bipyridine, 2,2"-bipyrazine and 2- picolinic acid N-oxide are also reported. Introduction...et al. [40] for picolinic acid N-oxide complexes, using Jorgensen’s method [17,43], with Xm(Ni) = 2.1 as a standard (Table 2). Reasonable agreement is

  15. [A new lupin alkaloid, (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide, in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia seeds and its synthesis by biomimetic transformation from (+)-matrine N-oxide].

    PubMed

    Sekine, T; Saito, K; Minami, R; Arai, N; Suzuki, H; Koike, Y; Murakoshi, I

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of the biomimetic transformation of (+)-matrine N-oxide, a main alkaloid in Sophora flavescens var. angustifolia, under various oxidative conditions was examined by the use of several metallic ions. When (+)-matrine N-oxide was warmed with FeSO4, or Fe(COOH)2 in MeOH-H2O at 40 degrees C, (-)-7, 11-didehydromatrine [(-)-leontalbinine], a minor alkaloid in the same plant, was obtained along with (+)-matrine. This selective formation of (-)-leontalbinine seems to be specific to the reaction of (+)-matrine N-oxide with ferrous reagents. In addition, the structure of the newly isolated minor lupin alkaloid from the seeds of S. flavescens. was determined as (-)-leontalbinine N-oxide from its spectral comparison with the authentic sample.

  16. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-06-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  17. A tandem mass spectrometric study of the N-oxides, quinoline N-oxide, carbadox, and olaquindox, carried out at high mass accuracy using electrospray ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xiu-Sheng; March, Raymond E.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2003-12-01

    A mass spectrometric study of three N-oxides, quinoline N-oxide, and the synthetic antibiotics carbadox and olaquindox, was carried out with a hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray (ES) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources. The full scan mass spectra of the N-oxides obtained with ES are similar to those obtained with APCI, and the characteristic fragment ions corresponding to [M+H-O]+[radical sign] were observed in the full scan mass spectrum of each N-oxide examined. The protonated molecule of each N-oxide was subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and accurate mass measurements were made of each fragment ion so as to determine its elemental composition. Fragment ions generated at enhanced cone voltages upstream of the first mass-resolving element were subjected to CID so as to identify the direct product ion-precursor ion relationship. Plausible structures have been proposed for most of the fragment ions observed. Elimination of OH[radical sign] radicals generated from the N-->O functional group is a characteristic fragmentation pathway of the N-oxides. The expulsion of radicals and small stable molecules is accompanied by formation and subsequent contraction of heterocyclic rings.

  18. Tetra­aqua­bis(3-carboxyl­atopyridine N-oxide-κO 3)cadmium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao-Yan; Gao, Qian; Cui, Yue; Xie, Ya-Bo

    2009-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cd(C6H4NO3)2(H2O)4], the CdII atom is situated on a crystallographic centre of inversion. The CdII atom shows a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry and is coordinated by four O atoms from water mol­ecules and two O atoms from deprotonated carboxyl groups of nicotinic acid N-oxide ligands. The mononuclear complex mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:21582713

  19. Thermotriggered Catalyst-Free Modification of a Glass Surface with an Orthogonal Agent Possessing Nitrile N-Oxide and Masked Ketene Functions.

    PubMed

    Cheawchan, Sumitra; Uchida, Satoshi; Sogawa, Hiromitsu; Koyama, Yasuhito; Takata, Toshikazu

    2016-01-12

    The thermotriggered modification of surfaces was performed under catalyst-free conditions using an orthogonal agent possessing both nitrile N-oxide and Meldrum's acid moieties. The nitrile N-oxide moiety of the orthogonal agent successfully underwent catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to unsaturated bonds of glass surfaces to produce Meldrum's acid-functionalized surfaces. The subsequent thermal decomposition of Meldrum's acid moiety in the presence of nucleophiles afforded versatile nucleophile-modified surfaces (e.g., wet, waterproof, and photoactive surfaces). Surface characteristics were investigated with the water contact angle, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, the surface modification of silica nanoparticles using the orthogonal agent was also achieved to evaluate the density of the functional group concentration on the surface.

  20. Heterocyclic N-Oxides – An Emerging Class of Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mfuh, Adelphe M.; Larionov, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic N-oxides have emerged as potent compounds with anticancer, antibacterial, antihypertensive, antiparasitic, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, herbicidal, neuroprotective, and procognitive activities. The N-oxide motif has been successfully employed in a number of recent drug development projects. This review surveys the emergence of this scaffold in the mainstream medicinal chemistry with a focus on the discovery of the heterocyclic N-oxide drugs, N-oxide-specific mechanisms of action, drug-receptor interactions and synthetic avenues to these compounds. As the first review on this subject that covers the developments since 1950s to date, it is expected that it will inspire wider implementation of the heterocyclic N-oxide motif in the rational design of new medicinal agents. PMID:26087764

  1. Effects of chromium(III) picolinate on cortisol and DHEAs secretion in H295R human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beob G; Adams, Julye M; Jackson, Brian A; Lindemann, Merlin D

    2010-02-01

    Dietary chromium(III) picolinate (CrPic) effects on circulating steroid hormones have been reported in various experimental animals. However, direct effects of CrPic on adrenocortical steroidogenesis are uncertain. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effects of CrPic on cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs) secretion from H295R cells. In experiment 1, a 24-h exposure to CrPic (0 to 200 microM) had both linear (p < 0.001) and quadratic (p < 0.001) effects on cortisol secretion from forskolin-stimulated cells with the highest cortisol secretion at 0.1 microM of CrPic and the lowest at 200 microM of CrPic. In experiment 2, a 48-h exposure to CrPic (200 microM) decreased cortisol (p < 0.07) release from forskolin-stimulated cells during a 24-h collection period. In experiment 3, a 48-h exposure to CrPic (100 microM) decreased cortisol (p < 0.05) and DHEAs (p < 0.01) from forskolin-stimulated cells during a 24-h sampling period. In experiment 4, a 24-h exposure to forskolin followed by a 24-h exposure to both forskolin and CrPic (100 and 200 microM) decreased both cortisol and DHEAs secretion (p < 0.01). This study suggests that at high concentrations, CrPic inhibits aspects of steroidogenesis in agonist-stimulated adrenocortical cells.

  2. Supplementation with chromium picolinate recovers renal Cr concentration and improves carbohydrate metabolism and renal function in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mita, Yukiko; Ishihara, Kengo; Fukuchi, Yoshiko; Fukuya, Yoko; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    2005-01-01

    To study the preventive effect of supplemented chromium picolinate (CrPic) on the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice, we analyzed the effects of CrPic supplementation on renal function and concentrations of serum glucose and tissue chromium (Cr). In experiment 1, male KK-Ay obese diabetic mice were fed either a control diet (control) or a diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg diet (Cr2) or 10 mg/kg diet (Cr10) of Cr for 12 wk. Cr10 significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia after a glucose load, creatinine clearance rates, and urinary microalbumin levels (p<0.05). In experiment 2, the Cr10 diet was fed to male KK-Ay obese diabetic mice and C57BL nondiabetic mice for 4 wk. The CrPic diet reduced urinary albumin excretion in the diabetic mice (p<0.05). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the renal Cr content and the recovery of renal Cr concentration after Cr supplementation were significantly lower in the diabetic mice than in the nondiabetic mice (p<0.01). These observations suggest that Cr supplementation of type 2 diabetic mice reduces the symptoms of hyperglycemia and improves the renal function by recovering renal Cr concentration.

  3. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on the growth, carcass quality and gene expression of beef during the finishing period.

    PubMed

    Guifen, Liu; Fachun, Wan; Enliang, Song; Xiaomu, Liu; Xiuwen, Tan; Zhenshan, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Four groups of 12 young beef, as similar as possible with respect to age and weight, were fed a basic diet. The addition fed to four groups was 0, 200, 600, and 1,200 mg of organic chromium (chromium picolinate CrPic) per kg concentrated feed. The results showed that there was no effect on overall growth performance and dressing percentage and pure meat percentage when adding different CrPic content, but significant difference was found between 0 group and other three groups in percentage of high grade cuts (P < 0.05). The Cr content in Kidney, Musculus diaphragm, Semitendinosus muscles and Longissimusdorsi tissues have no difference in four groups (P > 0.05), but there was significant difference in liver tissues between 0, 200, 600 groups and 1200 group (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis indicated that there were no differences in five genes expression in liver and muscle tissues in four groups (P > 0.05), but mRNA expression amount of FOX1, FSTL and MATR3 always had same trends whatever in liver or muscle tissues. However the RPLOP gene expression amount has large difference between liver and muscle.

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Experimental and Mechanistic Analysis of the Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative C8-Selective C–H Homocoupling of Quinoline N-Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, David E.; Lakey-Beitia, Johant; Chavez, Gabriel; Ilie, Carla; Arman, Hadi D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel site-selective palladium-catalyzed oxidative C8–H homocoupling reaction of quinoline N-oxides has been developed. The reaction affords substituted 8,8'-biquinolyl N,N'-dioxides that can be readily converted to a variety of functionalized 8,8'-biquinolyls. Mechanistic studies point to the crucial role of the oxidant and a non-innocent behavior of acetic acid as a solvent. PMID:25966913

  6. Biocatalytic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution for the Synthesis of Atropisomeric Biaryl N-Oxide Lewis Base Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Staniland, Samantha; Adams, Ralph W; McDouall, Joseph J W; Maffucci, Irene; Contini, Alessandro; Grainger, Damian M; Turner, Nicholas J; Clayden, Jonathan

    2016-08-26

    Atropisomeric biaryl pyridine and isoquinoline N-oxides were synthesized enantioselectively by dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of rapidly racemizing precursors exhibiting free bond rotation. The DKR was achieved by ketoreductase (KRED) catalyzed reduction of an aldehyde to form a configurationally stable atropisomeric alcohol, with the substantial increase in rotational barrier arising from the loss of a bonding interaction between the N-oxide and the aldehyde. Use of different KREDs allowed either the M or P enantiomer to be synthesized in excellent enantiopurity. The enantioenriched biaryl N-oxide compounds catalyze the asymmetric allylation of benzaldehyde derivatives with allyltrichlorosilane.

  7. Toxicology of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NOO) in the umu and Xenometrix Protox{trademark} assays

    SciTech Connect

    Metosh-Dickey, C.A.; Winston, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    4NQO is a benchmark mutagen often used to initiate carcinogenesis in laboratory animals. The mechanism by which it exerts its mutagenic effect is largely uncharacterized. The authors have studied 4NQO and other structural analogs in the umu mutagenicity assay and the Xenometrix Protox, assay. Four strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used in the umu assay to assess the structure/function relationships in the mutagenicity of 4NQO. In the wild type, 1-nitronaphthalene (INN) gave a maximum of a 2-fold induction while quinoline-N-oxide (ONO) gave a response similar to DMSO values, However, 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (4NPO) and 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-N-oxide (4HAQO), a purified metabolite of 4NQO, were strongly mutagenic in the wild type strain (3-fold and 5-fold increase in mutagenicity respectively), although not as strong as 4NQO (7-fold increase in mutagenicity). 4NQO, 4HAQO, 1-NN, and QNO were further tested in the nitroreductase and acetylase deficient strains and an acetylase enriched strain. The mutagenic expression of the compounds was not altered in the deficient strains, however, the mutagenicity of 4NQO and 4HAQO were slightly decreased while 1 NN was somewhat enhanced in the acetylase enriched strain. This indicates an important role for acetylase in the metabolism of these compounds. When 4NQO and 4HAQO were incubated with the wild type strain in the presence of liver microsomes and cytosol from Aroclor-induced rats the mutagenicity of 4NQO was dramatically reduced, while the mutagenicity of 4HAQO was essentially unaffected. Oxygen consumption, as observed in a Clark oxygen electrode, was enhanced upon addition of 4NQO to a system containing either ascorbic acid or microsomal protein and NAD(P)H suggesting that oxygen radicals are produced during 4NQO reduction. When 4NQO was incubated in the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase with the wild-type strain no reduction of mutagenicity was observed.

  8. The role of steric constraints in the formation of rare aqua bridged coordination polymers: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structures of polymeric, [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(β-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n and monomeric, [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(γ-picoline)2(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Venugopalan, Paloth; Aree, Thammarat; Ferretti, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Reaction of hydrated copper(II) 2-chloro-benzoate with β-/γ-picoline in methanol: water mixture (4:1 v/v) yielded polymeric [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(β-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n; 1 and monomeric [Cu(2-chlorobenzoate)2(γ-picoline)2(H2O)]; 2. The newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, TGA and single crystal X-ray structure determination. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that both complexes crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system with space group and unit cell dimensions: C2/c; a = 51.71 Å, b = 10.58 Å, c = 10.02 Å and β = 100.5° for 1 and P21/c; a = 11.81 Å, b = 16.33 Å, c = 13.79 Å and β = 90.77° for 2. Whereas in 1 the presence of constituent and mediating water molecules running along a-axis gives rise to 1-dimensional zig-zag polymer chains, in complex 2, the presence of square pyramidal arrangement of ligands around copper(II) center results in monomeric structure. Various non-covalent interactions like Osbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯л have been observed to play a decisive role in the stabilization of crystal lattices in both complexes.

  9. The synergism of nucleoside antibiotics combined with guanine 7-N-oxide against a rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Hasobe, M; Saneyoshi, M; Isono, K

    1986-09-01

    Guanine 7-N-oxide was shown to have synergistic activity in combination with neplanocin A against a rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), as reported previously. We examined further the antiviral activity of guanine 7-N-oxide in combination with other nucleoside antibiotics against IHNV. Synergism was seen between guanine 7-N-oxide and D-eritadenine or cordycepin. It is considered that compounds inhibiting RNA methylation show synergism with guanine 7-N-oxide.

  10. Trimethylamine N-Oxide: The Good, the Bad and the Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Manuel T.; Ramezani, Ali; Manal, Alotaibi; Raj, Dominic S.

    2016-01-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported. The atherogenic effect of TMAO is attributed to alterations in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, activation of inflammatory pathways and promotion foam cell formation. TMAO levels increase with decreasing levels of kidney function and is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of therapeutic strategies are being explored to reduce TMAO levels, including use of oral broad spectrum antibiotics, promoting the growth of bacteria that utilize TMAO as substrate and the development of target-specific molecules with varying level of success. Despite the accumulating evidence, it is questioned whether TMAO is the mediator of a bystander in the disease process. Thus, it is important to undertake studies examining the cellular signaling in physiology and pathological states in order to establish the role of TMAO in health and disease in humans. PMID:27834801

  11. Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide following supplementation with vitamin D or D plus B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Awwad, Hussain M; Kirsch, Susanne H; Waldura, Christiane; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Graeber, Stefan; Geisel, Juergen

    2017-02-01

    We compared the effect of supplementation with vitamin D + B or vitamin D on plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and choline metabolites. This is a randomized single-blinded nonplacebo-controlled study. Twenty-seven participants received 1200 IU vitamin D3 and 800 mg calcium, and 25 participants received additionally 0.5 mg folic acid, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 for 1 year. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), TMAO, and choline metabolites were measured at baseline and 12 months later. TMAO declined in the vitamin D arm by 0.5 versus 2.8 μmol/L in the D + B arm (p = 0.005). Hcy decreased and betaine increased in the D + B compared to the D arm. Within-subject levels of plasma choline and dimethylglycine and urine betaine increased in both arms and changes did not differ between the arms. TMAO reduction was predicted by higher baseline TMAO and lowering Hcy in stepwise regression analysis. The test-retest variations of TMAO were greater in the D + B arm compared to vitamin D arm. B vitamins plus vitamin D lowered plasma fasting TMAO compared to vitamin D. Vitamin D caused alterations in choline metabolism, which may reflect the metabolic flexibility of C1-metabolism. The molecular mechanisms and health implications of these changes are currently unknown. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Is N,N-dimethylglycine N-oxide a choline and betaine metabolite?

    PubMed

    Lever, Michael; McEntyre, Christopher J; George, Peter M; Chambers, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations. The molecular ion DMGOH+ (m/z=120) yielded four significant fragments (m/z=103, 102, 58 and 42). The suspected DMGO peak in human body fluids showed all these fragments, and co-chromatographed with added standard DMGO in both HPLC systems. Typical plasma concentrations of DMGO are under 1 μmol/l. They may be lower in metabolic syndrome patients. Urine concentrations are higher, and DMGO has a higher fractional clearance than dimethylglycine, betaine and choline. It was present in all of over 80 human urine and plasma samples assayed. Plasma DMGO concentrations correlate with plasma DMG concentrations, with betaine and choline concentrations, with the osmolyte myo-inositol, and strongly with urinary DMGO excretion. We conclude that DMGO is probably a normal human metabolite.

  13. 3-Picoline mediated self-assembly of M(II)-malonate complexes (M = Ni/Co/Mn/Mg/Zn/Cu) assisted by various weak forces involving lone pair-π, π-π, and anion···π-hole interactions.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Monojit; Manna, Prankrishna; Bauzá, Antonio; Ballester, Pablo; Seth, Saikat Kumar; Ray Choudhury, Somnath; Frontera, Antonio; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2014-12-18

    Five M(II)-malonate complexes having a common formula (C(6)H(9)N(2))(4)[M(II)(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](PF(6))(2).(H(2)O)(2) (1-5) [where C(6)H(9)N(2) = protonated 3-picoline, M(II) = Ni/Co/Mn/Mg/Zn, C(3)H(4)O(4) = malonic acid, and PF(6)(-) = hexafluorophospahte], have been synthesized and their crystal structures have been determined. Complexes 1-5 were found to be isostructural and protonated 3-picoline has primarily mediated the self-assembly process. Role of a discrete water dimer in complexes 1-5 was also studied. Weaker π-interactions have also played crucial role in stabilizing 1D chain constructed by discrete [M(II)(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)] units. An additional copper complex namely, (C(6)H(9)N(2))(4)[Cu(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)](PF(6))(2) (6) has been synthesized from the same reagents and was found to have a completely different structure from the others. Structures of all the complexes are fully described and compared here. Moreover, the lone pair-π and π-π noncovalent interactions have been analyzed by means of DFT calculations, mainly focusing our attention to the influence of the coordinating metal on the strength of the interactions and the interplay between hydrogen bonding and π-interactions. We also present here Hirshfeld surface analysis to investigate the close intermolecular contacts.

  14. Single-molecule magnetic behavior in a neutral terbium(III) complex of a picolinate-based nitronyl nitroxide free radical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Eugenio; Giménez-Saiz, Carlos; Recuenco, Alejandro; Tarazón, Ana; Romero, Francisco M; Camón, Agustín; Luis, Fernando

    2011-08-15

    The terdentate anionic picolinate-based nitronyl nitroxide (picNN) free radical forms neutral and robust homoleptic complexes with rare earth-metal ions. The nonacoordinated Tb(3+) complex Tb(picNN)(3)·6H(2)O is a single-molecule magnet with an activation energy barrier Δ = 22.8 ± 0.5 K and preexponential factor τ(0) = (5.5 ± 1.1) × 10(-9) s. It shows magnetic hysteresis below 1 K. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Insulin and chromium picolinate induce translocation of CD36 to the plasma membrane through different signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and with a differential functionality of the CD36.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqun; Van Oort, Masja M; Yao, Minghui; Van der Horst, Dick J; Rodenburg, Kees W

    2011-09-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been indicated to activate glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) to enhance glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In skeletal and heart muscle cells, insulin directs the intracellular trafficking of the fatty acid translocase/CD36 to induce the uptake of cellular long-chain fatty acid (LCFA). The current study describes the effects of CrPic and insulin on the translocation of CD36 from intracellular storage pools to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in comparison with that of GLUT4. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that both CD36 and GLUT4 were expressed and primarily located intracellularly in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Upon insulin or CrPic stimulation, PM expression of CD36 increased in a similar manner as that for GLUT4; the CrPic-stimulated PM expression was less strong than that of insulin. The increase in PM localization for these two proteins by insulin paralleled LCFA ([1-(14)C]palmitate) or [(3)H]deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The induction of the PM expression of GLUT4, but not CD36, or substrate uptake by insulin and CrPic appears to be additive in adipocytes. Furthermore, wortmannin completely inhibited the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 or CD36 and prevented the increased uptake of glucose or LCFA in these cells. Taken together, for the first time, these findings suggest that both insulin and CrPic induce CD36 translocation to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that their translocation-inducing effects are not additive. The signaling pathway inducing the translocations is different, apparently resulting in a differential activity of CD36.

  16. Effects of chromium picolinate on vascular reactivity and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku; Liu, Jun Yao; Wimborne, Hereward; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2010-01-01

    Chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)] is a nutritional supplement widely promoted to exert beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Frequent comorbidities in these individuals include systemic hypertension, abnormal vascular function and ischemic heart disease, but information on the effects of the supplement on these aspects is sparse. Utilizing male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we examined the potential impact of Cr(pic)(3) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Dietary Cr(pic)(3) supplementation (as 10 mg chromium/kg diet for six weeks) did not affect blood pressure of the SHR. Also, neither norepinephrine (NE) and potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractility nor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation of aortic smooth muscle from the SHR was altered by Cr(pic)(3) treatment. However, Cr(pic)(3) augmented endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortas, produced by acetylcholine (ACh), and this effect was abolished by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), suggesting induction of nitric oxide (NO) production/release. Treatment with Cr(pic)(3) did not affect baseline coronary flow rate and rate-pressure-product (RPP) or infarct size following regional IRI. Nonetheless, Cr(pic)(3) treatment was associated with improved coronary flow and recovery of myocardial contractility and relaxation following ischemia-reperfusion insult. In conclusion, dietary Cr(pic)(3) treatment of SHR alters neither blood pressure nor vascular smooth muscle reactivity but causes enhancement of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation associated with NO production/release. Additionally, while the treatment does not affect infarct size, it improves functional recovery of the viable portion of the myocardium following IRI.

  17. Physiological, biochemical and histometric responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) by dietary organic chromium (chromium picolinate) supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mehrim, Ahmed I

    2014-05-01

    Chromium has been recognized as a new and important micro-nutrient, essential for both human and animal nutrition. This study was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness and/or the use of safety level of dietary chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic), and its effects on the physiological responses, the histometric characteristics, and the chemical analysis of dorsal muscles of mono-sex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 420 fingerlings (28.00 ± 0.96 g) were randomly distributed into 21 fiberglass tanks representing seven treatments at a rate of 20 fish m(-3). The control fish group (T1) was fed a Cr-Pic free basal diet. Other fish groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 200 (T2), 400 (T3), 600 (T4), 800 (T5), 1000 (T6) and 1200 μg Cr-Pic kg(-1) diet (T7). Diets were offered to fish at a feeding rate of 3% of life body weight for 12 weeks. Results revealed that blood hematological parameters (hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, blood platelets, and white blood cells lymphocytes); serum biochemical measurements (total testosterone, high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, and globulin); and the dry matter and crude protein of the fish dorsal muscles all have significantly increased (P ⩽ 0.05) in the T3 treatment compared with the other treatments. Meanwhile, no significant differences were found among all treatments with regard to the histometric characteristics. It can be concluded that Cr-Pic at 400 μg kg(-1) diet (T3) seems to be the most appropriate level for O. niloticus fingerlings.

  18. Chromium picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Pattar, Guruprasad R; Tackett, Lixuan; Liu, Ping; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2006-11-07

    Since trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) enhances glucose metabolism, interest in the use of Cr(3+)as a therapy for type 2 diabetes has grown in the mainstream medical community. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that Cr(3+) may also benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atypical depression. We have found that cholesterol, a lipid implicated in both CVD and neurodegenerative disorders, also influences cellular glucose uptake. A recent study in our laboratory shows that exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to chromium picolinate (CrPic, 10 nM) induces a loss of plasma membrane cholesterol. Concomitantly, accumulation of intracellularly sequestered glucose transporter GLUT4 at the plasma membrane was dependent on the CrPic-induced cholesterol loss. Since CrPic supplementation has the greatest benefit on glucose metabolism in hyperglycemic insulin-resistant individuals, we asked here if the CrPic effect on cells was glucose-dependent. We found that GLUT4 redistribution in cells treated with CrPic occurs only in cells cultured under high glucose (25 mM) conditions that resemble the diabetic-state, and not in cells cultured under non-diabetic (5.5 mM glucose) conditions. Examination of the effect of CrPic on proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis revealed that the activity of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), a membrane-bound transcription factor ultimately responsible for controlling cellular cholesterol balance, was upregulated by CrPic. In addition, ABCA1, a major player in mediating cholesterol efflux was decreased, consistent with SREBP transcriptional repression of the ABCA1 gene. Although the exact mechanism of Cr(3+)-induced cholesterol loss remains to be determined, these cellular responses highlight a novel and significant effect of chromium on cholesterol homeostasis. Furthermore, these findings provide an important clue to our understanding of how chromium supplementation might benefit hypercholesterolemia-associated disorders.

  19. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of chromium in rats fed diets containing graded levels of chromium chloride or chromium picolinate.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Hatakeyama, Erika; Hosomi, Ryota; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    To attempt a risk assessment of the excess intake of trivalent chromium (Cr), tissue Cr accumulation and urinary Cr excretion were examined in weanling rats fed experimental diets containing graded levels of Cr chloride (CrCl3) or Cr picolinate (CrPic). Thirty-six male weanling 4-weeks-old Wistar rats were divided into six groups and fed a casein-based semi-purified diet (Cr content: <0.02 microg/g) supplemented with 1, 10, or 100 microg Cr/g as CrCl3 or CrPic for 28 days. Among the experimental groups, no significant difference was observed in body weight; however, supplementation of 100 microg Cr/g to the diets caused a significant low liver weight irrespective of the chemical species of Cr. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly elevated in rats given CrPic at 100 microg Cr/g. In the liver, kidney and femur, Cr accumulation increased with elevation of the dietary Cr level. No influence of the difference in the chemical species of supplemented Cr was observed in the liver and kidney, but CrCl3 caused significantly higher Cr accumulation than CrPic in the femur of rats given 100 microg Cr/g. Daily urinary Cr excretion elevated with the increase of the dietary Cr level. Rats given CrPic showed significantly higher daily urinary Cr excretion than those given CrCl3, particularly at a dietary Cr level of 100 microg/g. The rate of urinary Cr excretion in rats given CrPic was constant, irrespective of the dietary Cr level, but that of rats given CrCl3 fell with the increase of the dietary Cr level. These results indicate that the lowest adverse effect level of dietary Cr is less than 100 microg/g, irrespective of the chemical species of Cr.

  20. Renal and glycemic effects of high-dose chromium picolinate in db/db mice: assessment of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Mahmood S; Baban, Babak; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Liu, Jun Yao; Wimborne, Hereward; Rodriguez, Nancy; Abebe, Worku

    2012-08-01

    This study examined renal and glycemic effects of chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)3] supplementation in the context of its purported potential for DNA damage. In preventional protocol, male obese diabetic db/db mice were fed diets either lacking or containing 5, 10 or 100 mg/kg chromium as Cr(pic)3 from 6 to 24 weeks of age; male lean nondiabetic db/m mice served as controls. Untreated db/db mice displayed increased plasma glucose and insulin, hemoglobin A1c, renal tissue advanced glycation end products, albuminuria, glomerular mesangial expansion, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage) and renal tissue immunostaining for γH2AX (a marker of double-strand DNA breaks) compared to db/m controls. Creatinine clearance was lower in untreated db/db mice than their db/m controls, while blood pressure was similar. High Cr(pic)3 intake (i.e., 100-mg/kg diet) mildly improved glycemic status and albuminuria without affecting blood pressure or creatinine clearance. Treatment with Cr(pic)3 did not increase DNA damage despite marked renal accumulation of chromium. In interventional protocol, effects of diets containing 0, 100 and 250 mg/kg supplemental chromium, from 12 to 24 weeks of age, were examined in db/db mice. The results generally revealed similar effects to those of the 100-mg/kg diet of the preventional protocol. In conclusion, the severely hyperglycemic db/db mouse displays renal structural and functional abnormalities in association with DNA damage. High-dose Cr(pic)3 treatment mildly improves glycemic control, and it causes moderate reduction in albuminuria, without affecting the histopathological appearance of the kidney and increasing the risk for DNA damage.

  1. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent.

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2003-01-01

    The element chromium apparently has a role in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mammals. As this role probably involves potentiation of insulin signalling, chromium dietary supplementation has been postulated to potentially have effects on body composition, including reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass. Because the supplement is absorbed better than dietary chromium, most studies have focused on the use of chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)(3)]. Cr(pic)(3) has been amazingly popular with the general public, especially with athletes who may have exercise-induced increased urinary chromium loss; however, its effectiveness in manifesting body composition changes has been an area of intense debate in the last decade. Additionally, claims have appeared that the supplement might give rise to deleterious effects. However, over a decade of human studies with Cr(pic)(3) indicate that the supplement has not demonstrated effects on the body composition of healthy individuals, even when taken in combination with an exercise training programme. Recent cell culture and in vivo rat studies have indicated that Cr(pic)(3) probably generates oxidative damage of DNA and lipids and is mutagenic, although the significance of these results on humans taking the supplement for prolonged periods of time is unknown and should be a focus for future investigations. Given that in vitro studies suggest that other forms of chromium used as nutritional supplements, such as chromium chloride, are unlikely to be susceptible to generating this type of oxidative damage, the use of these compounds, rather than Cr(pic)(3), would appear warranted. Potential neurological effects (both beneficial and deleterious) from Cr(pic)(3) supplementation require further study.

  2. Chromium picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pattar, Guruprasad R.; Tackett, Lixuan; Liu, Ping; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Since trivalent chromium (Cr3+) enhances glucose metabolism, interest in the use of Cr3+as a therapy for type 2 diabetes has grown in the mainstream medical community. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that Cr3+ may also benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atypical depression. We have found that cholesterol, a lipid implicated in both CVD and neurodegenerative disorders, also influences cellular glucose uptake. A recent study in our laboratory shows that exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to chromium picolinate (CrPic, 10 nM) induces a loss of plasma membrane cholesterol. Concomitantly, accumulation of intracellularly sequestered glucose transporter GLUT4 at the plasma membrane was dependent on the CrPic-induced cholesterol loss. Since CrPic supplementation has the greatest benefit on glucose metabolism in hyperglycemic insulin-resistant individuals, we asked here if the CrPic effect on cells was glucose-dependent. We found that GLUT4 redistribution in cells treated with CrPic occurs only in cells cultured under high glucose (25 mM) conditions that resemble the diabetic-state, and not in cells cultured under non-diabetic (5.5 mM glucose) conditions. Examination of the effect of CrPic on proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis revealed that the activity of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), a membrane-bound transcription factor ultimately responsible for controlling cellular cholesterol balance, was upregulated by CrPic. In addition, ABCA1, a major player in mediating cholesterol efflux was decreased, consistent with SREBP transcriptional repression of the ABCA1 gene. Although the exact mechanism of Cr3+-induced cholesterol loss remains to be determined, these cellular responses highlight a novel and significant effect of chromium on cholesterol homeostasis. Furthermore, these findings provide an important clue to our understanding of how chromium supplementation might benefit hypercholesterolemia-associated disorders. PMID:16870493

  3. Chromium picolinate enhances skeletal muscle cellular insulin signaling in vivo in obese, insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong Q; Zhang, Xian H; Russell, James C; Hulver, Matthew; Cefalu, William T

    2006-02-01

    Chromium is one of the few trace minerals for which a specific cellular mechanism of action has not been identified. Recent in vitro studies suggest that chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity by enhancing insulin receptor signaling, but this has not been demonstrated in vivo. We investigated the effect of chromium supplementation on insulin receptor signaling in an insulin-resistant rat model, the JCR:LA-corpulent rat. Male JCR:LA-cp rats (4 mo of age) were randomly assigned to receive chromium picolinate (CrPic) (obese n=6, lean n=5) or vehicle (obese n=5, lean n=5) for 3 mo. The CrPic was provided in the water, and based on calculated water intake, rats randomized to CrPic received 80 microg/(kg.d). At the end of the study, skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 5, 15, and 30 min postinsulin stimulation to assess insulin signaling. Obese rats treated with CrPic had significantly improved glucose disposal rates and demonstrated a significant increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase activity in skeletal muscle compared with obese controls. The increase in cellular signaling was not associated with increased protein levels of the IRS proteins, PI-3 kinase or Akt. However, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) levels were significantly lower in obese rats administered CrPic than obese controls. When corrected for protein content, PTP1B activity was also significantly lower in obese rats administered CrPic than obese controls. Our data suggest that chromium supplementation of obese, insulin-resistant rats may improve insulin action by enhancing intracellular signaling.

  4. Facile synthesis of planar chiral N-oxides and their use in Lewis base catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J Robin; Glover, Jean E; Kamara, Lamin; Rowlands, Gareth J

    2011-01-07

    A rapid and versatile method for the preparation of planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophane-derived pyridines and pyridine N-oxides is reported. The potential utility of these compounds in Lewis base catalysis is briefly introduced.

  5. Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

    2012-01-26

    Bulk gold powder (5–50 μm particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBu–N≡C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O═C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 °C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN═C═O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

  6. Voriconazole N-oxide and its UVB photoproduct sensitize keratinocytes to UVA

    PubMed Central

    Ona-Vu, K.; Oh, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The antifungal agent, voriconazole, is associated with phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity. Prior work has indicated that voriconazole and its hepatic N-oxide metabolite do not sensitize keratinocytes to ultraviolet B (UVB). Clinical observations have suggested ultraviolet A (UVA) may be involved. Objectives To determine the photochemistry and photobiology of voriconazole and its major hepatic metabolite, voriconazole N-oxide. Methods Voriconazole and voriconazole N-oxide were spectrophotometrically monitored following various doses of UVB. Cultured human keratinocytes were treated with parental drugs or with their UVB photoproducts, and survival following UVA irradiation was measured by thiazolyl blue metabolism. Reactive oxygen species and 8-oxoguanine were monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Results Voriconazole and voriconazole N-oxide have varying ultraviolet B (UVB) absorption but do not acutely sensitize cultured human keratinocytes following UVB exposure. However, sustained UVB exposures produced notable dose- and solvent-dependent changes in the absorption spectra of voriconazole N-oxide which in aqueous solution acquires a prominent ultraviolet A (UVA) absorption band, suggesting formation of a discrete photoproduct. Neither the parental drugs nor their photoproducts sensitized cells to UVB though all but voriconazole N-oxide were moderately toxic to cells in the dark. Notably, both voriconazole N-oxide and its UVB photoproduct, but not voriconazole or its photoproduct, additionally sensitized cells to UVA by >3-fold relative to controls in association with UVA-induced reactive oxygen species and 8-oxoguanine levels. Conclusions Voriconazole N-oxide and its UVB-photoproduct act as UVA-sensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species and that produce oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a mechanism for the phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity observed with voriconazole treatment. PMID:25919127

  7. Potential of chromium(III) picolinate for reproductive or developmental toxicity following exposure of male CD-1 mice prior to mating.

    PubMed

    McAdory, DeAna; Rhodes, Nicholas R; Briggins, Felicia; Bailey, Melissa M; Di Bona, Kristin R; Goodwin, Craig; Vincent, John B; Rasco, Jane F

    2011-12-01

    Chromium(III) picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], is a commonly used nutritional supplement in humans, which has also been approved for use in animals. Health concerns have arisen over the use of [Cr(pic)(3)]. At high [Cr(pic)(3)] doses, developmental toxicity tests in female mice have shown a higher litter incidence of split cervical arch in exposed fetuses, but this was not consistently reproducible. In the current study, male CD-1 mice were used to further assess the potential for reproductive or developmental toxicity. Four weeks prior to mating, the males were fed a diet providing 200 mg/kg/day [Cr(pic)(3)] for comparison with untreated controls. Females were not treated. Each male was mated with two females, which were sacrificed on gestation day 17, and their litters were examined for adverse effects. Mating and fertility indices were not significantly altered by treatment. Male exposure to [Cr(pic)(3)] also had no effect on prenatal mortality, fetal weight, or gross or skeletal morphology. These results suggest that paternal dietary exposure to chromium(III) picolinate has little potential for adverse reproductive effects, even at exposure levels considerably higher than expected human exposures from nutritional supplements (1 mg of Cr per day or less).

  8. Simultaneous determination of dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-n-oxide in aquatic products extracts by ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Liu, Hong-ying; Xue, Chang-hu; Xin, Xue-qian; Xu, Jie; Chang, Yao-guang; Xue, Yong; Yin, Li-ang

    2009-07-31

    An ion chromatography method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) in aquatic products. They were separated by means of cation-exchange chromatography using a 3.0 mmol/L methanesulfonic acid solution as eluent and an IonPac CS17 column (250 mm x 4 mm i.d.) as the separation column. Detection limits of dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-n-oxide were 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of peak area were less than 3.53%. The recoveries were between 93.7% and 104.1%. Unlike traditional methods, this validated method is inexpensive and stable.

  9. Chromium nanoparticle exhibits higher absorption efficiency than chromium picolinate and chromium chloride in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zha, L-Y; Xu, Z-R; Wang, M-Q; Gu, L-Y

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether chromium nanoparticle (CrNano) exhibited higher absorption efficiency and possessed unique absorption mechanism in comparison to chromium picolinate (CrPic) and chromium chloride (CrCl(3)), as was postulated by previous reports. Twenty-one-day-old Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on semipermeable membranes in Snapwell tissue culture bichambers were incubated with CrNano, CrPic or CrCl(3) to examine their transport and uptake respectively. In the concentration range of 0.2-20 micromol/l, transport of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) across Caco-2 monolayers both in apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical direction was concentration-, and time-dependent, and temperature independent. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) of CrNano was between 5.89 and 7.92 x 10(-6) cm/s and that of CrPic and CrCl(3) was between 3.52 and 5.31 x 10(-6) cm/s and between 0.97 and 1.37 x 10(-6) cm/s respectively. Uptake of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) by both apical and basolateral membranes was concentration- and time-dependent. Uptake of CrNano by apical membrane was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased when the incubation temperature was reduced from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. The transport efficiency of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) after incubation for 120 min at 37 degrees C was 15.83% +/- 0.76%, 9.08% +/- 0.25% and 2.11% +/- 0.53% respectively. The uptake efficiency of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) was 10.08% +/- 0.76%, 4.73% +/- 0.60% and 0.88% +/- 0.08% respectively. It was concluded that the epithelial transport of CrNano, CrPic and CrCl(3) across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was mainly via passive transport pathways. In addition, CrNano exhibited considerably higher absorption efficiency than both CrPic and CrCl(3) in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

  10. Fibrotic Effects of Arecoline N-Oxide in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Luo, Shun-Yuan; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-06-24

    The metabolites of environmental chemicals play key roles in carcinogenesis. Areca nut is strongly associated with the development of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) or cancer. The main alkaloid in the areca nut is arecoline, which is highly cytotoxic and genotoxic. Arecoline N-oxide, a metabolite of areca nut alkaloids, which has been identified in animal urine, has been shown to induce mutagenicity in bacteria. In this study, it was found that its protein adduct could be detected in oral keratinocytes treated with areca nut extract. Increased collagen expression and severity of squamous hyperplasia were observed in arecoline N-oxide treated mice. In cultured oral fibroblasts, arecoline N-oxide showed stronger effects on the increase of fibrotic related genes including TGF-beta1, S100A4, MMP-9, IL-6, and fibronectin and a decrease of E-cadherin as compared with arecoline. Finally, arecoline N-oxide stimulation effectively increased the DNA damage marker, gamma-H2A.X, both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that arecoline N-oxide shows a high potential for the induction of OPMD.

  11. Ligand isotope studies of Zeise's salt derivatives (and their CO analogues)with some aza-heterocycles and their N-oxides. I: Full infrared spectral assignments (4000-50 cm -1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulds, Gary A.; Thornton, David A.; Watkins, Gareth M.

    1992-04-01

    Detailed infrared assignments (4000-50 cm -1) are made of 41 π-acid complexes of the type cis-[Pt(bipyO 2H)(A)X 2]X and trans-[PtL(A)X 2] (A = C 2H 4, CO; X = Cl, Br; L = pyridazine {pdz}, pyrazine N-oxide {pzO}, quinoline {quin}, quinoline N-oxide {quinO}, 2,2'-bipyridine {bipy}, 1,10-phenanthroline {phen}) and their deuterated L and C 2D 4 analogues. Slight coupling between νPt-C 2 or νPt-CO and νPt-L is observed for some complexes. The question of the uncertainty in the assignments of νPt-O (aromatic N-oxides) is raised, and strong coupling between νPt-N (aza-nitrogen) and νPt-Br is demonstrated.

  12. HIGH-YIELD REACTIONS TO INTRODUCE ALDEHYDE GROUPS INTO PYRIDINE DERIVATIVES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    pyridinemethanols to their oximes via the 2-sulfonate esters was demonstrated. The oxidation of 2-pyridine methanols to the corresponding aldehydes with...the 2-chloromethyl analog with thionyl chloride and (3) reaction with hydroxylamine; the overall yield was 56%. The conversion of 4 -picoline N-oxide...to 4 -pyridine aldoxime via anil formation, acid hydrolysis, and oxime formation was successful. (Author)

  13. Efficient Reduction of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Fluoroquinolones by Fungal-Mediated N-Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Marina; Spielmeyer, Astrid; Meißner, Jessica; Kietzmann, Manfred; Zorn, Holger; Hamscher, Gerd

    2017-04-19

    Extensive usage of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in livestock results in their occurrence in manure and subsequently in the environment. Fluoroquinolone residues may promote bacterial resistance and are toxic to plants and aquatic organisms. Moreover, fluoroquinolones may enter the food chain through plant uptake, if manure is applied as fertilizer. Thus, the presence of fluoroquinolones in the environment may pose a threat to human and ecological health. In this study, the biotransformation of enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and difloxacin by the fungus X. longipes (Xylaria) was investigated. The main metabolites were unequivocally identified as the respective N-oxides by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fungal-mediated N-oxidation of fluoroquinolones led to a 77-90% reduction of the initial antibacterial activity. In contrast to their respective parent compounds, N-oxides showed low cytotoxic potential and had a reduced impact on cell proliferation. Thus, biotransformation by X. longipes may represent an effective method for inactivating fluoroquinolones.

  14. Synthesis and f-element ligation properties of NCMPO-decorated pyridine N-oxide platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ouizem, Sabrina; Rosario-Amorin, Daniel; Dickie, D. A.; Paine, Robert T.; De Bettencourt-Dias, Ana; Hay, Benjamin; Podair, Julien; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2014-01-01

    Stepwise syntheses of 2-{[2-(diphenylphosphoryl)acetamido]methyl}pyridine 1-oxide, 2-[Ph2P(O)CH2C(O)N(H)CH2]C5H4NO (6), 2-{[2-(diphenylphosphoryl)acetamido]methyl}-6-[(diphenylphosphoryl)methyl]pyridine 1-oxide, 2-[Ph2P(O)CH2C(O)N(H)CH2]-6-[Ph2P(O)CH2]C5H3NO (7) and 2,6-bis{[2-(diphenylphosphoryl)acetamido]methyl}pyridine 1-oxide, 2,6-[Ph2P(O)CH2C(O)N(H)CH2]2C5H3NO (8), are reported along with spectroscopic characterization data and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure determination for 6 2H2O, 7 and 2,6-[Ph2P(O)CH2C(O)N(H)CH2]2C5H3N MeOH 18 MeOH, the pyridine precursor of 8. Molecular mechanics computations indicate that 6, 7 and 8 should experience minimal steric hindrance to donor group reorganization that would permit tridentate, tetradentate and pentadentate docking structures for the respective ligands on lanthanide cations. However, crystal structure determination for the lanthanide complexes, {[Yb(6)(NO3)3] (MeOH)}n, {[Lu(6)(NO3)3] (MeOH)}n, [Er(6)2(H2O)2](NO3)3 (H2O)4}n, {[La(13)(NO3)3(MeOH)] (MeOH)}n, {[Eu(7)(NO3)2(EtOAc)0.5(H2O)0.5](NO3)}2 MeOH and [Dy3(7)4(NO3)4(H2O)2](NO3)5 (MeOH)5 (H2O)2 reveal solid-state structures with mixed chelating/bridging ligand:Ln(III) interactions that employ lower than the maximal denticity. The binding of 6 and 7 with Eu(III) in the solid state and in MeOH solutions is also accessed by emission spectroscopy. The acid dependence for solvent extractions with 6 and 7 in 1,2-dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) in nitric acid solutions is described and compared with the behavior of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (OPhDiBCMPO, 1b) and 2-[(diphenyl)phosphinoylmethyl]pyridine N-oxide (DPhNOPO, 4a).

  15. Reactions between Grignard reagents and heterocyclic N-oxides: stereoselective synthesis of substituted pyridines, piperidines, and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Hans; Olsson, Roger; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-21

    In this perspective we discuss the recent developments of stereoselective synthesis of substituted pyridines, piperidines, and piperazines from cheap and commercially readily available starting materials. Pyridine N-oxides and pyrazine N-oxides are reacted with alkyl, aryl, alkynyl and vinyl Grignard reagents to give a diverse set of heterocycles in high yields. Optically active substituted piperazines are obtained by an asymmetric reaction from pyrazine N-oxides using sparteine as chiral ligand. In addition, a stereoselective synthesis of dienal-oximes from the reaction between pyridine N-oxides and Grignard reagents is presented, which results in a useful intermediate for the synthesis of a diverse set of compounds.

  16. Transition-Metal-Free Regioselective Alkylation of Pyridine N-Oxides Using 1,1-Diborylalkanes as Alkylating Reagents.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woohyun; Kim, Junghoon; Choi, Seoyoung; Cho, Seung Hwan

    2016-08-08

    Reported herein is an unprecedented base-promoted deborylative alkylation of pyridine N-oxides using 1,1-diborylalkanes as alkyl sources. The reaction proceeds efficiently for a wide range of pyridine N-oxides and 1,1-diborylalkanes with excellent regioselectivity. The utility of the developed method is demonstrated by the sequential C-H arylation and methylation of pyridine N-oxides. The reaction also can be applied for the direct introduction of a methyl group to 9-O-methylquinine N-oxide, thus it can serve as a powerful method for late-stage functionalization.

