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Sample records for piezoelectric contact fuze

  1. Rain Premature Susceptibility Study on the Proposed Piezoelectric Contact Fuze System for Triggering the MC-132 in the TX-5X1 Weapon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wehrle, R.D.

    1953-06-18

    The probability of the occurrence of rain during the "armed" portion of the fall of a bomb is approximately 1/25. Therefore, rain is considered a problem in premature detonation of the warhead through activation of the contact fuze system.

  2. XM746 Practice Fuze.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    34 t"Codes LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure No. Title Page 1 ARRADCOM XM747 ( M739 ) Practice Fuze 2 2A Cover, Spotting Charge 4 2B Cup, Spotting Charge 5 3...Plastic Practice Fuze XM746 Preliminary Design 6 4 Modified PDM739 Fuze 7 5 XM746 All Plastic Fuze 9 6 ARRADCOM XK747 ( M739 ) Practice Fuze 11 7...Assembly 18 11 Smoke Exit Relationship 19 12A XM747 MBA TiCl4 Configuration 23 12B Fuze M739 MOD F 24 13 TiCl4 Assembly 25 14 BKNO3 Assembly 26 15

  3. Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report ( SAR ) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-498 Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) As of FY...2015 SAR March 17, 2016 09:03:03 UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MDAP Programs 3 Program Information...Acquisition Unit Cost ICBM Fuze Mod December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016 09:03:03 UNCLASSIFIED 3 PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element PEO - Program

  4. Annual Fuze Conference (44th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-11

    Untitled Document 44th Fuze Conference.html[6/8/ 2017 10:33:34 AM] Files are in Adobe Acrobat 3.0 format. 44th Annual Fuze Conference 11-12 April...United Kingdom Wednesday, April 12, 2000 Untitled Document 44th Fuze Conference.html[6/8/ 2017 10:33:34 AM] Rockwell Collins’ Artillery GPS Engine...cooperation with U.S experts Mitch Stone Texarkana , Texas Day & Zimmermann, Inc. - Lone Star Division We do what we say! þ History and Evolution þ

  5. Annual Fuze Conference (45th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-18

    Rocket Naval FUZE PRODUCTION PERCENTAGES BY PRODUCT TYPE * * Based on sales of past 20 Years International Artillery Fuzing Trends • Customer Requirements...Canard Switch www.kdi-ppi.com • Mechanical S&A Design Approach – Modified MK18 S&A • Higher G Loads • AFT Detonation Output • Switches Indicate Rotor

  6. 50th Annual Fuze Conference Session 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-11

    level •Underwater Shock NDIA Fuze Conf 2006 5 Warhead Lethality MOFN has two potential warheads EX 183 HE-MOFN •MK 64 PROJECTILE BODY • PBXN - 106 ...EXPLOSIVE FILL EX 184 HE-MOFN •HIFRAG PROJECTILE BODY • PBXN - 106 EXPLOSIVE FILL Warhead lethality effect is fragmentation NDIA Fuze Conf 2006 6 Warhead...NDIA Fuze Conf 2006 19 Min Engagement Hazard • Worst Case Operational Configuration: – Projectile = EX 184 HE-MOFN • MK 64 Projectile w PBXN - 106 fill

  7. Switchable static friction of piezoelectric composite—silicon wafer contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ende, D. A.; Fischer, H. R.; Groen, W. A.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-04-01

    The meso-scale surface roughness of piezoelectric fiber composites can be manipulated by applying an electric field to a piezocomposite with a polished surface. In the absence of an applied voltage, the tips of the embedded piezoelectric ceramic fibers are below the surface of the piezocomposite and a silicon wafer counter surface rests solely on the matrix region of the piezocomposite surface. When actuated, the piezoelectric ceramic fibers protrude from the surface and the wafer rests solely on these protrusions. A threefold decrease in engineering static friction coefficient upon actuation of the piezocomposite was observed: from μ* = 1.65 to μ* = 0.50. These experimental results could be linked to the change in contact surface area and roughness using capillary adhesion theory, which relates the adhesive force to the number and size of the contacting asperities for the different surface states.

  8. Electronic Joint Army/Navy Point Detonating/Delay Fuze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    be battery powered and will use an existing S & A , such as an M739 . We recormiended that the fuzes be fired at various zones and high-speed cameras...Demonstrator 10 Power Supply Tasks 47 11 Electronic S & A 43 11.1 Explosive Barrier Module 49 11.2 Internal Development Program 51 12 Fuze Packaging...program, contract number DAAK10-80-C-0049. We included the Electronic S & A and Fuze Packaging sections to present a complete understanding of the overall

  9. Photonics technology development for optical fuzing.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, J.J.; Geib, Kent Martin; von der Lippe, C.M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the photonic component development, which exploits pioneering work and unique expertise at Sandia National Laboratories, ARDEC and the Army Research Laboratory by combining key optoelectronic technologies to design and demonstrate components for this fuzing application. The technologies under investigation for the optical fuze design covered in this paper are vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs), integrated resonant cavity photodetectors (RCPD), and diffractive micro-optics. The culmination of this work will be low cost, robust, fully integrated, g-hardened components designed suitable for proximity fuzing applications. The use of advanced photonic components will enable replacement of costly assemblies that employmore » discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulk optics. The integrated devices will be mass produced and impart huge savings for a variety of Army applications.« less

  10. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, Jack L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Von Holle, William G.