  17. Opinion controversy to chromium picolinate therapy's safety and efficacy: ignoring 'anecdotes' of case reports or recognising individual risks and new guidelines urgency to introduce innovation by predictive diagnostics?

    PubMed

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Yeghiazaryan, Kristina

    2012-10-07

    Due to the important physiologic function of trivalent chromium in glucose/insulin homeostasis, some commercial organisations promote Cr3+ supplements in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; regulation of reducing carbohydrate carvings and appetite; prevention of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance; regulation of body composition, including reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass; optimal body building for athletes; losing weight; treatment of atypical depression as an antidepressant; and prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On one hand, case reports are commented as 'nonevidence-based anecdotes'. On the other hand, a number of independent studies warn against adverse health outcomes assigned to chromium picolinate (CrPic) dietary application. This review analyses opinion controversies, demonstrates highly individual reactions towards CrPic dietary supplements and highlights risks when the dietary supplements are used freely as therapeutic agents, without application of advanced diagnostic tools to predict individual outcomes.

  18. Room-temperature amination of deactivated aniline and aryl halide partners with carbonate base using a Pd-PEPPSI-IPentCl-o-picoline catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pompeo, Matthew; Farmer, Jennifer L; Froese, Robert D J; Organ, Michael G

    2014-03-17

    Current state-of-the-art protocols for the coupling of unreactive amines (e.g., electron-poor anilines) with deactivated oxidative-addition partners (e.g., electron-rich and/or hindered aryl chlorides) involve strong heating (usually >100°C) and/or tert-butoxide base, and even then not all couplings are successful. The aggressive base tert-butoxide reacts with and in many instances destroys the typical functional groups that are necessary for the function of most organic molecules, such as carbonyl groups, esters, nitriles, amides, alcohols, and amines. The new catalyst described herein, Pd-PEPPSI-IPentCl-o-picoline, is able to aminate profoundly deactivated coupling partners when using only carbonate base at room temperature.

  19. Chromium picolinate inhibits resistin secretion in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of amp-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Dong, Yi; Yao, Ming-Hui

    2009-08-01

    1. Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been recommended as an alternative therapeutic regimen for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the action of CrPic is poorly understood. 2. Using normal and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we examined the effects of CrPic on the gene transcription and secretion of adiponectin and resistin. In addition, using immunoblotting, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the effects of 10 nmol/L CrPic for 24 h on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to determine whether this pathway contributed to the regulation of adiponectin and resistin expression and secretion. 3. Chromium picolinate did not modulate the expression of adiponectin and resistin; however, it did significantly inhibit the secretion of resistin, but not adiponectin, by normal and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. Furthermore, although CrPic markedly elevated levels of phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, it had no effect on the levels of AMPK alpha-1 and alpha-2 mRNA transcripts. Importantly, inhibition of AMPK by 2 h pretreatment of cells with 20 micromol/L compound C completely abolished the CrPic-induced suppression of resistin secretion. 4. In conclusion, the data suggest that CrPic inhibits resistin secretion via activation of AMPK in normal and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  20. The effects of chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate administration on NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in the brain of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Gencoglu, Hasan; Ulas, Mustafa; Atalay, Mustafa; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan; Komorowski, James R

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium picolinate (CrPic) and chromium histidinate (CrHis) on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in diabetic rat brain. Nondiabetic (n = 45) and diabetic (n = 45) male Wistar rats were either not supplemented or supplemented with CrPic or CrHis via drinking water to consume 8 μg elemental chromium (Cr) per day for 12 weeks. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg i.p., for 2 weeks) and maintained by high-fat feeding (40 %). Diabetes was associated with increases in cerebral NF-κB and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts and decreased in cerebral nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and Nrf2 levels. Both Cr chelates were effective to decrease levels of NF-κB and 4-HNE protein adducts and to increase levels of IκBα and Nrf2 in the brain of diabetic rats. However, responses of these increases and decreases were more notable when Cr was supplemented as CrHis than as CrPic. In conclusion, Cr may play a protective role in cerebral antioxidant defense system in diabetic subjects via the Nrf2 pathway by reducing inflammation through NF-κB p65 inhibition. Histidinate form of Cr was superior to picolinate form of Cr in reducing NF-κB expression and increasing Nrf2 expression in the brain of diabetic rats.

  1. Association of FMO3 Variants and Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentration, Disease Progression, and Mortality in CKD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Newitt, Richard; Shen, Danny D.; Rettie, Allan E.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Yeung, Catherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating pro-atherogenic uremic solutes, particularly trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), have been implicated in cardiovascular disease development in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). TMAO is generated from trimethylamine (TMA) via metabolism by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 (FMO3). We determined the functional effects of three common FMO3 variants at amino acids 158, 308, and 257 on TMAO concentrations in a prospective cohort study and evaluated associations of polymorphisms with CKD progression and mortality. Each additional minor allele at amino acid 158 was associated with a 0.38 μg/mL higher circulating TMAO (p = 0.01) and with faster rates of annualized relative eGFR decline. Participants with 0, 1 and 2 variant alleles averaged an eGFR loss of 8%, 12%, and 14% per year, respectively (p-for trend = 0.05). Compared to participants with the homozygous reference allele, heterozygous and homozygous variant participants had a 2.0-fold (95% CI: 0.85, 4.6) and 2.2-fold (95% CI: 0.89, 5.48) higher risk of mortality, respectively (p-for-trend = 0.04). No associations with clinical outcomes were observed for allelic variants at amino acids 257 or 308. Understanding the contribution of genetic variation of FMO3 to disease progression and all-cause mortality can guide recommendations for diet modification or pharmacotherapy in CKD patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27513517

  2. The lyocell process: Cellulose solutions in N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) - degradation processes and stabilizers

    Treesearch

    Thomas Rosenau; Thomas Elder; Antje Potthast; Sixta Herbert; Paul Kosma

    2003-01-01

    Homolytic (radical) reactions in the system cellulose / N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO, 1) involve a primary, nitrogen-centered cation radical (2), and two secondary, carbon-centered radical species (3, 4). Radical formation &om NMMO is strongly promoted by transition metal ions.

  3. Helical chiral pyridine N-oxides: a new family of asymmetric catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinshui; Takenaka, Norito

    2009-07-27

    Optically active chiral alkyl chlorides are valuable compounds because of their bioactivity and versatile synthetic utility. Accordingly, the ring opening of epoxides with a chloride nucleophile stands as an important goal in asymmetric catalysis. We describe herein recent advances in the design and development of chiral pyridine N-oxide catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of chlorohydrins.

  4. Catalytic enantioselective [2,3]-rearrangements of amine N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hongli; Qi, Xiangbing; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-02-09

    The first Pd-catalyzed enantioselective [2,3]-rearrangement of allylic amine N-oxides is described, which formally represents an asymmetric Meisenheimer rearrangement. The mild reaction conditions enable the synthesis of chiral nonracemic aliphatic allylic alcohol derivatives with reactive functional groups. On the basis of preliminary studies, a cyclization-mediated mechanism is proposed.

  5. Arecoline N-oxide: its mutagenicity and possible role as ultimate carcinogen in areca oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Hui; Lin, Ching-Yuan; Liu, Chin-Chih; Chou, Ming-Young; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2011-04-13

    The areca nut is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in Taiwan, India, and Southeast Asia. It is considered to be an environmental risk factor for the development of oral submucous fibrosis and cancer. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, has been known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various systems. However, the active compound accounting for arecoline-induced damage in normal human oral cells is still uncharacterized. The present study was undertaken to identify the active metabolite of arecoline that might induce damage in human oral tissues and cause mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA 100 and TA 98. It is interesting to find that the major metabolite of arecoline, arecoline N-oxide, is moderately mutagenic to these Salmonella tester strains. This mutagenicity was potently inhibited by sulfhydryl compounds, namely, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and cysteine, whereas methionine is inactive in this inhibition. The mutagenicity of arecoline N-oxide was strongly inhibited by the N-oxide reducing agent titanium trichloride. The possible role of arecoline N-oxide in the induction of oral carcinogenesis by areca nut chewing is discussed.

  6. Metachelins, mannosylated and N-oxidized coprogen-type siderophores from Metarhizium robertsii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under iron-depleted culture conditions, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii (Bischoff, Humber, and Rehner) (= M. anisopliae) produces a complex of extracellular siderophores including novel O-glycosylated and/or N-oxidized coprogen-type compounds as well as the known fungal siderophore...

  7. Copper(II)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of quinoline N-oxides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Kexiao; Wu, Hankui

    2015-03-21

    Copper acetate-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization amination of quinoline N-oxides was achieved using O-benzoyl hydroxylamine as an electrophilic amination reagent, thereby affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields. Electrophilic amination can also be performed in good yield on a gram scale.

  8. Prophylactic use of polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) in baboons exposed to quartz dust

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.; Rendall, R.E.G.

    1987-04-01

    Twelve baboons were exposed to a quartz dust cloud. Four of these were also given polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) by aerosol and four received PVNO by aerosol and injection. A prophylactic effect was demonstrated during the course of treatment, but when treatment stopped the silicosis progressed to the same degree of severity as in the untreated animals.

  9. N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-based high-performance energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hao; Gao, Haixiang; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-12-15

    One route to high density and high performance energetic materials based on 1,2,4,5-tetrazine is the introduction of 2,4-di-N-oxide functionalities. Based on several examples and through theoretical analysis, the strategy of regioselective introduction of these moieties into 1,2,4,5-tetrazines has been developed. Using this methodology, various new tetrazine structures containing the N-oxide functionality were synthesized and fully characterized using IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Hydrogen peroxide (50 %) was used very effectively in lieu of the usual 90 % peroxide in this system to generate N-oxide tetrazine compounds successfully. Comparison of the experimental densities of N-oxide 1,2,4,5-tetrazine compounds with their 1,2,4,5-tetrazine precursors shows that introducing the N-oxide functionality is a highly effective and feasible method to enhance the density of these materials. The heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with Gaussian 03 (revision D.01) and these values were combined with measured densities to calculate detonation pressures (P) and velocities (νD ) of these energetic materials (Explo 5.0 v. 6.01). The new oxygen-containing tetrazines exhibit high density, good thermal stability, acceptable oxygen balance, positive heat of formation, and excellent detonation properties, which, in some cases, are superior to those of 1,3,5-tritnitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrotriazacyclohexane (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. N-demethylation and N-oxidation of imipramine in rat thoracic aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yukari; Yaginuma, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Eiko; Sakurai, Eiichi

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether cultured rat thoracic aortic endothelial cells (TAECs) have the ability to metabolize the tertiary amine, imipramine. In rat TAECs, imipramine was biotransformed into N-demethylate and N-oxide by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), respectively. The intrinsic clearance (V max/K m) for the N-oxide formation was approximately five times as high as that for the N-demethylate formation, indicating that oxidation by CYP was much higher than that by FMO. Moreover, we suggest that CYP2C11 and CYP3A2 are key players in the metabolism to N-demethylate in rat TAECs using the respective anti-rat CYP antibodies (anti-CYP2C11 and anti-CYP3A2). The presence of CYP2C11 and CYP3A2 proteins was also confirmed in cultured rat TAECs using a polyclonal anti-CYP antibody and immunofluorescence microscopy. In contrast, the formation rate of N-oxide at pH 8.4 was higher than that at pH 7.4. Inhibition of N-oxide formation by methimazole was found to be the best model of competitive inhibition yielding an apparent K i value of 0.80 μmol/L, demonstrating that N-oxidation was catalyzed by FMO in rat TAECs. These results suggest that rat TAEC enzymes can convert substrates of exogenous origin such as imipramine, indicating that TAECs have an important function for metabolic products, besides hepatic cells.

  11. Complexation facilitated reduction of aromatic N-oxides by aqueous Fe(II)-tiron complex: reaction kinetics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Huichun

    2013-10-01

    Rapid reduction of carbadox (CDX), olaquindox and several other aromatic N-oxides were investigated in aqueous solution containing Fe(II) and tiron. Consistent with previous work, the 1:2 Fe(II)-tiron complex, FeL2(6-), is the dominant reactive species as its concentration linearly correlates with the observed rate constant kobs under various conditions. The N-oxides without any side chains were much less reactive, suggesting direct reduction of the N-oxides is slow. UV-vis spectra suggest FeL2(6-) likely forms 5- or 7-membered rings with CDX and olaquindox through the N and O atoms on the side chain. The formed inner-sphere complexes significantly facilitated electron transfer from FeL2(6-) to the N-oxides. Reduction products of the N-oxides were identified by HPLC/QToF-MS to be the deoxygenated analogs. QSAR analysis indicated neither the first electron transfer nor N-O bond cleavage is the rate-limiting step. Calculations of the atomic spin densities of the anionic N-oxides confirmed the extensive delocalization between the aromatic ring and the side chain, suggesting complex formation can significantly affect the reduction kinetics. Our results suggest the complexation facilitated N-oxide reduction by Fe(II)-tiron involves a free radical mechanism, and the subsequent deoxygenation might also benefit from the weak complexation of Fe(II) with the N-oxide O atom.

  12. Combination of best promoter and micellar catalyst for more than kilo-fold rate acceleration in favor of chromic acid oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in aqueous media at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Sar, Pintu; Saha, Indrajit; Ghosh, Sumanta K.; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-12-01

    Picolinic acid, 2,2‧-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline promoted Cr(VI) oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in three representative aqueous micellar media has been studied. The anionic surfactant (SDS) accelerated the rate of reaction while the cationic surfactant (CPC) and neutral surfactant (TX-100) retarded the reaction rate. Combination of bipy and SDS is the best choice for chromic acid oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in aqueous media although 1,10-phenanthroline is best promoter in absence of micellar catalyst.

  13. Synthesis and NMR characterization of seven new substituted pyridine N-oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laihia, K.; Puszko, A.; Kolehmainen, E.; Lorenc, J.

    2008-10-01

    Seven 3-substituted (alkylamino, alkylnitramino and alkylnitrosoamino) derivatives of pyridine N-oxide have been prepared and their 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts assigned based on PFG 1H, 13C HMQC and PFG 1H, X (X = 13C or 15N) HMBC experiments. In the sterically most crowded congener, 3-ethylnitramino-4-nitropyridine N-oxide, chemical non-equivalence or diastereotopicity of the N-CH 2 protons was observed probably due to the chirality of the adjacent amino nitrogen caused by its restricted inversion. The coalescence temperature for the 1H NMR chemical shifts of these geminal protons has been determined and the corresponding Δ G∗ for the energy barrier of the dynamic process has been estimated.

  14. Synthesis and lanthanide coordination chemistry of trifluoromethyl derivatives of phosphinoylmethyl pyridine N-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pailloux, Sylvie; Shirima, Cornel Edicome; Duesler, Eileen N.; Smith, Karen Ann; Paine, Robert T.; Klaehn, John D.; McIlwain, Michael E; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic route for the formation of 2-[bis-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine N-oxide (1c) and 2-[bis-(3,5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine N-oxide (1d) was developed and the new ligands characterized by spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The coordination chemistry of the ligands was examined with early and late lanthanide ions. The molecular structure of one complex, [Yb(1c)(NO3)3(DMF)](DMF)(H2O)0.5, was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and the ligand found to coordinate in a bidentate fashion. This coordination chemistry is compared against lanthanide coordination chemistry observed for the related ligand, [Ph2P(O)CH2] C5H4NO.

  15. Dehydrogenative N-incorporation: a direct approach to quinoxaline N-oxides under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xinyao; Shen, Tao; Zou, Miancheng; Jiao, Ning

    2014-09-22

    An efficient method for the synthesis of quinoxaline N-oxides proceeds by the dehydrogenative N-incorporation of simple imines by C(sp(2))-H and C(sp(3))-H bond functionalization. The overall transformation involves the cleavage of three C-H bonds. The reaction is easily handled and proceeds under mild conditions. Simple and readily available tert-butyl nitrite (TBN) was employed as the NO source.

  16. [Cytopharmacologic effect of using polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide in experimental silicosis].

    PubMed

    Arutiunov, V D; Kruglikov, G G; Batsura, Iu D; Fedorova, V I

    1977-03-01

    Methods of scanning, transmission electron microscopy and cytochemistry were applied to the study of the development of experimental silicosis against the background of polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide administration. The majority of the macrophages retained their functional activity and realized quartz phagocytosis, eliminating it through the airway. Bringing the proteins on the cell surface in the fibroblasts was delayed, and formation of collagen fibers decreased. Application of the polymere prevented development of fibrosis of the lungs.

  17. Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new alkaloid with antiacetylcholinesterase activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Su, Jia; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new oxindole alkaloid, along with 14 known alkaloids, was isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were identified by comprehensive spectral methods, including 2D NMR experiments, and confirmed by comparing with the literature data. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that the new compound exhibited anti-AChE activity with IC₅₀ value of 23.4 μM.

  18. Octanol-water partition coefficients of substituted alpha, N-diphenylnitrones and benzonitrile N-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, J.J.; Acree, W.E. Jr.; Leo, A.J.; Gelli, G.

    1985-10-01

    Experimental octanol-water partition coefficients are reported for substituted alpha, N-diphenylnitrones and benzonitrile N-oxides. The results of these measurements are used to calculate the aromatic fragment constants pi HC = N(O)C6H5, pi C = N----O, fHC = N(O), and fC = N----O for the group contribution methods of Hansch and Leo.

  19. Temperature and solvent structure dependence of VO2+ complexes of pyridine-N-oxide derivatives and their interaction with human serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Ugone, Valeria; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2012-06-28

    The behaviour of the systems formed by VO(2+), 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (Hhpo) and 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (Hmpo) was studied both in solution and in the solid state through the combined application of spectroscopic (EPR and UV-Vis spectroscopy) and DFT methods. The geometry of solid bis-chelated complexes [VOL(2)], with L = hpo and mpo, is square pyramidal, but it can change to cis-[VOL(2)S], where S is a solvent molecule, when these are dissolved in a coordinating solvent. The equilibrium between the square pyramidal and cis-octahedral forms is strongly affected by solvent and temperature. At room temperature, the predominant species is [VOL(2)], which gives a pink colour to the solutions; at lower temperatures, the equilibrium is shifted--partially or completely--toward the formation of cis-[VOL(2)S], which is green. In an acidic environment and in the presence of an excess of ligand, [VOL(2)] can transform into the tris-chelated complex [VL(3)](+), in which vanadium loses the oxido ligand and adopts a hexa-coordinated geometry intermediate between octahedral and trigonal prismatic. 1-Methylimidazole (1-MeIm), which represents a model for His-N coordination, forms mixed complexes with stoichiometry cis-[VOL(2)(1-MeIm)], occupying an equatorial position. In the ternary systems VO(2+)-Hhpo-hTf and VO(2+)-Hmpo-hTf at room temperature and pH 7.4, besides (VO)hTf and (VO)(2)hTf, the mixed species cis-VO(hpo)(2)(hTf) and VO(mpo)(hTf) are observed, with the equatorial binding of an accessible histidine residue. Finally, the contribution of the N-oxide group to (51)V A(z) and A(iso) hyperfine coupling constants, which can be important in the characterisation of similar species, is discussed.

  20. Fabrication of water-dispersible single-walled carbon nanotube powder using N-methylmorpholine N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyejun; Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Park, Soo-Young

    2017-09-13

    Dispersion of nanocarbon materials in liquid media is one of prerequisites for practical applications via solution processing such as spraying, printing, spinning, etc. Here we report that water-dispersible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared through successive treatments with chlorosulfuric acid (CSA)/H2O2 and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMO) monohydrate. The powder of the CSA/H2O2- and NMO-treated SWCNTs (N-SWCNTs) could be readily redispersed in water in concentrations as high as 1 g L-1 without requiring a dispersant. The mechanism responsible for the high dispersity of the N-SWCNT powder in polar solvents, including water, was elucidated based on the high polarity of the NMO molecule. In order to highlight the wide applicability of the N-SWCNTs, they were used successfully to prepare conducting thin films by spray-coating plastic substrates with an aqueous hybrid solution containing the N-SWCNTs and Ag nanowires (NWs). In addition, a flexible, large-area thin-film heater was prepared based on the N-SWCNT/AgNW hybrid film with a transmittance of 93% and sheet resistance of 30 Ω sq-1. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Synthesis of meta-substituted [(18)F]3-fluoro-4-aminopyridine via direct radiofluorination of pyridine N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Brugarolas, P; Freifelder, R; Cheng, S-H; DeJesus, O

    2016-06-04

    Due to their electron-rich aromatic structure, nucleophilic (radio)fluorination of pyridines is challenging, especially at the meta position. In this paper, we describe the first example of direct fluorination of a pyridine N-oxide to produce a meta fluorinated pyridine. Specifically, fluorination of 3-bromo-4-nitropyridine N-oxide produced in several minutes 3-fluoro-4-nitropyridine N-oxide in moderate yield at room temperature. This intermediate compound was later converted to 3-fluoro-4-aminopyridine easily by catalytic hydrogenation. Furthermore, this approach was successfully applied for labeling with fluorine-18. The use of pyridine N-oxides for the preparation of fluoropyridines is unprecedented in the chemical literature and has the potential to offer a new way for the synthesis of these important structures in pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals.

  2. [MoO(S2)2L]1- (L = picolinate or pyrimidine-2-carboxylate) Complexes as MoSx Inspired Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Benjamin R; Click, Kevin A; Durr, Christopher B; Hadad, Christopher M; Wu, Yiying

    2016-10-03

    Crystalline and amorphous molybdenum sulfide (Mo-S) catalysts are leaders as earth abundant materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production. The development of a molecular motif inspired by the Mo-S catalytic materials and their active sites is of interest, as molecular species possess a great degree of tunable electronic prop-erties. Furthermore, these molecular mimics may be important for providing mechanistic insights towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with Mo-S electrocatalysts. Herein is presented two water soluble Mo-S complexes based around the [MoO(S2)2L2]1- motif. We present 1H-NMR spectra that reveal (NEt4)[MoO(S2)2picolinate] (Mo-pic) is stable in a d6-DMSO solution after heating at 100 °C, in air, revealing unprecedented thermal and aerobic stability of the homogenous electrocatalyst. Both Mo-pic and (NEt4)[MoO(S2)2pyrimidine-2-carboxylate] (Mo-pym) are shown to be homogenous electrocatalysts for the HER. The TOF of 27-34 s-1 and 42-48 s-1 for Mo-pic and Mo-pym and onset potentials of 240 mV and 175 mV for Mo-pic and Mo-pym respectively reveal these complexes as promising electrocatalysts for the HER.

  3. Oral chromium picolinate impedes hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis and inhibits proatherogenic protein TSP-1 expression in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Rituparna; Sahu, Soumyadip; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Haney, Rebecca; Chavez, Ronaldo J.; Shah, Shivani; Yalamanchili, Siri; Raman, Priya

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, as a putative link between hyperglycemia and atherosclerotic complications in diabetes. We previously reported that the micronutrient chromium picolinate (CrP), with long-standing cardiovascular benefits, inhibits TSP-1 expression in glucose-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the atheroprotective action of orally administered CrP in type 1 diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice and elucidated the role of TSP-1 in this process. CrP decreased lipid burden and neointimal thickness in aortic root lesions of hyperglycemic ApoE−/− mice; also, smooth muscle cell (SMC), macrophage and leukocyte abundance was prevented coupled with reduced cell proliferation. Attenuated lesion progression was accompanied with inhibition of hyperglycemia-induced TSP-1 expression and reduced protein O-glycosylation following CrP treatment; also, PCNA and vimentin (SMC synthetic marker) expression were reduced while SM-MHC (SMC contractile marker) levels were increased. To confirm a direct role of TSP-1 in diabetic atherosclerosis, hyperglycemic TSP-1−/−/ApoE−/− double knockout mice were compared with age-matched hyperglycemic ApoE−/− littermates. Lack of TSP-1 prevented lesion formation in hyperglycemic ApoE−/− mice, mimicking the atheroprotective phenotype of CrP-treated mice. These results suggest that therapeutic TSP-1 inhibition may have important atheroprotective potential in diabetic vascular disease. PMID:28345659

  4. Oral chromium picolinate impedes hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis and inhibits proatherogenic protein TSP-1 expression in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rituparna; Sahu, Soumyadip; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Haney, Rebecca; Chavez, Ronaldo J; Shah, Shivani; Yalamanchili, Siri; Raman, Priya

    2017-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, as a putative link between hyperglycemia and atherosclerotic complications in diabetes. We previously reported that the micronutrient chromium picolinate (CrP), with long-standing cardiovascular benefits, inhibits TSP-1 expression in glucose-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the atheroprotective action of orally administered CrP in type 1 diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and elucidated the role of TSP-1 in this process. CrP decreased lipid burden and neointimal thickness in aortic root lesions of hyperglycemic ApoE(-/-) mice; also, smooth muscle cell (SMC), macrophage and leukocyte abundance was prevented coupled with reduced cell proliferation. Attenuated lesion progression was accompanied with inhibition of hyperglycemia-induced TSP-1 expression and reduced protein O-glycosylation following CrP treatment; also, PCNA and vimentin (SMC synthetic marker) expression were reduced while SM-MHC (SMC contractile marker) levels were increased. To confirm a direct role of TSP-1 in diabetic atherosclerosis, hyperglycemic TSP-1(-/-)/ApoE(-/-) double knockout mice were compared with age-matched hyperglycemic ApoE(-/-) littermates. Lack of TSP-1 prevented lesion formation in hyperglycemic ApoE(-/-) mice, mimicking the atheroprotective phenotype of CrP-treated mice. These results suggest that therapeutic TSP-1 inhibition may have important atheroprotective potential in diabetic vascular disease.

  5. Effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, respiratory rate, plasma variables, and carcass traits of pigs fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beob G; Lindemann, Merlin D; Cromwell, Gary L

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) as Cr (III) picolinate on pigs fed high-fat diets (HFD) in a 56-day experiment. Thirty-two crossbred pigs (9.6 kg) were allotted to four treatments with four blocks and two pigs/pen. Treatments included: (1) low-fat diet (fat < 3.5%; LFD) with no Cr, (2) HFD (fat > 30%) with no Cr, (3) HFD with 1,000 ppb Cr, and (4) HFD with 2,000 ppb Cr. Pigs fed HFD gained weight faster, consumed less, and had lower feed:gain (p < 0.05). Pigs fed HFD had higher respiration rates than pigs fed LFD on d 41 (p < 0.05). Plasma insulin on d 14 linearly decreased with Cr (p = 0.05). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were higher in the pigs fed HFD than those fed LFD, but were largely unaffected by supplemental Cr. Consumption of HFD resulted in greater carcass weight, perirenal fat, and backfat measures (p < 0.01) compared with the LFD group. Cr resulted in linear reductions of hot carcass weight (p = 0.08) and average backfat (p < 0.05). The effects of Cr on carcass fat measures were more pronounced in castrated males than in females. These results indicate that Cr attenuates some effects of a HFD, mainly body fat accretion of pigs, and especially in castrated pigs.

  6. Synthesis, lanthanide coordination chemistry, and liquid-liquid extraction performance of CMPO-decorated pyridine and pyridine N-oxide platforms.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Amorin, Daniel; Ouizem, Sabrina; Dickie, Diane A; Wen, Yufeng; Paine, Robert T; Gao, Jian; Grey, John K; de Bettencourt-Dias, Ana; Hay, Benjamin P; Delmau, Lætitia H

    2013-03-18

    Syntheses for a set of new ligands containing one or two carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) fragments appended to pyridine and pyridine N-oxide platforms are described. Molecular mechanics analyses for gas phase lanthanide-ligand interactions for the pyridine N-oxides indicate that the trifunctional NOPOCO molecules, 2-{[Ph2P(O)][C(O)NEt2]C(H)}C5H4NO (7) and 2-{[Ph2P(O)][C(O)NEt2]CHCH2}C5H4NO (8), and pentafunctional NOPOP'O'COC'O' molecules, 2,6-{[Ph2P(O)][C(O)NEt2]C(H)}2C5H3NO (9) and 2,6-{[Ph2P(O)][C(O)NEt2]CHCH2}2C5H3NO (10), should be able to adopt, with minimal strain, tridentate and pentadentate chelate structures, respectively. As a test of these predictions, selected lanthanide coordination chemistry of the N-oxide derivatives was explored. Crystal structure analyses reveal the formation of a tridentate NOPOCO chelate structure for a 1:1 Pr(III) complex containing 7 while 8 adopts a mixed bidentate/bridging monodentate POCO/NO binding mode with Pr(III). Tridentate and tetradentate chelate structures are obtained for several 1:1 complexes of 9 while a pentadentate chelate structure is observed with 10. Emission spectroscopy for one complex, [Eu(9)(NO3)3], in methanol, shows that the Eu(III) ion resides in a low-symmetry site. Lifetime measurements for methanol and deuterated methanol solutions indicate the presence of four methanol molecules in the inner coordination sphere of the metal ion, in addition to the ligand, with the nitrate anions most likely dissociated. The solvent extraction performance of 7-10 in 1,2-dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) in nitric acid solutions was analyzed and compared with the performance of 2,6-bis(di-n-octylphosphinoylmethyl)pyridine N-oxide (TONOPOP'O') and n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (OPhDiBCMPO) measured under identical conditions.

  7. "Marking" the nitrogen atoms of phenyl-(2-pyridyl)-(3-pyridyl)-(4-pyridyl)-methane. Synthesis and absolute configuration of the corresponding tris(pyridine N-oxide).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kouzou; Miki, Kaori; Inagaki, Takuya; Nehira, Tatsuo; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Hirao, Yasukazu; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Kawase, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    To "mark" the nitrogen atoms in phenyl-(2-pyridyl)-(3-pyridyl)-(4-pyridyl)methane (1), we have synthesized the corresponding tris(pyridine N-oxide) 2 by oxidation of 1 with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. The nitrogen atoms of 2 are unequivocally determined by the X-ray crystal analysis of a single crystal of rac-2 whereas the nitrogen atoms cannot be assigned at all in the case of rac-1. N-Oxide 2 can be resolved by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography under similar conditions to those used for the resolution of 1. The calculated circular dichroism (CD) curve for (R)-2 on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory reproduces the experimental spectra very well to suggest that the second-eluted fraction ([CD(+)283]-2) is the R isomer, namely (R)-[CD(+)283]-2. The independent absolute configuration determinations for 1 and 2 are in keeping with the chemical correlation between the two compounds by oxidation of (R)-1 into (R)-2.

  8. Identification of an N-oxide pyridine GW4064 analog as a potent FXR agonist.

    PubMed

    Feng, Song; Yang, Minmin; Zhang, Zhenshan; Wang, Zhanguo; Hong, Di; Richter, Hans; Benson, Gregory Martin; Bleicher, Konrad; Grether, Uwe; Martin, Rainer E; Plancher, Jean-Marc; Kuhn, Bernd; Rudolph, Markus Georg; Chen, Li

    2009-05-01

    According to the docking studies and the analysis of a co-crystal structure of GW4064 with FXR, a series of 3-aryl heterocyclic isoxazole analogs were designed and synthesized. N-Oxide pyridine analog (7b) was identified as a promising FXR agonist with potent binding affinity and good efficacy, supporting our hypothesis that through an additional hydrogen bond interaction between the pyridine substituent of isoxazole analogs and Tyr373 and Ser336 of FXR, binding affinity and functional activity could be improved.

  9. Structure of the Molybdenum Site of EEcherichia Coli Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Nelson, K.Johnson; Rajagopalan, K.V.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    We report a structural characterization of the molybdenum site of recombinant Escherichia coli trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme active site shows considerable similarity to that of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, in that, like DMSO reductase, the TMAO reductase active site can exist in multiple forms. Examination of the published crystal structure of TMAO oxidase from Shewanella massilia indicates that the postulated Mo coordination structure is chemically impossible. The presence of multiple active site structures provides a potential explanation for the anomalous features reported from the crystal structure.

  10. Isothermal and isochoric crystallization of highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide of aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Patyk, Ewa; Marciniak, Jedrzej; Tomkowiak, Hanna; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Merz, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Highly hygroscopic pyridine N-oxide, C5H5NO, dissolves in water absorbed from atmospheric air, but it crystallizes in the neat form of the aqueous solution under high pressure. The crystals grown at high-pressure isochoric conditions are of the same phase as that obtained from anhydrous crystallization at ambient pressure. This feature can be employed for retrieving compounds highly soluble in water from their aqueous solutions. The crystal structure is strongly stabilized by CH...O contacts. The crystal compression and thermal expansion as well as three shortest H...O distances comply with the inverse-relationship rule of pressure and temperature changes.

  11. Effects of Trimethylamine-N -oxide on the Conformation of Peptides and its Implications for Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhaoqian; Mahmoudinobar, Farbod; Dias, Cristiano L.

    2017-09-01

    To provide insights into the stabilizing mechanisms of trimethylamine-N -oxide (TMAO) on protein structures, we perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of peptides and the Trp-cage miniprotein. The effects of TMAO on the backbone and charged residues of peptides are found to stabilize compact conformations, whereas effects of TMAO on nonpolar residues lead to peptide swelling. This suggests competing mechanisms of TMAO on proteins, which accounts for hydrophobic swelling, backbone collapse, and stabilization of charge-charge interactions. These mechanisms are observed in Trp cage.

  12. Mutagenicity testing of 9-N-substituted adenines and their N-oxidation products.

    PubMed Central

    Gorrod, J W; Ioannides, C; Lam, S P; Neville, S

    1993-01-01

    Adenine together with certain 9-N-substituted derivatives such as 9-methyl, 9-benzyl, 9-benzhydryl, and 9-trityl were tested against Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, and TA100 in the absence and presence of rat hepatic S9 prepared from Aroclor 1254 pretreated rats. All compounds were positive toward TA98 in the presence of the metabolic activating system, whereas they all lacked mutagenic activity in the absence of S9, and toward TA97 and TA100 with or without S9 when tested at 100 ng/plate. A similar pattern was observed for the corresponding 1-N-oxides. 6-Hydroxylaminopurine was not mutagenic toward TA100 at 100 ng/plate, whereas it was toxic toward TA97 and TA98 at this level. When tested at 1 ng/plate, hydroxylaminopurine was still toxic to TA98 but produced twice the spontaneous reversion rate to TA97 without metabolic activation. Surprisingly, 9-methyl-6-hydroxylaminopurine was only active toward TA98 in the presence of S9, whereas 9-benzyl-6-hydroxylaminopurine was highly active toward TA97 and TA100 in the absence of S9 and even more active in the presence of S9. This compound was inactive toward TA98 in the absence of S9. The results generally support the concept that nuclear N-oxidation of aminoazaheterocycles is a detoxication process, whereas N-hydroxylation of the exo amino group is a toxication reaction. PMID:8143619

  13. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  14. Possible involvement of corticosterone and serotonin in antidepressant and antianxiety effects of chromium picolinate in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depression and anxiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vivek Kumar; Ansari, Faraha; Vohora, Divya; Khanam, Razia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of chromium picolinate (CrP) on behavioural and biochemical parameters in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression and anxiety in rats. The normal and stressed male Swiss albino rats were administered CrP (8 and 16μg/mL in drinking water), they received stressors for seven days (each day one stressor) and this cycle was repeated three times for 21 days. On 22nd day, behaviour assessments followed by biochemical estimations were conducted. The results showed that treatment of CrP produced significant antidepressant effect, which has been evidenced by decrease in immobility time in modified forced swimming test (FST) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression in rats. In elevated plus maze (EPM), CrP (16μg/mL) showed significant reduction in time spent in open arm. CrP (8μg/mL and 16μg/mL) also showed significant decrease in number of entries in open arm that shows antianxiety effect of CrP in CUMS rats. It was also found that CrP (8 and 16μg/mL) significantly increased 5-HT concentration in the discrete regions of brain (cortex and cerebellum). On the other hand, the plasma corticosterone level was significantly decreased with CrP (16μg/mL). The results suggested that increase in the concentration of 5-HT and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels could be responsible for improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety in CUMS induced depression and anxiety in rats.

  15. Performance, egg quality traits, and serum metabolite concentrations of laying hens affected by dietary supplemental chromium picolinate and vitamin C under a heat-stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Zangeneh, Samira; Habibian, Mahmood

    2014-02-01

    A 3 × 2 factorial experiment consisting three levels (0, 200, and 400 μg/kg) of chromium (chromium picolinate) and two levels (0 and 250 mg/kg) of vitamin C was employed to evaluate the effects of these dietary supplements on performance, egg quality traits, and serum biochemical parameters of heat-stressed laying hens (Lohmann LSL-Lite) from 66 to 74 weeks of age. Feed intake increased when birds were given either 400 μg/kg chromium or 250 mg/kg vitamin C (P < 0.05), but the birds that received both chromium and vitamin C consumed feed similar to those that received only chromium. Dietary treatments had no effect on egg production, egg mass, egg volume, feed conversion ratio, and body mass (P > 0.05). The birds that fed on diet with chromium or vitamin C produced eggs with higher shell mass and thickness compared to the control. Both eggshell mass and thickness decreased when vitamin C and chromium were supplemented simultaneously, and birds given the diet supplemented with 400 μg/kg chromium and 250 mg/kg vitamin C had eggshell mass and thickness similar to those of the control group. The serum concentration of chromium increased due to increasing level of dietary chromium (P < 0.05). The birds that received diet with chromium and vitamin C had higher serum concentrations of chromium compared to those that received only chromium (P < 0.05). Similarly, the hens that received chromium and vitamin C had higher serum concentrations of calcium and phosphorus compared to the hens fed with other treatments (P < 0.05). The birds given with supplemental chromium exhibited lower serum glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations but higher serum albumin and total protein concentrations compared to the other groups (P < 0.05).

  16. Effect of chromium picolinate and melatonin either in single or in a combination in high carbohydrate diet-fed male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Doddigarla, Zephy; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to know the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and melatonin (Mel) each alone and in a combination on high carbohydrate diet-fed (HCD-fed) male Wistar rats that exhibit insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats have been categorized into five groups. Each group consisted of six male Wistar rats, control rats (group I), HCD (group II), HCD + CrPic (group III), HCD + Mel (group IV), and HCD + CrPic + Mel (group V). Insignificant differences were observed in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and zinc in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II rats respectively. Significant differences were observed in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II in homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), and in the levels of blood glucose (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), triacylglycerols (<0.05, <0.001, <0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), malondialdehyde (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), catalase (P <0.05, <0.05, <0.05), glutathione (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05), Mel (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), and copper (P < 0.05, <0.05, < 0.001). In view of these results, HCD-fed male Wistar rats that are destined to attain IR and T2DM through diet can be prevented by giving CrPic and Mel administration in alone or in a combination.

  17. Effects of chromium picolinate on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes involve activation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-qun; Yao, Ming-hui

    2009-12-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been discovered as a supplemental or alternative medication for type 2 diabetes, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible anti-diabetic mechanisms of CrPic in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes; the insulin resistance was induced by treatment with high glucose and insulin for 24 h. The effects of CrPic on glucose metabolism and the glucose uptake-inducing activity of CrPic were investigated. Meanwhile, the effects of CrPic on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation were visualized by immonofluorescence microscopy. In addition, its effects on insulin signaling pathways and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades were assessed by immunoblotting analysis and real-time PCR. The results showed that CrPic induced glucose metabolism and uptake, as well as GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane (PM) in both control and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes without any changes in insulin receptor beta (IR-beta), protein kinase B (AKt), c-Cbl, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun phosphorylation and c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP) mRNA levels. Interestingly, CrPic was able to increase the basal and insulin-stimulated levels of p38 MAPK activation in the control and insulin-resistant cells. Pretreatment with the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 partially inhibited the CrPic-induced glucose transport, but CrPic-activated translocation of GLUT4 was not inhibited by SB203580. This study provides an experimental evidence of the effects of CrPic on glucose uptake through the activation of p38 MAPK and it is independent of the effect on GLUT4 translocation. The findings also suggest exciting new insights into the role of p38 MAPK in glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation.

  18. Anti-diabetic activity of chromium picolinate and biotin in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Kucuk, Osman; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Juturu, Vijaya; Komorowski, James R

    2013-07-28

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and biotin supplementations in type 2 diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: (1) non-diabetic rats fed a regular diet; (2) diabetic rats fed a HFD; (3) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with CrPic (80 μg/kg body weight (BW) per d); (4) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with biotin (300 μg/kg BW per d); (5) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with both CrPic and biotin. Circulating glucose, cortisol, total cholesterol, TAG, NEFA and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased (P< 0·05), but serum insulin concentrations increased (P< 0·05) in diabetic rats treated with biotin and CrPic, particularly with a combination of the supplements. Feeding a HFD to diabetic rats decreased PPAR-γ expression in adipose tissue and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS-1) expression of liver, kidney and muscle tissues, while the supplements increased (P< 0·001) PPAR-γ and p-IRS-1 expressions in relevant tissues. Expression of NF-κB in the liver and kidney was greater in diabetic rats fed a HFD, as compared with rats fed a regular diet (P< 0·01). The supplements decreased the expression of NF-κB in diabetic rats (P< 0·05). Results of the present study revealed that supplementing CrPic and biotin alone or in a combination exerts anti-diabetic activities, probably through modulation of PPAR-γ, IRS-1 and NF-κB proteins.

  19. Renal distal tubule proliferation and increased aquaporin 2 level but decreased urine osmolality in db/db mouse: treatment with chromium picolinate.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Mahmood S; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Liu, Jun Yao; Zakhary, Ibrahim; Baban, Babak

    2012-02-01

    Hallmark features of type 2 diabetes mellitus include glucosuria and polyuria. Further, renal aquaporin 2 is pivotal to regulation of fluid excretion and urine osmolality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the db/db mouse displays increased glucosuria and fluid excretion but reduced urine osmolality in association with decreased renal aquaporin 2 level. In addition, we examined the effect of chromium picolinate (Cr(pic)3) which is purported to improve glycemic control. The db/db mice excreted more urine in association with marked glucose excretion but lower urine osmolality than db/m control group. Light microscopic examination of renal tissue revealed proliferation of tubular structures in db/db compared to the db/m mice, a feature validated with Ki67 immunostaining. Further, these tubules showed generally similar immunostaining intensity and pattern for aquaporin 2 indicating that proliferated tubules are of distal origin. On the other hand, renal aquaporin 2 protein level was significantly higher in the db/db than db/m group. Treatment of db/db mice with Cr(pic)3 reduced plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (~15-17%, p<0.05) and Ki67 positive cells but other parameters were similar to their untreated counterparts. Collectively, these findings suggest that proliferation of renal distal tubules and increased aquaporin 2 level likely represent an adaptive mechanism to regulate fluid excretion to prevent dehydration in the setting of marked glucosuria in the db/db mouse, features not affected by Cr(pic)3 treatment. These observations are of relevance to increasing interest in developing therapeutic agents that facilitate renal glucose elimination.

  20. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  1. Synergistic Cardioprotective Effects of Combined Chromium Picolinate and Atorvastatin Treatment in Triton X-100-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats: Impact on Some Biochemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Noha M; Baalash, Amal; Ebeid, Abla M

    2017-04-13

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Chromium (Cr) mineral is playing a crucial role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of combined chromium picolinate (CrPic) and atorvastatin treatment against hyperlipidemia-induced cardiac injury. Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into five groups (15 rats each). Hyperlipidemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of Triton X-100 (300 mg/kg body weight (b.w) (group ІІ). Treatment of hyperlipidemic rats was induced by daily administration of CrPic at a dose of 200 μg/kg b.w/day (group ІІІ), atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (group IV), and combined treatment with both (group V) by gavage for 7 days. At the end of experiment, serum and heart tissues were obtained. Hyperlipidemia was confirmed by histopathology of heart tissues, marked serum dyslipidemia, increased atherogenic indices, and values of ischemia-modified albumin. In addition to increased values of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase enzyme and high relative expression levels of pentraxin-3 were observed. However, paraoxonase-1 activity was markedly decreased in the hyperlipidemic group. Significant improvement in all assessed parameters was observed in the rat group treated with both CrPic and atorvastatin. It can be concluded that combined CrPic and atorvastatin treatments had synergistic cardioprotective effects against hyperlipidemia which may be through modulating atherosclerosis as well as cardiac and aortic damage and/or activation of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant pathways, thus reversing endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Wang, Zhong Q; Zhang, Xian H; Baldor, Linda C; Russell, James C

    2002-06-01

    Human studies suggest that chromium picolinate (CrPic) decreases insulin levels and improves glucose disposal in obese and type 2 diabetic populations. To evaluate whether CrPic may aid in treatment of the insulin resistance syndrome, we assessed its effects in JCR:LA-corpulent rats, a model of this syndrome. Male lean and obese hyperinsulinemic rats were randomly assigned to receive oral CrPic [80 microg/(kg. d); n = 5 or 6, respectively) in water or to control conditions (water, n = 5). After 3 mo, a 120-min intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a 30-min insulin tolerance test were performed. Obese rats administered CrPic had significantly lower fasting insulin levels (1848 +/- 102 vs. 2688 +/- 234 pmol/L; P < 0.001; mean +/- SEM) and significantly improved glucose disappearance (P < 0.001) compared with obese controls. Glucose and insulin areas under the curve for IPGTT were significantly less for obese CrPic-treated rats than in obese controls (P < 0.001). Obese CrPic-treated rats had lower plasma total cholesterol (3.57 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.11 +/- 0.47 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and higher HDL cholesterol levels (1.92 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.36 mmol/L, P < 0.01) than obese controls. CrPic did not alter plasma glucose or cholesterol levels in lean rats. Total skeletal muscle glucose transporter (Glut)-4 did not differ among groups; however, CrPic significantly enhanced membrane-associated Glut-4 in obese rats after insulin stimulation. Thus, CrPic supplementation enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance, and improves lipids in male obese hyperinsulinemic JCR:LA-corpulent rats.

  3. A Double-Blind, Randomized Pilot Trial of Chromium Picolinate for Overweight Individuals with Binge-Eating Disorder: Effects on Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Sala, Margarita; Breithaupt, Lauren; Bulik, Cynthia M; Hamer, Robert M; La Via, Maria C; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2017-03-04

    Chromium treatment has been shown to improve glucose regulation in some populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation improves glucose regulation in overweight individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). In this double-blinded randomized pilot trial, participants (N = 24) were randomized to high (HIGH, 1000 mcg/day, n = 8) or moderate (MOD, 600 mcg/day, n = 9) dose of CrPic or placebo (PL, n = 7) for 6 months. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Fixed effects models were used to estimate mean change in glucose area under the curve (AUC), insulinAUC, and insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Results revealed a significant group and time interaction (p < 0.04) for glucoseAUC, with glucoseAUC increasing significantly in the PL group (p < 0.02) but decreasing significantly in the MOD group (p < 0.03) at 6 months. InsulinAUC increased significantly over time (main effect, p < 0.02), whereas ISI decreased significantly over time (main effect, p < 0.03). As anticipated, a moderate dose of CrPic was associated with improved glycemic control, whereas PL was associated with decreased glycemic control. It was unexpected that the improved glycemic control seen in the MOD dose group was not seen in the HIGH dose group. However, although participants randomized to the HIGH dose group did not have improved glycemic control, they had better glycemic control than participants randomized to the PL group. These findings support the need for larger trials.

  4. A Double-blind, Randomized Pilot Trial of Chromium Picolinate for Binge Eating Disorder: Results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Holle, Ann Von; Hamer, Robert M.; Via, Maria La; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chromium treatment has been shown to improve mood, appetite, and glucose regulation in various psychiatric and medical patient populations. The authors propose that chromium may be useful in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). Method Twenty-four overweight adults with BED were enrolled in a 6-month double-blind placebo-controlled trial and randomly assigned to receive either 1000mcg chromium/day (“high dose”; n=8) or 600mcg chromium/day (“moderate dose”; n=9) as chromium picolinate or placebo (n=7). Mixed linear regression models were used to estimate mean change in binge frequency and related psychopathology, weight, symptoms of depression, and fasting glucose. Results Fasting glucose was significantly reduced in both chromium groups compared to the placebo group; similarly, numerically, but not significantly, greater reductions in binge frequency, weight, and symptoms of depression were observed in those treated with chromium versus placebo, although statistical power was limited in this pilot trial. For fasting glucose, the findings suggest a dose response with larger effects in the high dose compared to moderate dose group. Conclusion These initial findings support further larger trials to determine chromium’s efficacy in maintaining normal glucose regulation, reducing binge eating and related psychopathology, promoting modest weight loss, and reducing symptoms of depression in individuals with BED. Studies designed to link the clinical effects of chromium with changes in underlying insulin, serotonin, and dopamine pathways may be especially informative. If efficacious, chromium supplementation may provide a useful, low-cost alternative to or augmentation strategy for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which have partial efficacy in BED. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00904306. PMID:23751236

  5. Quantum chemical studies on three novel 1,2,4-triazole N-oxides as potential insensitive high explosives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming

    2014-09-01

    Three novel explosives were designed by introducing N-oxides into 1,2,4-triazole: 1-amino-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-2 N-oxide (ADT2NO), 1-amino-2,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-3 N-oxide (ADT3NO), and 1-amino-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-4 N-oxide (ADT4NO). Their detonation performance and sensitivity were estimated by using density functional theory and compared with some famous explosives like 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) and 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNT). All three designed molecules are more powerful than HMX and less sensitive than TNT, indicating that ADT2NO, ADT3NO, and ADT4NO have high detonation performance as HMX and low sensitivity as TNT, making them being very valuable and may be considered as the potential candidates of insensitive high explosives. Properly introducing N-oxides into the energetic triazole derivatives can generate some superior energetic compounds with both high explosive performance and reduced sensitivity.

  6. Determination of trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and taurine in human plasma and urine by UHPLC-MS/MS technique.

    PubMed

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2016-12-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine. The method consisted of a deproteinization step using methanol/acetonitrile (15:85) that contained 0.2% formic acid and isotope-labeled internal standards. Samples were separated by centrifugation and injected into the UHPLC system. Quantification was conducted using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer detector with electrospray ionization interface in positive mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.08 to 0.12μmol/L. The calibration curves were linear (r≥0.999) over the range examined (0.15-400μmol/L) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-day coefficients of variations were≤14.5% for TMA and ≤8% for TMAO and taurine. TMAO and taurine were found to be stable in EDTA plasma for at least 14 months at -70°C. Mean recoveries ranged from 95% to 109% and the relative matrix effects were≤4.0%. The method was applied to study physiological and pre-analytical factors in plasma and urine samples. The new UHPLC-MS/MS method has good accuracy, precision, and recovery. The assay combines simple sample processing with a short run time, making it well suited for high-throughput routine clinical or research purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of best promoter and micellar catalyst for chromic acid oxidation of 1-butanol to 1-butanal in aqueous media at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Bidyut

    2014-04-24

    In aqueous acidic media, picolinic acid, 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline promoted Cr(VI) oxidation of 1-butanol produces 1-butanal. 1-butanal is separated from mixture by fractional distillation. The anionic surfactant (SDS) and neutral surfactant (TX-100) accelerate the process while the cationic surfactant (CPC) retards the reaction. Combination of bipy and SDS is the best choice for chromic acid oxidation of 1-butanol to 1-butanal in aqueous media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protonation of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) is required for stabilization of RNA tertiary structure

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Elizabeth J.; Thirumalai, D.; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    The osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes the tertiary but not the secondary structures of RNA. However, molecular dynamics simulations performed on the PreQl riboswitch showed that TMAO destabilizes the tertiary riboswitch structure, leading us to hypothesize that the presence of RNA could result in enhanced population of the protonated form, TMAOP. Constant pH replica exchange simulations showed that a percentage of TMAO is indeed protonated, thus contributing to the stability of the tertiary but not the secondary structure of PreQl. TMAOP results in an unfavorable dehydration of phosphodiester backbone, which is compensated by electrostatic attraction between TMAOP and the phosphate groups. In addition, TMAOP interacts with specific sites in the tertiary RNA structure, mimicking the behavior of positively charged ions and of the PreQl ligand in stabilizing RNA. Finally, we predict that TMAO-induced stabilization of RNA tertiary structures should be strongly pH dependent. PMID:24012912

  9. Crystal structure of 3,5-di­methyl­pyridine N-oxide dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Merino García, Rosario; Ríos-Merino, Francisco Javier; Bernès, Sylvain; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, also known as 3,5-lutidine N-oxide dihydrate, C7H9NO·2H2O, the N—O bond is weakened due to the involvement of the O atom as an acceptor of hydrogen bonds from the two water mol­ecules of crystallization present in the asymmetric unit. Fused R 3 5(10) ring motifs based on O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form chains in the [010] direction, which are further connected by weak C—H⋯O inter­molecular contacts. As a result, the lutidine mol­ecules are stacked in an efficient manner, with π–π contacts characterized by a short separation of 3.569 (1) Å between the benzene rings. PMID:27980810

  10. Effects of trimethylamine N-oxide and urea on DNA duplex and G-quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yu-mi; Zouzumi, Yu-ki; Maruyama, Atsushi; Nakano, Shu-ichi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Miyoshi, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We systematically investigated effects of molecular crowding with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a zwitterionic and protective osmolyte and urea as a nonionic denaturing osmolyte on conformation and thermodynamics of the canonical DNA duplex and the non-canonical DNA G-quadruplex. It was found that TMAO and urea stabilized and destabilized, respectively, the G-quadruplex. On the other hand, these osmolytes generally destabilize the duplex; however, it was observed that osmolytes having the trimethylamine group stabilized the duplex at the lower concentrations because of a direct binding to a groove of the duplex. These results are useful not only to predict DNA structures and their thermodynamics under physiological environments in living cells, but also design of polymers and materials to regulate structure and stability of DNA sequences. PMID:27933115

  11. Redetermination of 2-methyl-4-nitro­pyridine N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Max; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    An improved crystal structure of the title compound, C6H6N2O3, is reported. The structure, previously solved [Li et al. (1987 ▶). Jiegou Huaxue (Chin. J. Struct. Chem.), 6, 20–24] in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pca21 and refined to R = 0.067, has been solved in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pbcm with data of enhanced quality, giving an improved structure (R = 0.0485). The mol­ecule adopts a planar conformation with all atoms lying on a mirror plane. The crystal structure is composed of mol­ecular sheets extending parallel to the ab plane and connected via C—H⋯O contacts involving ring H atoms and O atoms of the N-oxide and nitro groups, while van der Waals forces consolidate the stacking of the layers. PMID:24826136

  12. Protonation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is required for stabilization of RNA tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Denning, Elizabeth J; Thirumalai, D; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-12-31

    The osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes the tertiary but not the secondary structures of RNA. However, molecular dynamics simulations performed on the PreQ1 riboswitch showed that TMAO destabilizes the tertiary riboswitch structure, leading us to hypothesize that the presence of RNA could result in enhanced population of the protonated form, TMAOP. Constant pH replica exchange simulations showed that a percentage of TMAO is indeed protonated, thus contributing to the stability of the tertiary but not the secondary structure of PreQ1. TMAOP results in an unfavorable dehydration of phosphodiester backbone, which is compensated by electrostatic attraction between TMAOP and the phosphate groups. In addition, TMAOP interacts with specific sites in the tertiary RNA structure, mimicking the behavior of positively charged ions and of the PreQ1 ligand in stabilizing RNA. Finally, we predict that TMAO-induced stabilization of RNA tertiary structures should be strongly pH dependent.

  13. Restored mutant receptor:Corticoid binding in chaperone complexes by trimethylamine N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron L.; Elam, W. Austin; Johnson, Betty H.; Khan, Shagufta H.; Kumar, Raj; Thompson, E. Brad

    2017-01-01

    Without a glucocorticoid (GC) ligand, the transcription factor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is largely cytoplasmic, with its GC-binding domain held in high affinity conformation by a cluster of chaperones. Binding a GC causes serial dis- and re-associations with chaperones, translocation of the GR to the nucleus, where it binds to DNA sites and associates with coregulatory proteins and basic transcription complexes. Herein, we describe the effects of a potent protective osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), on a conditions-dependent “activation-labile” mutant GR (GRact/l), which under GR-activating conditions cannot bind GCs in cells or in cell cytosols. In both cells and cytosols, TMAO restores binding to GRact/l by stabilizing it in complex with chaperones. Cells bathed in much lower concentrations of TMAO than those required in vitro show restoration of GC binding, presumably due to intracellular molecular crowding effects. PMID:28301576

  14. Radical Chemistry and Cytotoxicity of Bioreductive 3-Substituted Quinoxaline Di-N-Oxides.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert F; Yadav, Pooja; Shinde, Sujata S; Hong, Cho R; Pullen, Susan M; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Wilson, William R; Hay, Michael P

    2016-08-15

    The radical chemistry and cytotoxicity of a series of quinoxaline di-N-oxide (QDO) compounds has been investigated to explore the mechanism of action of this class of bioreductive drugs. A series of water-soluble 3-trifluoromethyl (4-10), 3-phenyl (11-19), and 3-methyl (20-21) substituted QDO compounds were designed to span a range of electron affinities consistent with bioreduction. The stoichiometry of loss of QDOs by steady-state radiolysis of anaerobic aqueous formate buffer indicated that one-electron reduction of QDOs generates radicals able to initiate chain reactions by oxidation of formate. The 3-trifluoromethyl analogues exhibited long chain reactions consistent with the release of the HO(•), as identified in EPR spin trapping experiments. Several carbon-centered radical intermediates, produced by anaerobic incubation of the QDO compounds with N-terminal truncated cytochrome P450 reductase (POR), were characterized using N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) and 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) spin traps and were observed by EPR. Experimental data were well simulated for the production of strongly oxidizing radicals, capable of H atom abstraction from methyl groups. The kinetics of formation and decay of the radicals produced following one-electron reduction of the parent compounds, both in oxic and anoxic solutions, were determined using pulse radiolysis. Back oxidation of the initially formed radical anions by molecular oxygen did not compete effectively with the breakdown of the radical anions to form oxidizing radicals. The QDO compounds displayed low hypoxic selectivity when tested against oxic and hypoxic cancer cell lines in vitro. The results from this study form a kinetic description and explanation of the low hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity of QDOs against cancer cells compared to the related benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (BTO) class of compounds.

  15. Comparative studies on the cumene hydroperoxide- and NADPH-supported N-oxidation of 4-chloroaniline by cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Hlavica, P; Golly, I; Mietaschk, J

    1983-06-15

    The present study confirms that cytochrome P-450 can act as a catalyst in the cumene hydroperoxide-supported N-oxidation of 4-chloroaniline. Analogous to the NADPH/O2-driven N-oxidation process, product dissociation is likely to limit the overall rate of cytochrome P-450 cycling also in the peroxidatic pathway. The oxy complexes involved in either metabolic route differ with respect to stability, spectral properties and need for thiolate-mediated resonance stabilization. With the organic hydroperoxide, the metabolic profile is shifted from the preponderant production of N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine to the formation of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene. This finding suggests that the peroxide-sustained N-oxidation mechanism differs in several ways from that functional in the NADPH/O2-dependent oxenoid reaction. Thus one-electron oxidation, triggered by homolytic cleavage of the oxygen donor, is proposed as the mechanism of peroxidatic transformation of 4-chloroaniline.

  16. DFT study on the oxygen transfer mechanism in nitroethenediamine based H2-receptor antagonists using the bis-dithiolene complex as the model catalyst for N-oxide reductase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Dhaked, Devendra K; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2015-01-01

    Nitroethenediamine is an important functional unit, which is present in H2-receptor antagonists. These drugs show low bioavailability due to the bacterial degradation caused by the N-oxide reductase type of enzymes present in the human colon. Quantum chemical studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanism of metabolic degradation of nitroethenediamine in the active site of N-oxide reductase. Three different pathways have been explored for the N-oxide bond cleavage by the model system, Mo(IV) bis-dithiolene complex [Mo(OMe)(mdt)2](-), (where mdt=1,2-dimethyl-ethene-1,2-dithiolate) using B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and M06/6-311+G(d,p) Density Functional Theory methods. The oxygen atom transfer from the nitrogen atom of nitroethenediamine to the Mo(IV) complex, involves simultaneous weakening of the N-oxide bond and the formation of Mo-O bond through a least motion path. During this transfer, Mo center is converted from a square pyramidal geometry to a distorted octahedral geometry, to facilitate the process of oxygen atom transfer. The energy barrier for the oxygen atom transfer from the imine tautomer has been estimated to be 25.9kcal/mol however, the overall reaction has been found to be endothermic. On the other hand, oxygen transfer reaction from the nitronic acid tautomer requires 30.5kcal/mol energy leading to a highly exothermic metabolite (M-1) directly hence, this path can be considered thermodynamically favorable for this metabolite. The alternative path involving the oxygen atom transfer from the enamine tautomer requires comparatively a higher energy barrier (32.6kcal/mol) and leads to a slightly endothermic metabolite. This study established the structural and energetic details associated with the Mo(IV) bis-dithiolene complex that catalyzes the degradation of nitroethenediamine based drug molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the simultaneous determination of brucine, strychnine and brucine N-oxide in rat plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei; Wang, Dongyue; Pan, Zihao; Liu, Xiao; Cai, Baochang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of brucine, strychnine and brucine N-oxide in rat plasma using huperzine A as an internal standard (IS) after protein precipitation with methanol. The analytes were separated on a Purospher® STAR RP18 UHPLC column (2 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) by gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Brucine, strychnine, brucine N-oxide and IS were detected in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode by means of an electrospray ionization interface (m/z 395.2 → 324.1, m/z 335.2 → 184.1, m/z 411.2 → 394.2, m/z 243.1 → 226.1). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 1-500 ng/mL for brucine and strychnine and 0.2-50 ng/mL for brucine N-oxide. The intra- and inter-day precisions of these analytes were all within 15% and the accuracy ranged from 85 to 115%. The stability experiment indicated that the plasma samples at three concentration levels were stable under different conditions. The developed method was successfully applied for the first time to pharmacokinetic studies of brucine, strychnine and brucine N-oxide following a single oral and intravenous administration of modified total alkaloid fraction in rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Structures and spectroscopic properties of Ni(II) and Mn(II) complexes based on 5-(3‧, 5‧-dicarboxylphenyl) picolinic acid ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qi; Song, Jin-Ping; Su, Feng; Guo, Jun-Mei; Guo, Yong; Dong, Chuan

    2016-05-01

    Two novel complexes including [Ni(Hdcppa)(H2O)4] (1) and {[Mn3(dcppa)2(H2O)6]·2H2O}n (2) have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray structure analysis and elemental analysis. Results show that 1 is a mononuclear nickel(II) compound with octahedron coordination geometry, while 2 is a stairs-like 2D layer structure consisting of the trinuclear MnII units linked through dcppa3-. Spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the complexes 1-2 have also been studied in dimethyl sulfoxide solution at room temperature.

  19. The effects of dietary supplementation with chromium picolinate throughout gestation on productive performance, Cr concentration, serum parameters, and colostrum composition in sows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Zhan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Su, Binchao; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic) on productive performance, chromium (Cr) concentration, serum parameters, and colostrum composition in sows. Thirty Yorkshire sows were bred with semen from a pool of Landrace boars. The sows were equally grouped and treated with either a diet containing 0 (control) or 400 ppb dietary Cr supplementation throughout gestation. The sows received the same basal diet based on corn-DDGS meal. Supplemental CrPic increased (P < 0.05) the sow body mass gain from the insemination to the day 110 of gestation in sows. No differences (P > 0.50) were observed in the gestation interval, sow mass, and backfat at insemination, after farrowing, at weaning and lactation loss. The number of piglets born alive, piglets per litter at weaning, and litter weaned mass were increased (P < 0.05) for those supplemented with CrPic compared with the control. However, the total number of piglets born, total born litter mass, average piglet birth body mass, born alive litter mass, and average born alive piglet mass did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05). The placental masses of sows were similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with CrPic throughout gestation in sows showed increased (P < 0.01) concentration of Cr in the colostrum or serum at days 70 and 110. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with CrPic throughout gestation in sows decreased (P < 0.05) the serum insulin concentration, the glucose or serum urea nitrogen concentration at days 70 and 110. However, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed in total protein concentration among treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed in total solids, protein, fat or lactose among sows fed the diets supplemented with CrPic compared with the control. This exciting finding provides evidence for an increase in mass gain and live-born piglets in sows

  20. Determination of Methylamines and Trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter by non-suppressed ion chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An ion chromatography method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of methylamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine) and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter air samples. The analytes were well separated by means of cation-exch...

  1. Biotransformation of prochiral 2-phenyl-1,3-di(4-pyridyl)-2-propanol to a chiral N-oxide metabolite.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M A; Williams, T H; Kolis, S J; Postma, E; Sasso, G J

    1978-01-01

    The prochiral compound, 2-phenyl-1,3-di(4-pyridyl)-2-propanol (PPP) labeled with 3H in the phenyl ring, was administered to rats, dogs, and a human subject. Paper chromatography of the urine indicated that a major metabolite common to all three species was excreted. This metabolite was isolated from the urine of chronically dosed dogs and was identified by mass, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and infrared spectrometry as the N-oxide, 2-phenyl-1-(4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-2-propanol. In addition, polarimetry indicated that this metabolite was levorotatory. Examination of the enantiomeric purity of a crystallized sample of the metabolite by NMR spectroscopy of resolvable diastereomeric salts formed with lasalocid revealed the presence of only the levorotatory enantiomer. Accordingly, this metabolic N-oxide formation in the dog was at least stereoselective, and perhaps stereospecific. The N-oxidation of PPP was also demonstrated in vitro with 9000 g supernatant fraction of rat liver fortified with an NADPH generating system, and this reaction was inducible by phenobarbital, indicating that it is mediated by the cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase system. This study, in addition to providing another example of the pyridyl N-oxidation pathway, illustrates the necessity of considering the stereochemical aspects of the metabolism of prochiral drugs.

  2. A DFT computational study of the molecular mechanism of [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions between nitroethene and benzonitrile N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Jasiński, Radomir; Jasińska, Ewa; Dresler, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    DFT calculations were performed to shed light on the molecular mechanism of [3 + 2] cycloadditions of simple conjugated nitroalkenes to benzonitrile N-oxides. In particular, it was found that these processes proceed by a one-step mechanism through asynchronous transition states. According to the latest terminology, they should be considered polar but not stepwise processes.

  3. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  4. Roflumilast n-oxide associated with PGE2 prevents the neutrophil elastase-induced production of chemokines by epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Victoni, Tatiana; Gicquel, Thomas; Bodin, Aude; Daude, Marion; Tenor, Hermann; Valença, Samuel; Devillier, Philippe; Porto, Luis Cristovão; Lagente, Vincent; Boichot, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis is involved in the lung inflammatory process in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neutrophil elastase (NE), one of the main proteases produced by neutrophils, has an important role in the inflammatory process via the release of chemokines from airway epithelial cells. It was recently shown that roflumilast N-oxide has therapeutic potential in COPD. The aim of the present study was to investigate roflumilast N-oxide's effect on NE-induced chemokine production and signaling pathways in A549 epithelial cells. A549 cells were incubated with NE for 30min, washed with PBS and then cultured for 2h (for measurement of mRNA expression) and 24h (for chemokine release) or for 5 to 30min (for protein phosphorylation assays). Prior to the addition of NE, cells were also pre-incubated with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), alone and in combination with roflumilast N-oxide. Addition of NE was associated with elevated chemokine production by A549 cells and induction of the p38α pathway. In contrast when combined with PGE2, the roflumilast N-oxide had an additive effect on the inhibition of NE-induced chemokine release and p38α and other kinases activation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NE is able to increase the release of chemokines from epithelial cells via the activation of p38α MAP-kinase and that roflumilast N-oxide when combined with PGE2 lowers NE-induced kinase activation and chemokine production.

  5. Experimental and Computational Evidence for the Reduction Mechanisms of Aromatic N-oxides by Aqueous Fe(II)-Tiron Complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiling; Dong, Hao; Zhang, Huichun

    2016-01-05

    A combined experimental-theoretical approach was taken to elucidate the reduction mechanisms of five representative aromatic N-oxides (ANOs) by Fe(II)-tiron complex and to identify the rate-limiting step. Based on the possible types of complexes formed with the reductant, three groups of ANOs were studied: type I refers to those forming 5-membered ring complexes through the N and O atoms on the side chain; type II refers to those forming 6-membered ring complexes through the N-oxide O atom and the O atom on the side chain; and type III refers to complexation through the N-oxide O atom only. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the elementary reactions, including protonation, N-O bond cleavage, and the second electron transfer processes, are barrierless, indicating that the first electron transfer is rate-limiting. Consistent with the theoretical results, the experimental solvent isotope effect, KIEH, for the reduction of quinoline N-oxide (a type III ANO) was obtained to be 1.072 ± 0.025, suggesting protonation was not involved in the rate-limiting step. The measured nitrogen kinetic isotope effect, KIEN, for the reduction of pyridine N-oxide (a type III ANO) (1.022 ± 0.006) is in good agreement with the calculated KIEN for its first electron transfer (1.011-1.028), confirming that the first electron transfer is rate-limiting. Electrochemical cell experiments demonstrated that the electron transfer process can be facilitated significantly by type I complexation with FeL2(6-) (1:2 Fe(II)-tiron complex), to some extent by type II complexation with free Fe(II), but not by weak type III complexation.

  6. Mechanistic investigation of trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction catalysed by biomimetic molybdenum enzyme models.

    PubMed

    Fortino, M; Marino, T; Russo, N; Sicilia, E

    2016-03-28

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of the reduction reaction mechanism of Me3NO using molybdenum containing systems that are functional and structural analogues of trimethylamine N-oxide reductase mononuclear molybdenum enzyme. The reactivity of the monooxomolybdenum(IV) benzenedithiolato complex and its derivatives to carbamoyl (t-BuNHCO) and acylamino (t-BuCONH) substituents on the benzene rings in both cis and trans arrangements was explored. The calculated energy profiles describing the steps of two mechanisms of attack considered viable (named cis- and trans-attack) by the Me3NO substrate at cis and trans positions with respect to the oxo ligand show that the attack on cis is energetically more favourable than the attack on trans. Along the pathway for the cis-attack the first step of the reaction, that is rate-determining for all the studied compounds, is the approach of the substrate to the Mo centre in cis to the oxo ligand that causes a distortion of the initial square-pyramidal geometry of the complex. The reaction steps involved in the trans position attack were also explored. Calculations confirm that, as previously suggested, the introduction of ligands able to form intramolecular NH···S hydrogen bonds accelerates the reduction of the Me3NO substrate and contributes to the tuning of the reactivity of molybdoenzyme models.

  7. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-Oxides: Biological Activities and Mechanisms of Actions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Sa, Wei; Cao, Chen; Guo, Liangliang; Hao, Haihong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and bacterial resistance have been found in QdNO antibacterial growth promoters, conferring urgent need for discovery of new QdNO drugs. However, the modes of actions of QdNOs are not fully understood, hindering the development and innovation of these promising compounds. Here, QdNOs are categorized based on the activities and usages, among which the antimicrobial activities are consist of antibacterial, antimycobacterial and anticandida activities, and the antiprotozoal activities include antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antitrichomonas, and antiamoebic activities. The structure-activity relationship and the mode of actions of each type of activity of QdNOs are summarized, and the toxicity and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, providing insight for the future research and development of these fascinating compounds. PMID:27047380

  8. Biogas production from N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreated forest residues.

    PubMed

    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz; Berg, Andreas; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona

    2014-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a great potential for biogas production. However, a suitable pretreatment is needed to improve their digestibility. This study investigates the effects of an organic solvent, N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) at temperatures of 120 and 90 °C, NMMO concentrations of 75 and 85% and treatment times of 3 and 15 h on the methane yield. The long-term effects of the treatment were determined by a semicontinuous experiment. The best results were obtained using 75% NMMO at 120 °C for 15 h, resulting in 141% increase in the methane production. These conditions led to a decrease by 9% and an increase by 8% in the lignin and in the carbohydrate content, respectively. During the continuous digestion experiments, a specific biogas production rate of 92 NmL/gVS/day was achieved while the corresponding rate from the untreated sample was 53 NmL/gVS/day. The operation conditions were set at 4.4 gVS/L/day organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days in both cases. NMMO pretreatment has substantially improved the digestibility of forest residues. The present study shows the possibilities of this pretreatment method; however, an economic and technical assessment of its industrial use needs to be performed in the future.

  9. Further investigations into the genotoxicity of quinoxaline-di-N-oxides and their primary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianying; Zhang, Jianwu; Luo, Xun; Ihsan, Awais; Liu, Xianglian; Dai, Menghong; Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-07-01

    Quinoxaline-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are potential antibacterial agents with a wide range of biological properties. Quinocetone (QCT), carbadox (CBX), olaquindox (OLA), mequindox (MEQ) and cyadox (CYA) are classical QdNOs. Though the genotoxicity of parent drugs has been evaluated, the genotoxicity of their primary N → O reduced metabolites remains unclear. In the present study, a battery of four different short-term tests, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA), Ames test, chromosomal aberration assay in vitro and bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus assay in vivo was carried out to investigate the genotoxicity of the six primary N → O reduced metabolites. Additionally, the genotoxicity of five parent drugs was evaluated by the MLA. Strong genotoxicity of N1-MEQ, B-MEQ and B-CBX was found in three of the assays but not in the Ames assay, and the rank order was N1-MEQ>B-MEQ>B-CBX that is consistent with prototype QdNOs. Negative results for the five QdNOs were noted in the MLA. We present for the first time a comparison of the genotoxicity of primary N → O reduced metabolites, and evaluate the ability of five QdNOs to cause mutations in the MLA. The present study demonstrates that metabolites are involved in genetic toxicity mediated by QdNOs, and improve the prudent use of QdNOs for public health.

  10. Trimethylamine N-oxide as a media supplement for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grace D; Fong, Jason V; Dunleavy, Neil; Joffe, Avrum; Ateshian, Gerard A; Hung, Clark T

    2012-12-01

    Supplements added to the culture media (e.g., growth factors and dexamethasone) have been successful in improving mechanical and biochemical properties of engineered cartilage towards native values. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a natural osmolyte found in shark cartilage, is thought to induce protein folding, and counteracts the destabilizing effect of the high concentrations of urea stored by sharks. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of TMAO as a media supplement for promoting growth of functional engineered cartilage in culture. In the first study, TMAO was added to the culture media for the first 14 days in culture and concentrations of 0-200 mM were evaluated. In the second study, TMAO was supplemented to the culture media following chondroitinase ABC digestion, which has been previously shown to mediate an increased collagen content in engineered cartilage. A dose-dependent response was observed with improved mechanical and biochemical properties for engineered constructs cultured with TMAO at concentrations of 5-100 mM. The Young's modulus of digested constructs cultured in TMAO was 2× greater than digested constructs cultured in the control medium and recovered to undigested control levels by day 42. In conclusion, these initial studies with TMAO as a media supplement show promise for improving the compressive mechanical properties, increasing extracellular matrix production, and increasing the recovery time following chABC digestion.

  11. Dietary trimethylamine N-oxide exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong; Wang, Yuming

    2014-10-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an oxidation product of trimethylamine (TMA) and is present in many aquatic foods. Here, we investigated the effects of TMAO on glucose tolerance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the control, high fat (HF), and TMAO groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, and the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary TMAO increased fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and exacerbated the impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signal pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis and glucose transport in liver. mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine MCP-1 increased significantly and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 greatly decreased in adipose tissue. Our results suggest that dietary TMAO exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance, obstructs the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, and causes adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a high fat diet.

  12. Amidinoquinoxaline N-oxides: spin trapping of O- and C-centered radicals.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Nadia; Orelli, Liliana R; Cipolletti, Roberto; Stipa, Pierluigi

    2017-09-05

    Amidinoquinoxaline N-oxides represent a novel family of heterocyclic spin traps. In this work, their ability to trap O- and C-centered radicals was tested using selected derivatives with different structural modifications. All the studied nitrones were able to trap radicals forming persistent spin adducts, also in the case of OH and OOH radicals which are of wide biological interest as examples of ROS. The stability of the adducts was mainly attributed to the wide delocalization of the unpaired electron over the whole quinoxaline moiety. The nitroxide spectral parameters (hfccs and g-factors) were analyzed and the results were supported by DFT calculations. The N-19 hfccs and g-factors were characteristic of each aminoxyl and could aid in the identification of the trapped radical. The enhanced stability of the OH adducts under the employed reaction conditions could be ascribed to their possible stabilization by IHBs with two different acceptors: the N-O˙ moiety or the amidine functionality. DFT calculations indicate that the preferred IHB is strongly conditioned by the amidine ring size. While five membered homologues show a clear preference for the IHB with the N-O˙ group, in six membered derivatives this stabilizing interaction is preferentially established with the amidine nitrogen as an IHB acceptor.

  13. Trypanocidal Activity of Quinoxaline 1,4 Di-N-oxide Derivatives as Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia E; Suarez-Contreras, Erick; Villalobos-Rocha, Juan Carlos; Torres-Martinez, Yuridia; Lara-Ramirez, Edgar E; Fiorani, Giulia; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Monge, Antonio; Rivera, Gildardo

    2017-02-01

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide public health problem. In this work, we evaluated 26 new propyl and isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as potential trypanocidal agents. Additionally, molecular docking and enzymatic assays on trypanothione reductase (TR) were performed to provide a basis for their potential mechanism of action. Seven compounds showed better trypanocidal activity on epimastigotes than the reference drugs, and only four displayed activity on trypomastigotes; T-085 was the lead compound with an IC50 = 59.9 and 73.02 µM on NINOA and INC-5 strain, respectively. An in silico analysis proposed compound T-085 as a potential TR inhibitor with better affinity than the natural substrate. Enzymatic analysis revealed that T-085 inhibits parasite TR non-competitively. Compound T-085 carries a carbonyl, a CF3, and an isopropyl carboxylate group at 2-, 3- and 7-position, respectively. These results suggest the chemical structure of this compound as a good starting point for the design and synthesis of novel trypanocidal derivatives with higher TR inhibitory potency and lower toxicity.

  14. Effects of the osmolyte TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide) on aqueous hydrophobic contact-pair interactions.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ryan D; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2013-12-31

    Osmolytes are small, soluble organic molecules produced by living organisms for maintaining cell volume. These molecules have also been shown to have significant effects on the stability of proteins. Perhaps one of the most studied osmolytes is Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Thermodynamic studies of the effects of TMAO on proteins have shown that this molecule is a strong stabilizer of the protein folded state, thus being able to counteract the effects of protein denaturants such as urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Most studies of TMAO effects on bio-molecular stability have until now been focused on how the osmolyte reduces the solubility of polypeptide backbones, while the effects of TMAO on hydrophobic interactions are still not well understood. In fact, there are few experimental data measuring the effect of TMAO on hydrophobic interactions. This work studies phenyl and alkyl contact pairs as model hydrophobic contact pairs. The formation of these contact pairs is monitored using fluorescence, i.e., through the quenching of phenol fluorescence by carboxylate ions; and a methodology is developed to isolate hydrophobic contributions from other interactions. The data demonstrate that the addition of TMAO to the aqueous solvent destabilizes hydrophobic contact pairs formed between alkyl and phenyl moieties. In other words, TMAO acts as a "denaturant" for hydrophobic interactions.

  15. Crucial importance of water structure modification on trimethylamine N-oxide counteracting effect at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2013-01-17

    Penetration of water molecules into the protein interior under high hydrostatic pressure conditions, leading to protein structural transition, is a well-known phenomenon. The counteracting effect of a naturally occurring osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), against pressure-induced protein denaturation is also well-established. But, what is largely unknown is the mechanism by which TMAO counteracts this protein denaturation. So to provide a molecular level understanding of how TMAO protects proteins at high pressure, we report here molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation results for aqueous solutions of N-methylacetamide (NMA) with different TMAO concentrations over a wide range of pressures relevant to protein denaturation. Hydration behavior of NMA is analyzed at different conditions chosen. It is observed that hydrostatic pressure leads to a significant compression of hydration shell of nonpolar groups and increases hydration number. The compression is relatively insignificant in the vicinity of hydrogen bonding sites. TMAO can prevent pressure-induced enhanced hydration of NMA molecules. Interaction of TMAO with NMA and the structural and dynamical properties of water (site-site radial distribution function, coordination number, hydrogen-bond number, and lifetime) are also investigated to find the origin of the counteracting action of TMAO. Our results confirm that TMAO and pressure have counteracting effects on the water structural and dynamical properties, giving an explanation as to how TMAO counteracts pressure-conferred denaturation of proteins.

  16. Destruction of hydrogen bonds of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) aqueous solution by trimethylamine N-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Madhusudhana; Taha, Mohamed; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kumar, Awanish; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2012-06-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a compatible or protective osmolyte that stabilizes the protein native structure through non-bonding mechanism between TMAO and hydration surface of protein. However, we have shown here first time the direct binding mechanism for naturally occurring osmolyte TMAO with hydration structure of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), an isomer of polyleucine, and subsequent aggregation of PNIPAM. The influence of TMAO on lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM was investigated as a function of TMAO concentration at different temperatures by fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity (η), multi angle dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements. To address some of the basis for further analysis of FTIR spectra of PNIPAM, we have also measured FTIR spectra for the monomer of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) in deuterium oxide (D2O) as a function of TMAO concentration. Our experimental results purportedly elucidate that the LCST values decrease with increasing TMAO concentration, which is mainly contributing to the direct hydrogen bonding of TMAO with the water molecules that are bound to the amide (-CONH) functional groups of the PNIPAM. We believed that the present work may act as a ladder to reach the heights of understanding of molecular mechanism between TMAO and macromolecule.

  17. Measurement of trimethylamine-N-oxide by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Hazen, Jennie E.; Donahue, Lillian; Li, Xin-Min; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels in blood predict future risk for major adverse cardiac events including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Thus, the rapid determination of circulating TMAO concentration is of clinical interest. Here we report a method to measure TMAO in biological matrices by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with lower and upper limits of quantification of 0.05 and >200 µM, respectively. Spike and recovery studies demonstrate an accuracy at low (0.5 µM), mid (5 µM) and high (100 µM) levels of 98.2%, 97.3% and 101.6%, respectively. Additional assay performance metrics include intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variance of < 6.4% and < 9.9%, respectively, across the range of TMAO levels. Stability studies reveal TMAO in plasma is stable both during storage at −80 °C for 5 years and to multiple freeze thaw cycles. Fasting plasma normal range studies among apparently healthy subjects (n=349) shows a range of 0.73 – 126 µM, median (interquartile range) levels of 3.45 (2.25–5.79) µM, and increasing values with age. The LC/MS/MS based assay reported should be of value for further studies evaluating TMAO as a risk marker and for examining the effect of dietary, pharmacologic and environmental factors on TMAO levels. PMID:24704102

  18. A molecular mechanical study of complexes formed between 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and dinucleoside phosphates.

    PubMed Central

    Lybrand, T; Dearing, A; Weiner, P; Kollman, P

    1981-01-01

    Molecular mechanical calculations were done on complexes of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQO) with various dinucleoside phosphates [(ApT)2, (CpG)2, (GpC)2, and (TpA)2]. Models built using proflavine (uniform C3' endo sugar puckers) and acridine orange (mixed C3' endo (3'-5') C2' endo sugar puckers) dinucleoside phosphate X-ray structures were used in the calculations. Relative binding energies, complex geometries, and various intercalator orientations in the complexes were studied. The results suggest qualitatively different geometries for pyr-(3'-5')-pur and pur-(3'-5')-pyr sequences. Specifically, we find marked distortion in some of the complexes (i.e. there is not a parallel coplanar relationship between the base pairs and intercalator), distortion of the NQO nitro group from planarity in the complexes and mobility of NQO in the intercalation site. We suggest that experimental studies of NQO-dinucleoside phosphate complexes may reveal intercalation complexes which deviate substantially more from a nearly parallel coplanar arrangement of bases and intercalator than has been previously observed. PMID:6801629

  19. Structural mechanism for bacterial oxidation of oceanic trimethylamine into trimethylamine N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yang; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Dian; Wang, Peng; Sheng, Qi; Peng, Ming; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Su, Hai-Nan; Song, Xiao-Yan; Shi, Mei; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Xun, Lu-Ying; Chen, Yin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are widespread in the ocean and are important nitrogen source for bacteria. TMA monooxygenase (Tmm), a bacterial flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), is found widespread in marine bacteria and is responsible for converting TMA to TMAO. However, the molecular mechanism of TMA oxygenation by Tmm has not been explained. Here, we determined the crystal structures of two reaction intermediates of a marine bacterial Tmm (RnTmm) and elucidated the catalytic mechanism of TMA oxidation by RnTmm. The catalytic process of Tmm consists of a reductive half-reaction and an oxidative half-reaction. In the reductive half-reaction, FAD is reduced and a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate forms. In the oxidative half-reaction, this intermediate attracts TMA through electronic interactions. After TMA binding, NADP(+) bends and interacts with D317, shutting off the entrance to create a protected micro-environment for catalysis and exposing C4a-hydroperoxyflavin to TMA for oxidation. Sequence analysis suggests that the proposed catalytic mechanism is common for bacterial Tmms. These findings reveal the catalytic process of TMA oxidation by marine bacterial Tmm and first show that NADP(+) undergoes a conformational change in the oxidative half-reaction of FMOs.

  20. Direct preparation of N-quaternized and N-oxidized polycyclic azines by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling. An unequivocal isomer synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zoltewicz, J.A.; Cruskie, M.P. Jr.; Dill, C.D.

    1995-01-13

    The authors report several examples of unequivocal isomer preparations using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling to yield N-oxides and N-quaternized polycyclic azines. This approach serves as a model for such syntheses where selective N-quaternization, N-oxidation, or other types of N-functionalization of several rings is now possible in a regioncontrolled manner.

  1. Biosynthesis and identification of an N-oxide/N-glucuronide metabolite and first synthesis of an N-O-glucuronide metabolite of Lu AA21004.

    PubMed

    Uldam, Henriette Kold; Juhl, Martin; Pedersen, Henrik; Dalgaard, Lars

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the biosynthesis and identification of a new class of metabolites, a piperazine N-oxide/N-glucuronide metabolite 4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-1-β-D-glucuronic acid-piperazine 1-oxide (4). The metabolite was found in urine and plasma from humans and animals dosed with 1-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazine hydrobromide (Lu AA21004, 1), as a novel multimodal antidepressant under development for treatment of depression. Human liver microsomes in combination with uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid were used as an in vitro system to generate enough material of 4 to perform one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments for structure elucidation. Based on rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy NMR experiments, the distance correlation between a piperazine proton and the anomeric proton of the glucuronic acid moiety is of a magnitude similar to that of the H-3' and H-5' protons and can only be explained by proximity in space and the postulated structure (4). The structural analog, the N-O-glucuronic acid conjugate 6-{4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazin-1-yloxy}-1-β-D-glucuronic acid (3) was also observed in biological samples from humans and animals and the first organic synthesis and structural identification of this metabolite is also reported. Treatment of the glucuronide metabolites 3 and 4 with β-glucuronidase gave mainly the expected hydrolysis product, the hydroxyl amine 4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazin-1-ol (2).

  2. Analysis of Swainsonine and Swainsonine N-Oxide as Trimethylsilyl Derivatives by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Their Relative Occurrence in Plants Toxic to Livestock.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Dale R; Cook, Daniel

    2016-08-10

    There are limited data concerning the occurrence of swainsonine N-oxide in plants known to contain swainsonine and its relative impact on toxicity of the plant material. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method based on a solvent partitioning extraction procedure followed by trimethylsilylation and analysis using reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of swainsonine and its N-oxide. The concentrations of each were measured in several swainsonine-containing taxa as well as two endophytic isolates that produce swainsonine. In vegetative samples the relative percent of N-oxide to free base ranged from 0.9 to 18%. In seed samples the N-oxide to free base ratio ranged from 0 to 10%. The measured concentrations of swainsonine N-oxide relative to swainsonine only slightly increases the actual toxicity of the various plant samples in a combined assay of both compounds.

  3. Short-term high-fat diet increases postprandial trimethylamine-N-oxide in humans.

    PubMed

    Boutagy, Nabil E; Neilson, Andrew P; Osterberg, Kristin L; Smithson, Andrew T; Englund, Tessa R; Davy, Brenda M; Hulver, Matthew W; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiota plays an obligatory role in the metabolism of nutrients containing trimethylamine moieties, such as L-carnitine and choline, leading to the production of the proatherogenic trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We hypothesized that a short-term, high-fat diet would increase fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of TMAO in response to a high-fat meal challenge. Following a 2-week eucaloric control diet, 10 nonobese men (18-30 years) consumed a eucaloric, high-fat diet (55% fat) for 5 days. Plasma TMAO was measured after a 12-hour fast and each hour after for 4 hours following a high-fat meal (63% fat) at baseline and after the high-fat diet using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. Fasting plasma TMAO did not increase significantly following the high-fat diet (1.83 ± 0.21 vs 1.6 ± 0.24 μmol/L). However, plasma TMAO was higher at hour 1 (2.15 ± 0.28 vs 1.7 ± 0.30 μmol/L), hour 2 (2.3 ± 0.29 vs 1.8 ± 0.32 μmol/L), hour 3 (2.4 ± 0.34 vs 1.58 ± 0.19 μmol/L), and hour 4 (2.51 ± 0.33 vs 1.5 ± 0.12 μmol/L) (all P < .05) following the high-fat diet as compared with the baseline postprandial response. In conclusion, a short-term, high-fat diet does not increase fasting plasma TMAO concentrations but appears to increase postprandial TMAO concentrations in healthy, nonobese, young men. Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms responsible for these observations.

  4. Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

  5. Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-11-16

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor.

  6. Singular efficacy of trimethylamine N-oxide to counter protein destabilization in ice.

    PubMed

    Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita

    2008-03-18

    This study reports the first quantitative estimate of the thermodynamic stability (Delta G degrees ) of a protein in low-temperature partly frozen aqueous solutions in the presence of the protective osmolytes trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), glycine betaine, and sarcosine. The method, based on guanidinium chloride denaturation of the azurin mutant C112S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, distinguishes between the deleterious effects of subfreezing temperatures from those due specifically to the formation of a solid ice phase. The results point out that in the liquid state molar concentrations of these osmolytes stabilize significantly the native fold and that their effect is maintained on cooling to -15 degrees C. At this temperature, freezing of the solution in the absence of any additive causes a progressive destabilization of the protein, Delta G degrees decreasing up to 3-4 kcal/mol as the fraction of liquid water in equilibrium with ice ( V L) is reduced to less than 1%. The ability of the three osmolytes to prevent the decrease in protein stability at small V L varies significantly among them, ranging from the complete inertness of sarcosine to full protection by TMAO. The singular effectiveness of TMAO among the osmolytes tested until now is maintained high even at concentrations as low as 0.1 M when the additive stabilization of the protein in the liquid state is negligible. In all cases the reduction in Delta G degrees caused by the solidification of water correlates with the decrease in m-value entailing that protein-ice interactions generally conduct to partial unfolding of the native state. It is proposed that the remarkable effectiveness of TMAO to counter the ice perturbation is owed to binding of the osmolyte to ice, thereby inhibiting protein adsorption to the solid phase.

  7. Effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide on pressure-induced dissolution of hydrophobic solute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the effects of increasing trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentration on the pressure-induced dissolution of hydrophobic solutes immersed in water. Such systems are of interest mainly because pressure increases the dissolution of hydrophobic protein interior causing protein denaturation and TMAO acts to offset the protein denaturing effect of high hydrostatic pressures. In view of this, in this study, methane molecules are considered as model hydrophobic molecules and simulations are performed for four independent TMAO solutions each at four different pressures ranging from 2 to 8 kbar. From potentials of mean force calculations, it is found that application of pressure reduces the free energy difference between contact minimum (CM) and solvent-separated (SSM) minimum of hydrophobic solute, suggesting dissolution at high pressures. TMAO, on the other hand, increases the relative stability of CM state of methane molecules relative to its SSM state. High packing efficiency of water molecules around the hydrophobic solute at high pressure is observed. Also observed are TMAO-induced enhancement of water structure and direct hydrogen-bonding interaction between TMAO and water and the correlated dehydration of hydrophobic solute. From hydrogen bond properties and dynamics calculations, it is observed that pressure increases average number of water-water hydrogen bonds while reduces their life-times. In contrast, TMAO reduces water-water hydrogen bonding but enhances their life-times. These results suggest that TMAO can reduce water penetration into the protein interior by enhancing water structure and also forming hydrogen bonds with water and hence counteracts protein unfolding.