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  11. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  12. Echo power analysis and simulation of low altitude radio fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolu; Chen, Biao; Xu, Tao; Xu, Suqin

    2013-01-01

    The echo power from the earth gound which was received by fuze plays an important role in aerial defense missile, especially when the fuze is working in the look down mode. It is necessary to analyze and even simulate the echo power signals to enhance the missile's anti-jamming ability. In this paper, the quantity of echo power from the earth ground of low altitude radio fuze was analyzed in detail. Three boundary equations of area irradiated by electromagnetic beams were presented, which include two equidistant curve equations and one equal-Doppler curve equation. The relationship between the working mode and the critical height was analyzed. The calculating formula of echo power waveform was derived. And based on the derived formula, the correlation between the maximal echo power and the incident height was given and simulated, which would be helpful for the further researches of low altitude radio fuze.

  13. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. © 2012 IEEE

  14. 53rd Annual Fuze Conference - Next Generation Fuzing - Maximum Advantage for the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    Time Engineering AB 3:00 pm BREAK 3:20 pm Advances In Thermal Batteries For Fuzing David E. Harney, Advanced Thermal Batteries , Inc...Currently teaming and collaborating with Advanced Thermal Batteries • and Omnitek Partners to develop an improved thermal battery. • Current

  15. Performance Oriented Packaging (POP) testing of Artillery Type and Rocket Fuzes Packed in a Wood Wirebound Box

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-03

    44. Name: Fuze PD M739 United Nations Proper Shipping Name: Fuzes, Detonating United Nations Number: 0408 NSN: 1390-00-574-7705 Drawing Number: 9258605...Physical State: Solid United Nations Packing-group: II Amount Per Container: 8 45. Name: Fuze PD M739 United Nations Proper Shipping Name: Fuzes

  16. Seal Integrity of Selected Fuzes as Measured by Three Leak Test Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    the worst fuze from the seal standpoint. The M503A-2 fuze body is made from a cast aluminum alloy . The casting process leaves voids which, after...leak resistance of the joint. WDU4A/A The design of this fuze depends upon ultrasonic welding to seal lid to case. The specified leak test merely...test is probably one of the better leakage tests from an effectiveness standpoint. However, from lot quantities of 690 and 480, reject rates of 20% were

  17. Low-temperature DC-contact piezoelectric switch operable in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Caspers, Fritz; Doser, Michael; Kellerbauer, Alban; Pribyl, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    A piezoelectric single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch has been developed, since there is no satisfying commercial low-resistance, high current DC-contact RF switch available which is operable at 4.2 K and in a high magnetic field of at least 0.5 T. This piezoelectric switch shows very low insertion loss of less than -0.1 dB within a bandwidth of 100 MHz when operated at 4.2 K. The switch could also be used to mechanically disconnect and connect electrodes or electrical circuits from one another.

  18. Overview of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. R.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Team

    2016-10-01

    Previously, the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, demonstrated sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch plasmas. Instabilities that have historically plagued Z-pinch plasma confinement were mitigated using sheared flows generated from a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type. Based on these results, a new SFS Z-pinch experiment, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE), has been constructed. FuZE is designed to investigate the scaling of SFS Z-pinch plasmas towards fusion conditions. The experiment will be supported by high fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Initial plans are in place for a pulsed fusion reactor following the results of FuZE. Notably, the design relies on proven commercial technologies, including a modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40 kV), and liquid metal electrodes. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  19. Non-contact optoacoustic imaging by raster scanning a piezoelectric air-coupled transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Pang, Genny A.; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Optoacoustic techniques rely on ultrasound transmission between optical absorbers within tissues and the measurement location. Much like in echography, commonly used piezoelectric transducers require either direct contact with the tissue or through a liquid coupling medium. The contact nature of this detection approach then represents a disadvantage of standard optoacoustic systems with respect to other imaging modalities (including optical techniques) in applications where non-contact imaging is needed, e.g. in open surgeries or when burns or other lesions are present in the skin. Herein, non-contact optoacoustic imaging using raster-scanning of a spherically-focused piezoelectric air-coupled ultrasound transducer is demonstrated. When employing laser fluence levels not exceeding the maximal permissible human exposure, it is shown possible to attain detectable signals from objects as small as 1 mm having absorption properties representative of blood at near-infrared wavelengths with a relatively low number of averages. Optoacoustic images from vessel-mimicking tubes embedded in an agar phantom are further showcased. The initial results indicate that the air-coupled ultrasound detection approach can be potentially made suitable for non-contact biomedical imaging with optoacoustics.