  8. Association between microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhilei; Sun, Taoping; Huang, Hao; Chen, Sijing; Chen, Liangkai; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Yang, Xuefeng; Yao, Ping; Cheng, Jinquan; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2017-09-01

    Background: The association of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent.Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms.Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls. Concentrations of plasma TMAO were measured, and FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped.Results: Medians (IQRs) of plasma TMAO concentration were 1.47 μmol/L (0.81-2.20 μmol/L) for controls and 1.77 μmol/L (1.09-2.80 μmol/L) for type 2 diabetes cases. From the lowest to the highest quartiles of plasma TMAO, the multivariable adjusted ORs of type 2 diabetes were 1.00 (reference), 1.38 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.77), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.09), and 2.55 (95% CI: 1.99, 3.28) (P-trend < 0.001); each SD of ln-transformed plasma TMAO was associated with a 38% (95% CI: 26%, 51%) increment in ORs of type 2 diabetes. The FMO3 rs2266782 polymorphism was not associated with type 2 diabetes. The positive association between plasma TMAO and type 2 diabetes was consistent in each rs2266782 genotype group, and no significant interaction was observed (P = 0.093).Conclusions: Our results suggested that higher plasma TMAO was associated with increased odds of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that this association was not modified by the FMO3 rs2266782 polymorphism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03130894. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trimethylamine N-oxide Plasma Levels.

    PubMed

    Dambrova, M; Latkovskis, G; Kuka, J; Strele, I; Konrade, I; Grinberga, S; Hartmane, D; Pugovics, O; Erglis, A; Liepinsh, E

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong associations between systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. In addition, plasma L-carnitine levels in patients with high TMAO concentrations predicted an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and incident major adverse cardiac events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between TMAO and L-carnitine plasma levels and diabetes. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 and 20 weeks old db/db mice and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Diabetic compared to non-diabetic db/L mice presented 10-fold higher TMAO, but lower L-carnitine plasma concentrations at 12 weeks of age. After 8 weeks of observation, diabetic db/db mice had significantly increased body weight, insulin resistance and TMAO concentration in comparison to non-diabetic control. In 191 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention the median (interquartile range) plasma concentration of TMAO was 1.8 (1.2-2.6) µmol/L. Analysis of the samples showed a bivariate association of TMAO level with age, total cholesterol and L-carnitine. The multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, in addition to L-carnitine as the strongest predictor of log transformed TMAO (p<0.001), the parameters of age, diabetes status and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with increased log transformed TMAO levels (p<0.01).Our data provide evidence that age, diabetes and BMI are associated with higher TMAO levels independently of L-carnitine. These data support the hypothesis of TMAO as a cardiovascular risk marker and warrant further investigation of TMAO for diabetes research applications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. O2 -independent demethylation of trimethylamine N-oxide by Tdm of Methylocella silvestris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yijun; Ksibe, Amira Z; Schäfer, Hendrik; Blindauer, Claudia A; Bugg, Timothy D H; Chen, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) demethylase, Tdm, carries out an unusual oxygen-independent demethylation reaction, resulting in the formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and metal analyses by inorganic mass spectrometry have been applied to gain insight into metal stoichiometry and underlying catalytic mechanism of Tdm of Methylocella silvestris BL2. Herein, we demonstrate that active Tdm has 1 molar equivalent of Zn(2+) and 1 molar equivalent of non-haem Fe(2+) . We further investigated Zn(2+) - and Fe(2+) -binding sites through homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and found that Zn(2+) is coordinated by a 3-sulfur-1-O motif. An aspartate residue (D198) likely bridges Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) centres, either directly or indirectly via H-bonding through a neighbouring H2 O molecule. H276 contributes to Fe(2+) binding, mutation of which results in an inactive enzyme, and the loss of iron, but not zinc. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tdm also led to the identification of three hydrophobic aromatic residues likely involved in substrate coordination (F259, Y305, W321), potentially through a cation-π interaction. Furthermore, a crossover experiment using a substrate analogue gave direct evidence that a trimethylamine-alike intermediate was produced during the Tdm catalytic cycle, suggesting TMAO has a dual role of being both a substrate and an oxygen donor for formaldehyde formation. Together, our results provide novel insight into the role of Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) in the catalysis of TMAO demethylation by this unique oxygen-independent enzyme.

  11. Toxic effects of strychnine and strychnine N-oxide on zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Qi, Xu; Yang, Yu-Wei; Pan, Yang; Bian, Hui-Min

    2014-10-01

    The application of strychnine (S) is limited due to its toxicity; strychnine N-oxide (SNO) is a derivative of strychnine. The aim was to employ zebrafish embryos to investigate and compare the developmental toxicity induced by S and SNO. The toxicity of S and SNO was examined through the hatching rate and survival rate. Morphological changes of the zebrafish were observed with a dissecting microscope. Apoptosis was detected through acridine orange (AO) staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic genes were measured by RT-PCR. Embryo malformation was observed in the embryos exposed to S at 200 μmol·L(-1). When SNO concentration was increased to 1 mmol·L(-1), scoliolosis, and pericardial edema could be seen in some embryos. Results from fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis showed that S at 200 μmol·L(-1) induced apoptosis, whereas the apoptotic rate in the SNO-treated group (200 μmol·L(-1)) was much lower than that in the S group. RT-PCR analysis showed that p53 mRNA expression and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the S group were significantly altered compared with the control group (*P < 0.05). Moreover, Bax mRNA expression in both S and SNO group were significantly different from that in the control group (**P < 0.01). These results lead to the conclusion that SNO has significantly lower toxicity than S in zebrafish embryos. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship of Serum Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) Levels with early Atherosclerosis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Randrianarisoa, Elko; Lehn-Stefan, Angela; Wang, Xiaolin; Hoene, Miriam; Peter, Andreas; Heinzmann, Silke S; Zhao, Xinjie; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Königsrainer, Alfred; Balletshofer, Bernd; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Stefan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Circulating trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) levels predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly by impacting on cholesterol metabolism and oxidative stress. Because hepatic TMAO production is regulated by insulin signalling and it is unclear whether and to what extent circulating TMAO levels associate with CVD risk, independently of insulin resistance and its important determinants fatty liver and visceral obesity, we have now addressed this question in 220 subjects who participated in the Tübingen Lifestyle Intervention Program. Visceral fat mass (r = 0.40, p < 0.0001), liver fat content (r = 0.23, p = 0.0005) and TMAO levels (r = 0.26, p < 0.0001) associated positively, and insulin sensitivity associated negatively (r = −0.18, p = 0.009) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Higher TMAO levels (std.−Beta 0.11, p = 0.03) predicted increased cIMT, independently of age, sex and visceral fat mass. While during the lifestyle intervention most cardiovascular risk parameters improved, mean TMAO levels did not change (p = 0.18). However, cIMT decreased significantly (p = 0.0056) only in subjects in the tertile with the largest decrease of TMAO levels (>20%). We provide novel information that increased serum TMAO levels associate with increased cIMT, independently of established cardiovascular risk markers, including insulin resistance, visceral obesity and fatty liver. Furthermore, the decrease of cIMT during a lifestyle intervention may be related to the decrease of TMAO levels. PMID:27228955

  13. Effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide on pressure-induced dissolution of hydrophobic solute.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2012-09-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the effects of increasing trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentration on the pressure-induced dissolution of hydrophobic solutes immersed in water. Such systems are of interest mainly because pressure increases the dissolution of hydrophobic protein interior causing protein denaturation and TMAO acts to offset the protein denaturing effect of high hydrostatic pressures. In view of this, in this study, methane molecules are considered as model hydrophobic molecules and simulations are performed for four independent TMAO solutions each at four different pressures ranging from 2 to 8 kbar. From potentials of mean force calculations, it is found that application of pressure reduces the free energy difference between contact minimum (CM) and solvent-separated (SSM) minimum of hydrophobic solute, suggesting dissolution at high pressures. TMAO, on the other hand, increases the relative stability of CM state of methane molecules relative to its SSM state. High packing efficiency of water molecules around the hydrophobic solute at high pressure is observed. Also observed are TMAO-induced enhancement of water structure and direct hydrogen-bonding interaction between TMAO and water and the correlated dehydration of hydrophobic solute. From hydrogen bond properties and dynamics calculations, it is observed that pressure increases average number of water-water hydrogen bonds while reduces their life-times. In contrast, TMAO reduces water-water hydrogen bonding but enhances their life-times. These results suggest that TMAO can reduce water penetration into the protein interior by enhancing water structure and also forming hydrogen bonds with water and hence counteracts protein unfolding.

  14. Opinion controversy to chromium picolinate therapy’s safety and efficacy: ignoring ‘anecdotes’ of case reports or recognising individual risks and new guidelines urgency to introduce innovation by predictive diagnostics?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Due to the important physiologic function of trivalent chromium in glucose/insulin homeostasis, some commercial organisations promote Cr3+ supplements in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; regulation of reducing carbohydrate carvings and appetite; prevention of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance; regulation of body composition, including reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass; optimal body building for athletes; losing weight; treatment of atypical depression as an antidepressant; and prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On one hand, case reports are commented as ‘nonevidence-based anecdotes’. On the other hand, a number of independent studies warn against adverse health outcomes assigned to chromium picolinate (CrPic) dietary application. This review analyses opinion controversies, demonstrates highly individual reactions towards CrPic dietary supplements and highlights risks when the dietary supplements are used freely as therapeutic agents, without application of advanced diagnostic tools to predict individual outcomes. PMID:23039227

  15. The effects of dietary chromium(III) picolinate on growth performance, blood measurements, and respiratory rate in pigs kept in high and low ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L

    2009-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of thermal stress and dietary Cr on growth performance and physiological variables in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 54 pigs (BW of 5.95 +/- 0.84 kg) were allotted to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement using 2 ambient temperatures (23.7 or 40.5 degrees C during d 14 to 28 postweaning) and 3 dietary concentrations of Cr (0, 1,000, or 2,000 microg/kg) as Cr(III) picolinate. In Exp. 2, a total of 54 pigs (BW of 5.94 +/- 1.29 kg) were allotted in the same treatment arrangement but with different ambient temperatures (26.5 or 16.0 degrees C during d 14 to 26 postweaning). In Exp. 3, a total of 36 pigs (BW of 6.40 +/- 0.72 kg) were allotted in the same treatment arrangement with ambient temperatures of 25.9 or 13.8 degrees C during d 14 to 28 postweaning. During d 0 to 14 of all experiments, a neutral ambient temperature (NT) was maintained. In Exp. 1, pigs in high ambient temperature (HT) gained less BW (575 vs. 663 g/d; P < 0.001) and consumed less feed (926 vs. 1,074 g/d; P = 0.001) than pigs in NT during d 14 to 28. However, G:F was not affected by ambient temperature (0.623 vs. 0.618 g/g; P = 0.702). Dietary Cr had no effect on growth performance. Pigs in HT had less plasma cortisol (42.0 vs. 53.7 ng/mL; P = 0.012) and glucose (6.68 vs. 6.96 ng/mL; P = 0.018). Respiratory rate of pigs in HT was greater compared with the pigs in NT (114.6 vs. 65.0 breaths/min; P < 0.001) on d 27. In Exp. 2 and 3 (pooled), pigs in low ambient temperature (LT) had decreased G:F (0.636 vs. 0.663 g/g; P < 0.01) associated with a tendency toward a greater ADFI (1,026 vs. 942 g; P = 0.079) during d 14 to 26 (28). Ambient temperature or dietary Cr supplementation had no effect on blood measurements. In Exp. 3, the respiratory rate measured on d 22 and 27 was less (43.2 vs. 54.2 breaths/min and 42.2 vs. 57.0 breaths/min, respectively; P < 0.001) in the pigs in LT than the pigs in NT with no effects of dietary Cr supplementation

  16. Characterization of in vitro metabolites of methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV): An N-oxide metabolite formation mediated by flavin monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Sook; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choi, Min Sun; Jang, Moonhee; Yang, Wonkyung; Kim, Eunmi; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-11-30

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has emerged in recent years as a recreational substance with psychostimulant properties. In this study, in vitro metabolites of MDPV were characterized based on liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF MS). MDPV was incubated with human liver microsomes, human recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes and flavin monooxygenase (FMO). MDPV was metabolized to yield eight metabolites (M1-M8) with major metabolic reactions such as demethylenation and oxidation. Among them, M6 was assigned as an N-oxide metabolite. FMO was found to be a principal enzyme responsible for the formation of M6; FMO1 and FMO3 were the main enzymes involved in N-oxidation of MDPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of Quinoxaline-2-Carboxylate 1,4-Di-N-Oxide Derivatives in Experimental Tuberculosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Esther; Villar, Raquel; Burguete, Asunción; Solano, Beatriz; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Maddry, Joseph A.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang-hyun; Monge, Antonio; Goldman, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro efficacies of the 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has led to the discovery of a derivative with in vivo efficacy in the mouse model of tuberculosis. Quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives were tested in vitro against a broad panel of single-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The susceptibilities of these strains to some compounds were comparable to those of strain H37Rv, as indicated by the ratios of MICs for resistant and nonresistant strains, supporting the premise that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxaline derivatives have a novel mode of action unrelated to those of the currently used antitubercular drugs. Specific derivatives were further evaluated in a series of in vivo assays, including evaluations of the maximum tolerated doses, the levels of oral bioavailability, and the efficacies in a low-dose aerosol model of tuberculosis in mice. One compound, ethyl 7-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-dioxide, was found to be (i) active in reducing CFU counts in both the lungs and spleens of infected mice following oral administration, (ii) active against PA-824-resistant Mycobacterium bovis, indicating that the pathway of bioreduction/activation is different from that of PA-824 (a bioreduced nitroimidazole that is in clinical trials), and (iii) very active against nonreplicating bacteria adapted to low-oxygen conditions. These data indicate that 1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalines hold promise for the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:18625764

  18. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide impaired the maternal care and the physical and behavioral development of offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2014-08-01

    Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been reported as contaminants of pastures and food, as well as being used in herbal medicine. PAs are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of this present study was to evaluate effects of prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide, the main PA found in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, on both physical and behavioral parameters of Wistar rat offspring. The toxicity and maternal behavior were also evaluated. For this, pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the BR of Senecio brasiliensis, by gavage, on gestational days 6-20 (during organogenesis and fetal development period) at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During treatment, maternal body weight gain, and food and water intake were evaluated. After parturition, maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior were analyzed. In addition, physical development and behavioral assessments were observed in both male and female pups. Results showed that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide of S. brasiliensis induced maternal toxicity, impairment in maternal behavior and aggressive maternal behavior, mainly in the highest dose group. Between sexes comparison of pups showed loss of body weight, delayed physical development such as pinna detachment, hair growth, eruption of incisor teeth, eye and vaginal openings. These pups also showed a delay of palmar grasp, surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis and auditory startle reflexes. Thus, prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide induces maternal toxicity, impairment of maternal care and delayed in physical and behavioral development of the offspring.

  19. Ab initio studies of molecular structures, conformers and vibrational spectra of heterocyclic organics: I. Nicotinamide and its N-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Jaiswal, S.; Singh, R.; Srivastav, G.; Singh, P.; Yadav, T. N.; Yadav, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    FTIR spectra of nicotinamide and its N-oxide have been recorded and analyzed in the range 400-4000 cm -1. The stabilities, optimized molecular geometries, APT charges and vibrational characteristics for the two possible conformers of nicotinamide and its N-oxide have been studied theoretically using restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The E (trans) conformers of nicotinamide and its N-oxide are found to be more stable and less polar than their respective Z (cis) conformers. Due to addition of an O atom at the N 1 site in the NA molecule the magnitudes of atomic charges on all the H atomic sites are found to increase. For all the studied molecules, magnitude of the wagging mode of the NH 2 group is found to be higher than its torsion mode, which is in the reverse order as compared to that for the aniline molecule. Most of the vibrational frequencies have nearly the same magnitude for the two conformers of nicotinamide and its N-oxide, however, significant changes are noticed in their IR intensities, Raman activities and depolarization ratios of the Raman bands. The frequency of the ring breathing mode for the NA molecule is found to decrease by 100 cm -1 in going to the NANO molecule for both the conformers. The IR intensity for the scissoring mode of the CON(H 2) group is found to decrease significantly for the NA-II conformer as compared to that for the NA-I conformer.

  20. Synthetic and Mechanistic Aspects of the Regioselective Base-Mediated Reaction of Perfluoroalkyl- and Perfluoroarylsilanes with Heterocyclic N-Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, David E.; Chavez, Gabriel; Valdes, Martin; Dovalina, Monica; Arman, Hadi D.

    2014-01-01

    The scope and mechanistic implications of the direct transformation of heterocyclic N-oxides to 2-trifluoromethyl-, and related perfluoroalkyl- and perfluoroaryl-substituted N-heterocycles has been studied. The reaction is effected by perfluoroalkyl- and perfluorophenyltrimethylsilane in the presence of strong base. In situ displacement of the para-fluoro substituent in the pentafluorophenyl ring and the methoxy group in 8-methoxyquinolines with additional nucleophiles allows for further site-selective refunctionalization of the N-heterocyclic products. PMID:24993899

  1. Mode of action of poly(vinylpyridine-N-oxide) in preventing silicosis: Effective scavenging of carbonate anion radical

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.; Czapski, G.; Heller, A.

    2006-01-15

    Inhalation of quartz crystallites causes silicosis, a devastating lung disease afflicting miners, particularly coal and stone workers. Poly(vinylpyridine-N-oxide)s (PVPNOs) have been applied in the prevention and treatment of silicosis, but their mode of action has been obscure. Here, we show that PVPNOs do not react with peroxynitrite but scavenge exceptionally rapidly carbonate radicals, which are produced in the decomposition of ONOO- in bicarbonate solutions.

  2. Unimolecular decomposition of tetrazine-N-oxide based high nitrogen content energetic materials from excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Guo, Y. Q.; Bernstein, E. R.

    2009-11-01

    Unimolecular excited electronic state decomposition of novel high nitrogen content energetic molecules, such as 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)-mixed N-oxides (DAATO3.5), 3-amino-6-chloro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-2,4-dioxide (ACTO), and 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-1,4-dioxde (DATO), is investigated. Although these molecules are based on N-oxides of a tetrazine aromatic heterocyclic ring, their decomposition behavior distinctly differs from that of bare tetrazine, in which N2 and HCN are produced as decomposition products through a concerted dissociation mechanism. NO is observed to be an initial decomposition product from all tetrazine-N-oxide based molecules from their low lying excited electronic states. The NO product from DAATO3.5 and ACTO is rotationally cold (20 K) and vibrationally hot (1200 K), while the NO product from DATO is rotationally hot (50 K) and vibrationally cold [only the (0-0) vibronic transition of NO is observed]. DAATO3.5 and ACTO primarily differ from DATO with regard to molecular structure, by the relative position of oxygen atom attachment to the tetrazine ring. Therefore, the relative position of oxygen in tetrazine-N-oxides is proposed to play an important role in their energetic behavior. N2O is ruled out as an intermediate precursor of the NO product observed from all three molecules. Theoretical calculations at CASMP2/CASSCF level of theory predict a ring contraction mechanism for generation of the initial NO product from these molecules. The ring contraction occurs through an (S1/S0)CI conical intersection.

  3. The N-substitution and N-oxidation effects on the carbon-13 chemical shift of some substituted anilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Salim Y.

    1992-10-01

    The N-substitution and the N-oxidation effects on the carbon-13 chemical shift for all ring carbons of some substituted anilines are discussed. Correlation of the N-substitution effect with substituent constants by means of a linear combination of two empirical parameters, σ I and σ R has been studied. The best correlation was obtained between the N-methylation effect and the substituent constants.

  4. Biochemical behavior of N-oxidized cytosine and adenine bases in DNA polymerase-mediated primer extension reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Hirosuke; Kudo, Tomomi; Masaki, Yoshiaki; Ohkubo, Akihiro; Seio, Kohji; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the biochemical behavior of 2′-deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates and oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing cytosine N-oxide (Co) and adenine N-oxide (Ao), we examined their base recognition ability in DNA duplex formation using melting temperature (Tm) experiments and their substrate specificity in DNA polymerase-mediated replication. As the result, it was found that the Tm values of modified DNA–DNA duplexes incorporating 2′-deoxyribonucleoside N-oxide derivatives significantly decreased compared with those of the unmodified duplexes. However, single insertion reactions by DNA polymerases of Klenow fragment (KF) (exo−) and Vent (exo−) suggested that Co and Ao selectively recognized G and T, respectively. Meanwhile, the kinetic study showed that the incorporation efficiencies of the modified bases were lower than those of natural bases. Ab initio calculations suggest that these modified bases can form the stable base pairs with the original complementary bases. These results indicate that the modified bases usually recognize the original bases as partners for base pairing, except for misrecognition of dATP by the action of KF (exo−) toward Ao on the template, and the primers could be extended on the template DNA. When they misrecognized wrong bases, the chain could not be elongated so that the modified base served as the chain terminator. PMID:21300642

  5. Monitoring Serum Levels of Sorafenib and Its N-Oxide Is Essential for Long-Term Sorafenib Treatment of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Miki; Okawa, Hoshimi; Kondo, Yasuteru; Maejima, Takahiro; Kataoka, Yuta; Hisamichi, Kanehiko; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Matsuura, Masaki; Jin, Yuko; Mori, Masaru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Mano, Nariyasu

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, is the final therapy prior to palliative care for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, due to its adverse effects, 20% of patients must discontinue sorafenib within 1 month after first administration. To identify ways to predict the adverse effects and administer the drug for longer periods, we explored the relationship between the duration of sorafenib treatment and the pharmacokinetics of sorafenib and its major metabolite, sorafenib N-oxide. Twenty-five subjects enrolled in the study were divided into two groups: patients with dosage reduced or withdrawn due to adverse effects (n = 8), and patients with dosage maintained for 1 month after initial administration (n = 17). We evaluated early sorafenib accumulation as the area under the curve of sorafenib and sorafenib N-oxide concentrations during days 1-7 (AUC(sorafenib) and AUC(N-oxide), respectively). Inter-group comparison revealed that AUC(N-oxide) and AUC ratio (AUC(N-oxide)/AUC(sorafenib)) were significantly higher in the dosage reduction/withdrawal group (P = 0.031 and P = 0.0022, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that AUC(N-oxide) and AUC ratio were reliable predictors of adverse effects. When patients were classified by cut-off points (AUC(N-oxide:) 2.0 μg ∙ day/mL, AUC ratio: 0.13), progression-free survival was significantly longer in patients with AUC(N-oxide) ≤ 2.0 μg ∙ day/mL (P = 0.0048, log-rank test). In conclusion, we recommend to simultaneously monitor serum levels of sorafenib and its N-oxide during the early stage after the first administration, which enables us to provide safe and long-term therapy for each HCC patient with sorafenib.

  6. Decreasing urea∶trimethylamine N-oxide ratios with depth in chondrichthyes: a physiological depth limit?

    PubMed

    Laxson, Carrie J; Condon, Nicole E; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Yancey, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    In marine osmoconformers, cells use organic osmolytes to maintain osmotic balance with seawater. High levels of urea are utilized in chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras) for this purpose. Because of urea's perturbing nature, cells also accumulate counteracting methylamines, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), at about a 2∶1 urea∶methylamine ratio, the most thermodynamically favorable mixture for protein stabilization, in shallow species. However, previous work on deep-sea teleosts (15 species) and chondrichthyans (three species) found an increase in muscle TMAO content and a decrease in urea content in chondrichthyans with depth. We hypothesized that TMAO counteracts protein destabilization resulting from hydrostatic pressure, as is demonstrated in vitro. Chondrichthyans are almost absent below 3,000 m, and we hypothesized that a limitation in urea excretion and/or TMAO retention might play a role. To test this, we measured the content of major organic osmolytes in white muscle of 13 chondrichthyan species caught with along-contour trawls at depths of 50-3,000 m; the deepest species caught was from 2,165 m. Urea and TMAO contents changed significantly with depth, with urea∶TMAO declining from 2.96 in the shallowest (50-90 m) groups to 0.67 in the deepest (1,911-2,165 m) groups. Urea content was 291-371 mmol/kg in the shallowest group and 170-189 mmol/kg in the deepest group, declining linearly with depth and showing no plateau. TMAO content was 85-168 mmol/kg in the shallowest group and 250-289 mmol/kg in the deepest groups. With data from a previous study for a skate at 2,850 m included, a second-order polynomial fit suggested a plateau at the greatest depths. When data for skates (Rajidae) were analyzed separately, a sigmoidal fit was suggested. Thus, the deepest chondrichthyans may be unable to accumulate sufficient TMAO to counteract pressure; however, deeper-living specimens are needed to fully test this hypothesis.

  7. Roflumilast N-oxide inhibits bronchial epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by cigarette smoke in smokers with COPD.

    PubMed

    Milara, Javier; Peiró, Teresa; Serrano, Adela; Guijarro, Ricardo; Zaragozá, Cristóbal; Tenor, Herman; Cortijo, Julio

    2014-08-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is under discussion as a potential mechanism of small airway remodelling in COPD. In bronchial epithelium of COPD and smokers markers of EMT were described. In vitro, EMT may be reproduced by exposing well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (WD-HBEC) to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). EMT may be mitigated by an increase in cellular cAMP. This study explored the effects of roflumilast N-oxide, a PDE4 inhibitor on CSE-induced EMT in WD-HBEC and in primary bronchial epithelial cells from smokers and COPD in vitro. WD-HBEC from normal donors were stimulated with CSE (2.5%) for 72 h in presence of roflumilast N-oxide (2 nM or 1 μM) or vehicle. mRNA and protein of EMT markers αSMA, vimentin, collagen-1, E-cadherin, ZO-1, KRT5 as well as NOX4 were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR or protein array, respectively. Phosphorylated and total ERK1/2 and Smad3 were assessed by protein array. cAMP and TGFβ1 were measured by ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by DCF fluorescence, after 30 min CSE (2.5%). Apoptosis was measured with Annexin V/PI labelling. In some experiments, EMT markers were determined in monolayers of bronchial epithelial cells from smokers, COPD versus controls. Roflumilast N-oxide protected from CSE-induced EMT in WD-HBEC. The PDE4 inhibitor reversed both the increase in mesenchymal and the loss in epithelial EMT markers. Roflumilast N-oxide restored the loss in cellular cAMP following CSE, reduced ROS, NOX4 expression, the increase in TGFβ1 release, phospho ERK1/2 and Smad3. The PDE4 inhibitor partly protected from the increment in apoptosis with CSE. Finally the PDE4 inhibitor decreased mesenchymal yet increased epithelial phenotype markers in HBEC of COPD and smokers. Roflumilast N-oxide may mitigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatic microsomal N-oxidation and N-demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline in red-winged blackbird compared with rat and other birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pan, H.P.; Fouts, J.R.; Devereux, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    Hepatic microsomes prepared from red-winged blackbirds and albino rats were incubated with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA)_in complete incubation mixtures at pH 7.9 and 37?C for 10 min. Formaldehyde and N,N-dimethylaniline--oxide produced from DMA were measured. Redwings were found to have significantly lower N-demethylation activities than rats, and redwings had only marginal or no N-oxidation activities. Hepatic microsomes from redwings did not further metabolize the N-oxide. The N-oxidation and N-demethylation activities of brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles, and starlings were similar to those of redwings.

  9. Di-μ-chlorido-bis-{aqua-chlorido[2,2'-thio-bis(pyridine N-oxide)-κO]copper(II)}.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Oppel, Iris M

    2009-03-28

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu(2)Cl(4)(C(10)H(8)N(2)O(2)S)(2)(H(2)O)(2)], comprises neutral centrosymmetric μ-chloride-bridged dinuclear units. Each Cu(II) ion is penta-coordinated by three chloride ligands, a pyridine N-oxide O atom and a water mol-ecule. Intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur between the coordinated water mol-ecules and the uncoordinated and coordinated pyridine N-oxide groups of the 2,2'-thio-bis(pyridine N-oxide) ligands, respectively.

  10. Di-μ-chlorido-bis­{aqua­chlorido[2,2′-thio­bis(pyridine N-oxide)-κO]copper(II)}

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Rüdiger W.; Oppel, Iris M.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu2Cl4(C10H8N2O2S)2(H2O)2], comprises neutral centrosymmetric μ-chloride-bridged dinuclear units. Each CuII ion is penta­coordinated by three chloride ligands, a pyridine N-oxide O atom and a water mol­ecule. Intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur between the coordinated water mol­ecules and the uncoordinated and coordinated pyridine N-oxide groups of the 2,2′-thio­bis(pyridine N-oxide) ligands, respectively. PMID:21582393

  11. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and In Vitro Fate of Structurally Diverse N-Oxide Metabolites: Case Studies with Clozapine, Levofloxacin, Roflumilast, Voriconazole and Zopiclone.

    PubMed

    Giri, Poonam; Naidu, Sneha; Patel, Nirmal; Patel, Harilal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-08-01

    The role of metabolite(s) to elicit potential clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) via cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is gaining momentum. In this context, the role of N-oxides for in vitro CYP inhibition has not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine in vitro CYP inhibition of N-oxides of clozapine, levofloxacin, roflumilast, voriconazole and zopiclone in a tiered approach and (b) evaluate in vitro fate of aforementioned N-oxides examined in recombinant CYPs, human microsomes and hepatocytes. CYP enzymes evaluated in the work included: CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 using standard procedures for incubation with appropriate probe substrates. The initial cutoff for CYP inhibition was ≥50% using 2 and 10 µM concentrations of various N-oxide metabolites (Tier 1). IC50 values were constructed for the CYP pathway(s) that showed ≥50% inhibition (Tier 2). In addition, co-incubation of N-oxides with parent was performed to evaluate potentiation of CYP inhibition (Tier 3). N-oxides of clozapine (CYP2B6/2C19) and voriconazole (CYP2C9/3A4) showed CYP inhibition ≥50%. Clozapine-N-oxide inhibited CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 pathways with IC50 of 8.3 and 8.7 µM, respectively. Voriconazole-N-oxide inhibited CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 pathways with IC50 of 10.5 and 11.2 µM, respectively. Co-incubation of clozapine-N-oxide with clozapine potentiated CYP2B6/2C19 pathways; however, incubation of voriconazole-N-oxide with voriconazole did not appear to potentiate the CYP pathways because parent caused an inhibition of almost 80%. None of the N-oxides appeared to further undergo biotransformation as judged by the in vitro metabolic fate experiments (stage 2). Clinical DDI potential of specific CYP enzymes needs to be considered arising due to circulatory concentrations of certain N-oxides depending on the dose size and/or frequency of dosing of the respective parent drugs.

  12. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K

    2015-09-08

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC's content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  13. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  14. Design and construction of two rare aqua bridged copper (II) coordination polymers through mixed ligand strategy: Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Cu(2-iodobenzoate)2(β/γ-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Saini, Anju; Venugopalan, Paloth; Ferretti, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    Reaction of hydrated copper (II) 2-iodobenzoate with β/γ-picoline in methanol:water mixture (4:1, v/v) yielded two rare aqua bridged zig-zag polymers [Cu(2-iodobenzoate)2(β-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n; 1 and [Cu(2-iodobenzoate)2(γ-picoline)2(μ-H2O)]n; 2. The newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray structure determination. Complex 1 crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with C2/c space group, and complex 2 crystallized in triclinic crystal system with P 1 ‾ space group. X-ray structure determination revealed the presence of 1-dimensional chains of constituent molecules running along a-axis in both complexes. Water molecules act as bridges between constituent molecules and hence play a crucial role in 1-dimensional chain propagation in zig-zag manner. Empty channels have been observed between the zig-zag chains of complexes. Non-covalent interactions interactions such as O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π have been observed, which play a decisive role in the stabilization of crystal lattices in both complexes 1 and 2.

  15. Lanthanide dinuclear complexes constructed from mixed oxygen-donor ligands: the effect of substituent positions of the neutral ligand on the magnetic dynamics in Dy analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Li, Shan; Gao, Chen; Xiong, Xia; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Li; Powell, Annie K; Gao, Song

    2016-03-21

    Two series of lanthanide dinuclear complexes with the general formulae, [Ln(n-PNO)(Bza)3(H2O)] {Bza = benzoic acid; n = 3, n-PNO = 3-picoline N-oxide, Dy(1) and Er(2); and n = 4, n-PNO = 4-picoline N-oxide, Nd(3), Eu(4), Gd(5), Tb(6), Dy(7), Er(8) and Y(9)} have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments illustrate that the two series of compounds possess similar carboxylic ligand-bridged dinuclear structure and coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions despite the different methyl-substituent positions on the neutral ligand. Comparative studies of the Dy analogues in the static-field measurements reveal only a little difference with a small butterfly-shaped opening for complex 1 and a close hysteresis loop for 7 at 2.0 K. However, systematic investigations of the alternating-current (ac) measurements indicate that the different substituent positions of the picoline N-oxide ligand have a significant effect on the magnetic relaxation dynamics. A more substantial suppression of the quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM) effect and pronounced slow magnetic relaxation were observed in complex 7 as compared to 1 under both zero and a 1 kOe static field.

  16. Simultaneous determination of trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide in mouse plasma samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mi, Si; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Jacobs, René L; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    A method was developed that applies hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode to separate and accurately quantify trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide in a single chromatographic run. This was achieved by converting trimethylamine to ethyl betaine, which is less volatile and hence results in greatly improved quantitation. Ethyl betaine also gives a similar response to trimethylamine N-oxide using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. It is readily separated from trimethylamine N-oxide by hydrophilic liquid chromatography in a 5 min run and with improved peak shape compared to underivatized trimethylamine. Validation of the method yielded a limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) of 0.5 ng/mL for trimethylamine and 0.25 ng/mL for trimethylamine N-oxide. Method accuracies of 91.4-105.3% with precisions of 0.4-5.5% were obtained for standard mixtures over the range of 2.5-500 ng/mL. Recoveries measured for the extraction of trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide spikes into mouse plasma were both >90%. The method, which simultaneously measures trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide, was successfully applied to mouse plasma samples and could be adapted for use with other biological fluids.

  17. Ligand isotope studies of Zeise's salt derivatives (and their CO analogues) with some aza-heterocycles and their N-oxides. II : Their preparation, characterisation, and use in developing 1H nmr and infrared spectra as a diagnostic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulds, Gary A.; Hall, Philip S.; Thornton, David A.; Watkins, Gareth M.

    1992-04-01

    Forty-one π-acid complexes of the type cis-[Pt(bipyO 2H)(A)X 2]X and trans-[PtL(A)X 2] (A = C 2H 4, CO; X = Cl, Br; L = pyridazine {pdz}, pyrazine N-oxide {pzO}, quinoline {quin}, quinoline N-oxide {quinO}, 2,2'-bipyridine {bipy}, 1,10-phenanthroline {phen}) and their deuterated L and C 2D 4 analogues have been characterised employing infrared and 1H nmr spectroscopy. The employment of v12 (CH 2 scissors ˜1460 cm -1) of η 2-ethene as a diagnostic probe in distinguishing between 4- and 5-coordination is proposed, while the summed percentage decrease of v2+ v3 ( vC=C/δCH 2) may be used to distinguish between N- and O-coordination. The use of chemical shifts ( 1H nmr spectroscopy) is confirmed as a suitable means to distinguish between 4- and 5-coordination and is also shown to be suitable for distinction between N- and O-coordination in four coordinate Pt(II) η 2-ethene complexes. In contradiction of previous reports, it is found that JPt-H cannot be employed to determine the coordination number.

  18. Mode of action of nifurtimox and N-oxide-containing heterocycles against Trypanosoma cruzi: is oxidative stress involved?

    PubMed

    Boiani, Mariana; Piacenza, Lucia; Hernández, Paola; Boiani, Lucia; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Denicola, Ana

    2010-06-15

    Chagas disease is caused by the trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and threatens millions of lives in South America. As other neglected diseases there is almost no research and development effort by the pharmaceutical industry and the treatment relies on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole, discovered empirically more than three decades ago. Nifurtimox, a nitrofurane derivative, is believed to exert its biological activity through the bioreduction of the nitro-group to a nitro-anion radical which undergoes redox-cycling with molecular oxygen. This hypothesis is generally accepted, although arguments against it have been presented. In the present work we studied the ability of Nifurtimox and five N-oxide-containing heterocycles to induce oxidative stress in T. cruzi. N-Oxide-containing heterocycles represent a promising group of new trypanosomicidal agents and their mode of action is not completely elucidated. The results here obtained argue against the oxidative stress hypothesis almost for all the studied compounds, including Nifurtimox. A significant reduction in the level of parasitic low-molecular-weight thiols was observed after Nifurtimox treatment; however, it was not linked to the production of reactive oxidant species. Besides, redox-cycling is only observed at high Nifurtimox concentrations (>400microM), two orders of magnitude higher than the concentration required for anti-proliferative activity (5microM). Our results indicate that an increase in oxidative stress is not the main mechanism of action of Nifurtimox. Among the studied N-oxide-containing heterocycles, benzofuroxan derivatives strongly inhibited parasite dehydrogenase activity and affected mitochondrial membrane potential. The indazole derivative raised intracellular oxidants production, but it was the least effective as anti-T. cruzi.

  19. On the effect of trimethylamine N-oxide on the conformational equilibrium of the chaperone Hsp90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    The chaperone Hsp90 is a dimeric protein that populates two different conformations at room temperature in aqueous solution: an open and a closed one, related by rigid body domain reorientation. The former is favoured in neat water, whereas the latter is favoured in aqueous 1 M trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) solution. The two conformations, having a different shape, possess a different water accessible surface area, and so give rise to a different solvent-excluded volume effect. TMAO favours the closed conformation because its addition to water causes an increase in the magnitude of the solvent-excluded volume effect due to the density increase.

  20. Mechanistic dichotomy in the asymmetric allylation of aldehydes with allyltrichlorosilanes catalyzed by chiral pyridine N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Andrei V; Stončius, Sigitas; Bell, Mark; Castelluzzo, Fabiomassimo; Ramírez-López, Pedro; Biedermannová, Lada; Langer, Vratislav; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Kočovský, Pavel

    2013-07-08

    Detailed kinetic and computational investigation of the enantio- and diastereoselective allylation of aldehydes 1 with allyltrichlorosilanes 5, employing the pyridine N-oxides METHOX (9) and QUINOX (10) as chiral organocatalysts, indicate that the reaction can proceed through a dissociative (cationic) or associative (neutral) mechanism: METHOX apparently favors a pentacoordinate cationic transition state, while the less sterically demanding QUINOX is likely to operate via a hexacoordinate neutral complex. In both pathways, only one molecule of the catalyst is involved in the rate- and selectivity-determining step, which is supported by both experimental and computational data.

  1. Expedient synthesis of α-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates via the addition of silyl ketene acetals to azine-N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Londregan, Allyn T; Burford, Kristen; Conn, Edward L; Hesp, Kevin D

    2014-06-20

    A new and expedient synthesis of α-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates is presented. The reaction proceeds rapidly under mild conditions via the addition of silyl ketene acetals to azine-N-oxides in the presence of the phosphonium salt PyBroP. This procedure affords diverse α-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates which are highly desirable components/building blocks in molecules of pharmaceutical interest but are traditionally challenging to synthesize via contemporary methods. The reaction optimization and mechanism as well as a novel electronically enhanced PyBroP derivative are described.

  2. Long-Term Supplementation with Chromium Malate Improves Short Chain Fatty Acid Content in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiyu; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Guanghua; Zhao, Ting; Wu, Xiangyang; Wang, Songmei; Zou, Yanmin; Yang, Liuqing; Wang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the composition of intestinal flora, glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate with long-term supplementation on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) content in Sprague-Dawley rats. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with high linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.9995), low quantification limit (0.011-0.070 mM), and satisfactory recoveries. The method was simple and environmentally friendly. The acetic content in cecum of 3-month control group was significantly higher than that of 1-year control group. When compared with 1-year control group, chromium malate (at a dose of 20.0 μg Cr/kg bw) could significantly increase acetic, propionic, i-butyric butyric, butyric, i-valeric, valeric, and n-caproic levels. The acetic, propionic, i-butyric, valeric, and n-caproic contents of 1-year chromium malate group (at a dose of 20.0 μg Cr/kg bw) had a significant improvement when compared with 1-year chromium picolinate group. Acetic, propionic, and butyric contained approximately 91.65 % of the total SCFAs in 1-year group. The results indicated that the improvement of chromium malate on short chain fatty acid content change was better than that of chromium picolinate.

  3. Determination of strychnine, brucine, strychnine N-oxide, and brucine N-oxide in plasma samples after the oral administration of processed semen strychni extract by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultrasound-assisted mixed cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Meng, Hua; Li, Huang Huang; Wang, Qiao Feng

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive and efficient mixed cloud point extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of four alkaloids (strychnine, strychnine N-oxide, brucine, and brucine N-oxide) in plasma after the oral administration of processed semen strychni extract. Tergitol TMN-6 and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide were chosen as the mixed surfactants, and ultrasound was employed to enhance the extraction efficiency. Some important parameters affecting the mixed cloud point extraction efficiency, such as the content of Tergitol TMN-6 and cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide, pH, salt effect, extraction temperature, and ultrasound time were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the linear range of four alkaloids was from 1.0 to 1000 ng/mL. All correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9993. The intraday and interday precision were below 8.65% and the limits of detection for the four alkaloids were less than 1.0 ng/mL (S/N = 3). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An Ion Chromatographic Method to Determine Methylamines and Amine-N-Oxides in Particulate Matter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies have indicated the presence of amines in the particulate phase, believed to result from atmospheric reactions of volatile amines emitted from sources including agriculture. The resulting particulate amines are a combination of cationized (from acid-base reactions) and free base forms...

  5. Direct tandem mass spectrometric analysis of amino acids in plasma using fluorous derivatization and monolithic solid-phase purification.

    PubMed

    Tamashima, Erina; Hayama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2015-11-10

    In this study, we developed a novel direct tandem mass spectrometric method for rapid and accurate analysis of amino acids utilizing a fluorous derivatization and purification technique. Amino acids were perfluoroalkylated with 2H,2H,3H,3H-perfluoroundecan-1-al in the presence of 2-picoline borane via reductive amination. The derivatives were purified by perfluoroalkyl-modified silica-based monolithic solid-phase extraction (monolithic F-SPE), and directly analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization without liquid chromatographic separation. The perfluoroalkyl derivatives could be sufficiently distinguished from non-fluorous compounds, i.e. the biological matrix, due to their fluorous interaction. Thus, rapid and accurate determination of amino acids was accomplished. The method was validated with human plasma samples and applied to the analysis of amino acids in the plasma of mice with maple syrup urine disease or phenylketonuria.

  6. Bonding situation and N-O-bond strengths in amine-N-oxides--a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu; Burger, Peter

    2012-02-14

    The bonding situation and energetics of the N-O bond in a series of amine-N-oxides, Ph(x)(CH(3))(3-x)N-O, where x = 0-3, were analyzed experimentally and theoretically. There is a notable nearly linear decrease of the N-O bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for this series with an increasing number of phenyl groups x. This was investigated experimentally by X-ray high angle multipole refinement techniques in combination with subsequent topological analysis of the electron density for the representative (CH(3))(2)PhN-O, 2, and complementary theoretical calculations at the DFT and multireference CASSCF and MR-perturbation theory (MCQDPT2) levels. Both the theoretical and experimental results unambiguously revealed a polar covalent σ-bond for the N-O bond with an essentially identical bonding situation for all amine-N-oxides studied. This apparent disparity between the bonding situation and the trend of BDEs is attributed to the large differences of the relaxation energies of the corresponding amines Ph(x)(CH(3))(3-x)N, (x = 0-3), respectively, the required preparation energies (ΔE(prep)) for the reverse N-O bond forming process. The detailed theoretical analysis of the amines allowed us to trace the trend of larger values of ΔE(prep) for a higher number of phenyl groups x to an increase of n(N) → π*(C-C) delocalization interactions.

  7. Discovery of syn-/anti-cocaine-N-oxide diastereomers in unwashed postmortem hair via LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Christine M; Crawley, Lindsey R; Himes, Sarah K; Aranda, Roman; Miller, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of two cocaine-N-oxide (CNO) diastereomers, syn- and anti-CNO, is reported for the first time. Prior to this study, only one structural form of CNO was known to exist and has not been analyzed in hair before. CNO is a metabolite of cocaine (COC) and may be considered as an additional biomarker of COC use, along with other known COC metabolites. The analysis of COC in hair for forensic applications is under scrutiny due to the possibility of external contamination. A qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, validated and applied to unwashed postmortem hair samples from drug users. The limit of detection in hair was 8 pg/mg (using 10 mg of unwashed hair) for each CNO diastereomer. The presence of both syn- and anti-forms of CNO was verified in vivo using hair samples collected from known COC-using individuals. Due to the low levels of CNO, it will not always be detectable in COC user hair. In the hair samples analyzed, syn-CNO was detected in more samples than anti-CNO. The stereoselective N-oxidation of COC which favors syn-CNO could have a diagnostic value for COC ingestion determination in hair analysis.

  8. The periplasmic TorT protein is required for trimethylamine N-oxide reductase gene induction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jourlin, C; Simon, G; Pommier, J; Chippaux, M; Méjean, V

    1996-01-01

    Expression of the Escherichia coli torCAD operon, which encodes the trimethylamine N-oxide reductase system, is regulated by the presence of trimethylamine N-oxide through the action of the TorR response regulator. We have identified an additional gene, torT, located just downstream from the torR gene, which is necessary for torCAD structural operon expression. Insertion within the torT gene dramatically reduced the expression of a torA'-'lacZ fusion, while presence of the gene in trans restored the wild-type phenotype. Overproduction of TorR in a torT strain resulted in partial constitutive expression of the torA'-'lacZ fusion, suggesting that TorR acts downstream from TorT. The torT gene codes for a 35.7-kDa periplasmic protein which presents some homology with the periplasmic ribose-binding protein of E. coli. We discuss the possible role of TorT as an inducer-binding protein involved in signal transduction of the tor regulatory pathway. PMID:8576063

  9. Antiinflammatory and neurological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum).

    PubMed

    Krejčová, Petra; Kučerová, Petra; Stafford, Gary I; Jäger, Anna K; Kubec, Roman

    2014-05-28

    Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum) is a bulbous plant native to Turkey, Iran and Central Asia. It is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including inflammation and stress. Antiinflammatory and neurological activities of pyrithione and four related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides which are prominent constituents of Allium stipitatum were tested. The antiinflammatory activity was tested by the ability of the compounds to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), whereas the neurological activities were evaluated by assessing the compounds ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The compounds׳ affinity for the serotonin transport protein (SERT) and the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor were also investigated. 2-[(Methylthio)methyldithio]pyridine N-oxide showed very high antiinflammatory effects which are comparable with those of common pharmaceuticals (IC₅₀ of 7.8 and 15.4 µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively). On the other hand, neurological activities of the compounds were rather modest. Some compounds moderately inhibited AChE (IC₅₀ of 104-1041 µM) and MAO-A (IC₅₀ of 98-241 µM) and exhibited an affinity for the SERT and GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor. Our findings may help to rationalize the wide use of Persian shallot for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new antibacterial denitroaristolochic acid from the tubers of Stephania succifera.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Lan; Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Wei, Dai-Jing; Liu, Shou-Bai; Wang, Qing-Huang; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2013-01-01

    A new denitroaristolochic acid, demethylaristofolin C (1), together with six known alkaloids, crebanine N-oxide (2), (-)-sukhodianine-β-N-oxide (3), palmatine (4), corydalmine (5), dehydrocorydalmine (6), and corynoxidine (7), was isolated from the tubers of Stephania succifera. The structure of demethylaristofolin C was elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS analyses. These compounds exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains in different degrees.

  11. Hydrogen-bonded supra­molecular motifs in pyrimethaminium 4-methyl­benzoate, pyrimethaminium 3-hydroxy­picolinate and pyri­meth­aminium 2,4-di­chloro­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In 2,4-diamino-5-(4-chloro­phenyl)-6-ethyl­pyrimidin-1-ium (pyri­methaminium, PMNH) 4-methyl­benzoate, C12H14ClN4 +·C8H7O2 −, (I), pyrimethaminium 3-hydroxy­picolinate, C12H14ClN4 +·C6H4NO3 −, (II), and pyrimethaminium 2,4-dichloro­benzoate, C12H14ClN4 +·C7H3Cl2O2 −, (III), the PMNH cations inter­act with the carboxyl­ate groups of the corresponding anion via nearly parallel N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming R 2 2(8) ring motifs. A description of the observed arrays of quadruple hydrogen bonds in (I) and (II) in terms of hydrogen donors and acceptors (the DA model), their graph-set motifs and the resulting supra­molecular ladder is given. In (III), supra­molecular chains along the b axis and helical chains along the a axis are formed via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the 2-amino and 4-amino groups of the PMNH cation, respectively. Weak Cl⋯Cl inter­actions are also found in (III). PMID:20203404

  12. The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC): involvement in metabolic reduction of N-oxides, oximes and N-hydroxyamidinohydrazones.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Heyka H; Froriep, Danilo; Havemeyer, Antje; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian; Clement, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC) is a molybdenum-containing enzyme and capable of reducing N-hydroxylated structures such as amidoxime prodrugs. In this study, we tested the involvement of mARC in the reduction of N-oxides (amitriptyline-N-oxide, nicotinamide-N-oxide), oximes ((E)-/(Z)-2,4,6-trimethylacetophenonoxime) and a N-hydroxyamidinohydrazone (guanoxabenz). All groups are reduced by mARC proteins, and the enzymes are therefore involved in the interconversion of N-oxygenated metabolites originating from cytochrome P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases. In addition, these structures open up further options for serving as prodrugs. Thus, with respect to these reactions, testing of candidates with N-oxygenated structures should not solely be carried out in microsomal enzyme sources but as well in mitochondria. However, differences in the reduction of oximes and N-oxides between the two isoforms, namely mARC1 and mARC2, were detectable; N-oxides are exclusively reduced by mARC1. We therefore assume differences between the so far unknown 3D structures of the two proteins.

  13. The electronic states of pyridine-N-oxide studied by VUV photoabsorption and ab initio configuration interaction computations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael H; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Smith, Elliott R; Lichtenberger, Dennis L

    2013-06-07

    The first vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of pyridine-N-oxide has been obtained, and has led to the identification of nearly 30 Rydberg states. These states were identified by use of the vibrational envelope ("footprint") of the UV-photoelectron spectrum, and are based on the first to the third ionization energies (IE). The adiabatic IE order, central to the Rydberg state symmetry identification, is confirmed by multi-configuration SCF calculations as: 1(2)B1 < 1(2)B2 < 1(2)A2 < 2(2)B1. Several excited valence state equilibrium structures were determined by multi-configuration SCF and coupled cluster procedures. Multi-reference multi-root CI was used to calculate both Rydberg and valence state vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths, which were correlated with the experimental measurements.

  14. Simultaneous targeted analysis of trimethylamine-N-oxide, choline, betaine, and carnitine by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhao, Mingming; Zhou, Juntuo; Liu, Changjie; Zheng, Lemin; Yin, Yuxin

    2016-11-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite generated from choline, betaine and carnitine in a gut microbiota-dependent way. This molecule is associated with development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. A sensitive liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMAO related molecules including TMAO, betaine, choline, and carnitine in mouse plasma. Analytes are extracted after protein precipitation by methanol and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without preliminary derivatization. Separation of analytes was achieved on an amide column with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. This method has been fully validated in this study in terms of selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and carryover effect, and the stability of the analyte under various conditions has been confirmed. This developed method has successfully been applied to plasma samples of our mouse model.

  15. Radiolabeling of equine platelets in plasma with /sup 111/In-(2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide) and their in vivo survival

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, C.P.; Kelly, A.B.; Hornof, W.J.; O'Brien, T.R.; Philp, M.S.; Lamb, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    A method is presented for the in vitro isolation and radiolabeling of equine platelets with the isotope indium /sup 111/ (/sup 111/In: half-life = 2.8 days, gamma = 173 keV, 89%; 247 keV, 94%). The technique described involves complexing /sup 111/In with the lipid-soluble chelating agent, 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (merc), in an aqueous medium. /sup 111/In-merc platelet-labeling efficiencies in autologous plasma pretreated with or without ferric citrate reagent were 82 +/- 7% and 24 +/- 12%, respectively. Mean intravascular survivals of /sup 111/In-merc-radiolabeled platelets in 8 healthy horses according to simple linear, exponential, mean, weighted-mean residual sum of squares analysis, and multiple-hit model were 5.5 +/- 0.49, 3.5 +/- 0.53, 4.5 +/- 0.18, 4.3 +/- 0.65, and 3.6 +/- 0.97 days, respectively.

  16. Quantitative Characterization of the Compensating Effects of Trimethylamine-N-oxide and Guanidine Hydrochloride on the Dissociation of Human Cyanmethmoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Minton, Allen P.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the extent of dissociation of human cyanmethemoglobin (HbCN) α2β2 tetramers into αβ dimers as a function of HbCN concentration in the presence of varying concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). It was found that increasing concentrations of GuHCl enhance the dissociation of HbCN, and that GuHCl-induced dissociation is progressively inhibited with increasing concentrations of TMAO. The effects of both cosolutes upon the free energy of HbCN dissociation are shown to be additive. The effect of TMAO on Hb dissociation is largely attributed to steric volume exclusion but is partially compensated by a small attractive interaction between TMAO and the protein. PMID:23863125

  17. Improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from corn stalk by alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ling-Yan; Ma, Yu-Long; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Lv, Jun-Min

    2016-07-01

    A combinative technology of alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to pretreat corn stalk (CS) for improving the efficiencies of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The results showed that this strategy could not only remove hemicellulose and lignin but also decrease the crystallinity of cellulose. About 98.0% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield was obtained from the pretreated CS as compared with 46.9% from the untreated sample. The yield for corresponding ethanol yield was 64.6% while untreated CS was only 18.8%. Besides, xylose yield obtained from the untreated CS was only 11.1%, while this value was 93.8% for alkali with NMMO pretreated sample. These results suggest that a combination of alkali with 50% (wt/wt) NMMO solution may be a promising alternative for pretreatment of lignocellulose, which can increase the productions of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

  18. Antagonistic activity of poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N; Booth, J A; Eckert, H L

    1977-01-01

    The depressive activity of both serpentine (Canadian and Rhodesian chrysotiles) and amphibole (amosite, crocidolite, and anthophyllite) asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished completely when either asbestos fibres or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximal antagonistic activity of the polymer was time and concentration dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective in encouraging viral interferon synthesis than pretreating cell monolayers. Virus multiplication in the presence of asbestos fibre-treated cell monolayers attained a twofold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated asbestos fibres. These findings were related to the suppression of interferon production. PMID:871442

  19. DMPO-OH radical formation from 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in hot water.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tomoko; Li, Linxiang; Abe, Yoshihiro; Ogata, Masahiro; Ishimoto, Yoshihisa; Gonda, Ryoko; Mashino, Tadahiko; Mochizuki, Masataka; Uemoto, Michihisa; Miyata, Naoki

    2007-02-01

    When an aqueous solution of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was heated at 70 degrees C for 30 min, formation of DMPO-OH was observed by ESR. This DMPO-OH radical formation was suppressed under an argon atmosphere. When water was replaced with ultra-pure water for ICP-MS experiments, DMPO-OH radical formation was also diminished. Under an argon atmosphere in ultra-pure water, the intensity of the DMPO-OH signal decreased to about 1/20 of that observed under aerobic conditions with regular purified water. The addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers such as mannitol did not affect the formation of DMPO-OH, but the signal turned faint in the presence of EDTA. We suggest that DMPO reacted with dissolved oxygen to form DMPO-OH.

  20. Effect of Water Content in N-Methylmorpholine N-Oxide/Cellulose Solutions on Thermodynamics, Structure, and Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Rabideau, Brooks D; Ismail, Ahmed E

    2015-12-03

    Native crystalline cellulose is notoriously difficult to dissolve due to its dense hydrogen bond network between chains and weaker hydrophobic forces between cellulose sheets. N-Methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), the solvent behind the Lyocell process, is one of the most successful commercial solvents for the nonderivatized dissolution of cellulose. In this process, water plays a very important role. Its presence at low concentrations allows NMMO to dissolve substantial amounts of cellulose, while at much higher concentrations it precipitates the crystalline fibers. Using all-atom molecular dynamics, we study the thermodynamic and structural properties of ternary solutions of cellulose, NMMO, and water. Using the two-phase thermodynamic method to calculate solvent entropy, we estimate the free energy of dissolution of cellulose as a function of the water concentration and find a transition of spontaneity that is in excellent agreement with experiment. In pure water, we find that cellulose dissolution is nonspontaneous, a result that is due entirely to strong decreases in water entropy. Although the combined effect of enthalpy on dissolution in water is negligible, we observe a net loss of hydrogen bonds, resulting in a change in hydrogen bond energy that opposes dissolution. At lower water concentrations, cellulose dissolution is spontaneous and largely driven by decreases in enthalpy, with solvent entropy playing only a very minor role. When searching for the root causes of this enthalpy decrease, a complex picture emerges in which not one but many different factors contribute to NMMO's good solvent behavior. The reduction in enthalpy is led by the formation of strong hydrogen bonds between cellulose and NMMO's N-oxide, intensified through van der Waals interactions between NMMO's nonpolar body and the nonpolar surfaces of cellulose and unhindered by water at low concentrations due to the formation of efficient hydrogen bonds between water and cellulose.

  1. AQ4N: an alkylaminoanthraquinone N-oxide showing bioreductive potential and positive interaction with radiation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, S. R.; Hejmadi, M. V.; McIntyre, I. A.; McAleer, J. J.; Patterson, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    AQ4N (1,4-bis([2-(dimethylamino-N-oxide)ethyl]amino)5,8-dihydroxy- anthracene-9,10-dione) is a novel alkylaminoanthraquinone N-oxide which, on reduction, forms a stable DNA affinic cytotoxic compound AQ4. The in vivo anti-tumour efficacy of AQ4N was investigated in B6D2F1 mice bearing the T50/80 mammary carcinoma. The effect of the drug was evaluated in combination with hypobaric hypoxia and with radiation (single and multiple fractions). Systemic toxicity was assessed by weight loss post treatment. This was low for AQ4N and was less than that obtained with the bioreductive drugs, RSU 1069 (1-[3-aziridinyl-2-hydroxypropyl]-2-nitroimidazole) and SR 4233 (Tirapazamine, 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine-1,4-dioxide). The anti-tumour effect of AQ4N was potentiated in vivo by combination with hypobaric hypoxia with a dose enhancement ratio of 5.1. This is consistent with the proposal that AQ4N was reduced in vivo to AQ4, resulting in enhanced anti-tumour toxicity. When AQ4N (200 mg kg-1) was combined with single dose radiation (12 Gy) the drug was shown to have an additive interaction with radiation. This was obtained even if the drug was administered from 4 days before to 6 h after radiation treatment. Equivalent anti-tumour activity was also shown when both AQ4N (200 mg kg-1) and radiation (5 x 3 Gy) were administered in fractionated schedules. In conclusion, AQ4N shows significant potential as a bioreductive drug for combination with fractionated radiotherapy. PMID:7599069

  2. Complexation of heteroaromatic N-oxides with rhodium(II) tetracarboxylates in solution: DFT and NMR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głaszczka, Rafał; Jaźwiński, Jarosław

    2014-03-01

    Complexation of rhodium(II) tetraacetate and rhodium(II) tetrakistrifluoroacetate with a set of heteroaromatic N-oxides containing additional functional groups was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and 1H, 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in CDCl3 solutions. Chemical shifts for five N-oxides and their 1:1 adducts with rhodium tetraacetate were computed at the B3PW91/[6-311++G(2d,p), Stuttgart ECP)//B3LYP/[6-31G(2d), LANL2DZ] theory level applying IEF PCM (CHCl3) solvation model and taking into account various complexation modes and conformational variety. Calculated values were used for the estimation of complexation shifts Δδ (Δδ = δadduct - δligand). The largest negative complexation shift were estimated for heteroatoms bonded to Rh, from -37 to -70 ppm (N), from -100 to -160 ppm (O in NO group), from -13 to -23 ppm (O in OCH3 group), and from -12 to -22 ppm (Cl). For the remaining heteroatoms in adducts, the corresponding Δδ values ranged from -22 to +8.2 ppm (N), from +3 to +58 ppm (O) and from +6 to +51 ppm (Cl). The Δδ(1H) usually did not exceed 1 ppm, whereas Δδ(13C) varied from ca. -1 to +7 ppm. Some trends useful for the determination of the complexation site were extracted from calculated data sets. Theoretical findings were applied to analyse experimental NMR data.

  3. Validation of HPLC-MS/MS methods for analysis of loxapine, amoxapine, 7-OH-loxapine, 8-OH-loxapine and loxapine N-oxide in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jennifer S D; Needham, Shane R; Christianson, Chad D; Piekarski, Crystal M; Sheaff, Chrystal N; Huie, Keith; Reed, Andrea R; Takahashi, Lori

    2010-12-01

    Two ESI-LC-MS/MS methods were validated for the quantitative analysis of loxapine, amoxapine, 7-OH-loxapine, 8-OH-loxapine and loxapine N-oxide in human K(2)EDTA plasma. Cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to extract loxapine, amoxapine and the two hydroxylated metabolites, and organic precipitation was used to quantify loxapine N-oxide. Both methods were shown to be accurate (±13%), intra-assay precision was less than 15%, and inter-assay precision was less than 10% in all instances across the entire dynamic range of the assays (0.0500-50.0 ng/ml for the SPE method and 0.100-25.0 ng/ml for the precipitation method). The validated methods for loxapine, amoxapine, 7-OH-loxapine, 8-OH-loxapine and loxapine N-oxide have been used to successfully support clinical trials.

  4. A mass spectrometry-based method for differentiation of positional isomers of monosubstituted pyrazine N-oxides using metal ion complexes.

    PubMed

    Butler, Matías; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2015-01-01

    A series of 11 pairs of substituted pyrazine N-oxides, differing in the substituent position, were examined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in order to use spectra to assess the differentiation of positional isomers. For each compound, mass spectra were recorded with three different metal cations, namely calcium (II), copper (II) and aluminum (III), with characterization of the observed peaks. Differentiation between regioisomeric N-oxides has been achieved by comparison of the identity and relative intensities of the peaks originating from the adduct ions formed with the metal ions. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been employed to assist in the interpretation of the results obtained with each metal ion, exploring possible trends according to the nature and position of the substituent in the pyrazine N-oxide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A one pot synthesis and evaluation of 13-oxo-quino[3,4-b]carbazol-N-oxides as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Danish, Isravel Antony; Prasad, Karnam Jayarampillai Rajendra

    2003-12-01

    1-Oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazoles (1a-e) upon mixed aldol condensation with o-nitrobenzaldehyde (2) yielded 13-oxo-quino[3,4-b]carbazol-N-oxides (3a-e). All the prepared compounds were characterized by elemental and spectral analysis. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the final products is proposed. The title compounds proved to have great potentialities as antibacterial and antifungal agents due to the presence of the N-oxide group. Particularly, the chloro substituted derivative, 3d, showed excellent antimicrobial activity.

  6. The two facies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: the role of the tertiary amine and its N-oxide in chemical defense of insects with acquired plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindigkeit, R; Biller, A; Buch, M; Schiebel, H M; Boppré, M; Hartmann, T

    1997-05-01

    Larvae of Creatonotos transiens (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) and Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera, Pyrgomorphidae) ingest 14C-labeled senecionine and its N-oxide with the same efficiency but sequester the two tracers exclusively as N-oxide. Larvae of the non-sequestering Spodoptera littoralis eliminate efficiently the ingested alkaloids. During feeding on the two alkaloidal forms transient levels of senecionine (but not of the N-oxide) are built up in the haemolymph of S. littoralis larvae. Based on these results, senecionine [18O]N-oxide was fed to C. transiens larvae and Z. variegatus adults. The senecionine N-oxide recovered from the haemolymph of the two insects shows an almost complete loss of 18O label, indicating reduction of the orally fed N-oxide in the guts, uptake of the tertiary alkaloid and its re-N-oxidation in the haemolymph. The enzyme responsible for N-oxidation is a soluble mixed function monooxygenase. It was isolated from the haemolymph of the sequestering arctiid Tyria jacobaeae and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme is a flavoprotein with a native Mr of 200000 and a subunit Mr of 51000. It shows a pH optimum at 7.0, has its maximal activity at a temperature of 40-45 degrees C and an isoelectric point at pH 4.9. The reaction is strictly NADPH-dependent (Km 1.3 microM). From 20 pyrrolizidine alkaloids so far tested as substrates, the enyzme N-oxidizes only alkaloids with structural elements which are essential for hepatotoxic and genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (i.e. 1,2-double bond, esterification of the allylic hydroxyl group, presence of a second free or esterified hydroxyl group at carbon 7). A great variety of related alkaloids and xenobiotics were tested as substrate, none was accepted. The Km values of senecionine, monocrotaline and heliotrine, representing the three main types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, are 1.3 microM, 12.5 microM and 290 microM, respectively. The novel enzyme was named senecionine N-oxygenase (SNO). The

  7. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Taherkhani, Negar; Ahmadi, Abolfazl; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Ilghari, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Results: Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Conclusion: Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50) were comparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities. PMID:25810885

  8. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Taherkhani, Negar; Ahmadi, Abolfazl; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Ilghari, Dariush

    2015-02-01

    Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50) were comparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  9. Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sushil K; Rains, Justin L; Croad, Jennifer L

    2007-10-15

    Chromium (Cr(3+)) supplementation facilitates normal protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by the public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-alpha, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1)), cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N, or Cr-P (400 microg Cr/kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 weeks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, glucose, HbA(1), cholesterol, TG, and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-alpha (P=0.04), IL-6 (P=0.02), CRP (P=0.02), LP (P=0.01), HbA(1) (P=0.02), TG (P=0.04), and cholesterol (P=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.02), IL-6 (P=0.02), and LP (P=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress, and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be a more effective form of Cr(3+) supplementation. This study suggests that Cr(3+) supplementation can lower the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes.

  10. Effect of Chromium Niacinate and Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, Glycated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides and Cholesterol Levels in blood of Streptozotocin-treated Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sushil K.; Rains, Justin L.; Croad, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromium (Cr3+) supplementation facilitate normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and is widely used by public in many countries. This study examined the effect of chromium niacinate (Cr-N) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP), TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in diabetic rats. Diabetes (D) was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (ip, 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, Cr-N or Cr-P (400 µg Cr/Kg BW) was administered by gavages daily for 7 wks. Blood was collected by heart puncture using light anesthesia. Diabetes caused a significant increase in blood levels of TNF-α, IL-6, glucose, HbA1, cholesterol, TG and LP. Compared with D, Cr-N supplementation lowered the blood levels of TNF-α (p=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.02), CRP (p=0.02) LP (p=0.01), HbA1 (p=0.02), TG (p=0.04) and cholesterol (p=0.04). Compared with D, Cr-P supplementation showed a decrease in TNF-α (p=0.02), IL-6 (p=0.02) and LP (p=0.01). Chromium niacinate lowers blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP), oxidative stress and lipids levels in diabetic rats, and appears to be more effective form of Cr3+-supplementation. This study suggests that Cr3+-supplementation can lower risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes. PMID:17854708

  11. Mechanistic Considerations in the Development and Use of Azine, Diazine and Azole N-Oxides in Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Arylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagnou, Keith

    Azines, diazines or thiazole N-oxides are highly reactive substrates in palladium-catalyzed direct arylation reaction. For these reactions, the results are inconsistent with an SEAr reaction pathway and may best fit with a concerted metalation-deprotonation-like (CMD) mechanism.

  12. Rh(III)- and Zn(II)-Catalyzed Synthesis of Quinazoline N-Oxides via C-H Amidation-Cyclization of Oximes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Fen; Yang, Xifa; Zhou, Xukai; Li, Xingwei

    2016-12-02

    Quinazoline N-oxides have been prepared from simple ketoximes and 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation-amidation of the ketoximes and subsequent Zn(II)-catalyzed cyclization. The substrate scope and functional group compatibility were examined. The reaction features relay catalysis by Rh(III) and Zn(II).

  13. Analysis of swainsonine and swainsonine N-oxide as trimethylsilyl derivatives by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and their relative occurrence in plants toxic to livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and its N-oxide. The method is based on a one step solvent partitioning extraction procedure followed by trimethylsilylation of the dried extract and subsequent detection and qua...

  14. Ruthenium water oxidation catalysts containing the non-planar tetradentate ligand, biisoquinoline dicarboxylic acid (biqaH2).

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Dominik; Schilling, Mauro; Luber, Sandra; Fox, Thomas; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger; Richmond, Craig J

    2016-12-06

    Two ruthenium complexes containing the tetradentate ligand [1,1'-biisoquinoline]-3,3'-dicarboxylic acid, and 4-picoline or 6-bromoisoquinoline as axial ligands have been prepared. The complexes have been fully characterised and initial studies on their potential to function as molecular water oxidation catalysts have been performed. Both complexes catalyse the oxidation of water in acidic media with Ce(IV) as a stoichiometric chemical oxidant, although turnover numbers and turnover frequencies are modest when compared with the closely related Ru-bda and Ru-pda analogues. Barriers for the water nucleophilic attack and intermolecular coupling pathways were obtained from density functional theory calculations and the crucial influence of the ligand framework in determining the most favourable reaction pathway was elucidated from a combined analysis of the theoretical and experimental results.

  15. Indolone-N-oxide derivatives: in vitro activity against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, stage specificity and in vitro interactions with established antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Tahar, Rachida; Vivas, Livia; Basco, Leonardo; Thompson, Eloise; Ibrahim, Hany; Boyer, Jérémie; Nepveu, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Indolone-N-oxides are characterized by the presence of a highly reactive pharmacophore, the nitrone moiety (C=N(+)-O(-)), which undergoes oxidation-reduction reactions. The aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the in vitro activity of the parent compound, designated as compound 1, against 34 fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) compare the activity of compound 1 with that of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin to assess the potential for cross-resistance; (iii) investigate drug interactions of indolone-N-oxides with standard antimalarials; and (iv) determine the stage-dependent activity of indolone-N-oxides. In vitro antimalarial activity was evaluated against clinical isolates collected from Cameroonian patients by the [(3)H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay. In vitro interactions between compound 1 or another analogue, compound 4, and established antimalarial drugs were assessed by the fixed ratio method. Stage specificity was evaluated by light microscopy using highly synchronized P. falciparum cultures. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of compound 1 was 48.6 nM. Its activity did not differ between the chloroquine-susceptible and the chloroquine-resistant isolates. There was no correlation between chloroquine and compound 1 responses (r = 0.015; P > 0.05), but the in vitro responses of compound 1 and dihydroartemisinin were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.444; P < 0.05). No significant in vitro interaction was observed between indolone-N-oxide derivatives and established antimalarial drugs (artemisinin and its derivatives, chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine and mefloquine). Compound 1 and compound 4, as well as artesunate, inhibited parasite maturation at the ring stage. These findings suggest that other indolone-N-oxide derivatives with more potent activity than the parent compound may hold promise as antimalarials in the future.

  16. Volume exclusion and H-bonding dominate the thermodynamics and solvation of trimethylamine-N-oxide in aqueous urea.

    PubMed

    Rösgen, Jörg; Jackson-Atogi, Ruby

    2012-02-22

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and urea represent the extremes among the naturally occurring organic osmolytes in terms of their ability to stabilize/destabilize proteins. Their mixtures are found in nature and have generated interest in terms of both their physiological role and their potential use as additives in various applications (crystallography, drug formulation, etc.). Here we report experimental density and activity coefficient data for aqueous mixtures of TMAO with urea. From these data we derive the thermodynamics and solvation properties of the osmolytes, using Kirkwood-Buff theory. Strong hydrogen-bonding at the TMAO oxygen, combined with volume exclusion, accounts for the thermodynamics and solvation of TMAO in aqueous urea. As a result, TMAO behaves in a manner that is surprisingly similar to that of hard-spheres. There are two mandatory solvation sites. In plain water, these sites are occupied with water molecules, which are seamlessly replaced by urea, in proportion to its volume fraction. We discuss how this result gives an explanation both for the exceptionally strong exclusion of TMAO from peptide groups and for the experimentally observed synergy between urea and TMAO.

  17. Systematic and Molecular Basis of the Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-Di-N-Oxides against Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Li, Bei; Wang, Chenxi; Zhang, Hongfei; Liang, Guixia; Weng, Zhifei; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are widely known as potent antibacterial agents, but their antibacterial mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of Escherichia coli exposed to QdNOs were integratively investigated, and the results demonstrated that QdNOs mainly induced an SOS response and oxidative stress. Moreover, genes and proteins involved in the bacterial metabolism, cellular structure maintenance, resistance and virulence were also found to be changed, conferring bacterial survival strategies. Biochemical assays showed that reactive oxygen species were induced in the QdNO-treated bacteria and that free radical scavengers attenuated the antibacterial action of QdNOs and DNA damage, suggesting an oxidative-DNA-damage action of QdNOs. The QdNO radical intermediates, likely carbon-centered and aryl-type radicals, as identified by electron paramagnetic resonance, were the major radicals induced by QdNOs, and xanthine oxidase was one of the QdNO-activating enzymes. This study provides new insights into the action of QdNOs in a systematic manner and increases the current knowledge of bacterial physiology under antibiotic stresses, which may be of great value in the development of new antibiotic-potentiating strategies. PMID:26296207

  18. Aqueous solvation of amphiphilic molecules by extended depolarized light scattering: the case of trimethylamine-N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Comez, L; Paolantoni, M; Corezzi, S; Lupi, L; Sassi, P; Morresi, A; Fioretto, D

    2016-04-07

    Hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions strongly affect the solvation dynamics of biomolecules. To understand their role, small model systems are generally employed to simplify the investigations. In this study the amphiphile trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is chosen as an exemplar, and studied by means of extended frequency range depolarized light scattering (EDLS) experiments as a function of solute concentration. This technique proves to be a suitable tool for investigating different aspects of aqueous solvation, being able at the same time to provide information about relaxation processes and vibrational modes of solvent and solute. In the case study of TMAO, we find that the relaxation dynamics of hydration water is moderately retarded compared to the bulk, and the perturbation induced by the solute on surrounding water is confined to the first hydration shell. The results highlight the hydrophobic character of TMAO in its interaction with water. The number of molecules taking part in the solvation process decreases as the solute concentration increases, following a trend consistent with the hydration water-sharing model, and suggesting that aggregation between solute molecules is negligible. Finally, the analysis of the resonant modes in the THz region and the comparison with the corresponding results obtained for the isosteric molecule tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) allow us to provide new insights into the different solvating properties of these two biologically relevant molecules.

  19. Trimethylamine-N-oxide switches from stabilizing nature: A mechanistic outlook through experimental techniques and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Anjeeta; Jayaraj, Abhilash; Jayaram, B.; Pannuru, Venkatesu

    2016-03-01

    In adaptation biology of the discovery of the intracellular osmolytes, the osmolytes are found to play a central role in cellular homeostasis and stress response. A number of models using these molecules are now poised to address a wide range of problems in biology. Here, a combination of biophysical measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method is used to examine the effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on stem bromelain (BM) structure, stability and function. From the analysis of our results, we found that TMAO destabilizes BM hydrophobic pockets and active site as a result of concerted polar and non-polar interactions which is strongly evidenced by MD simulation carried out for 250 ns. This destabilization is enthalpically favourable at higher concentrations of TMAO while entropically unfavourable. However, to the best of our knowledge, the results constitute first detailed unambiguous proof of destabilizing effect of most commonly addressed TMAO on the interactions governing stability of BM and present plausible mechanism of protein unfolding by TMAO.

  20. Furoxans (1,2,5-Oxadiazole-N-Oxides) as Novel NO Mimetic Neuroprotective and Procognitive Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefer, Isaac T.; VandeVrede, Lawren; Fa; , Mauro; Arancio, Ottavio; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2012-08-31

    Furoxans (1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxides) are thiol-bioactivated NO-mimetics that have not hitherto been studied in the CNS. Incorporation of varied substituents adjacent to the furoxan ring system led to modulation of reactivity toward bioactivation, studied by HPLC-MS/MS analysis of reaction products. Attenuated reactivity unmasked the cytoprotective actions of NO in contrast to the cytotoxic actions of higher NO fluxes reported previously for furoxans. Neuroprotection was observed in primary neuronal cell cultures following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Neuroprotective activity was observed to correlate with thiol-dependent bioactivation to produce NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but not with depletion of free thiol itself. Neuroprotection was abrogated upon cotreatment with a sGC inhibitor, ODQ, thus supporting activation of the NO/sGC/CREB signaling cascade by furoxans. Long-term potentiation (LTP), essential for learning and memory, has been shown to be potentiated by NO signaling, therefore, a peptidomimetic furoxan was tested in hippocampal slices treated with oligomeric amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) and was shown to restore synaptic function. The novel observation of furoxan activity of potential therapeutic use in the CNS warrants further studies.

  1. Discovery and Optimization of Benzotriazine Di-N-Oxides Targeting Replicating and Non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sidharth; Koolpe, Gary A.; Tambo-ong, Arlyn A.; Matsuyama, Karen N.; Ryan, Kenneth J.; Tran, Tran B.; Doppalapudi, Rupa S.; Riccio, Edward S.; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Green, Carol E.; Wan, Baojie; Franzblau, Scott G.; Madrid, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Compounds bactericidal against both replicating and non-replicating Mtb may shorten the length of TB treatment regimens by eliminating infections more rapidly. Screening of a panel of antimicrobial and anticancer drug classes that are bioreduced into cytotoxic species revealed that 1,2,4-benzotriazine di-N-oxides (BTOs) are potently bactericidal against replicating and non-replicating Mtb. Medicinal chemistry optimization, guided by semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, identified a new lead compound (20q) from this series with an MIC of 0.31 μg/mL against H37Rv and a cytotoxicity (CC50) against Vero cells of 25 μg/mL. 20q also had equivalent potency against a panel of single-drug resistant strains of Mtb and remarkably selective activity for Mtb over a panel of other pathogenic bacterial strains. 20q was also negative in a L5178Y MOLY assay, indicating low potential for genetic toxicity. These data along with measurements of the physiochemical properties and pharmacokinetic profile demonstrate that BTOs have the potential to be developed into a new class of antitubercular drugs. PMID:22691154

  2. Volume Exclusion and H-Bonding Dominate the Thermodynamics and Solvation of Trimethylamine-N-oxide in Aqueous Urea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and urea represent the extremes among the naturally occurring organic osmolytes in terms of their ability to stabilize/destabilize proteins. Their mixtures are found in nature and have generated interest in terms of both their physiological role and their potential use as additives in various applications (crystallography, drug formulation, etc.). Here we report experimental density and activity coefficient data for aqueous mixtures of TMAO with urea. From these data we derive the thermodynamics and solvation properties of the osmolytes, using Kirkwood–Buff theory. Strong hydrogen-bonding at the TMAO oxygen, combined with volume exclusion, accounts for the thermodynamics and solvation of TMAO in aqueous urea. As a result, TMAO behaves in a manner that is surprisingly similar to that of hard-spheres. There are two mandatory solvation sites. In plain water, these sites are occupied with water molecules, which are seamlessly replaced by urea, in proportion to its volume fraction. We discuss how this result gives an explanation both for the exceptionally strong exclusion of TMAO from peptide groups and for the experimentally observed synergy between urea and TMAO. PMID:22280147

  3. Trimethylamine-N-oxide switches from stabilizing nature: A mechanistic outlook through experimental techniques and molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Anjeeta; Jayaraj, Abhilash; Jayaram, B.; Pannuru, Venkatesu

    2016-01-01

    In adaptation biology of the discovery of the intracellular osmolytes, the osmolytes are found to play a central role in cellular homeostasis and stress response. A number of models using these molecules are now poised to address a wide range of problems in biology. Here, a combination of biophysical measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method is used to examine the effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on stem bromelain (BM) structure, stability and function. From the analysis of our results, we found that TMAO destabilizes BM hydrophobic pockets and active site as a result of concerted polar and non-polar interactions which is strongly evidenced by MD simulation carried out for 250 ns. This destabilization is enthalpically favourable at higher concentrations of TMAO while entropically unfavourable. However, to the best of our knowledge, the results constitute first detailed unambiguous proof of destabilizing effect of most commonly addressed TMAO on the interactions governing stability of BM and present plausible mechanism of protein unfolding by TMAO. PMID:27025561

  4. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  5. Interaction of 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide with dimethyl sulfoxide reductase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Weiner, J H

    1998-08-14

    We have studied the interaction of the menaquinol analog 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HOQNO) with dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DmsABC) and the effect of a mutation in the DmsC subunit (DmsABCH65R) using fluorescence titration and stopped-flow methods. The titration data show that the HOQNO fluorescence is quenched when HOQNO binds to DmsABC. The binding stoichiometry is determined to be about 1:1. The mutant DmsABCH65R blocks HOQNO binding to the protein. It is therefore proposed that there is one high-affinity HOQNO binding site per DmsABC molecule located in the DmsC subunit. Stopped-flow kinetic studies show that the interaction can be described by a two-step equilibrium model, a fast bimolecular step followed by a slow unimolecular step. The quenching of HOQNO fluorescence occurs in the bimolecular step. The rates for the forward and reverse reaction of the first equilibrium are determined to be k1 = (3.9 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and k2 = 0. 10 +/- 0.01 s-1, respectively. The dissociation constant for the first equilibrium, Kd1 = k2/k1, is calculated to be about 260 nM. The upper limit of the overall dissociation constant is estimated to be 6 nM.

  6. Trimethylamine-N-oxide switches from stabilizing nature: A mechanistic outlook through experimental techniques and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anjeeta; Jayaraj, Abhilash; Jayaram, B; Pannuru, Venkatesu

    2016-03-30

    In adaptation biology of the discovery of the intracellular osmolytes, the osmolytes are found to play a central role in cellular homeostasis and stress response. A number of models using these molecules are now poised to address a wide range of problems in biology. Here, a combination of biophysical measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method is used to examine the effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on stem bromelain (BM) structure, stability and function. From the analysis of our results, we found that TMAO destabilizes BM hydrophobic pockets and active site as a result of concerted polar and non-polar interactions which is strongly evidenced by MD simulation carried out for 250 ns. This destabilization is enthalpically favourable at higher concentrations of TMAO while entropically unfavourable. However, to the best of our knowledge, the results constitute first detailed unambiguous proof of destabilizing effect of most commonly addressed TMAO on the interactions governing stability of BM and present plausible mechanism of protein unfolding by TMAO.

  7. Quantification of glycine betaine, choline and trimethylamine N-oxide in seawater particulates: Minimisation of seawater associated ion suppression.

    PubMed

    Beale, Rachael; Airs, Ruth

    2016-09-28

    A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS, electrospray ionisation) method has been developed for the quantification of nitrogenous osmolytes (N-osmolytes) in the particulate fraction of natural water samples. Full method validation demonstrates the validity of the method for measuring glycine betaine (GBT), choline and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in particulates from seawater. Limits of detection were calculated as 3.5, 1.2 and 5.9 pg injected onto column (equivalent to 1.5, 0.6 and 3.9 nmol per litre) for GBT, choline and TMAO respectively. Precision of the method was typically 3% for both GBT and choline and 6% for TMAO. Collection of the particulate fraction of natural samples was achieved via in-line filtration. Resulting chromatography and method sensitivity was assessed and compared for the use of both glass fibre and polycarbonate filters during sample collection. Ion suppression was shown to be a significant cause of reduced instrument response to N-osmolytes and was associated with the presence of seawater in the sample matrix.

  8. Downregulation of NOX4 Expression by Roflumilast N-Oxide Reduces Markers of Fibrosis in Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Daniela; Acquaviva, Alessandra; Arezzini, Beatrice; Martorana, Piero A.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast prevents bleomycin- (BLM-) induced lung fibrosis in animal models. However, its mechanism of action remains unknown. We investigated whether roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), the active metabolite of roflumilast, can modulate in vitro the oxidative effects of BLM on human lung fibroblasts (HLF). In addition, since BLM increases the production of F2-isoprostanes that have per se fibrogenic activity, the effect of RNO on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis induced by the F2-isoprostane 8-epi-PGF2α was investigated. HLF were preincubated either with the vehicle or with RNO and exposed to either BLM or 8-epi-PGF2α. Proliferation and collagen synthesis were assessed as [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-proline incorporation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and F2-isoprostanes were measured. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) protein and mRNA were also evaluated. BLM increased both cell proliferation and collagen synthesis and enhanced ROS and F2-isoprostane production. These effects were significantly prevented by RNO. Also, RNO significantly reduced the increase in both NOX4 mRNA and protein, induced by BLM. Finally, 8-epi-PGF2α   per se stimulated HLF proliferation, collagen synthesis, and NOX4 expression and ROS generation, and RNO prevented these effects. Thus, the antifibrotic effect of RNO observed in vivo may be related to its ability to mitigate ROS generation via downregulation of NOX4. PMID:24027357

  9. Potentiometric titration of heterocyclic nitrogen bases in non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Rao, K C; Naidu, P R

    1972-11-01

    Pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, acridine, alpha-picoline, beta-picoline, gamma-picoline and 2,6-lutidine have been titrated potentio-metrically (calomel and glass electrodes), with chlorosulphonic acid in methyl ethyl ketone-acetic acid (1:1) medium, with an error of less than 1%.

  10. Distinguishing N-oxide and hydroxyl compounds: impact of heated capillary/heated ion transfer tube in inducing atmospheric pressure ionization source decompositions.

    PubMed

    Peiris, Dilrukshi M; Lam, Wing; Michael, Steven; Ramanathan, Ragu

    2004-06-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, a higher attrition rate during the drug discovery process means a lower drug failure rate in the later stages. This translates into shorter drug development time and reduced cost for bringing a drug to market. Over the past few years, analytical strategies based on liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) have gone through revolutionary changes and presently accommodate most of the needs of the pharmaceutical industry. Among these LC/MS techniques, collision induced dissociation (CID) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(n)) techniques have been widely used to identify unknown compounds and characterize metabolites. MS/MS methods are generally ineffective for distinguishing isomeric compounds such as metabolites involving oxygenation of carbon or nitrogen atoms. Most recently, atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source decomposition methods have been shown to aid in the mass spectral distinction of isomeric oxygenated (N-oxide vs hydroxyl) products/metabolites. In previous studies, experiments were conducted using mass spectrometers equipped with a heated capillary interface between the mass analyzer and the ionization source. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the length of a heated capillary or heated ion transfer tube (a newer version of the heated capillary designed for accommodating orthogonal API source design) in inducing for-API source deoxygenation that allows the distinction of N-oxide from hydroxyl compounds. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HO-Q), quinoline-N-oxide (Q-NO) and 8-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HO-Q-NO) were used as model compounds on three different mass spectrometers (LCQ Deca, LCQ Advantage and TSQ Quantum). Irrespective of heated capillary or ion transfer tube length, N-oxides from this class of compounds underwent predominantly deoxygenation decomposition under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization conditions and the abundance of the diagnostic [M + H - O](+) ions increased with

  11. Serum Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Strongly Related to Renal Function and Predicts Outcome in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, Catharina; Hällqvist, Jenny; Qureshi, Abdel Rashid; Barany, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bergman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The microbial metabolite Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcome and mortality in the general population. To assess the contribution of TMAO to inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients ranging from mild-moderate to end-stage disease and 1) associations with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 2) effect of dialysis and renal transplantation (Rtx) 3) association with inflammatory biomarkers and 4) its predictive value for all-cause mortality. Levels of metabolites were quantified by a novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method in fasting plasma samples from 80 controls and 179 CKD 3-5 patients. Comorbidities, nutritional status, biomarkers of inflammation and GFR were assessed. GFR was the dominant variable affecting TMAO (β = -0.41; p<0.001), choline (β = -0.38; p<0.001), and betaine (β = 0.45; p<0.001) levels. A longitudinal study of 74 CKD 5 patients starting renal replacement therapy demonstrated that whereas dialysis treatment did not affect TMAO, Rtx reduced levels of TMAO to that of controls (p<0.001). Following Rtx choline and betaine levels continued to increase. In CKD 3-5, TMAO levels were associated with IL-6 (Rho = 0.42; p<0.0001), fibrinogen (Rho = 0.43; p<0.0001) and hsCRP (Rho = 0.17; p = 0.022). Higher TMAO levels were associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality that remained significant after multivariate adjustment (HR 4.32, 95% CI 1.32-14.2; p = 0.016). Elevated TMAO levels are strongly associated with degree of renal function in CKD and normalize after renal transplantation. TMAO levels correlates with increased systemic inflammation and is an independent predictor of mortality in CKD 3-5 patients.

  12. Gut Microbiota-Dependent Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction in Western Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kui; Zheng, Xiaoqian; Feng, Mingchen; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Hongqi

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption of diets high in sugars and saturated fat, frequently known as western diet (WD), may lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence shows that WD-induced obesity impairs cardiac function, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that elevated circulating TMAO levels contribute to cardiac dysfunction in WD-induced obesity. CD1 mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a WD, without or with 1.0% 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, an inhibitor of trimethylamine formation) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Compared with mice fed a ND, mice fed a WD showed a significant increase in body weight and dyslipidemia, and had markedly higher plasma TMAO levels at the end of the feeding protocol. Echocardiography revealed that cardiac systolic and diastolic function was impaired in mice fed a WD. DMB treatment had no effects on body weight and dyslipidemia, but significantly reduced plasma TMAO levels and prevented cardiac dysfunction in mice fed a WD. In addition, mice fed a WD had elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin IL-1β, decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and increased interstitial fibrosis in the hearts, all of which were prevented by DMB treatment. Notably, DMB treatment also reduced plasma TMAO levels in mice fed a ND but did not alter other parameters. These results suggest that consumption of a WD increases circulating TMAO levels, which lead to cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, contributing to cardiac dysfunction. Interventions that reduce circulating TMAO levels may be a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of WD-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:28377725

  13. Osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide does not affect the strength of hydrophobic interactions: origin of osmolyte compatibility.

    PubMed

    Athawale, Manoj V; Dordick, Jonathan S; Garde, Shekhar

    2005-08-01

    Osmolytes are small organic solutes accumulated at high concentrations by cells/tissues in response to osmotic stress. Osmolytes increase thermodynamic stability of folded proteins and provide protection against denaturing stresses. The mechanism of osmolyte compatibility and osmolyte-induced stability has, therefore, attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, to our knowledge, no quantitative study of osmolyte effects on the strength of hydrophobic interactions has been reported. Here, we present a detailed molecular dynamics simulation study of the effect of the osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on hydrophobic phenomena at molecular and nanoscopic length scales. Specifically, we investigate the effects of TMAO on the thermodynamics of hydrophobic hydration and interactions of small solutes as well as on the folding-unfolding conformational equilibrium of a hydrophobic polymer in water. The major conclusion of our study is that TMAO has almost no effect either on the thermodynamics of hydration of small nonpolar solutes or on the hydrophobic interactions at the pair and many-body level. We propose that this neutrality of TMAO toward hydrophobic interactions-one of the primary driving forces in protein folding-is at least partially responsible for making TMAO a "compatible" osmolyte. That is, TMAO can be tolerated at high concentrations in organisms without affecting nonspecific hydrophobic effects. Our study implies that protein stabilization by TMAO occurs through other mechanisms, such as unfavorable water-mediated interaction of TMAO with the protein backbone, as suggested by recent experimental studies. We complement the above calculations with analysis of TMAO hydration and changes in water structure in the presence of TMAO molecules. TMAO is an amphiphilic molecule containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. The precise balance of the effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments of the molecule appears to explain the virtual

  14. Cholera toxin production during anaerobic trimethylamine N-oxide respiration is mediated by stringent response in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-05-09

    As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ΔrelA ΔspoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ΔdksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV or ΔdksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae.

  15. Cholera Toxin Production during Anaerobic Trimethylamine N-Oxide Respiration Is Mediated by Stringent Response in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M.; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-01-01

    As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ΔrelA ΔspoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ΔdksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV or ΔdksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae. PMID:24648517

  16. Advanced chronic kidney disease populations have elevated trimethylamine N-oxide levels associated with increased cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Kim, Richard B; Morse, Bridget L; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Tang, Mila; Muirhead, Norman; Barrett, Brendan; Holmes, Daniel T; Madore, Francois; Clase, Catherine M; Rigatto, Claudio; Levin, Adeera

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is more common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and traditional risk factors do not adequately predict those at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Recent evidence suggests elevated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), created by gut microflora from dietary L-carnitine and choline, is associated with CV events. We investigated the relationship of TMAO levels in patients with stages 3b and 4 CKD to ischemic CV events using the CanPREDDICT cohort, a Canada-wide observational study with prospective 3-year follow-up of adjudicated CV events. Baseline samples were obtained for 2529 CKD patients. TMAO, choline, and L-carnitine levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Baseline median TMAO level was high for the whole cohort (20.41 μM; interquartile range [IQR]: 12.82-32.70 μM). TMAO was independently associated with CV events (hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.42 / 1 SD lnTMAO) after adjusting for all potential CV risk factors. Those in the highest TMAO quartile had significantly higher risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.43; P = 0.0351) in the analysis of recurring ischemic events. Among those with stage 3b CKD (hazard ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.87 / 1 SD lnTMAO), independent of kidney function, TMAO levels identified those at highest risk for events. Our results suggest that TMAO may represent a new potentially modifiable CV risk factor for CKD patients. Further studies are needed to determine sources of variability and if lowering of TMAO reduces CV risk in CKD.

  17. Blood Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Originates from Microbiota Mediated Breakdown of Phosphatidylcholine and Absorption from Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Kathrin V.; Schuhmann, Vera; Kratzer, Frank; Garbade, Sven F.; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Fricker, Gert; Okun, Jürgen G.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was previously reported to be associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular events. TMAO originates from the microbiota-dependent breakdown of food-derived phosphatidylcholine (PC) to trimethylamine (TMA), which is oxidized by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases to TMAO. Our aim was to investigate the predominant site of absorption of the bacterial PC-breakdown product TMA. A healthy human proband was exposed to 6.9 g native phosphatidylcholine, either without concomitant treatment or during application with the topical antibiotic rifaximin, or exposed only to 6.9 g of a delayed-release PC formulation. Plasma and urine concentrations of TMA and TMAO were determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (plasma) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (urine). Native PC administration without concomitant treatment resulted in peak plasma TMAO levels of 43 ± 8 μM at 12 h post-ingestion, which was reduced by concomitant rifaximin treatment to 22 ± 8 μM (p < 0.05). TMAO levels observed after delayed-release PC administration were 20 ± 3 μM (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the peak urinary concentration at 24 h post-exposure dropped from 252 ± 33 to 185 ± 31 mmol/mmol creatinine after rifaximin treatment. In contrast, delayed-release PC resulted in even more suppressed urinary TMAO levels after the initial 12-h observation period (143 ± 18 mmol/mmol creatinine) and thereafter remained within the control range (24 h: 97 ± 9 mmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001 24 h vs. 12 h), indicating a lack of substrate absorption in distal intestine and large bowel. Our results showed that the microbiota in the small intestine generated the PC breakdown product TMA. The resulting TMAO, as a cardiovascular risk factor, was suppressed by topical-acting antibiotics or when PC was presented in an intestinally delayed release preparation. PMID:28129384

  18. Clozapine N-Oxide Administration Produces Behavioral Effects in Long–Evans Rats: Implications for Designing DREADD Experiments

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, Duncan A. A.; Browne, Richard W.; Krishnan Radhakrishnan, Sandhya; Khare, Prachi; España, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clozapine N-oxide (CNO) is a ligand for a powerful chemogenetic system that can selectively inhibit or activate neurons; the so-called Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) system. This system consists of synthetic G-protein-coupled receptors, which are not believed to be activated by any endogenous ligand, but are activated by the otherwise inert CNO. However, it has previously been shown that the administration of CNO in humans and rats leads to detectable levels of the bioactive compounds clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine (N-Des). As a follow-up, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CNO in male Long–Evans rats. It was found that 1 mg/kg CNO reduced the acoustic startle reflex but had no effect on prepulse inhibition (PPI; a measure of sensorimotor gating). CNO (2 and 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the disruption to PPI induced by the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine or the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. In locomotor studies, CNO alone (at 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but 5 mg/kg CNO pretreatment significantly attenuated d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. In line with the behavioral results, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry found that 5 mg/kg CNO significantly attenuated the d-amphetamine-induced increase in evoked dopamine. However, the effects seen after CNO administration cannot be definitively ascribed to CNO because biologically relevant levels of clozapine and N-Des were found in plasma after CNO injection. Our results show that CNO has multiple dose-dependent effects in vivo and is converted to clozapine and N-Des emphasizing the need for a CNO-only DREADD-free control group when designing DREADD-based experiments. PMID:27822508

  19. Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fanfan; Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Xu; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui; Dai, Menghong

    2016-01-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are a class of bioreductive compounds, however, their antibacterial mechanisms are still unclarified. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of two representative QdNO drugs, cyadox (CYA) and olaquindox (OLA), to produce reactive oxide species (ROS) in Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens CVCC1125 and Gram-negative anaerobe Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204. In addition, the effects of QdNOs on the integrity of bacterial cell walls and membranes as well as the morphological alterations and DNA oxidative damage in C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed. It was demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, QdNOs were metabolized into the reduced products which did not show any antibacterial activity. A significant dose-related increase of intracellular ROS level and intracellular hydroxyl radicals were evident in bacteria exposed to QdNOs. The result of biochemical assay showed that the cell walls and membranes of the bacteria treated with QdNOs were damaged. After exposure to 1/2MIC to 4MIC of CYA and OLA, C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae became elongated and filamentous. Morphological observation with scanning and transmission electron microscopes revealed rupture, loss of cytoplasmic material and cell lysis in QdNO-treated bacteria, indicating serious damage of cells. There was an increase of 8-OHdG in the two strains treated by QdNOs, but it was lower in C. perfringens CVCC1125 than in B. hyodysenteriae B204. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed the degradation of chromosomal DNA in both of the two anaerobes treated by QdNOs. The results suggest that QdNOs may kill C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae via the generation of ROS and hydroxyl radicals from the bacterial metabolism of QdNOs, which cause oxidative damage in bacteria under anaerobic conditions. PMID:28018297

  20. Gut Microbiota-Dependent Trimethylamine-N-oxide and Serum Biomarkers in Patients with T2DM and Advanced CKD.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaide, Mohammed A I; Singh, Ruchi; Datta, Palika; Rewers-Felkins, Kathy A; Salguero, Maria V; Al-Obaidi, Ibtisam; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L

    2017-09-19

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a product of dietary, gut microbiome, and tissues metabolism. Elevated blood TMAO levels are associated with heart attack, stroke and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of our study was to investigate the gut microbiota associated with trimethylamine (TMA) production, the precursor of TMAO, and the serum levels of TMAO and inflammatory biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CKD. Twenty adults with T2DM and advanced CKD and 20 healthy adults participated in the study. Analyses included anthropometric and metabolic parameters, characterization of TMA producing gut microbiota, and concentrations of TMAO, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) endotoxin, zonulin (Zo) gut permeability marker, and serum inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers. Diversity of the gut microbiota was identified by amplification of V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and DNA sequencing. TMAO was quantified by Mass Spectrometry and serum biomarkers by ELISA. The significance of measurements justified by statistical analysis. The gut microbiome in T2DM-CKD patients exhibited a higher incidence of TMA-producing bacteria than control, p < 0.05. The serum levels of TMAO in T2DM-CKD patients were significantly higher than controls, p < 0.05. TMAO showed a positive correlation with Zo and LPS, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers. A positive correlation was observed between Zo and LPS in T2DM-CKD subjects. An increased abundance of TMA-producing bacteria in the gut microbiota of T2DM-CKD patients together with excessive TMAO and increased gut permeability might impact their risk for cardiovascular disease through elevation of chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Effect of egg ingestion on trimethylamine-N-oxide production in humans: a randomized, controlled, dose-response study1234

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carolyn A; Corbin, Karen D; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Zhang, Shucha; Zhao, Xueqing; Galanko, Joseph A; Blevins, Tondra; Bennett, Brian J; O'Connor, Annalouise; Zeisel, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is important to understand whether eating eggs, which are a major source of dietary choline, results in increased exposure to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which is purported to be a risk factor for developing heart disease. Objective: We determined whether humans eating eggs generate TMAO and, if so, whether there is an associated increase in a marker for inflammation [ie, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] or increased oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized dietary intervention, 6 volunteers were fed breakfast doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, or 6 egg yolks. Diets were otherwise controlled on the day before and day of each egg dose with a standardized low-choline menu. Plasma TMAO at timed intervals (immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h after each dose), 24-h urine TMAO, predose and 24-h postdose serum hsCRP, and plasma oxidized LDL were measured. Volunteers received all 5 doses with each dose separated by >2-wk washout periods. Results: The consumption of eggs was associated with increased plasma and urine TMAO concentrations (P < 0.01), with ∼14% of the total choline in eggs having been converted to TMAO. There was considerable variation between individuals in the TMAO response. There was no difference in hsCRP or oxidized LDL concentrations after egg doses. Conclusions: The consumption of ≥2 eggs results in an increased formation of TMAO. Choline is an essential nutrient that is required for normal human liver and muscle functions and important for normal fetal development. Additional study is needed to both confirm the association between TMAO and atherosclerosis and identify factors, microbiota and genetic, that influence the generation of TMAO before policy and medical recommendations are made that suggest reduced dietary choline intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01906554. PMID:24944063

  2. The effect of aqueous solutions of trimethylamine-N-oxide on pressure induced modifications of hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2012-09-07

    To understand the mechanism of protein protection by the osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) at high pressure, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, solvation of hydrophobic group is probed in aqueous solutions of TMAO over a wide range of pressures relevant to protein denaturation. The hydrophobic solute considered in this study is neopentane which is a considerably large molecule. The concentrations of TMAO range from 0 to 4 M and for each TMAO concentration, simulations are performed at five different pressures ranging from 1 atm to 8000 atm. Potentials of mean force are calculated and the relative stability of solvent-separated state over the associated state of hydrophobic solute are estimated. Results suggest that high pressure reduces association of hydrophobic solutes. From computations of site-site radial distribution function followed by analysis of coordination number, it is found that water molecules are tightly packed around the nonpolar particle at high pressure and the hydration number increases with increasing pressure. On the other hand, neopentane interacts preferentially with TMAO over water and although hydration of neopentane reduces in presence of this osmolyte, TMAO does not show any tendency to prevent the pressure-induced dispersion of neopentane moieties. It is also observed that TMAO molecules prefer a side-on orientation near the neopentane surface, allowing its oxygen atom to form favorable hydrogen bonds with water while maintaining some hydrophobic contacts with neopentane. Analysis of hydrogen-bond properties and solvation characteristics of TMAO reveals that TMAO can form hydrogen bonds with water and it reduces the identical nearest neighbor water molecules caused by high hydrostatic pressures. Moreover, TMAO enhances life-time of water-water hydrogen bonds and makes these hydrogen bonds more attractive. Implication of these results for counteracting effect of TMAO against protein denaturation at high pressures are

  3. Serum Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Strongly Related to Renal Function and Predicts Outcome in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Missailidis, Catharina; Hällqvist, Jenny; Qureshi, Abdel Rashid; Barany, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Lindholm, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Background The microbial metabolite Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcome and mortality in the general population. Objective To assess the contribution of TMAO to inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients ranging from mild-moderate to end-stage disease and 1) associations with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 2) effect of dialysis and renal transplantation (Rtx) 3) association with inflammatory biomarkers and 4) its predictive value for all-cause mortality. Methods Levels of metabolites were quantified by a novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method in fasting plasma samples from 80 controls and 179 CKD 3–5 patients. Comorbidities, nutritional status, biomarkers of inflammation and GFR were assessed. Results GFR was the dominant variable affecting TMAO (β = -0.41; p<0.001), choline (β = -0.38; p<0.001), and betaine (β = 0.45; p<0.001) levels. A longitudinal study of 74 CKD 5 patients starting renal replacement therapy demonstrated that whereas dialysis treatment did not affect TMAO, Rtx reduced levels of TMAO to that of controls (p<0.001). Following Rtx choline and betaine levels continued to increase. In CKD 3–5, TMAO levels were associated with IL-6 (Rho = 0.42; p<0.0001), fibrinogen (Rho = 0.43; p<0.0001) and hsCRP (Rho = 0.17; p = 0.022). Higher TMAO levels were associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality that remained significant after multivariate adjustment (HR 4.32, 95% CI 1.32–14.2; p = 0.016). Conclusion Elevated TMAO levels are strongly associated with degree of renal function in CKD and normalize after renal transplantation. TMAO levels correlates with increased systemic inflammation and is an independent predictor of mortality in CKD 3–5 patients. PMID:26751065

  4. Intestinal Microbiota Composition Modulates Choline Bioavailability from Diet and Accumulation of the Proatherogenic Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Kymberleigh A.; Vivas, Eugenio I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Choline is a water-soluble nutrient essential for human life. Gut microbial metabolism of choline results in the production of trimethylamine (TMA), which upon absorption by the host is converted in the liver to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Recent studies revealed that TMAO exacerbates atherosclerosis in mice and positively correlates with the severity of this disease in humans. However, which microbes contribute to TMA production in the human gut, the extent to which host factors (e.g., genotype) and diet affect TMA production and colonization of these microbes, and the effects TMA-producing microbes have on the bioavailability of dietary choline remain largely unknown. We screened a collection of 79 sequenced human intestinal isolates encompassing the major phyla found in the human gut and identified nine strains capable of producing TMA from choline in vitro. Gnotobiotic mouse studies showed that TMAO accumulates in the serum of animals colonized with TMA-producing species, but not in the serum of animals colonized with intestinal isolates that do not generate TMA from choline in vitro. Remarkably, low levels of colonization by TMA-producing bacteria significantly reduced choline levels available to the host. This effect was more pronounced as the abundance of TMA-producing bacteria increased. Our findings provide a framework for designing strategies aimed at changing the representation or activity of TMA-producing bacteria in the human gut and suggest that the TMA-producing status of the gut microbiota should be considered when making recommendations about choline intake requirements for humans. PMID:25784704

  5. A Car-Parrinello and path integral molecular dynamics study of the intramolecular lithium bond in the lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlak, Piotr; Latajka, Zdzisław; Berski, Sławomir

    2009-07-01

    Lithium bonding in lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate has been investigated using classic Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) and the path integral approach [path integrals molecular dynamics (PIMD)]. The simulations have been performed in 300 K. Structures, energies, and lithium trajectories have been determined. The CPMD results show that the lithium atom is generally equidistant between heavy atoms in the (O⋯Li⋯O) bridge. Applying quantum effects through the PIMD leads to similar conclusion. The theoretical lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate infrared spectrum has also been determined using the CPMD calculations. This shows very good agreement with available experimental results and reproduces well the broad low-frequency band observed experimentally. In order to gain deeper understanding of the nature of the lithium bonding topological analysis of the electron localization function has been applied.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antimycobacterial activities of ketone and amide derivatives of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Raquel; Vicente, Esther; Solano, Beatriz; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Aldana, Ignacio; Maddry, Joseph A.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Monge, Antonio; Goldman, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a novel series of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB). Methods Ketone and amide derivatives of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo tests including: (i) activity against M. tuberculosis resistant to currently used antitubercular drugs including multidrug-resistant strains (MDR-TB resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin); (ii) activity against non-replicating persistent (NRP) bacteria; (iii) MBC; (iv) maximum tolerated dose, oral bioavailability and in vivo efficacy in mice; and (v) potential for cross-resistance with another bioreduced drug, PA-824. Results Ten compounds were tested on single drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. In general, all compounds were active with ratios of MICs against resistant and non-resistant strains of ≤4.00. One compound, 5, was orally active in a murine model of TB, bactericidal, active against NRP bacteria and active on MDR-TB and poly drug-resistant clinical isolates (resistant to 3–5 antitubercular drugs). Conclusions Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides represent a new class of orally active antitubercular drugs. They are likely bioreduced to an active metabolite, but the pathway of bacterial activation was different from PA-824, a bioreducible nitroimidazole in clinical trials. Compound 5 was bactericidal and active on NRP organisms indicating that activation occurred in both growing and non-replicating bacteria leading to cell death. The presence of NRP bacteria is believed to be a major factor responsible for the prolonged nature of antitubercular therapy. If the bactericidal activity and activity on non-replicating bacteria in vitro translate to in vivo conditions, quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides may offer a path to shortened therapy. PMID:18502817

  7. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide enriched butanolic residue from Senecio brasiliensis affects behavior and striatal neurotransmitter levels of rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Sanches, Daniel; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2015-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxins that are exclusively biosynthesized by plants and are commonly present in foods and herbs. PAs are usually associated with poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to PA integerrimine N-oxide of rats in adulthood. Pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the butanolic residue of Senecio brasiliensis by gavage on gestational days 6-20 at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During adulthood of the offspring, the following behavioral tests were performed: open-field, plus-maze, forced swimming, catalepsy and stereotypy. Histological analyses and monoamine levels were measured. Male offspring from dams that were exposed to 9 mg/kg showed an increase in locomotion in the open-field test, an increased frequency of entries and time spent in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, as well as decreased swimming time. In the female offspring from dams that were exposed to 9 mg/kg, there was an increased time of climbing in forced swimming and intensity of stereotyped behavior. The histological study indicates an increase in the number of multinucleated cells in the liver (6 and 9 mg/kg). In neurotransmitter analysis, specifically in the striatum, we observed change in dopamine and serotonin levels in the middle dose. Thus, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide changed behavior in adulthood and neurotransmitter levels in the striatum. Our results agree with previous studies, which showed that integerrimine N-oxide impaired physical and neurobehavioral development in childhood that can persist until adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative theoretical studies of differently bridged nitramino-substituted ditetrazole 2-N-oxides with high detonation performance and an oxygen balance of around zero.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Kou, Bo; Hang, Zusheng; Zhu, Weihua

    2017-06-01

    In this work, six (A-F) nitramino (-NHNO2)-substituted ditetrazole 2-N-oxides with different bridging groups (-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-, -NH-, -N=N-, and -NH-NH-) were designed. The six compounds were based on the parent compound tetrazole 2-N-oxide, which possesses a high oxygen balance and high density. The structure, heat of formation, density, detonation properties (detonation velocity D and detonation pressure P), and the sensitivity of each compound was investigated systematically via density functional theory, by studying the electrostatic potential, and using molecular mechanics. The results showed that compounds A-F all have outstanding energetic properties (D: 9.1-10.0 km/s; P: 38.0-46.7 GPa) and acceptable sensitivities (h 50: 28-37 cm). The bridging group present was found to greatly affect the detonation performance of each ditetrazole 2-N-oxide, and the compound with the -NH-NH- bridging group yielded the best results. Indeed, this compound (F) was calculated to have comparable sensitivity to the famous and widely used high explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX), but with values of D and P that were about 8.7% and 19.4% higher than those for HMX, respectively. The present study shows that tetrazole 2-N-oxide is a useful parent compound which could potentially be used in the design of new and improved high-energy compounds to replace existing energetic compounds such as HMX.

  9. Enantioselective Mukaiyama-Michael with 2-enoyl pyridine N-oxides catalyzed by PYBOX-DIPH-Zn(II)-complexes at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Rout, Subhrajit; Ray, Sumit K; Singh, Vinod K

    2013-07-21

    A chiral PYBOX-DIPH-Zn(II) catalyzed enantioselective Mukaiyama-Michael reaction of acyclic silyl enol ethers with 2-enoylpyridine N-oxides has been studied in external additive free conditions at ambient temperature. The methodology offers straightforward access to a variety of functionalized chiral 1,5-dicarbonyl compounds, which could easily be elaborated into synthetically viable pyrones via hydrolysis followed by cyclization. A transition state model has been proposed to explain the stereochemical outcome.

  10. Site-specific indolation of proline-based peptides via copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dengyou; Zhou, Shengbin; Gao, Feng; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-14

    The first site-specific and purely chemical method for modifying proline-based peptides was developed via a convenient, copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides with indoles. This novel approach features high regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity, mild conditions, and compatibility with various functional groups. In addition, a simplified process was realized in one pot and two steps via in situ oxidative coupling of tertiary amine and indoles.

  11. Simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, its N-oxide metabolite and their deuterium-labeled analogues in ovine plasma and urine using liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Rurak, D W; Riggs, K W

    1998-12-01

    Our studies on drug disposition in chronically instrumented pregnant sheep involve simultaneous administration of the antihistamine diphenhydramine (DPHM), its deuterated analogue ([2H10]DPHM) and their metabolites to the mother or the fetus via various routes. Such studies require sensitive and selective mass spectrometric methods for quantitation of these labeled and unlabeled compounds in order to assess comparative maternal and fetal drug metabolism. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of DPHM, its N-oxide metabolite and their deuterium-labeled analogues in ovine plasma and urine. Samples spiked with the analytes and the internal standard, orphenadrine, were processed using liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was chromatographed on a propylamino LC column and MS/MS detection was performed in the positive ion electrospray mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for the N-oxides and the parent amines were 0.4-100.0 and 0.2-250.0 ng ml-1, respectively. In validation tests, the assay exhibited acceptable variability (< or = 15% at analyte concentrations below 2.0 ng ml-1 and < 10% at all other concentrations) and bias (< 15% at all concentrations), and the analytes were stable under a variety of sample handling conditions. Using this method, the labeled and unlabeled N-oxide metabolite was identified in fetal plasma after DPHM and [2H10]DPHM administration. This method will be used further to examine the comparative metabolism of diphenhydramine to its N-oxide metabolite in the mother and the fetus.

  12. Profiling of Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids and their N-Oxides in Herbarium-Preserved Specimens of Amsinckia Species Using HPLC-esi(+)MS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Amsinckia genus (Boraginaceae) are known to produce potentially hepato-, pneumo-, and/or genotoxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. However, the taxonomic differentiation of Amsinckia species can be very subtle and there seems to be marked differences in toxicity toward grazing livestock. Methanol extracts of mass-limited leaf samples from herbarium specimens (collected from 1899 to 2013) of 10 Amsinckia species and one variety were analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the presence of potentially toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and/or their N-oxides. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in all specimens examined ranging from about 1 to 4000 μg/g of plant. Usually occurring mainly as their N-oxides, the predominant alkaloids were the epimeric lycopsamine and intermedine. Also sometimes observed in higher concentrations were the 3′- and 7-acetyl derivatives of lycopsamine/intermedine and their N-oxides. Within a designated species, an inconsistent profile was often observed that may be due to natural variation, taxonomic misassignment, or nonuniform degradation due to plant collection and storage differences. PMID:24655304

  13. Ester of Quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide as Apoptosis Inductors in K-562 Cell Line: An in vitro, QSAR and DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gildardo; Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Romero, Manolo S Ortega; Palos, Isidro; Monge, Antonio; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid

    2017-01-01

    Quinoxalines have shown a wide variety of biological activities including as antitumor agents. The aims of this study were to evaluate the activity of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives on K562 cells, the establishment of the mechanism of induced cell death, and the construction of predictive QSAR models. Sixteen esters of quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide were evaluated for antitumor activity on K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and their IC50 values were determined. The mechanism of induced cell death by the most active molecule was assessed by flow cytometry and an in silico study was conducted to optimize and calculate theoretical descriptors of all quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. QSAR and QPAR models were created using genetic algorithms. Our results show that compounds C5, C7, C10, C12 and C15 had the lowest IC50 of the series. C15 was the most active compound (IC50= 3.02 μg/mL), inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death via the intrinsic pathway. QSAR and QPAR studies are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. 1-(2-biphenyl)-3-methyltriazenide-N-oxide as a template for intramolecular copper(II)⋯arene-π interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraginski, Gustavo Luiz; Hörner, Manfredo; Back, Davi Fernando; Wohlmuth Alves dos Santos, Aline Joana Rolina; Beck, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Deprotonated triazene N-oxides are able to chelate metal ions resulting in five-membered rings without carbon atoms. A new ligand 1-(2-biphenyl)-3-methyltriazenide-N-oxide (1) and its mononuclear Cu(II) complex (2) were synthesized to verify the capability of this ligand to promote Cu(II)⋯arene-π interactions. Ligand 1 and complex 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry (ESI(+)-TOF), IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, ligand 1 was characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and complex 2 by X-ray diffraction on single crystal. The crystal structure of complex 2 reveals a distorted tetrahedral geometry of Cu(II) in the first coordination sphere, which expands to a distorted octahedral environment by two symmetrically independent intramolecular metal⋯arene-π interactions. These interactions are provided by ortho-phenyl rings of both triazene N-oxide ligands 1. The aim of this work was to contribute to the architecture of new Cu(II)⋯arene-π complexes based on the synthesis of appropriated ligand for intramolecular interactions

  15. Effects of the Fusarium spp. mycotoxins fusaric acid and deoxynivalenol on the growth of Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium.

    PubMed

    May, H D; Wu, Q; Blake, C K

    2000-08-01

    The Fusarium spp. mycotoxins fusaric acid and deoxynivalenol (DON) were tested for antimicrobial activity against Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium. The growth of both organisms was inhibited by fusaric acid as low as 15 micrograms/mL (84 microM) but not by DON, at levels as high as 100 micrograms/mL (338 microM). No synergistic inhibitory effect was observed with DON plus fusaric acid. Neither organism was able to adapt to the fusaric acid and responses of each organism to the compound were different. The optical density (OD) maximum for R. albus, but not for M. ruminantium, was diminished after 28 days incubation at concentrations of fusaric acid below 240 micrograms/mL. Inhibition of R. albus started before significant growth had occurred, while M. ruminantium doubled twice before the onset of inhibition. Responses to picolinic acid, an analog of fusaric acid, were also dramatically different between the two microorganisms with M. ruminantium exhibiting a severe lag followed by a complete recovery of growth, while R. albus was only slightly inhibited with no lag. These results suggest that the mechanism of fusaric acid inhibition is specific to each microorganism. This is the first demonstration of the common mycotoxin fusaric acid inhibiting the growth of rumen bacteria.

  16. The Relationship Between Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Population Living in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Chalcraft, Kenneth; Ak, Handan; Davis, A Darlene; Lonn, Eva; Miller, Ruby; Potter, Murray A; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S; McQueen, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Microflora-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) formation, which results from intake of choline and L-carnitine-rich food, shows promise as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations have not been examined in ethnically diverse populations. In a multiethnic population-based study of adults in Canada, we assessed the stability of TMAO and L-carnitine in stored serum samples and their association with intimal medial thickness, prevalent risk factors, and clinical events. In a randomly sampled cross-sectional study of 1286 Canadians, fasting serum samples were collected and stored. In 292 consecutive individuals (99 CVD cases and 193 unmatched control subjects), L-carnitine and TMAO concentrations were assessed using validated analytical approaches. The mean (± SD) TMAO level was 1.998 ± 3.13 μM and L-carnitine was 42.29 ± 11.35 μM. The relative levels of the samples did not appreciably change after 3 freeze-thaw cycles (coefficient of variation, 5.6% and 4.7%, respectively). No significant association between L-carnitine levels and prevalent CVD was found, with adjustment for covariates (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-4.26; P trend = 0.65), for highest vs lowest quintile group. TMAO levels showed a significant, graded association with prevalent CVD (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.51; P trend = 0.02). After further adjustment for diabetes status, meat, fish, and cholesterol intake, the association remained significant. No significant association between carotid intimal medial thickness and L-carnitine (P = 0.64) or TMAO (P = 0.18) was found. Serum TMAO and L-carnitine analysis on stored samples is reliable. Our findings support an association between TMAO with prevalent CVD in a multiethnic population. This finding requires replication in larger studies in which dietary intake and stored serum samples exist. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Associations of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) with nutritional and inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular outcomes in patients new to dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, George A; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Kornak, John; Grimes, Barbara; Dwyer, Tjien; Chassy, Alexander W.; Fiehn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a product of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and carnitine by the intestinal microbiome. Elevated serum concentrations of TMAO have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the general population. We examined correlates of serum TMAO and the relations among serum TMAO concentrations, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations in a nationally derived cohort of patients new to hemodialysis (HD). Methods We quantified serum TMAO by liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry and assessed nutritional and cardiovascular risk factors in 235 patients receiving hemodialysis and measured TMAO in pooled serum from healthy controls. We analyzed time to death and time to cardiovascular death or hospitalization using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Serum TMAO concentrations (median 43, (25th – 75th percentile 28–67 µM/L) were elevated compared to persons with normal or near normal kidney function (1.41 ± 0.49 µM/L). TMAO was directly correlated with serum albumin (Spearman rank correlation 0.24, 95% CI 0.12, 0.35; P < 0.001), prealbumin (0.19, 95% CI 0.07, 0.31; P =0.003), and creatinine (0.21, 95% CI 0.08, 0.33; P =0.002), and inversely correlated with log CRP (−0.18, 95% CI −0.30, – 0.06; P =0.005). Higher serum concentrations of TMAO were not significantly associated with time to death (0.84, CI 0.65, 1.09 P=0.19) or time to cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular death (0.88, CI 0.57, 1.35 P =0.55). Conclusions Serum TMAO concentrations were markedly elevated and correlated directly with biochemical markers of nutritional status and inversely with markers of inflammation in patients receiving hemodialysis. There was no significant association between serum TMAO concentrations and all-cause mortality or cardiovascular death or hospitalizations. In patients receiving dialysis – in contrast to the general population – adverse

  18. Prognostic value of choline and betaine depends on intestinal microbiota-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeneng; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Fu, Xiaoming; Britt, Earl B.; Koeth, Robert A.; Levison, Bruce S.; Fan, Yiying; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recent metabolomics and animal model studies show trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), an intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolite formed from dietary trimethylamine-containing nutrients such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), choline, and carnitine, is linked to coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to examine the prognostic value of systemic choline and betaine levels in stable cardiac patients. Methods and results We examined the relationship between fasting plasma choline and betaine levels and risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE = death, myocardial infraction, stroke) in relation to TMAO over 3 years of follow-up in 3903 sequential stable subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. In our study cohort, median (IQR) TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were 3.7 (2.4–6.2)μM, 9.8 (7.9–12.2)μM, and 41.1 (32.5–52.1)μM, respectively. Modest but statistically significant correlations were noted between TMAO and choline (r = 0.33, P < 0.001) and less between TMAO and betaine (r = 0.09, P < 0.001). Higher plasma choline and betaine levels were associated with a 1.9-fold and 1.4-fold increased risk of MACE, respectively (Quartiles 4 vs. 1; P < 0.01, each). Following adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated choline [1.34 (1.03–1.74), P < 0.05], and betaine levels [1.33 (1.03–1.73), P < 0.05] each predicted increased MACE risk. Neither choline nor betaine predicted MACE risk when TMAO was added to the adjustment model, and choline and betaine predicted future risk for MACE only when TMAO was elevated. Conclusion Elevated plasma levels of choline and betaine are each associated with incident MACE risk independent of traditional risk factors. However, high choline and betaine levels are only associated with higher risk of future MACE with concomitant increase in TMAO. PMID:24497336

  19. Betaine and Trimethylamine-N-Oxide as Predictors of Cardiovascular Outcomes Show Different Patterns in Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Michael; George, Peter M.; Slow, Sandy; Bellamy, David; Young, Joanna M.; Ho, Markus; McEntyre, Christopher J.; Elmslie, Jane L.; Atkinson, Wendy; Molyneux, Sarah L.; Troughton, Richard W.; Frampton, Christopher M.; Richards, A. Mark; Chambers, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Betaine is a major osmolyte, also important in methyl group metabolism. Concentrations of betaine, its metabolite dimethylglycine and analog trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in blood are cardiovascular risk markers. Diabetes disturbs betaine: does diabetes alter associations between betaine-related measures and cardiovascular risk? Methods Plasma samples were collected from 475 subjects four months after discharge following an acute coronary admission. Death (n = 81), secondary acute MI (n = 87), admission for heart failure (n = 85), unstable angina (n = 72) and all cardiovascular events (n = 283) were recorded (median follow-up: 1804 days). Results High and low metabolite concentrations were defined as top or bottom quintile of the total cohort. In subjects with diabetes (n = 79), high plasma betaine was associated with increased frequencies of events; significantly for heart failure, hazard ratio 3.1 (1.2–8.2) and all cardiovascular events, HR 2.8 (1.4–5.5). In subjects without diabetes (n = 396), low plasma betaine was associated with events; significantly for secondary myocardial infarction, HR 2.1 (1.2–3.6), unstable angina, HR 2.3 (1.3–4.0), and all cardiovascular events, HR 1.4 (1.0–1.9). In diabetes, high TMAO was a marker of all outcomes, HR 2.7 (1.1–7.1) for death, 4.0 (1.6–9.8) for myocardial infarction, 4.6 (2.0–10.7) for heart failure, 9.1 (2.8–29.7) for unstable angina and 2.0 (1.1–3.6) for all cardiovascular events. In subjects without diabetes TMAO was only significant for death, HR 2.7 (1.6–4.8) and heart failure, HR 1.9 (1.1–3.4). Adding the estimated glomerular filtration rate to Cox regression models tended to increase the apparent risks associated with low betaine. Conclusions Elevated plasma betaine concentration is a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes; conversely low plasma betaine concentrations indicate increased risk in the absence of diabetes. We speculate that the

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Spin Trapping of Inorganic Radicals by 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline N-Oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite and Sulfate Radical Anions

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Pedro L.; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfite (SO32−), sulfate (SO42−), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO3•− and SO4•−. The thermochemistries of SO2•−, SO3•−, SO4•−, and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO2•− by EPR but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO3•− and an O-centered adduct for SO4•−. Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc’s with theoretically calculated ones. The thermodynamics of the non-radical addition of SO32− and HSO3− to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H217O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

  1. Coordinatively polymeric and monomeric bismuth(III) complexes with pyridine carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, O; Prasad, T K; Swamy, K C Kumara

    2010-02-28

    Three crystalline compounds, [Bi(2-O(2)C-C(5)H(4)N)(3)](n) (), {Bi[(2,6-O(2)C)(2)C(5)H(3)N)][(2-HO(2)C-6-O(2)C)C(5)H(3)N].H(2)O}(n) (3) and Bi(O(2)CC(9)H(6)N)(2)(O(3)N)(O(2)CC(9)H(6)NH).2H(2)O () have been prepared by simple reactions in aqueous medium using the readily available bismuth nitrate and the corresponding acids, picolinic acid, dipicolinic acid and quinaldic acid. While and are coordination polymers with bismuth in tricapped trigonal prismatic and dodecahedral environments, compound is a monomeric species with dodecahedral geometry at bismuth. Compound represents a second crystalline form of a recently reported structure with subtle differences in bond parameters, and highlights the flexibility in structural motifs during crystallization. Compound involves skeletons with dimeric [Bi(2)O(2)] and trimeric [BiOCOBiOBiOCO] moieties. In , while the N-protonated carboxylate forms a four-membered chelate ring with bismuth, the other two carboxylates form five-membered ring chelates with the nitrate accounting for the remaining two sites again as a chelate. TGA studies are consistent with the presence of non-coordinated water in and . Compounds and , although insoluble in most of the organic solvents and water, are readily soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.

  2. Determination of trimethylamine-N-oxide in combination with L-carnitine and γ-butyrobetaine in human plasma by UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Grinberga, Solveiga; Dambrova, Maija; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Strele, Ieva; Konrade, Ilze; Hartmane, Dace; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Liepinsh, Edgars; Pugovics, Osvalds

    2015-11-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) simultaneously with TMAO-related molecules L-carnitine and γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) in human blood plasma. The separation of analytes was achieved using a Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-type column with ammonium acetate-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. TMAO determination was validated according to valid US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The developed method was successfully applied to plasma samples from healthy volunteers.

  3. Optical microinterferometry method for evaluation of phase state and diffusion in ternary systems: phase separation in cellulose/N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide/non-solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, V. V.; Antonov, S. V.; Anokhina, T. A.; Volkov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Microinterferometry technique was used to evaluate the phase state and diffusion of cellulose solutions N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide upon contact with non-solvents (water and aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol). The method was helpful in visualization of the structure of the forming cellulose film in connection with the diffusivity of the components of the systems. The interdiffusion coefficient were determined. Isopropyl alcohol addition to water slows down the diffusion of the coagulant into the cellulose solution thus delaying cellulose precipitation. Increase of temperature leads to formation of less dense cellulose film morphology with large vacuoles.

  4. The impact of solvent polarity on intramolecular proton and electron transfer in 2-alkylamino-4-nitro-5-methyl pyridine N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Szemik-Hojniak, A; Wiśniewski, Łukasz; Deperasińska, Irena; Makarewicz, Artur; Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan; Puszko, Aniela; Erez, Yuval; Huppert, Dan

    2012-06-14

    The crystal structure of 2-butylamino-4-nitro-5-methyl pyridine N-oxide (2B5M) and solution studies of both 2B5M and 2-methylamino-4-nitro-5-methyl pyridine (2M5M) N-oxide are presented. Steady-state absorption and emission measurements were employed for both molecules while a picosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique was used to follow the dynamic behavior of the 2M5M system. The experimental methods were complemented by DFT and TD DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations involving ground and excited-state optimization which in the case of the smaller 2M5M molecule were extended to the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The solvent effect is incorporated by applying the polarizable continuum (PCM) model. The data reveal that the 2B5M molecule crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c and its crystal lattice is composed of monomers with intramolecular N-H···O [2.572(3) Å] hydrogen bonds, connected into a polymer network by weak intermolecular C-H…O [3.2-3.4 Å]-type interactions. Quantum-chemical calculations show that the aminoalkyl substitutent in aminoalkyl-pyridine N-oxides is a specific determinant of the CT nature of the lowest-lying excited electronic ππ* state, distinguishing them from other nitroaromatic compounds. The results of both picosecond fluorescence up-conversion experiments in different solvents and quantum-chemical calculations suggest that in nonpolar media the ESIPT process in 2M5M is favored, while in polar acetonitrile, the N* → PT* transition demands barrier-crossing and thus unfavorable thermodynamic conditions do not allow the ESIPT to occur. The signals of picosecond fluorescence up-conversion of 2M5M are solvent- and emission-wavelength dependent. The three time components found in a weakly polar isooctane-dioxane mixture have been attributed to solvation dynamics (∼500 fs), and to relaxation of N* and PT* forms while in acetonitrile, a very rapid fluorescence decay with a time constant (2.3-4.0 ps) indicative of the

  5. Chloride promoted room temperature preparation of silver nanoparticles on two dimensional tungsten oxide nanoarchitectures for the catalytic oxidation of tertiary N-compounds to N-oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shilpi; Acharyya, Shankha S.; Kumar, Malika; Bal, Rajaram

    2015-09-01

    A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies further provide mechanistic insight which proves that the formation of peroxo tungsten species is responsible for the N-oxidation reaction. High stability and recyclability of the 2D Ag/WO3 nanoplates are also observed under the investigated conditions.A halide ion promoted two dimensional silver tungsten-based nanomaterial was synthesized by a facile one-pot synthesis protocol at room temperature. The 2D morphology features high activity and selectivity for the oxidation of a wide range of tertiary N-compounds to their corresponding N-oxides. The morphology of Ag/WO3 materials can be varied by changing the synthesis parameters. The unique 2D plate like morphology of tungsten oxide increases adsorption sites of the support, leading to less sintering and higher dispersion of silver nanoparticles, resulting in significantly enhanced activity for the reaction. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate to oxidant molar ratio, reaction time, etc. was investigated in detail. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, ICP-AES, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, SEM, TEM and STEM. Raman studies

  6. Metal-free functionalization of N,N-dialkylanilines via temporary oxidation to N,N-dialkylaniline N-oxides and group transfer.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert S; Wisthoff, Michael F; Grissmerson, J; Chain, William J

    2014-07-18

    A simple set of protocols for the controlled elaboration of anilines is reported allowing access to a diverse array of aminophenols, aminoarylsulfonates, alkylated anilines, and aminoanilines in 29-95% yield in a single laboratory operation from easily isolable, bench-stable N,N-dialkylaniline N-oxides. The introduction of new C-O, C-C, and C-N bonds on the aromatic ring is made possible by a temporary increase in oxidation level and excision of a weak N-O bond.

  7. Metal-Free Functionalization of N,N-Dialkylanilines via Temporary Oxidation to N,N-Dialkylaniline N-Oxides and Group Transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple set of protocols for the controlled elaboration of anilines is reported allowing access to a diverse array of aminophenols, aminoarylsulfonates, alkylated anilines, and aminoanilines in 29–95% yield in a single laboratory operation from easily isolable, bench-stable N,N-dialkylaniline N-oxides. The introduction of new C–O, C–C, and C–N bonds on the aromatic ring is made possible by a temporary increase in oxidation level and excision of a weak N–O bond. PMID:24992642

  8. In vitro metabolism of α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist AZD0328 and enzyme identification for its N-oxide metabolite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Diansong; Zhang, Minli; Ye, Xiaomei; Gu, Chungang; Piser, Timothy M; Lanoue, Bernard A; Schock, Sara A; Cheng, Yi-Fang; Grimm, Scott W

    2011-03-01

    1. AZD0328 was pharmacologically characterized as a α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist intended for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In vitro AZD0328 cross species metabolite profile and enzyme identification for its N-oxide metabolite were evaluated in this study. 2. AZD0328 was very stable in the human hepatocyte incubation, whereas extensively metabolized in rat, dog and guinea pig hepatocyte incubations. The N-oxidation metabolite (M6) was the only metabolite detected in human hepatocyte incubations, and it also appeared to be the major in vitro metabolic pathway in a number of preclinical species. In addition, N-glucuronide metabolite of AZD0328 was observed in human liver microsomes. 3. Other metabolic pathways in the preclinical species include hydroxylation in azabicyclo octane or furopyridine part of the molecule. Pyridine N-methylation of AZD0328 (M2) was identified as a dog specific metabolite, not observed in human or other preclinical species. 4. Multiple enzymes including CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, FMO1 and FMO3 catalyzed AZD0328 metabolism. The potential for AZD0328 to be inhibited clinically by co-administered drugs or genetic polymorphism is relative low.

  9. Theoretical studies on the structure, thermochemical and detonation properties of amino and nitroso substituted 1,2,4-triazol-5-one-N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Ravi, P; Venkatesan, V; Tewari, Surya P

    2013-11-01

    DFT calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level have been carried out to explore the structure, stability, electron density, heat of formation, detonation velocity and detonation pressure of substituted amino- and nitroso-1,2,4-triazol-5-one-N-oxides. Heats of formation of substituted triazol-5-one-N-oxides have been computed at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level via isodesmic reaction procedure. Materials Studio 4.1 package was used to predict the crystal density of model compounds. Kamlet-Jacob equations were used to calculate detonation properties based on the calculated heat of explosion and crystal density. The designed compounds 4, 6, 7 and 8 have shown higher performance compared with those of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane and octanitrocubane. Atoms-in-molecule (AIM) analyses have also been carried out to understand the nature of intramolecular interactions in the designed molecules.

  10. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of methyl isocyanate, methyl cyanate, methyl fulminate, and acetonitrile N-oxide using highly correlated ab initio methods.

    PubMed

    Dalbouha, S; Senent, M L; Komiha, N; Domínguez-Gómez, R

    2016-09-28

    Various astrophysical relevant molecules obeying the empirical formula C2H3NO are characterized using explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T)-F12). Rotational and rovibrational parameters are provided for four isomers: methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO), methyl cyanate (CH3OCN), methyl fulminate (CH3ONC), and acetonitrile N-oxide (CH3CNO). A CH3CON transition state is inspected. A variational procedure is employed to explore the far infrared region because some species present non-rigidity. Second order perturbation theory is used for the determination of anharmonic frequencies, rovibrational constants, and to predict Fermi resonances. Three species, methyl cyanate, methyl fulminate, and CH3CON, show a unique methyl torsion hindered by energy barriers. In methyl isocyanate, the methyl group barrier is so low that the internal top can be considered a free rotor. On the other hand, acetonitrile N-oxide presents a linear skeleton, C3v symmetry, and free internal rotation. Its equilibrium geometry depends strongly on electron correlation. The remaining isomers present a bend skeleton. Divergences between theoretical rotational constants and previous parameters fitted from observed lines for methyl isocyanate are discussed on the basis of the relevant rovibrational interaction and the quasi-linearity of the molecular skeleton.

  11. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Vivian; Bisio, Hugo; López, Gloria V; Romanelli-Cedrez, Laura; Bonilla, Mariana; Saldaña, Jenny; Salinas, Gustavo

    2015-06-26

    Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti). This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E), an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo.

  12. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of methyl isocyanate, methyl cyanate, methyl fulminate, and acetonitrile N-oxide using highly correlated ab initio methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbouha, S.; Senent, M. L.; Komiha, N.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.

    2016-09-01

    Various astrophysical relevant molecules obeying the empirical formula C2H3NO are characterized using explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T)-F12). Rotational and rovibrational parameters are provided for four isomers: methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO), methyl cyanate (CH3OCN), methyl fulminate (CH3ONC), and acetonitrile N-oxide (CH3CNO). A CH3CON transition state is inspected. A variational procedure is employed to explore the far infrared region because some species present non-rigidity. Second order perturbation theory is used for the determination of anharmonic frequencies, rovibrational constants, and to predict Fermi resonances. Three species, methyl cyanate, methyl fulminate, and CH3CON, show a unique methyl torsion hindered by energy barriers. In methyl isocyanate, the methyl group barrier is so low that the internal top can be considered a free rotor. On the other hand, acetonitrile N-oxide presents a linear skeleton, C3v symmetry, and free internal rotation. Its equilibrium geometry depends strongly on electron correlation. The remaining isomers present a bend skeleton. Divergences between theoretical rotational constants and previous parameters fitted from observed lines for methyl isocyanate are discussed on the basis of the relevant rovibrational interaction and the quasi-linearity of the molecular skeleton.

  13. Gold Catalysed Redox Synthesis of Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine using Pyridine N-Oxide and Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Eric P. A.; Richardson, Melodie; McKenna, Jeffrey M.; Toste, F. Dean

    2014-01-01

    A mild, catalytic, atom economical synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines has been developed: catalytic PicAuCl2 in the presence of an acid produces a range imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines in good yield. This strategy is mild and forseen to be of particular use for the installation of stereogenic centers adjacent to the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine ring without loss of enantiomeric excess. PMID:24839436

  14. Literature-Related Discovery (LRD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    and related nitrogen oxides on platelet aggregation (Gruetter et al, 1981; Rapoport and Murad, 1983; Mellion et al, 1981) Picolinic Acid MED/ MED...Hypotension induced rapidly after intravenous administration of … picolinic acid … due to … direct depression of cardiac function and decrease...Velasco et al, 1975) Fusaric Acid [ picolinic acid derivative] and Picolinin Acid MED/ MED Hypotension induced rapidly after intravenous

  15. Precious-Metal-Free Heteroarylation of Azlactones: Direct Synthesis of α-Pyridyl, α-Substituted Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tarn C; Marsden, Stephen P

    2016-10-21

    A one-pot, three-component synthesis of α-pyridyl, α-substituted amino acid derivatives is described. The key transformation is a direct, precious-metal-free heteroarylation of readily available, amino acid derived azlactones with electrophilically activated pyridine N-oxides. The resulting intermediates can be used directly as efficient acylating agents for a range of nucleophiles, leading to the heteroarylated amino acid derivatives in a single vessel.

  16. Identification of N-Oxide and Sulfoxide Functionalities in Protonated Drug Metabolites by Using Ion-Molecule Reactions Followed by Collisionally Activated Dissociation in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Huaming; Tang, Weijuan; Yerabolu, Ravikiran; Max, Joann; Kotha, Raghavendhar R; Riedeman, James S; Nash, John J; Zhang, Minli; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2016-01-15

    The in vivo oxidation of sulfur and nitrogen atoms in many drugs into sulfoxide and N-oxide functionalities is a common biotransformation process. Unfortunately, the unambiguous identification of these metabolites can be challenging. In the present study, ion-molecule reactions of tris(dimethylamino)borane followed by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trap mass spectrometer are demonstrated to allow the identification of N-oxide and sulfoxide functionalities in protonated polyfunctional drug metabolites. Only ions with N-oxide or sulfoxide functionality formed diagnostic adducts that had lost dimethyl amine (DMA). This was demonstrated even for an analyte that contains a substantially more basic functionality than the functional group of interest. CAD of the diagnostic product ions (M) resulted mainly in type A (M - DMA) and B fragment ions (M - HO-B(N(CH3)2)2) for N-oxides, but sulfoxides also formed diagnostic C ions (M - O═BN(CH3)2), thus allowing differentiation of the functionalities. Some protonated analytes yielded abundant TDMAB adducts that had lost two DMA molecules instead of just one. This provides information on the environment of the N-oxide and sulfoxide functionalities. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to explore the mechanisms of the above-mentioned reactions. The method can be implemented on HPLC for real drug analysis.

  17. The contribution of N-oxidation to the metabolism of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Turesky, R J; Bracco-Hammer, I; Markovic, J; Richli, U; Kappeler, A M; Welti, D H

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, a potent bacterial mutagen and rodent carcinogen formed in low quantities in cooked meat and fish, was studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Ten metabolites were characterized by various spectroscopic methods. Sulfamate formation was the major route of metabolism in hepatocytes of untreated rats whereas ring-hydroxylated sulfuric and glucuronic acid conjugates were major metabolites in animals pretreated with the enzyme inducers Aroclor-1254, beta-naphthoflavone, or isosafrole. The formation of a mutagenic metabolite through N-oxidation, 2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HNOH-MeIQx), was an important route of metabolism in hepatocytes of pretreated animals. Its metastable derivative, the N-hydroxy-N-glucuronide, also was detected. The nitro derivative of MeIQx, a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, was readily detoxified by glutathione transferase, forming a conjugate where the thiol group of glutathione displaced the nitro moiety. Low but detectable levels of N-acetyltransferase activity were observed for MeIQx and sulfamethazine in hepatocytes. HNOH-MeIQx and 4-(hydroxyamino)biphenyl (HNOH-ABP), a recognized human carcinogen, displayed acetyl coenzyme A dependent DNA binding in hepatic cytosol assays. Sulfamethazine decreased the DNA binding of HNOH-MeIQx in hepatocytes, suggesting a competition for acetyltransferase. However, the binding of HNOH-MeIQx to DNA in hepatocytes was independent of sulfotransferase since inhibitors of this enzyme, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP), did not diminish DNA binding. In contrast, binding of HNOH-ABP to DNA was not decreased by sulfamethazine, but binding was diminished by both sulfotransferase inhibitors. From these inhibition experiments it appears that a major route of binding of HNOH-MeIQx to DNA in hepatocytes is mediated through O-acetyltransferase while a significant portion of HNOH-ABP bound to DNA

  18. Binding activities by propiverine and its N-oxide metabolites of L-type calcium channel antagonist receptors in the rat bladder and brain.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shinya; Kurosawa, Souhei; Fujino Oki, Tomomi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Nanri, Masato; Yoshida, Kenichiro; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-06

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the binding activities of propiverine and its N-oxide metabolites (1-methyl-4-piperidyl diphenylpropoxyacetate N-oxide: P-4(N-->O), 1-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate N-oxide: DPr-P-4(N-->O)) toward L-type calcium channel antagonist receptors in the rat bladder and brain. Propiverine and P-4(N-->O) inhibited specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding in the rat bladder in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with that for propiverine, the K(i) value for P-4(N-->O) in the bladder was significantly greater. Scatchard analysis has revealed that propiverine increased significantly K(d) values for bladder (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding. DPr-P-4(N-->O) had little inhibitory effects on the bladder (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding. Oxybutynin and N-desethyl-oxybutynin (DEOB) also inhibited specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding in the rat bladder. Propiverine, oxybutynin and their metabolites inhibited specific [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([(3)H]NMS) binding in the rat bladder. The ratios of K(i) values for (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 to [(3)H]NMS were markedly smaller for propiverine and P-4(N-->O) than oxybutynin and DEOB. Propiverine and P-4(N-->O) inhibited specific binding of (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110, [(3)H]diltiazem and [(3)H]verapamil in the rat cerebral cortex in a concentration-dependent manner. The K(i) values of propiverine and P-4(N-->O) for [(3)H]diltiazem were significantly smaller than those for (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 and [(3)H]verapamil. Further, their K(i) values for [(3)H]verapamil were significantly smaller than those for (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The K(i) values of propiverine for each radioligand in the cerebral cortex were significantly (P<0.05) smaller than those of P-4(N-->O). In conclusion, the present study has shown that propiverine and P-4(N-->O) exert a significant binding activity of L-type calcium channel antagonist receptors in the bladder and these effects may be pharmacologically relevant in the

  19. Aromatic N-oxides in construction of different carboxylate coordination polymers of zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Rupam; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-09-01

    The coordination polymers [Zn(C 6H 5COO) 2(PNO)] n ( 1), [Zn 2(C 6H 5COO) 4(4,4'-BPNO)] n ( 2), [Zn 4(C 6H 4C 2O 4) 4(4,4'-BPNO) 2(H 2O) 5] n· nH 2O ( 3), [Cd(C 6H 5COO) 2(PNO)] n ( 4), [Cd 3(C 6H 5COO) 6(4,4'-BPNO) 2] n·2 nH 2O ( 5), [Cd(C 6H 4C 2O 4)(4,4'-BPNO)(H 2O)] n ( 6) and [Hg(C 6H 5COO) 2(4,4'-BPNO) 2] n ( 7), (where PNO = pyridine N-oxide, 4,4'-BPNO = 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide) are synthesized and structurally characterized. The structures of these coordination polymers exhibit mononuclear to trinuclear nodes built by ligation of carboxylate to metal ions connected by N-oxide ligands. Pyridine N-oxide interconnects metal nodes by acting as μ 2-bridging ligand in complexes 1, and 4. In the linear coordination polymer 2, the paddle wheel structure of zinc(II) benzoate units are interconnected by 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide which acts as a bidentate spacer ligand adopting a trans μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode. The polymeric structure of 3 formed by terephthalate and 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide with zinc(II) contains self-assembled dinuclear Zn 2O 2 type of carboxylate cores, with 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide coordinating through cis μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode. The cadmium coordination polymer 5, comprising of 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide and benzoate, has trinuclear cadmium benzoate cores wherein the terminal cadmium ions are interconnected by monodentate 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide bridges. The coordination polymer 6 comprises of mononuclear cadmium nodes independently bridged by terephthalate and 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide thereby leading to a 3-fold interpenetrated three dimensional network. Double helical polymeric structure is observed in the coordination polymer 7 derived from mononuclear mercury(II) benzoate nodes bridged by 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide with cis μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode.

  20. Vibrational characteristics and structure of the six- and eight-coordinate praseodymium(III) complexes with 2,6-lutidine N-oxide derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban-Oganowska, H.; Godlewska, P.; Macalik, L.; Hanuza, J.; Oganowski, W.; van der Maas, J. H.

    2002-03-01

    New praseodymium complexes of 2,6-lutidine, 4-methoxy-2,6-lutidine and 3-halo-2,6-lutidine N-oxides (LuO) have been synthesised and chemically characterised. The Fourier transform IR and Raman spectra have been measured in the range 50-4000 and 80-4000 cm -1, respectively, and discussed in terms of possible structure and composition of compounds studied. The frequencies of the stretching N-O, Pr-O and Pr-Cl vibrations have been assigned and related to the possible molecular structures of the Pr(LuO) 8, Pr(LuO) 7O', Pr(LuO) 5O' 2O″, Pr(LuO) 6, PrCl 3(LuO) 3 and PrCl 3(LuO) 2O' complexes (O' and O″ denotes the H 2O and C 2H 5OH ligands).

  1. Mechanism of Gold(I)-Catalyzed Rearrangements of Acetylenic Amine-N-Oxides: Computational Investigations Lead to a New Mechanism Confirmed by Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Noey, Elizabeth L.; Luo, Yingdong; Zhang, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanical studies of the mechanism of gold-catalyzed rearrangements of acetylenic amine-N-oxides to piperidinones or azepanones have revealed a new mechanism involving a concerted hetero-retroene reaction, formally a 1, 5 hydrogen shift from the N-alkyl groups to the vinyl position of a gold-coordinated methyleneisoxazolidinium or methyleneoxazinanium. Density functional calculations (B3LYP, B3LYP-D3) on the hetero-retroene mechanism reproduce experimental regioselectivities and provide an explanation as to why the hydrogen is transferred from the smaller amine substituent. In support of the proposed mechanism, new experimental investigations show that the hydrogen shift is concerted and that gold carbenes are not involved as reaction intermediates. PMID:22191473

  2. The use of trimethylamine N-oxide as a primary precipitating agent and related methylamine osmolytes as cryoprotective agents for macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Haley; Venkat, Murugappan; Hti Lar Seng, Nang San; Cahn, Jackson; Juers, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    The stabilizing osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is shown to be an efficient primary precipitant for protein crystal growth. In addition to TMAO, two other methylamine osmolytes, sarcosine and betaine, are shown to be effective cryoprotective agents for protein crystal cooling. Both crystallization and cryoprotection are often bottlenecks for high-resolution X-ray structure determination of macromolecules. Methylamine osmolytes are known stabilizers of protein structure. One such osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), has seen occasional use as an additive to improve macromolecular crystal quality and has recently been shown to be an effective cryoprotective agent for low-temperature data collection. Here, TMAO and the related osmolytes sarcosine and betaine are investigated as primary precipitating agents for protein crystal growth. Crystallization experiments were undertaken with 14 proteins. Using TMAO, seven proteins crystallized in a total of 13 crystal forms, including a new tetragonal crystal form of trypsin. The crystals diffracted well, and eight of the 13 crystal forms could be effectively cryocooled as grown with TMAO as an in situ cryoprotective agent. Sarcosine and betaine produced crystals of four and two of the 14 proteins, respectively. In addition to TMAO, sarcosine and betaine were effective post-crystallization cryoprotective agents for two different crystal forms of thermolysin. Precipitation reactions of TMAO with several transition-metal ions (Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}) did not occur with sarcosine or betaine and were inhibited for TMAO at lower pH. Structures of proteins from TMAO-grown crystals and from crystals soaked in TMAO, sarcosine or betaine were determined, showing osmolyte binding in five of the 12 crystals tested. When an osmolyte was shown to bind, it did so near the protein surface, interacting with water molecules, side chains and backbone atoms, often at crystal contacts.

  3. A sensitive capillary LC-UV method for the simultaneous analysis of olanzapine, chlorpromazine and their FMO-mediated N-oxidation products in brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Stijn; Uğur, Duygu Yeniceli; Yilmaz, Işil Tan; Şener, Erol; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin; Broeckhoven, Ken; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    A specific and sensitive capillary liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (cap-LC-UV) method in combination with a micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) sample clean-up procedure has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of chlorpromazine, olanzapine and their flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) mediated N-oxides in rat brain microdialysates. Chromatographic separation was obtained on an Acclaim Pepmap RP C18 column with an ID of 300µm. An injection volume of 20µL was used to inject the largely aqueous samples and was shown to have no influence on the obtained peak shape of the compounds of interest. Optimal conditions for MEPS extraction were obtained on a mixed-mode M1 (80% C8, 20% SCX) cartridge after diluting microdialysate samples with phosphate buffer pH 2.5 (1:3 v/v). The method was validated and lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were determined at 0.5nM for all compounds. Linearity was demonstrated between the LLOQ and 1µM for all compounds (R(2)>0.995). MEPS recoveries were between 92% and 98%, with intra- and interday variabilities below 15%. The applicability of the developed method was successfully demonstrated by analysing rat brain microdialysates. The capillary LC-UV method in combination with MEPS sample treatment provides a simple, sensitive method to quantify all compounds of interest in 45min and can be applied for routine therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of olanzapine, chlorpromazine and their respective N-oxides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 15N Nuclear magnetic resonance of some pyrazines, 1,2,4-triazines and their N-oxides. Correlation and interrelationship of 15N with 13C chemical shifts of π-deficient heterocyclic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Misa V.

    The 15N chemical shifts of a number of pyrazines, 1,2,4-triazines, and their N-oxides are reported. The shielding effects of a substituent ortho to a ring nitrogen on that nitrogen atom depend on the π-deficiency of the heterocyclic ring. These π-deficiency values are related to ortho13C chemical shifts in substituted benzenes. A new relationship between 13C and 15N chemical shifts of several π-deficient heteroaromatic compounds is described. The N-oxides of pyrazine and 1,2,4-triazine show significant "backdonation" to the groundstate of these ring systems. This contribution becomes more important as the number of nitrogens in the ring increases. The "backdonation" is also reflected by a significant shielding of nitrogen atoms α and/or γ to the N-oxide group.

  5. Reduction of carbadox mediated by reaction of Mn(III) with oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cun; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui

    2013-02-05

    Manganese(III) geocomponents are commonly found in the soil environment, yet their roles in many biogeochemical processes remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Mn(III) generated from the reaction of MnO(2) and oxalic acid caused rapid and extensive decompositions of a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotics, viz carbadox. The reaction occurred primarily at the quinoxaline-di-N-oxide moiety resulting in the removal of one -O from N1-oxide and formation of desoxycarbadox. The reaction rate was accelerated by increasing amounts of Mn(III), carbadox and oxalate. The critical step in the overall reaction was the formation of a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide/Mn(III)/oxalate ternary complex in which Mn(III) functioned as the central complexing cation and electron conduit in which the arrangement of ligands facilitated electron transfer from oxalate to carbadox. In the complex, the C-C bond in oxalate was cleaved to create CO(2)(-•) radicals, followed by electron transfer to carbadox through the Mn(III) center. This proposed reaction mechanism is supported by the reaction products formed, reaction kinetics, and quantum mechanical calculations. The results obtained from this study suggest that naturally occurring Mn(III)-oxalic acid complexes could reductively decompose certain organic compounds in the environment such as the antibiotic quinoxaline-di-N-oxide.

  6. Assessment of the N-oxidation of deprenyl, methamphetamine, and amphetamine enantiomers by chiral capillary electrophoresis: an in vitro metabolism study.

    PubMed

    Szöko, Eva; Tábi, Tamás; Borbás, Tímea; Dalmadi, Balázs; Tihanyi, Károly; Magyar, Kálmán

    2004-08-01

    A chiral capillary electrophoresis method using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector was developed and validated for the quantification of the N-oxygenated metabolites of deprenyl, methamphetamine, and amphetamine enantiomers, formed in vitro. The influence of various parameters (selector concentration, buffer pH, temperature, polymer additive, etc.) on the simultaneous separation of the optical isomers of the parent drugs and their metabolites has been evaluated. The buffer pH had the greatest impact on the separation selectivity of the N-oxygenated compounds. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 2.5-50 microM for the enantiomers of amphetamine-hydroxylamine, methamphetamine-hydroxylamine, and deprenyl-N-oxide. The inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy varied by less than 15% for all analytes at concentrations of 5, 10, and 30 microM, and less than 20% at the lower limit of quantitation (2.5 microM). The sample extraction recovery ranged between 109 and 129% at the three concentration levels. The drug enantiomers were incubated with recombinant human flavin-containing monooxygenase enzymes (FMO3 and FMO1), and human liver microsomes, respectively. The enantioselectivity of the substrate preference, as well as the stereoselective formation of the new chiral center upon the oxidation of the prochiral tertiary nitrogen of deprenyl were assessed. FMO1, the extrahepatic form of the enzyme in man, was shown to be more active in the N-oxygenation of both deprenyl and methamphetamine isomers than FMO3. Deprenyl enantiomers and S-methamphetamine were substrates of human recombinant FMO3. Conversion of amphetamine to its hydroxylamine derivative could not be observed on incubation with either FMO1 or FMO3. Formation of the new chiral center on the nitrogen, during N-oxidation of the tertiary amine deprenyl, was found stereoselective. The two FMO isoforms have shown opposite preference in the formation of this chiral

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies of cobalt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furić, Krešimir; Kodrin, Ivan; Kukovec, Boris-Marko; Mihalić, Zlatko; Popović, Zora

    2013-01-01

    Two cobalt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxylic acid, 3-OHpicH), trans-[Co(3-OHpic)2(py)2] (2) and cis-[Co(3-OHpic)2(4-pic)2] (3) (py = pyridine; 4-pic = 4-picoline or 4-methylpyridine), previously synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, are here studied by Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopy with the help from the corresponding DFT vibrational calculations using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) computational model. Intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond appears in both complexes 2 and 3, while weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds assemble molecules of 2 or 3 into 3D architecture. A complete presentation of all Raman, infrared and theoretical results is given for complex 3. The measured spectra are shown, relative intensities and bandwidths are discussed and the assignment of vibrational bands is given on the basis of the DFT calculations. The calculated spectra agree very well with the presented experimental findings, thanks to the suitable grouping of modes. The same vibrational calculations also reveal insignificant influence of H → CH3 substitution for the spectroscopic characterization of the complex. A careful study of differences between calculated and observed wavenumbers suggests that modified single-factor scaling is actually better than the classic multi-factor scaling approach.

  8. Modification of agarose: 6-aminoagarose mediated syntheses of fluorogenic pyridine carboxylic acid amides.

    PubMed

    Kondaveeti, Stalin; Mehta, Gaurav K; Siddhanta, A K

    2014-06-15

    A facile 6-aminoagarose (AA) mediated synthesis of new fluorogenic amides of agarose with nicotinic (AA-NA) and picolinic acids (AA-PA) employing carbodiimide chemistry have been described. 6-Amino agarose (AA) was synthesized in a facile Mitsunobu-inspired microwave mediated method involving the reaction of agarose with phthalimide in presence of diisopropyl azodicarboxylate and triphenylphosphene (DIAD/TPP) followed by hydrazinolysis. All compounds were characterized by GPC, UV spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. The fluorescence emissions (λmax 430 and 412 nm) of 1 × 10(-3)M solutions of AA-NA and AA-PA in water were significantly higher (ca. 82% and ca. 90%) than those of the molar equivalents (0.2mg) of NA and PA present in the 1 × 10(-3)M solutions of the amides, respectively. These fluorogenic pyridine carboxylic acid amides of agarose may find applications as sensors in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Quantitative analysis of zopiclone, N-desmethylzopiclone, zopiclone N-oxide and 2-amino-5-chloropyridine in urine using LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Gunnel H; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Ahlner, Johan; Kronstrand, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was validated to allow determination of zopiclone (ZOP), N-desmethylzopiclone (NDZOP), zopiclone N-oxide (ZOPNO) and 2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP) in urine at concentrations up to 3,000 ng/mL within 3.5 min. This method was used for quantitative analysis of the analytes in authentic urine samples obtained 10 h after oral administration of zopiclone (Imovane(®)) and in aliquots of the same urine samples after different storage conditions. In addition, pH of each studied urine sample was measured over time. The results showed that formation of ACP occurred at elevated pH and/or temperature by degradation of ZOP, NDZOP and ZOPNO. This method was also applied to samples obtained from two female victims of drug-facilitated assault. One sample had been exposed to long-term storage conditions at different temperatures and at pH >8.2, which resulted in high concentrations of ACP. The other sample, which was exposed to pH <6.5, showed no formation of ACP. ACP is formed both from ZOP and from its metabolites NDZOP and ZOPNO depending on the pH of the urine, time of storage and/or the temperature conditions. For correct interpretation in forensic cases, ZOP, its major metabolites and ACP should be analyzed. When ACP is identified in urine, the concentrations of ZOP, NDZOP and ZOPNO should be interpreted with great caution.

  10. Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) for biogas production: structural changes and digestion improvement.

    PubMed

    Purwandari, Fiametta Ayu; Sanjaya, Adhitya Pitara; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment of OPEFB (oil palm empty fruit bunch) by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) on its subsequent digestions was investigated. The pretreatments were carried out at 90 and 120 °C for 1, 3, and 5h in three different modes of dissolution (by 85% NMMO solution), ballooning (79% NMMO solution), and swelling (73% NMMO solution). The total solid recovery after the pretreatment was 89-94%. The pretreatment process did not have a major impact on the composition of OPEFB, other than a reduction of ash from 5.4% up to 1.3%. The best improvement in biogas production was achieved by a dissolution mode pretreatment of OPEFB, using conditions of 85% NMMO, 3h, and 120 °C. It resulted in 0.408 Nm(3)/kg VS methane yield and 0.032 Nm(3)CH(4)/kg VS/day initial methane production rate, which correspond in improving by 48% and 167% compared to the untreated OPEFB, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Differences in the action of antimycin and 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide on oxidation-reduction of mitochondrial cytochromes b].

    PubMed

    Kunts, V S; Kushnarenko, S V; Konstantinov, A A

    1983-09-01

    The differences in the effects of two similar electron transfer inhibitors, antimycin and 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HOQNO) on the reactions of cytochromes b are described. In the cyanide-inhibited submitochondrial particles of bovine heart, HOQNO strongly stimulates cytochrome b reduction by ascorbate in the presence of redox mediators, e. g. N,N,N',N'-tetramethylparaphenylene diamine, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, diaminodurol and phenazine methosulfate; this effect can be reversed by antimycin. Addition of both inhibitors to the submitochondrial particles aerobically equilibrated with succinate/fumarate redox buffer at E = +54 mV in the presence of cyanide results in a similar reduction of cytochromes b, which in the case of antimycin is readily reversed by phenazine methosulfate but is resistant to this redox mediator in the presence of HOQNO. The latter causes additional reduction of cytochrome b562 in the argone atmosphere, the effect being reversed by antimycin. In the presence of HOQNO the anaerobic redox titration curve of cytochrome b562 is shifted towards a high potential region by 20-30 mV. An additional reduction of cytochromes b induced by HOQNO can be due to superposition of two effects, i. e. extra-reduction of cytochromes b566 and b562 requiring O2 and a true positive shift of E0 of cytochrome b562.

  12. Associations of gut-flora-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide, betaine and choline with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-ming; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Rui-fen; Chen, Xiao-ling; Wang, Cheng; Tan, Xu-ying; Wang, Li-jun; Zheng, Rui-dan; Zhang, Hong-wei; Ling, Wen-hua; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2016-01-08

    Many studies suggest that trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-flora-dependent metabolite of choline, contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases, but little is known for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association of circulating TMAO, choline and betaine with the presence and severity of NAFLD in Chinese adults. We performed a hospital-based case-control study (CCS) and a cross-sectional study (CSS). In the CCS, we recruited 60 biopsy-proven NAFLD cases and 35 controls (18-60 years) and determined serum concentrations of TMAO, choline and betaine by HPLC-MS/MS. For the CSS, 1,628 community-based adults (40-75 years) completed the blood tests and ultrasonographic NAFLD evaluation. In the CCS, analyses of covariance showed adverse associations of ln-transformed serum levels of TMAO, choline and betaine/choline ratio with the scores of steatosis and total NAFLD activity (NAS) (all P-trend <0.05). The CSS revealed that a greater severity of NAFLD was independently correlated with higher TMAO but lower betaine and betaine/choline ratio (all P-trend <0.05). No significant choline-NAFLD association was observed. Our findings showed adverse associations between the circulating TMAO level and the presence and severity of NAFLD in hospital- and community-based Chinese adults, and a favorable betaine-NAFLD relationship in the community-based participants.

  13. Trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide are supplementary energy sources for a marine heterotrophic bacterium: implications for marine carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Lidbury, Ian D E A; Murrell, J Colin; Chen, Yin

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are characterised by their ability to utilise a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds to support growth. Trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are methylated amines (MA) and form part of the dissolved organic nitrogen pool, the second largest source of nitrogen after N2 gas, in the oceans. We investigated if the marine heterotrophic bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, could utilise TMA and TMAO as a supplementary energy source and whether this trait had any beneficial effect on growth. In R. pomeroyi, catabolism of TMA and TMAO resulted in the production of intracellular ATP which in turn helped to enhance growth rate and growth yield as well as enhancing cell survival during prolonged energy starvation. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of two different exogenous energy sources led to a greater enhancement of chemoorganoheterotrophic growth. The use of TMA and TMAO primarily as an energy source resulted in the remineralisation of nitrogen in the form of ammonium, which could cross feed into another bacterium. This study provides greater insight into the microbial metabolism of MAs in the marine environment and how it may affect both nutrient flow within marine surface waters and the flux of these climatically important compounds into the atmosphere.

  14. Prevention of polymerization of M and Z alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) with trimethylamine N-oxide. Implications for the treatment of alpha1-at deficiency.

    PubMed

    Devlin, G L; Parfrey, H; Tew, D J; Lomas, D A; Bottomley, S P

    2001-06-01

    alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) is the most abundant circulating proteinase inhibitor. The Z variant results in profound plasma deficiency as the mutant polymerizes within hepatocytes. The retained polymers are associated with cirrhosis, and the lack of circulating protein predisposes to early onset emphysema. We have investigated the role of the naturally occurring solute trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in modulating the polymerization of normal M and disease-associated Z alpha1-AT. TMAO stabilized both M and Z alpha1-AT in an active conformation against heat-induced polymerization. Spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that this was due to inhibition of the conversion of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate. However, TMAO did not aid the refolding of denatured alpha1-AT to a native conformation; instead, it enhanced polymerization. These data show that TMAO can be used to control the conformational transitions of folded alpha1-AT but that it is ineffective in promoting folding of the polypeptide chain within the secretory pathway.

  15. N-tert-butylmethanimine N-oxide is an efficient spin-trapping probe for EPR analysis of glutathione thiyl radical

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Melanie J.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Stoyanovsky, Detcho A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron spin resonance (EPR) spin-trapping technique allows detection of radical species with nanosecond half-lives. This technique is based on the high rates of addition of radicals to nitrones or nitroso compounds (spin traps; STs). The paramagnetic nitroxides (spin-adducts) formed as a result of reactions between STs and radical species are relatively stable compounds whose EPR spectra represent “structural fingerprints” of the parent radical species. Herein we report a novel protocol for the synthesis of N-tert-butylmethanimine N-oxide (EBN), which is the simplest nitrone containing an α-H and a tertiary α′-C atom. We present EPR spin-trapping proof that: (i) EBN is an efficient probe for the analysis of glutathione thiyl radical (GS•); (ii) β-cyclodextrins increase the kinetic stability of the spin-adduct EBN/•SG; and (iii) in aqueous solutions, EBN does not react with superoxide anion radical (O2−•) to form EBN/•OOH to any significant extent. The data presented complement previous studies within the context of synthetic accessibility to EBN and efficient spin-trapping analysis of GS•. PMID:27941944

  16. Anaerobic respiratory growth of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio fischeri and Photobacterium leiognathi with trimethylamine N-oxide, nitrate and fumarate: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Proctor, L M; Gunsalus, R P

    2000-08-01

    Two symbiotic species, Photobacterium leiognathi and Vibrio fischeri, and one non-symbiotic species, Vibrio harveyi, of the Vibrionaceae were tested for their ability to grow by anaerobic respiration on various electron acceptors, including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), compounds common in the marine environment. Each species was able to grow anaerobically with TMAO, nitrate or fumarate, but not with DMSO, as an electron acceptor. Cell growth under microaerophilic growth conditions resulted in elevated levels of TMAO reductase, nitrate reductase and fumarate reductase activity in each strain, whereas growth in the presence of the respective substrate for each enzyme further elevated enzyme activity. TMAO reductase specific activity was the highest of all the reductases. Interestingly, the bacteria-colonized light organs from the two squids, Euprymna scolopes and Euprymna morsei, and the light organ of the ponyfish, Leiognathus equus, also had high levels of TMAO reductase enzyme activity, in contrast to non-symbiotic tissues. The ability of these bacterial symbionts to support cell growth by respiration with TMAO may conceivably eliminate the competition for oxygen needed for both bioluminescence and metabolism.

  17. Associations of gut-flora-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide, betaine and choline with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-ming; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Rui-fen; Chen, Xiao-ling; Wang, Cheng; Tan, Xu-ying; Wang, Li-jun; Zheng, Rui-dan; Zhang, Hong-wei; Ling, Wen-hua; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest that trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-flora-dependent metabolite of choline, contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases, but little is known for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association of circulating TMAO, choline and betaine with the presence and severity of NAFLD in Chinese adults. We performed a hospital-based case-control study (CCS) and a cross-sectional study (CSS). In the CCS, we recruited 60 biopsy-proven NAFLD cases and 35 controls (18–60 years) and determined serum concentrations of TMAO, choline and betaine by HPLC-MS/MS. For the CSS, 1,628 community-based adults (40-75 years) completed the blood tests and ultrasonographic NAFLD evaluation. In the CCS, analyses of covariance showed adverse associations of ln-transformed serum levels of TMAO, choline and betaine/choline ratio with the scores of steatosis and total NAFLD activity (NAS) (all P-trend <0.05). The CSS revealed that a greater severity of NAFLD was independently correlated with higher TMAO but lower betaine and betaine/choline ratio (all P-trend <0.05). No significant choline-NAFLD association was observed. Our findings showed adverse associations between the circulating TMAO level and the presence and severity of NAFLD in hospital- and community-based Chinese adults, and a favorable betaine-NAFLD relationship in the community-based participants. PMID:26743949

  18. Synthesis and Coordination Properties of Trifluoromethyl Decorated Derivatives of 2,6-Bis[(diphenylphosphinoyl)methyl]pyridine N-Oxide Ligands with Lanthanide Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pailloux, Sylvie; Shirima, Cornel Edicome; Ray, Alicia D.; Duesler, Eileen N.; Paine, Robert T.; Klaehn, John D.; McIlwain, Michael E; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Phosphinoyl Grignard-based substitutions on 2,6-bis(chloromethyl)pyridine followed by N-oxidation of the intermediate 2,6-bis(phosphinoyl)methyl pyridine compounds with mCPBA give the target trifunctional ligands 2,6-bis[bis-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2a) and 2,6-bis[bis-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine 1-oxide (2b) in high yields. The ligands have been spectroscopically characterized, the molecular structures confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and the coordination chemistry surveyed with lanthanide nitrates. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses are described for the coordination complexes Nd(2a)(NO3)3, Nd(2a)(NO3)3 (CH3CN)0.5, Eu(2a)(NO3)3 and Nd(2b)(NO3)3 (H2O)1.25; in each case the ligand binds in a tridentate mode to the Ln(III) cation. These structures are compared with the structures found for lanthanide coordination complexes of the parent NOPOPO ligand, [Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3NO.

  19. Synthesis of 5-aminotetrazole-1N-oxide and its azo derivative: a key step in the development of new energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dennis; Klapötke, Thomas M; Piercey, Davin G; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2013-04-02

    1-Hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (1), which is a long-desired starting material for the synthesis of hundreds of new energetic materials, was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of aqueous hydroxylamine with cyanogen azide. The use of this unique precursor was demonstrated by the preparation of several energetic compounds with equal or higher performance than that of commonly used explosives, such as hexogen (RDX). The prepared compounds, including energetic salts of 1-hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (hydroxylammonium (2, two polymorphs) and ammonium (3)), azo-coupled derivatives (potassium (5), hydroxylammonium (6), ammonium (7), and hydrazinium 5,5'-azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazolate (8, two polymorphs)), as well as neutral compounds 5,5'-azo-bis(1-oxidotetrazole) (4) and 5,5'-bis(1-oxidotetrazole)hydrazine (9), were intensively characterized by low-temperature X-ray diffraction, IR, Raman, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and DSC. The calculated energetic performance, by using the EXPLO5 code, based on the calculated (CBS-4M) heats of formation and X-ray densities confirm the high energetic performance of tetrazole-N-oxides as energetic materials. Last but not least, their sensitivity towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were explored. 5,5'-Azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazole) deflagrates close to the DDT (deflagration-to-detonation transition) faster than all compounds that have been investigated in our research group to date. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Mechanism of N-O Bond Cleavage in Rhodium-Catalyzed C-H Bond Functionalization of Quinoline N-oxides with Alkynes: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingzi; Liu, Song; Qi, Zisong; Qi, Xiaotian; Li, Xingwei; Lan, Yu

    2015-07-06

    Metal-catalyzed C-H activation not only offers important strategies to construct new bonds, it also allows the merge of important research areas. When quinoline N-oxide is used as an arene source in C-H activation studies, the N-O bond can act as a directing group as well as an O-atom donor. The newly reported density functional theory method, M11L, has been used to elucidate the mechanistic details of the coupling between quinoline N-O bond and alkynes, which results in C-H activation and O-atom transfer. The computational results indicated that the most favorable pathway involves an electrophilic deprotonation, an insertion of an acetylene group into a Rh-C bond, a reductive elimination to form an oxazinoquinolinium-coordinated Rh(I) intermediate, an oxidative addition to break the N-O bond, and a protonation reaction to regenerate the active catalyst. The regioselectivity of the reaction has also been studied by using prop-1-yn-1-ylbenzene as a model unsymmetrical substrate. Theoretical calculations suggested that 1-phenyl-2-quinolinylpropanone would be the major product because of better conjugation between the phenyl group and enolate moiety in the corresponding transition state of the regioselectivity-determining step. These calculated data are consistent with the experimental observations.

  1. Kinetics of reduction of sulfur dioxide by hydrogen sulfide in the presence of sulfoxides, pyridine N-oxide, trioctylphosphine oxide and tributyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Bikbaeva, G.G.; Baranovskaya, E.M.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic regularities were studied of the reduction of SO/sub 2/ by hydrogen sulfide in m-xylene containing 0.025 M of aliphatic sulfoxides, (C/sub 1/-C/sub 8/alkyl), diphenyl-, dibenzyl sulfoxides, tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) at 25/degree/C, and 0.001-0.003 M pyridine N-oxide (PyO) at 21-60/degree/C. It was shown that the reaction proceeds with the participation of an SO/sub 2/ complex having the composition of R/sub n/XO...SO/sub 2/ (where X = S, P, N). The kinetic regularities for the reaction taking place in the presence of aromatic sulfoxides are explainable by the contribution to the reaction of intermediate SO/sub 2/ complexes. The equilibrium constants of the complexation of SO/sub 2/ with aliphatic sulfoxides, PyO, TOPO, and TBP and the rate constant of the limiting stage of the reaction were calculated.

  2. Development and validation of a simple UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of trimethylamine N-oxide, choline, and betaine in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Ocque, Andrew J; Stubbs, Jason R; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-05-10

    A simple, sensitive, and precise ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of trimethylamine N-oxide, choline, and betaine in human plasma and urine. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with methanol containing internal standards. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity BEH Amide (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) analytical column with gradient elution of solvent A (10mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5) and solvent B (acetonitrile). The flow rate was 0.4mL/min and the total run time was 5min. Detection of analytes was performed using heated electrospray ionization (positive mode) and selected reaction monitoring. Excellent linearity was observed over the standard curve concentration ranges of 0.010-5.00μg/mL (plasma) and 1.00-150μg/mL (urine) for all analytes. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for all quality controls were within ±10%. Excellent recovery was observed. The method is rapid, accurate and reproducible, and was successfully applied to a pilot study of markers of atherosclerosis in patients with kidney disease who underwent successful kidney transplantation.

  3. Mechanism of the autocatalytic formation of ferrihemoglobin by N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide. Structure and ferrihemoglobin forming activity of the purple dye.

    PubMed

    Kiese, M; Renner, G

    1976-03-01

    The structure of the leuco compound of the purple dye which is formed in mixtrues of N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide (DANO) and ferrihemoglobin or ferricytochrome c was elucidated. IR, NMR, mass spectroscopy, and synthesis by oxidation of mixtures of N-methylaniline and 2-dimethylaminophenol showed that the leuco compound is produced by condensation of these two compounds. But only X-ray analysis proved the structure: 2-dimethylamino-4-(N-methylanilino)-phenol. The purple dye was produced from the leuco compound by withdrawal of two electrons and may be considered as resonance hybrid of the p-quinonimine and the o-quinonimine. When DANO was incubated with ferrihemoglobin or ferricytochrome c the oxygen of DANO was used for the production of the dye by oxidation of N-methylaniline and 2-dimethylaminophenol. The amount of N,N-dimethylaniline found in the incubation mixtures corresponded with the amount of purple dye produced. In the absence of molecular oxygen from incubation mixtures of DANO with cytochrome c the purple dye was formed at the same rate as under air. In blood in vitro the purple dye catalytically transferred electrons from ferrohemoglobin to molecuar oxygen. Its ferrihemoglobin-forming activity was lower than that of 4-dimethylaminophenol but higher than that of 2-dimethylaminophenol. The chemical mechanism of the autocatalytic formation of ferrihemoglobin by DANO is described.

  4. Modulation of Conformational Equilibria in the S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) II Riboswitch by SAM, Mg(2+), and Trimethylamine N-Oxide.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Peter; Brown, Patrick; Chen, Bin; Dayie, Theodore K; Minton, Allen P

    2016-09-13

    The dependence of the conformation of the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) II riboswitch on the concentration of added Mg(2+) ions and SAM, individually and in mixtures, was monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and by measurement of the diffusion coefficient. The results are analyzed in the context of two complementary quantitative models, both of which are consistent with a single underlying physical model. Magnesium binding sites in the open state have an affinity on average higher than the affinity of those in the compact state, but formation of the compact state is accompanied by an increase in the number of binding sites. Consequently, at low Mg(2+) concentrations, Mg(2+) binds preferentially to the open state, favoring its formation, but at high concentrations, Mg(2+) binds preferentially to the compact state. The affinity of the riboswitch for SAM increases drastically with an increased level of binding of Mg(2+) to the compact pseudoknot conformation. The effect of increasing concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a well-studied molecular crowding agent, on the conformation of the riboswitch and its affinity for SAM were also monitored by CD spectroscopy and measurement of diffusion. In the absence of added Mg(2+), high concentrations of TMAO were found to induce a conformational change compatible with the formation of the pseudoknot form but have only a small effect on the affinity of the RNA for SAM.

  5. Effect of granule organisation on the behaviour of starches in the NMMO (N-methyl morpholine N-oxide) solvent system.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Nagamani; Mitchell, John; MacNaughtan, William; Hill, Sandra; Foster, Tim

    2015-02-13

    The response of starches of different botanical origin to heating in 78% N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is compared with their behaviour in water. For all starches studied an exothermic transition is obtained in the NMMO system rather than the endothermic transition in water. In NMMO the transition temperatures are lower for A-type starches (wheat, rice and tapioca) than the C-type starches (sago and pea) and also potato which has a B-type polymorph. Observations using a hot stage microscope show two different types of initial behaviour in NMMO; erosion of the granule from the surface or disruption into fragments. In both cases the final outcome is dissolution but for the most resistant C-type starches (pea and sago) some intact granules could be seen following heating at 95 °C in 78% NMMO and subsequent precipitation in ethanol. The results are discussed in terms of what is known from previous structural studies on these six starches and the behaviour of maize starch in NMMO and ionic liquids. The work is relevant to the co-dissolution of starch and cellulose to form novel polysaccharide based materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectroscopic (NMR, UV, FT-IR and FT-Raman) analysis and theoretical investigation of nicotinamide N-oxide with density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Atac, Ahmet; Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Karaca, Caglar

    2011-12-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the nicotinamide N-oxide (abbreviated as NANO, C(6)H(6)N(2)O(2)) were examined by FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV techniques. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra in solid state were observed in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1), respectively. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO. The UV absorption spectrum of the compound that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) employing B3LYP methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. The optimized structure of compound was interpreted and compared with the reported experimental values. The observed vibrational wavenumbers, absorption wavelengths and chemical shifts were compared with calculated values. As a result, the optimized geometry and calculated spectroscopic data show a good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. The torR gene of Escherichia coli encodes a response regulator protein involved in the expression of the trimethylamine N-oxide reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Simon, G; Méjean, V; Jourlin, C; Chippaux, M; Pascal, M C

    1994-09-01

    Expression of the Escherichia coli torCAD operon encoding the trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase system is induced by both TMAO and anaerobiosis. A torR insertion mutant unable to express the torA gene had previously been isolated. The torR gene was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a 25,000-Da protein which shares homology with response regulators of two-component systems and belongs to the OmpR-PhoB subclass. Overproduction of TorR mimics the presence of the inducer TMAO while the anaerobic control is unchanged, suggesting that TorR mediates only the TMAO induction. The overproduced TorR protein was purified to more than 90%. The torR gene is located just upstream of the torCAD operon, with an opposite transcription direction. The torR-torCAD intergenic region is unusual in that it contains four direct repeats of a 10-nucleotide motif. Part or all of these motifs could be involved in the binding of TorR. The gene encoding the sensor partner does not seem to be adjacent to torR, since the divergent open reading frame found immediately downstream of torR exhibits none of the features of a protein histidine kinase.

  8. Effect of Trimethylamine N-Oxide on Interfacial Electrostatics at Phospholipid Monolayer-Water Interfaces and Its Relevance to Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Jahur A

    2016-05-05

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of choline containing dietary nutrients which are abundant in red meat, egg, and other animal foods, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (e.g., atherosclerosis) by boosted accumulation of fatty deposits on artery wall. Hence, for the molecular level elucidation of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, it is important to understand the effect of TMAO at the endothelial cell membrane-blood interface (artery wall). Heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) study of a zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid monolayer-water interface (mimic of endothelial membrane-blood interface) shows that the interfacial water becomes increasingly H-up oriented in the presence of TMAO in the aqueous phase, revealing a dramatic change in the interfacial electrostatics. Examinations of charged lipid interfaces show that TMAO screens anionic phosphate less effectively than cationic choline, which confirms that TMAO increases the relative influence of the anionic phosphate by preferential screening of the cationic choline at the zwitterionic PC lipid interface where the phosphate and choline groups are simultaneously present. Together, it is conceivable that at an elevated TMAO level in serum would modify the electrostatics at the endothelial cell membrane-blood interface (artery wall), which may affect the influx/efflux of fatty deposits on artery wall, setting the stage for atherosclerosis.

  9. Trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide are supplementary energy sources for a marine heterotrophic bacterium: implications for marine carbon and nitrogen cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lidbury, Ian DEA; Murrell, J Colin; Chen, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the marine Roseobacter clade are characterised by their ability to utilise a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds to support growth. Trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are methylated amines (MA) and form part of the dissolved organic nitrogen pool, the second largest source of nitrogen after N2 gas, in the oceans. We investigated if the marine heterotrophic bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, could utilise TMA and TMAO as a supplementary energy source and whether this trait had any beneficial effect on growth. In R. pomeroyi, catabolism of TMA and TMAO resulted in the production of intracellular ATP which in turn helped to enhance growth rate and growth yield as well as enhancing cell survival during prolonged energy starvation. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of two different exogenous energy sources led to a greater enhancement of chemoorganoheterotrophic growth. The use of TMA and TMAO primarily as an energy source resulted in the remineralisation of nitrogen in the form of ammonium, which could cross feed into another bacterium. This study provides greater insight into the microbial metabolism of MAs in the marine environment and how it may affect both nutrient flow within marine surface waters and the flux of these climatically important compounds into the atmosphere. PMID:25148480

  10. Interactions between Plant Metabolites Affect Herbivores: A Study with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Chlorogenic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2017-01-01

    The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs), and chlorogenic acid (CGA), on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality. In contrast PA N-oxides showed synergistic interactions with CGA. PA free bases caused a higher thrips mortality than PA N-oxides while the reverse was through for PAs in combination with CGA. Our results provide an explanation for the predominate storage of PA N-oxides in plants. We propose that antagonistic interactions represent a constraint on the accumulation of plant metabolites, as we found here for Jacobaea vulgaris. The results show that the bioactivity of a given metabolite is not merely dependent upon the amount and chemical structure of that metabolite, but also on the co-occurrence metabolites in, e.g., plant cells, tissues and organs. The significance of this study is beyond the concerns of the two specific groups tested here. The current study is one of the few studies so far that experimentally support the general conception that the interactions among plant metabolites are of great importance to plant-environment interactions. PMID:28611815

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2013-10-01

    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  12. The effect of trimethylamine N-oxide on Helicobacter pylori-induced changes of immunoinflammatory genes expression in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daoyan; Cao, Mei; Peng, Jingshan; Li, Ningzhe; Yi, Sijun; Song, Liju; Wang, Xuege; Zhang, Mao; Zhao, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces immune and inflammatory response in gastric mucosa. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), from diet and metabolite through the action of gut microbiota, has been linked to inflammatory diseases. To investigate the effects of TMAO and H. pylori infection on gene expression in gastric epithelial cells, Human gene chip Affymetrix HTA 2.0 was used in this study. 1312 genes were identified as differentially expressed genes in GES-1 cells with H. pylori and TMAO co-treatment compared to the control. GO and KEGG analyses indicated that the functions of these differentially expressed genes were related closely with immune inflammation. GO-network showed that Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the most important biological processes and 49 up-regulated genes related to immune inflammation were obtained. The synergistic effects of H. pylori and TMAO enhanced the genes expression of IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL2, FOS and C3 related to immune inflammation in comparison with those of non-infected control cells, H. pylori-infected cells, and TMAO-stimulated cells. RT-PCR verified the expression levels of IL-6, CXCL1. Additionally, expression levels of 2053 genes were altered and 52 immunoinflammatory genes were upregulated in comparison with H. pylori-infected cells. This study suggested that TMAO altered the expression levels of immunoinflammatory genes induced by H. pylori infection, and the synergistic effects of H. pylori and TMAO provided novel insights into the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

  13. Intake of up to 3 Eggs/Day Increases HDL Cholesterol and Plasma Choline While Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide is Unchanged in a Healthy Population.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Diana M; Missimer, Amanda; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Lemos, Bruno S; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Eggs are a source of cholesterol and choline and may impact plasma lipids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations, which are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the effects of increasing egg intake (0, 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day) on these and other CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated in a young, healthy population. Thirty-eight subjects [19 men/19 women, 24.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)] participated in this 14-week crossover intervention. Participants underwent a 2-week washout with no egg consumption, followed by intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day for 4 weeks each. Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP), dietary records, and plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, choline, and TMAO) were measured during each intervention phase. BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose, and plasma triacylglycerol did not change throughout the intervention. Diastolic BP decreased with egg intake (P < 0.05). Compared to 0 eggs/day, intake of 1 egg/day increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) (P < 0.05), and decreased LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) (P < 0.05) and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (P < 0.01). With intake of 2-3 eggs/day, these changes were maintained. Plasma choline increased dose-dependently with egg intake (P < 0.0001) while fasting plasma TMAO was unchanged. These results indicate that in a healthy population, consuming up to 3 eggs/day results in an overall beneficial effect on biomarkers associated with CVD risk, as documented by increased HDL-c, a reduced LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, and increased plasma choline in combination with no change in plasma LDL-c or TMAO concentrations.

  14. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K; Hazen, Stanley L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2016-12-01

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51-53 %E) v. lower CHO (39-40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine and γ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high- v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by high v. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  15. Nicotine N-glucuronidation relative to N-oxidation and C-oxidation and UGT2B10 genotype in five ethnic/racial groups

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sharon E.; Park, Sung-Shim L.; Thompson, Elizabeth F.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine metabolism influences smoking behavior and differences in metabolism probably contribute to ethnic variability in lung cancer risk. We report here on the proportion of nicotine metabolism by cytochrome P450 2A6-catalyzed C-oxidation, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B10 (UGT2B10)-catalyzed N-glucuronidation and flavin monooxygenase 3-catalyzed N-oxidation in five ethnic/racial groups and the role of UGT2B10 genotype on the metabolic patterns observed. Nicotine and its metabolites were quantified in urine from African American (AA, n = 364), Native Hawaiian (NH, n = 311), White (n = 437), Latino (LA, n = 453) and Japanese American (JA, n = 674) smokers. Total nicotine equivalents, the sum of nicotine and six metabolites, and nicotine metabolism phenotypes were calculated. The relationship of UGT2B10 genotype to nicotine metabolic pathways was determined for each group; geometric means were computed and adjusted for age, sex, creatinine, and body mass index. Nicotine metabolism patterns were unique across the groups, C-oxidation was lowest in JA and NH (P < 0.0001), and N-glucuronidation lowest in AA (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in C-oxidation among Whites and AA and LA. Nicotine and cotinine glucuronide ratios were 2- and 3-fold lower in AA compared with Whites. Two UGT variants, a missense mutation (Asp67Tyr, rs61750900) and a splice variant (rs116294140) accounted for 33% of the variation in glucuronidation. In AA, the splice variant accounted for the majority of the reduced nicotine glucuronidation. UGT2B10 variant allele carriers had increased levels of C-oxidation (P = 0.0099). Our data indicate that the relative importance of nicotine metabolic pathways varies by ethnicity, and all pathways should be considered when characterizing the role of nicotine metabolism on smoking behavior and cancer risk. PMID:25233931

  16. Trimethylamine and Trimethylamine N-Oxide, a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3)-Mediated Host-Microbiome Metabolic Axis Implicated in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fennema, Diede; Phillips, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is known primarily as an enzyme involved in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs. On a daily basis, however, we are exposed to one of the most abundant substrates of the enzyme trimethylamine (TMA), which is released from various dietary components by the action of gut bacteria. FMO3 converts the odorous TMA to nonodorous TMA N-oxide (TMAO), which is excreted in urine. Impaired FMO3 activity gives rise to the inherited disorder primary trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Affected individuals cannot produce TMAO and, consequently, excrete large amounts of TMA. A dysbiosis in gut bacteria can give rise to secondary TMAU. Recently, there has been much interest in FMO3 and its catalytic product, TMAO, because TMAO has been implicated in various conditions affecting health, including cardiovascular disease, reverse cholesterol transport, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. In this review, we consider the dietary components that can give rise to TMA, the gut bacteria involved in the production of TMA from dietary precursors, the metabolic reactions by which bacteria produce and use TMA, and the enzymes that catalyze the reactions. Also included is information on bacteria that produce TMA in the oral cavity and vagina, two key microbiome niches that can influence health. Finally, we discuss the importance of the TMA/TMAO microbiome-host axis in health and disease, considering factors that affect bacterial production and host metabolism of TMA, the involvement of TMAO and FMO3 in disease, and the implications of the host-microbiome axis for management of TMAU. PMID:27190056

  17. Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota With Reduced Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Level in Patients With Large-Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Liao, Shuo-Xi; He, Yan; Wang, Shan; Xia, Geng-Hong; Liu, Fei-Tong; Zhu, Jia-Jia; You, Chao; Chen, Qiong; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Su-Yue; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2015-11-23

    Gut microbiota has been suggested to play a role in almost all major diseases including cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. A possible mechanism is the transformation of dietary choline and l-carnitine into trimethylamine by gut bacteria. This metabolite is further oxidized into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in liver and promotes atherogenesis. Nevertheless, little is known about gut microbial diversity and blood TMAO levels in stroke patients. We performed a case-control study of patients with large-artery atherosclerotic ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. TMAO was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Gut microbiome was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 tag. Within the asymptomatic control group, participants with and without carotid atherosclerotic plaques showed similar levels of TMAO without a significant difference in gut microbiota; however, the gut microbiome of stroke and transient ischemic attack patients was clearly different from that of the asymptomatic group. Stroke and transient ischemic attack patients had more opportunistic pathogens, such as Enterobacter, Megasphaera, Oscillibacter, and Desulfovibrio, and fewer commensal or beneficial genera including Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium. This dysbiosis was correlated with the severity of the disease. The TMAO level in the stroke and transient ischemic attack patients was significantly lower, rather than higher, than that of the asymptomatic group. Participants with asymptomatic atherosclerosis did not exhibit an obvious change in gut microbiota and blood TMAO levels; however, stroke and transient ischemic attack patients showed significant dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and their blood TMAO levels were decreased. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Simultaneous determination of morinidazole, its N-oxide, sulfate, and diastereoisomeric N(+)-glucuronides in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruina; Zhong, Dafang; Liu, Ke; Xia, Yu; Shi, Rongwei; Li, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2012-11-01

    Morinidazole is a new third-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobial drug. To investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of morinidazole and its major metabolites in humans, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of morinidazole, its N-oxide metabolite (M4-1), a sulfate conjugate (M7), and two diastereoisomeric N(+)-glucuronides (M8-1 and M8-2) in human plasma. A simple acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation was employed to extract five analytes and internal standard metronidazole from 50μL human plasma. To avoid the interference from the in-source dissociation of the sulfate and achieve the baseline-separation of diastereoisomeric N(+)-glucuronides, all the analytes were separated from each other with the mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile using gradient elution on a Hydro-RP C(18) column (50mm×2mm, 4μm) with a total run time of 5min. The API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the electrospray ionization technique. The developed method was linear in the concentration ranges of 10.0-12,000ng/mL for morinidazole, 1.00-200ng/mL for M4-1, 2.50-500ng/mL for M7, 3.00-600ng/mL for M8-1, and 10.0-3000ng/mL for M8-2. The intra- and inter-day precisions for each analyte met the accepted value. Results of the stability of morinidazole and its metabolites in human plasma were also presented. The method was successfully applied to the clinical pharmacokinetic studies of morinidazole injection in healthy subjects, patients with moderate hepatic insufficiency, and patients with severe renal insufficiency, respectively.

  19. Serum Trimethylamine N-oxide, Carnitine, Choline, and Betaine in Relation to Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Kristin A; Li, Xinmin S; Graubard, Barry I; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Goedert, James J; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Sinha, Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk.Methods: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine, and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We measured biomarker concentrations in baseline fasting serum samples from 644 incident colorectal cancer cases and 644 controls using LC/MS-MS. Logistic regression models estimated the ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) for colorectal cancer by quartile (Q) of serum TMAO, choline, carnitine, and betaine concentrations.Results: Men with higher serum choline at ATBC baseline had approximately 3-fold greater risk of developing colorectal cancer over the ensuing (median ± IQR) 14 ± 10 years (in fully adjusted models, Q4 vs. Q1, OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.24-4.61; Ptrend < 0.0001). The prognostic value of serum choline for prediction of incident colorectal cancer was similarly robust for proximal, distal, and rectal colon cancers (all P < 0.0001). The association between serum TMAO, carnitine, or betaine and colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant (P = 0.25, 0.71, and 0.61, respectively).Conclusions: Higher serum choline concentration (but not TMAO, carnitine, or betaine) was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer.Impact: Serum choline levels showed strong prognostic value for prediction of incident colorectal cancer risk across all anatomical subsites, suggesting a role of altered choline metabolism in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 945-52. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Genomic analysis of anaerobic respiration in the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as terminal electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen A; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and a molecular chaperone (DmsD) was identified by bioinformatics and confirmed as a transcriptional unit by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD in-frame deletion mutants were individually constructed. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD are required for anaerobic respiration on DMSO and TMAO. The requirement for dmsR, whose predicted product contains a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Bat family of activators (COG3413), indicated that it functions as an activator. A cysteine-rich domain was found in the dmsR gene, which may be involved in oxygen sensing. Microarray analysis using a whole-genome 60-mer oligonucleotide array showed that the dms operon is induced during anaerobic respiration. Comparison of dmsR+ and DeltadmsR strains by use of microarrays showed that the induction of the dmsEABCD operon is dependent on a functional dmsR gene, consistent with its action as a transcriptional activator. Our results clearly establish the genes required for anaerobic respiration using DMSO and TMAO in an archaeon for the first time.

  1. Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Respiration in the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Trimethylamine N-Oxide as Terminal Electron Acceptors†

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jochen A.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and a molecular chaperone (DmsD) was identified by bioinformatics and confirmed as a transcriptional unit by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD in-frame deletion mutants were individually constructed. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD are required for anaerobic respiration on DMSO and TMAO. The requirement for dmsR, whose predicted product contains a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Bat family of activators (COG3413), indicated that it functions as an activator. A cysteine-rich domain was found in the dmsR gene, which may be involved in oxygen sensing. Microarray analysis using a whole-genome 60-mer oligonucleotide array showed that the dms operon is induced during anaerobic respiration. Comparison of dmsR+ and ΔdmsR strains by use of microarrays showed that the induction of the dmsEABCD operon is dependent on a functional dmsR gene, consistent with its action as a transcriptional activator. Our results clearly establish the genes required for anaerobic respiration using DMSO and TMAO in an archaeon for the first time. PMID:15716436

  2. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg(-1). The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg(-1) respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg(-1)), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg(-1)), a tarragon (3300 µg kg(-1)) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg(-1)). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  3. The use of trimethylamine N-oxide as a primary precipitating agent and related methylamine osmolytes as cryoprotective agents for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Haley; Venkat, Murugappan; Hti Lar Seng, Nang San; Cahn, Jackson; Juers, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    Both crystallization and cryoprotection are often bottlenecks for high-resolution X-ray structure determination of macromolecules. Methylamine osmolytes are known stabilizers of protein structure. One such osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), has seen occasional use as an additive to improve macromolecular crystal quality and has recently been shown to be an effective cryoprotective agent for low-temperature data collection. Here, TMAO and the related osmolytes sarcosine and betaine are investigated as primary precipitating agents for protein crystal growth. Crystallization experiments were undertaken with 14 proteins. Using TMAO, seven proteins crystallized in a total of 13 crystal forms, including a new tetragonal crystal form of trypsin. The crystals diffracted well, and eight of the 13 crystal forms could be effectively cryo­­cooled as grown with TMAO as an in situ cryoprotective agent. Sarcosine and betaine produced crystals of four and two of the 14 proteins, respectively. In addition to TMAO, sarcosine and betaine were effective post-crystallization cryoprotective agents for two different crystal forms of thermolysin. Precipitation reactions of TMAO with several transition-metal ions (Fe3+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) did not occur with sarcosine or betaine and were inhibited for TMAO at lower pH. Structures of proteins from TMAO-grown crystals and from crystals soaked in TMAO, sarcosine or betaine were determined, showing osmolyte binding in five of the 12 crystals tested. When an osmolyte was shown to bind, it did so near the protein surface, interacting with water molecules, side chains and backbone atoms, often at crystal contacts. PMID:22194335

  4. The Study of NADPH-Dependent Flavoenzyme-Catalyzed Reduction of Benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-Oxides (Benzofuroxans)

    PubMed Central

    Šarlauskas, Jonas; Misevičienė, Lina; Marozienė, Audronė; Karvelis, Laimonas; Stankevičiūtė, Jonita; Krikštopaitis, Kastis; Čėnas, Narimantas; Yantsevich, Aleksey; Laurynėnas, Audrius; Anusevičius, Žilvinas

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic reactivity of a series of benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxides (benzofuroxans; BFXs) towards mammalian single-electron transferring NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase (P-450R) and two-electron (hydride) transferring NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) was examined in this work. Since the =N+ (→O)O− moiety of furoxan fragments of BFXs bears some similarity to the aromatic nitro-group, the reactivity of BFXs was compared to that of nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) whose reduction mechanisms by these and other related flavoenzymes have been extensively investigated. The reduction of BFXs by both P-450R and NQO1 was accompanied by O2 uptake, which was much lower than the NADPH oxidation rate; except for annelated BFXs, whose reduction was followed by the production of peroxide. In order to analyze the possible quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) of the enzymatic reactivity of the compounds, their electron-accepting potency and other reactivity indices were assessed by quantum mechanical methods. In P-450R-catalyzed reactions, both BFXs and NACs showed the same reactivity dependence on their electron-accepting potency which might be consistent with an “outer sphere” electron transfer mechanism. In NQO1-catalyzed two-electron (hydride) transferring reactions, BFXs acted as more efficient substrates than NACs, and the reduction efficacy of BFXs by NQO1 was in general higher than by single-electron transferring P-450R. In NQO1-catalyzed reactions, QSARs obtained showed that the reduction efficacy of BFXs, as well as that of NACs, was determined by their electron-accepting potency and could be influenced by their binding mode in the active center of NQO1 and by their global softness as their electronic characteristic. The reductive conversion of benzofuroxan by both flavoenzymes yielded the same reduction product of benzofuroxan, 2,3-diaminophenazine, with the formation of o-benzoquinone dioxime as a putative primary reductive

  5. Effects of N,N-dimethyl-N-alkylamine-N-oxides on DOPC bilayers in unilamellar vesicles: small-angle neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Belička, Michal; Kučerka, Norbert; Uhríková, Daniela; Islamov, Akhmed Kh; Kuklin, Alexander I; Devínsky, Ferdinand; Balgavý, Pavol

    2014-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering data were collected from aqueous dispersions of unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) consisting of mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine and a homologous series of N,N-dimethyl-N-alkylamine-N-oxides (CnNO, n = 12, 14, 16, and 18, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain). A modeling approach was applied to the neutron scattering curves to obtain the bilayer structural parameters. Particularly, the external (2)H2O/H2O contrast variation technique was carried out on pure dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) ULVs to determine the hydrophilic region thickness [Formula: see text] = 9.8 ± 0.6 Å. Consequently, the hydrocarbon region thickness [Formula: see text], the lateral bilayer area per one lipid molecule [Formula: see text], and the number of water molecules located in the hydrophilic region per one lipid molecule [Formula: see text] were obtained from single-contrast neutron scattering curves using the previously determined [Formula: see text]. The structural parameters were extracted as functions of [Formula: see text] (the CnNO:DOPC molar ratio) and n. The dependences [Formula: see text] provided the partial lateral areas of CnNOs ([Formula: see text]) and DOPC ([Formula: see text]) in bilayers. It was observed that the [Formula: see text]'s were constant in the investigated interval of [Formula: see text] and for n = 12, 14, and 16 equal to 36.6 ± 0.4 Å(2), while [Formula: see text] increased to 39.4 ± 0.4 Å(2). The bilayer hydrocarbon region thickness [Formula: see text] decreased with intercalation of each CnNO. This effect increased with [Formula: see text] and decreased with increasing CnNO alkyl chain length. The intercalation of C18NO changed the [Formula: see text] only slightly. To quantify the effect of CnNO intercalation into DOPC bilayers we fit the [Formula: see text] dependences with weighted linear approximations and acquired their slopes [Formula: see text].

  6. Generation of Free Oxygen Atoms O(3P) in Solution by Photolysis of 4-Benzoylpyridine N-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, Jack M.; Bakac, Andreja

    2014-08-04

    Laser flash photolysis of 4-benzoylpyridine N-oxide (BPyO) at 308 nm in aqueous solutions generates a triplet excited state 3BPyO* that absorbs strongly in the visible, λmax 490 and 380 nm. 3BPyO* decays with the rate law kdecay/s-1 = (3.3 ± 0.9) × 104 + (1.5 ± 0.2) × 109 [BPyO] to generate a mixture of isomeric hydroxylated benzoylpyridines, BPy(OH), in addition to small amounts of oxygen atoms, O(3P). Molecular oxygen quenches 3BPyO*, kQ = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1, but the yields of O(3P) increase in O2-saturated solutions to 36%. Other triplet quenchers have a similar effect, which rules out the observed 3BPyO* as a source of O(3P). It is concluded that O(3P) is produced from either 1BPyO* or a short-lived, unobserved, higher energy triplet generated directly from 1BPyO*. 3BPyO* is reduced by Fe2+ and by ABTS2- to the radical anion BPyO.- which exhibits a maximum at 510 nm, ε = 2200 M-1 cm-1. The anion engages in back electron transfer with ABTS.- with k = 1.7 × 109 M-1 s-1. The same species can be generated by reducing ground state BPyO with .C(CH3)2OH. The photochemistry of BPyO in acetonitrile is similar to that in aqueous solutions.

  7. Roflumilast N-oxide prevents cytokine secretion induced by cigarette smoke combined with LPS through JAK/STAT and ERK1/2 inhibition in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Victoni, Tatiana; Gleonnec, Florence; Lanzetti, Manuella; Tenor, Hermann; Valença, Samuel; Porto, Luis Cristovão; Lagente, Vincent; Boichot, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway epithelial cells and macrophages are the first defense cells against cigarette smoke and these cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines play a role in progressive airflow limitation and chronic airways inflammation. Furthermore, the chronic colonization of airways by Gram-negative bacteria, contributes to the persistent airways inflammation and progression of COPD. The current study addressed the effects of cigarette smoke along with lipolysaccharide (LPS) in airway epithelial cells as a representative in vitro model of COPD exacerbations. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of PDE4 inhibitor, the roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), in this experimental model. A549 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) alone (0.4% to 10%) or in combination with a low concentration of LPS (0.1 µg/ml) for 2 h or 24 h for measurement of chemokine protein and mRNAs and 5-120 min for protein phosphorylation. Cells were also pre-incubated with MAP kinases inhibitors and Prostaglandin E2 alone or combined with RNO, before the addition of CSE+LPS. Production of cytokines was determined by ELISA and protein phosphorylation by western blotting and phospho-kinase array. CSE did not induce production of IL-8/CXCL8 and Gro-α/CXCL1 from A549 cells, but increase production of CCL2/MCP-1. However the combination of LPS 0.1 µg/ml with CSE 2% or 4% induced an important production of these chemokines, that appears to be dependent of ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT pathways but did not require JNK and p38 pathways. Moreover, RNO associated with PGE2 reduced CSE+LPS-induced cytokine release, which can happen by occur through of ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT pathways. We report here an in vitro model that can reflect what happen in airway epithelial cells in COPD exacerbation. We also showed a new pathway where CSE+LPS can induce cytokine release from A549 cells, which is reduced by RNO.

  8. Effect of detergent concentration on the thermal stability of a membrane protein: The case study of bacterial reaction center solubilized by N,N-dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Gerardo; Lopez, Francesco; Mallardi, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    We report on the response of reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (an archetype of membrane proteins) to the exposure at high temperature. The RCs have been solubilized in aqueous solution of the detergent N,N-dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide (LDAO). Changes in the protein conformation have been probed by monitoring the variation in the absorbance of the bacteriochlorine cofactors and modification in the efficiency of energy transfer from tryptophans to cofactors and among the cofactors (through fluorescence measurements). The RC aggregation taking place at high temperature has been investigated by means of dynamic light scattering. Two experimental protocols have been used: (i) isothermal kinetics, in which the time evolution of RC after a sudden increase of the temperature is probed, and (ii) T-scans, in which the RCs are heated at constant rate. The analysis of the results coming from both the experiments indicates that the minimal kinetic scheme requires an equilibrium step and an irreversible process. The irreversible step is characterized by a activation energy of 205+/-14 kJ/mol and is independent from the detergent concentration. Since the temperature dependence of the aggregation rate was found to obey to the same law, the aggregation process is unfolding-limited. On the other hand, the equilibrium process between the native and a partially unfolded conformations was found to be strongly dependent on the detergent concentration. Increasing the LDAO content from 0.025 to 0.5 wt.% decreases the melting temperature from 49 to 42 degrees C. This corresponds to a sizeable (22 kJ/mol at 25 degrees C) destabilization of the native conformation induced by the detergent. The nature of the aggregates formed by the denatured RCs depends on the temperature. For temperature below 60 degrees C compact aggregates are formed while at 60 degrees C the clusters are less dense with a scaling relation between mass and size close to that expected for diffusion

  9. Suitable combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for kilo fold rate acceleration on benzaldehyde to benzoic acid conversion in aqueous media at room temperature: a kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Sumanta K; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-05-15

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde by chromic acid in aqueous and aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol, Triton X-100 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) media have been investigated in the presence of promoter at 303 K. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) were determined from a logarithmic plot of absorbance as a function time. The rate constants were found to increase with introduction of heteroaromatic nitrogen base promoters such as Picolinic acid (PA), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The product benzoic acid has been characterized by conventional melting point experiment, NMR, HRMS and FTIR spectral analysis. The mechanism of both unpromoted and promoted reaction path has been proposed for the reaction. In presence of the anionic surfactant SDS, cationic surfactant CPC and neutral surfactant TX-100 the reaction can undergo simultaneously in both aqueous and micellar phase with an enhanced rate of oxidation in the micellar phase. Both SDS and TX-100 produce normal micellar effect whereas CPC produce reverse micellar effect in the presence of benzaldehyde. The observed net enhancement of rate effects has been explained by considering the hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the surfactants and reactants. SDS and bipy combination is the suitable one for benzaldehyde oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation of transition metals on a poly-iminodiacetic acid grafted polymeric resin column with post-column reaction detection utilising a paired emitter-detector diode system.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; O'Toole, Martina; Diamond, Dermot; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2008-12-05

    The selectivity, retention and separation of transition metals on a short (2 mm x 50 mm) column packed with a poly-iminodiacetic acid functionalised polymer 10 microm resin (Dionex ProPac IMAC-10) are presented. This stationary phase, typically used for the separation of proteins, is composed of long chain poly-iminodiacetic acid groups grafted to a hydrophilic layer surrounding a 10 microm polymeric bead. Through the use of a combination of a multi-step pH and picolinic acid gradient, the separation of magnesium, iron, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, lead and copper was possible, followed by post-column reaction with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) and absorbance detection at 510 nm using a novel and inexpensive optical detector, comprised of two light emitting diodes with one acting as a light source and the other as a detector. Column efficiency for selective transition metals was in excess of N=10,000, with the baseline separation of seven metal cations in <3 min possible under optimised conditions. Detection limits of between 5 and 81 microg/L were possible based upon a 50 microL injection volume.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of three nano zinc(II) coordination polymers; Precursors for preparation of zinc(II) oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marandi, Farzin; Hashemi, Lida; Morsali, Ali; Krautscheid, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of three Zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(NNO)2(H2O)4]n (1), [Zn(PNNO)2(H2O)2]n (2) and [Zn(H2O)6]·(INNO)2 (3) {NNO: Nicotinic acid N-oxide, PNNO: Picolinic acid N-oxide and INNO: Isonicotinic acid N-oxide}, have been synthesized by a sonochemical process and reaction of ligands with Zn(CH3COO)2. The Zinc(II) oxide nano-particles have been synthesized from thermolysis of [Zn(NNO)2(H2O)4]n (1), [Zn(PNNO)2(H2O)2]n (2) and [Zn(H2O)6]·(INNO)2 (3) at two different methods (with surfactant and without surfactant) and two temperatures (200 and 600°C). The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Comparison of the SEM images of ZnO nano-particles at two different methods and temperatures shows that higher temperature results in an increasing of agglomeration and thus small and spherical ZnO particles with good separation were produced by thermolysis of compounds at 200°C and by use of surfactant.

  12. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  13. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  14. Cu-Catalyzed Cyanation of Arylboronic Acids with Acetonitrile: A Dual Role of TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yamin; Li, Linyi; Shen, Zengming

    2015-09-14

    The cyanation of arylboronic acids by using acetonitrile as the "CN" source has been achieved under a Cu(cat.)/TEMPO system (TEMPO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide). The broad substrate scope includes a variety of electron-rich and electron-poor arylboronic acids, which react well to give the cyanated products in high to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies reveal that TEMPO-CH2 CN, generated in situ, is an active cyanating reagent, and shows high reactivity for the formation of the CN(-) moiety. Moreover, TEMPO acts as a cheap oxidant to enable the reaction to be catalytic in copper.

  15. A Dual-Responsive Bola-Type Supra-amphiphile Constructed from a Water-Soluble Calix[4]pyrrole and a Tetraphenylethene-Containing Pyridine Bis-N-oxide.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huacheng; Vargas-Zúñiga, Gabriela I; Peters, Gretchen M; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-05-11

    Complexation between a water-soluble calix[4]pyrrole and a ditopic pyridine N-oxide derivative in aqueous media produces a bola-type supra-amphiphile that self-assembles to produce higher order morphologies, including multilamellar vesicles and micelles depending on the pH. The present bola-type supra-amphiphile exhibits strong fluorescence due to structural changes and aggregation induced by host-guest complexation. The resulting structures may be used to recognize, encapsulate, and release non-fluorescent, water-soluble small molecules.

  16. Changes in the gene expression of C-myc and CD38 in HL-60 cells during differentiation induced by nicotinic acid-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Ida, Chieri; Ogata, Shin; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Taguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Changes in gene expression levels of c-myc and CD38 were examined during the differentiation of HL-60 cells to granulocytes due to three nicotinic acid-related compounds. CD38 expression was increased by isonicotinic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Nicotinamide and nicotinamide N-oxide drastically decreased c-myc expression, but isonicotinic acid had no effect, suggesting that these compounds differentiate HL-60 to granulocytes through different pathways. These results should provide useful information as to the mechanisms of cell differentiation.

  17. Characterization and screening of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides from various parts of many botanicals and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The UHPLC-QToF-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various parts of 37 botanicals and 7 dietary supplements was performed. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. MS-MS detection was u...

  18. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  19. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  20. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  1. A study of dinitro-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diol and derivatives: design of high-performance insensitive energetic materials by the introduction of N-oxides.

    PubMed

    Dippold, Alexander A; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2013-07-03

    In this contribution we report on the synthesis and full structural as well as spectroscopic characterization of 3,3'-dinitro-5,5'-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diol and nitrogen-rich salts thereof. The first synthesis and characterization of an energetic 1-hydroxy-bistriazole in excellent yields and high purity is presented. This simple and straightforward method of N-oxide introduction in triazole compounds using commercially available oxone improves the energetic properties and reveals a straightforward synthetic pathway toward novel energetic 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. X-ray crystallographic measurements were performed and deliver insight into structural characteristics and strong intermolecular interactions. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4 M level of theory, revealing highly positive heats of formation for all compounds. The energetic properties of all compounds (detonation velocity, pressure, etc.) were calculated using the EXPLO5.05 program, and the ionic derivatives show superior performance in comparison to the corresponding compounds bearing no N-oxide. All substances were characterized in terms of sensitivities (impact, friction, electrostatic) and thermal stabilities, and the ionic derivatives were found to be high thermally stable, insensitive compounds that are exceedingly powerful but safe to handle and prepare.

  2. Sonochemical synthesis of two new nano lead(II) coordination polymers: Evaluation of structural transformation via mechanochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Aboutorabi, Leila; Morsali, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Two new lead(II) mixed-ligand coordination polymers, [Pb(PNO)(SCN)]n (1) and [Pb(PNO)(N3)]n (2), (HPNO=picolinic acid N-oxide) were synthesized by a sonochemical method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal behavior of 1 and 2 were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis. Structural transformations of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated through anion-replacement processes by mechanochemical method. Moreover, the effect of sonication conditions including time, concentrations of initial reagents and power of irradiation were evaluated on size and morphology of compounds 1 and 2.

  3. Development of multicomponent hybrid density functional theory with polarizable continuum model for the analysis of nuclear quantum effect and solvent effect on NMR chemical shift

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2014-04-28

    We have developed the multicomponent hybrid density functional theory [MC-(HF+DFT)] method with polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the analysis of molecular properties including both nuclear quantum effect and solvent effect. The chemical shifts and H/D isotope shifts of the picolinic acid N-oxide (PANO) molecule in chloroform and acetonitrile solvents are applied by B3LYP electron exchange-correlation functional for our MC-(HF+DFT) method with PCM (MC-B3LYP/PCM). Our MC-B3LYP/PCM results for PANO are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental chemical shifts and isotope shifts. We further investigated the applicability of our method for acetylacetone in several solvents.

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of novel amino acid-(N'-benzoyl) hydrazide and amino acid-(N'-nicotinoyl) hydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N

    2005-09-30

    The coupling reaction of benzoic acid and nicotinic acid hydrazides with N- protected L-amino acids including valine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and tyrosine is reported. The target compounds, N-Boc-amino acid-(N;-benzoyl)- and N- Boc-amino acid-(N;-nicotinoyl) hydrazides 5a-5e and 6a-6e were prepared in very high yields and purity using N-[(dimethylamino)-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl- methylene]-N-methyl-methanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide (HATU) as coupling reagent. The antimicrobial activity of the Cu and Cd complexes of the designed compounds was tested. The products were deprotected affording the corresponding amino acid-(N;-benzoyl) hydrazide hydrochloride salts (7a-7e) and amino acid-(N;- nicotinoyl) hydrazide hydrochloride salts (8a-8e). These compounds and their Cu and Cd complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity. Several compounds showed comparable activity to that of ampicillin against S. aureus and E. coli.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

  6. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... of childhood cancer of the white blood cells. Iron deficiency. Taking folic acid with iron supplements is not ... supplements without folic acid for treating and preventing iron deficiency and anemia caused by too little iron in ...

  7. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  8. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  9. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  10. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  11. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  12. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  13. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  14. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  15. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  16. Benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxide derivatives as potential antitrypanosomal drugs. Part 3: Substituents-clustering methodology in the search for new active compounds.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Gabriela; Boiani, Lucía; Cerecetto, Hugo; Di Maio, Rossanna; González, Mercedes; Porcal, Williams; Denicola, Ana; Möller, Matías; Thomson, Leonor; Tórtora, Verónica

    2005-12-01

    The results of a study on the use of Hansch's series design, cluster methodology, for the generation of new benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxide derivatives as antitrypanosomal compounds are described. In vitro activity of these compounds was tested against Tulahuen 2 strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Clearly, the Hansch methodology allowed identifying two cluster-substituents suitable for further structural modifications. The most effective drugs, derivatives 11, 18, and 21, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the same order as that of the reference drug, represent an excellent structural point of chemical modifications for the design of future drugs. Preliminary results from the study of the mechanism of action of these benzofuroxans point to perturbation of the mitochondrial electron chain, inhibiting parasite respiration.

  17. Lanthanide complexes based on a diazapyridinophane platform containing picolinate pendants.

    PubMed

    Roca-Sabio, Adrián; Bonnet, Célia S; Mato-Iglesias, Marta; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2012-10-15

    A new macrocyclic ligand, N,N'-bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridyl)methyl]-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane (H(2)BPDPA), was prepared, and its coordination properties toward the Ln(III) ions were investigated. The hydration numbers (q) obtained from luminescence lifetime measurements in aqueous solution of the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes indicate that they contain one inner-sphere water molecule. The structure of the complexes in solution has been investigated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as by theoretical calculations performed at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level. The minimum-energy conformation calculated for the Yb(III) complex is in excellent agreement with the experimental structure in solution, as demonstrated by analysis of the Yb(III)-induced paramagnetic (1)H shifts. Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles and (17)O NMR measurements recorded on solutions of the Gd(III) complex were used to determine the parameters governing the relaxivity. The results show that this system is endowed with a relatively fast water-exchange rate k(ex)(298) = 63 × 10(6) s(-1). Thermodynamic stability constants were determined by pH-potentiometric titration at 25 °C in 0.1 M KCl. The stability constants, which fall within the range logK(LnL) = 12.5-14.2, point to a relatively low stability of the complexes primarily as a consequence of the low basicity of the ligand.

  18. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  19. Decontamination of Fast Reactor Hulls and Properties of Immobilised Waste Forms,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    steels (1620) . It is normally used as the first staCe of a "two-stage process, the permanganate oxidising the chromium in the surface layers of the...mixture of vanadous formate, formic acid and picolinic acid, typical concentrations being: V2+ 4 x l0"M, COC1 4 x 10-21, and picolinic acid 2.5 x 10-2M...and mixed with picolinic acid in the appropriate proportions. ulls were treated with the solurion for periods of up to six hours at 80-85"C and at

  20. Palmitic acid is the major fatty acid responsible for significant anti-N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG) activity in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Nadathur, S R; Carney, J R; Gould, S J; Bakalinsky, A T

    1996-04-04

    We describe here the isolation and identification of palmitic acid as being responsible for significant anti-N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG) activity in yogurt. The Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA100) was used to direct fractionation of activity. Yogurt was freeze-dried and extracted with acetone to yield a crude extract. The crude extract was purified by normal phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed phase medium pressure liquid chromatographies. The major compound in the active medium pressure liquid chromatographic fractions was determined to be palmitic acid on GC and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems, and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Other saturated straight chain and methyl branched fatty acids were detected by GC/MS and were later shown to possess anti-MNNG activity. Of the straight chain fatty acids, palmitic acid had the highest anti-MNNG activity. All omega - 1 methyl branched fatty acids tested were more active than their straight chain counterparts. A trace amount of isopalmitic acid (14-methyl pentadecanoic acid), a minor milk lipid, was detected in one of the active fractions, and was later shown to be five times more active than palmitic acid. Isopalmitic acid also inhibited mutagenesis induced 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO), and 7, 12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and was found to inhibit the metabolic activation of DMBA.

  1. Generation of hydroxyl radicals from metal-loaded humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Paciolla, M.D.; Jansen, S.A.; Davies, G.

    1999-06-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are naturally occurring biopolymers that are ubiquitous in the environment. They are most commonly found in the soil, drinking water, and a variety of plants. Pharmacological and therapeutic studies involving humic acids have been reported to some extent. However, when certain transition metals are bound to humic acids, e.g., iron and copper, they can be harmful to biological organisms. For this study, humic acids were extracted from German, Irish, and New Hampshire soils that were selectively chosen because of their reich abundance in humic material. Each sample was treated at room temperature with 0.1 M ferric and cupric solutions for 48 h. The amount of iron and copper adsorbed by humic acid was accurately quantitated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The authors further demonstrate that these metal-loaded humic acids can produce deleterious oxidizing species such as the hydroxyl radical (HO*) through the metal-driven Fenton reaction. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) employing spin trapping techniques with 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) is used to confirm the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The DMPO-OH adduct with hyperfine splitting constants A{sub N} = A{sub H} = 14.9 G is observed upon the addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. The concentration of hydroxyl radical was determined using 4-hydroxytempo (TEMPO-OH) as a spin standard. The presence of another oxidizing species, Fe{double_bond}O{sup 2+}, is also proposed in the absence of hydrogen peroxide.

  2. Detection of a new N-oxidized metabolite of flutamide, N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]hydroxylamine, in human liver microsomes and urine of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Goda, Rika; Nagai, Daichi; Akiyama, Yuji; Nishikawa, Kiyohiro; Ikemoto, Isao; Aizawa, Yoshio; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2006-05-01

    Flutamide (2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide), a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer but is occasionally associated with hepatic dysfunction. In the present study, the metabolism of flutamide including the formation of the possible reactive toxic metabolites was investigated using human liver microsomes and 10 isoforms of recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450). 2-Hydroxyflutamide (OH-flutamide) and 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamine (FLU-1) were the main products of flutamide metabolism in human liver microsomes. The formation of OH-flutamide was markedly inhibited by ellipticine, an inhibitor of CYP1A1/1A2, and was mainly catalyzed by the recombinant CYP1A2. FLU-1 was also produced from OH-flutamide, but its metabolic rate was much less than that from flutamide. An inhibitor of carboxylesterase, bis-(p-nitrophenyl)phosphoric acid, completely inhibited the formation of FLU-1 from flutamide in human liver microsomes. A new metabolite, N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]hydroxylamine (FLU-1-N-OH), was detected as a product of the reaction of FLU-1 with human liver microsomes and identified by comparison with the synthetic standard. The formation of FLU-1-N-OH was markedly inhibited by the addition of miconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4, and was mediated by recombinant CYP3A4. Furthermore, FLU-1-N-OH was detected mostly as the conjugates (glucuronide/sulfate) in the urine of prostate cancer patients collected for 3 h after treatment with flutamide. The formation of FLU-1-N-OH, however, did not differ between patients with and without abnormalities of hepatic functions among a total of 29 patients. The lack of an apparent association of the urinary excretion of FLU-1-N-OH and hepatic disorder may suggest the involvement of an additional unknown factor in the mechanisms of flutamide hepatotoxicity.

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  5. Acid clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Molecular clusters can be considered to be the smallest size range of an aerosol particle size distribution. Nucleation from the gas phase to particles or droplets involves the formation of clusters in the initial stages. Consequently, knowledge of the properties and formation of clusters containing acids contribute to an understanding of acid rain. This paper presents an overview of results obtained in the laboratory on the formation and stability of both neutral and ionized acid clusters. With free jet expansion techniques, the authors have produced clusters of aqueous nitric acid, aqueous hydrochloric acid, aqueous sulfuric acid, acetic acid and aqueous sulfur dioxide. For analogy to buffering, the formation of clusters containing ammonia have also been examined. These have included ammonia with aqueous nitric acid, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The basic experiment involves expansion of vapor through a nozzle, collimation of the jet with a skimmer to form a well-directed molecular beam, and detection of clusters via electron impact ionization and mass spectrometry. Some variations include the introduction of a reactive gas into vacuum near the expansion as described elsewhere and the implementation of an electrostatic quadrupolar field to examine the polarity of the neutral clusters.

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  7. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  8. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  9. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  10. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid can hide signs that you lack vitamin B12, which can cause nerve damage. 10 Do I ... Rosenberg, I.H., et al. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis and cognitive ...

  11. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  12. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  13. The three-component cocrystal 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene-pyridine N-oxide-water (1/2/1) built up by halogen bonds, hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Pablo A; Cukiernik, Fabio D; Baggio, Ricardo F

    2015-02-01

    The title three-component cocrystal, C6F3I3·2C5H5NO·H2O, has been prepared as a strong candidate for multiple I...O interactions. Its crystal structure is compared with its 1:1 close relative, C6F3I3·C5H5NO [Aakeröy et al. (2014a). CrystEngComm, 16, 28-31]. The 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene and water species both have crystallographic twofold axial symmetry. The main synthon in both structures is the π-π stacking of benzene rings, complemented by a number of O-H...O, C-F...π and, fundamentally, C-I...O interactions. As expected, the latter are among the strongest and more directional interactions of the sort reported in the literature, confirming that pyridine N-oxide is an eager acceptor. On the other hand, the structure presents only two of these contacts per 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene molecule instead of the expected three. Possible reasons for this limitation are analyzed.

  14. Polystyrene nanoparticles in the presence of (ethylene oxide)13(propylene oxide)30(ethylene oxide)13, N,N-dimethyloctylamine-N-oxide and their mixtures. A calorimetric and dynamic light scattering study.

    PubMed

    De Lisi, R; Lazzara, G; Milioto, S; Muratore, N

    2008-02-14

    Polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized by emulsion polymerization of styrene. They were functionalized using the conventional surfactant N,N-dimethyloctylamine-N-oxide (ODAO), the tri-block copolymer (ethylene oxide)(13)(propylene oxide)(30)(ethylene oxide)(13) (L64) and their mixtures. To this purpose, dynamic light scattering and calorimetric experiments were carried out and provided information consistent to each other. The L64 adsorption is Langmuir-type in the copolymer dilute regime and generates complex structures at larger concentrations. In the region where ODAO is in the unimeric state, the adsorption process is cooperative leading to hemi-micelle formation at the polystyrene nanoparticle/water interface. In the concentrated region (above the critical micellar concentration), ODAO forms micelles which interact with the solid substrate most likely through ion-dipole forces. The ODAO addition to the dispersion containing polystyrene particles already wrapped by L64 creates an ODAO thickness around the dispersed particles the size of which is equal to that in the absence of the copolymer, but is built at much lower concentrations. A plausible interpretation of this behavior is that the adsorbed L64 confers to the nanoparticles surface novel properties which enhance the attractive forces with the ODAO molecules.

  15. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  16. Guidance for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Mixed Waste (MW) Treatment and Handling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    arsenic, barium, cad- mium, chromium , mercury, and selenium do not decay away. Their toxicity remains forever. (2) Joint jurisdiction. Disposal of...Ammonia and Ammonium salts Oxalic acid (and oxaltes) Ferric salts Citric acid (and citrates) “Oxidizing agentsŕ Picolinic acid (and picolinates ...The metal most often treated with reduction techniques is chromium , which often is present in a waste solution or mixed solution as chromium (VI) which

  17. NMR and DFT study on media effects on proton transfer in hydrogen bonding: concept of molecular probe with an application to ionic and super-polar liquids.

    PubMed

    Balevicius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Aidas, Kestutis

    2009-10-14

    Media effects of ionic and super-polar liquids on the state of H-bonding were studied by NMR and DFT methods. The proton sharing (positioning) in the H-bond was monitored following the chemical shifts of picolinic acid N-oxide (PANO) used as the molecular probe. The relationships between PANO 1H and 13C chemical shifts and proton position in the O-H...O bridge were calibrated using traditional organic solvents and other H-bond complexes of pyridine N-oxide with acids to increase the H-bond strength. A reliable parameter for H-bond monitoring was proposed. The state of the H-bond in ionic liquid media is largely governed by the dielectric properties of the bulk media. A drastic fall-out of PANO/[BuMePyr][TfO] from the general dielectric scheme built using solvents with increasing dielectric constant (from chloroform to water and culminating with formamide) was observed. On a molecular level this effect indicates that the ionic liquid [BuMePyr][TfO] can act on H-bonded systems as a stimulant of proton transfer. In 'super-polar' media (formamide) the intramolecular H-bond system converts into an intermolecular one forming a neutral H-bond complex of PANO with the formamide molecule.

  18. Fulminic Acid in the History of Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzer, Frederick

    2000-07-01

    The story of the discovery, investigation, and eventual correct formulation of fulminic acid, HCNO, extends over a period of 200 years and reflects uniquely, in its many stages, the evolution of organic chemistry from post-alchemistic times to the age of wave mechanics. Fulminic acid was discovered in 1800 when E. Howard serendipitously prepared its highly explosive mercury and silver salts. The determination of its structure presented unusual difficulties and taxed the ingenuity of leading chemists of successive generations. Their work generated a procession of proposed and discarded formulations that was only finally ended in the 1960s with the recognition of fulminic acid as the mesomeric structure and hence with its identification as the parent compound of the important class of the nitrile N-oxides. Recently fulminic acid and several of its isotopomers have been subjected to the most searching spectroscopic investigations and ab initio computations, by which its molecular dimensions and geometry, and its "quasi-linear" structure have been revealed. In technology, mercury fulminate occupied for nearly a century a uniquely important position as the only available practical detonator for every kind of conventional explosive.

  19. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  20. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.