  20. Analysis of the axisymmetric indentation of a semi-infinite piezoelectric material: The evaluation of the contact stiffness and the effective piezoelectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuqian

    2008-04-01

    A general solution of the axisymmetric indentation is obtained in the closed form for a semi-infinite, transverse isotropic piezoelectric material by a rigid-conducting indenter of arbitrary-axisymmetric profile. Explicit relationships are derived for dependences of the indentation depth and the indentation-induced charge on indentation force and applied electrical potential. Simple formulas are obtained for contact stiffness and effective piezoelectric constant, which can be used in indentation test and piezoresponse force microscopy to analyze the elastic and piezoelectric responses of piezoelectric materials. Depending on the direction of electric field (the potential difference), the electric field can either increase or suppress indentation deformation. The corresponding results are given for cylindrical, conical, and paraboloidal indenters.

  1. Quality Surveillance Project No. 38-- Mk 9 MC-97 and MC-98 Fuze Setting-Torque Test

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sandia Corporation Surveillance Department

    1954-08-01

    To determine the effects of stockpile storage on the torque required to set the functioning time on the MC-97 (Mechanical T-215 Time Fuze) and the MC-98 Mechanical T-220 Time Fuze). There were reports that the tool for setting the fuze time was breaking.

  2. Piezoelectric parametric effects on wave vibration and contact mechanics of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Shiyu; Xiu, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Elastic wave quality determines the operating performance of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUM). The time-variant circumferential force from the shrink of piezoelectric ceramic is one of the factors that distort the elastic wave. The distorted waveshape deviates from the ideal standard sinusoidal fashion and affects the contact mechanics and driving performance. An analytical dynamic model of ring ultrasonic motor is developed. Based on this model, the piezoelectric parametric effects on the wave distortion and contact mechanics are examined. Multi-scale method is employed to obtain unstable regions and distorted wave response. The unstable region is verified by Floquét theory. Since the waveshape affects the contact mechanism, a contact model involving the distorted waveshape and normal stiffness of the contact layer is established. The contact model is solved by numerical calculation. The results verify that the deformation of the contact layer deviates from sinusoidal waveshape and the pressure distribution is changed, which influences the output characteristics directly. The surface speed within the contact region is averaged such that the rotor speed decreases for lower torque and increases for larger torque. The effects from different parametric strengths, excitation frequencies and pre-pressures on pressure distribution and torque-speed relation are compared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Properties of Ti-6Al-4V spun formed fuze supports

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moody, N.R.; Gates, G.

    1985-05-01

    Spin forming is designated as the primary fabrication process for the Ti-6A1-4V, W-87 fuze support. This process reduces the amount of rough machining during production, the cost of the starting material and the lead time from order to delivery of finished parts compared with parts made from forgings. However, because the amount of deformation from the spin forming process varies greatly within the part, the properties resulting from spin forming the fuze supports are unknown. This study shows that the properties and microstructure of the highly deformed walls of the fuze support are similar to those of forgings, while themore » properties and microstructure of the lightly deformed nose are similar to those of the parent plate. A solution treatment at 1750/sup 0/F/1h/WQ (954/sup 0/C) followed by a 900/sup 0/F (482/sup 0/C) four hour age gives the desired properties. Additionally, microstructural evaluation shows that the temperatures during spin forming are maintained within desired limits and that no significant microstructural changes occur during subsequent elevated temperature processing of the finished part. This study shows that solution treated and aged parts meet all required properties for all conditions to which the fuze supports will be subjected.« less

  4. A Strain-Sonde Technique for the Measurement of Mechanical Time-Delay Fuze Function Times and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    AD IV) MEMORANDUM REPORT ARBRL-MR-03309 N(Supersedes IMR No. 760) A STRAIN -SONDE TECHNIQUE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL TIME- DELAY FUZE...and BkuWel) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A STRAIN -SONDE TECHNIQUE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF Final MECHANICAL TIME-DELAY FUZE FUNCTION TIMES AND S...nmber) M577 Mechanical Time-Delay Fuze F"/FM Telemeter Interlock Pin Release Semiconductor Strain Gage Rotor Signal Condition Amplifier Firing Pin In

  5. Failure analysis of fuze power supply

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Menke, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    Batteries in storage which were used in electronic fuzes were found to be leaking after 5 years. The leaking battery ampules were made of copper and contained mixture of fluoboric acid and methylene bromide. The corrosion mechanism is described along with the testing/analysis required to simulate the field failures.

  6. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    PubMed Central

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion. PMID:25097873

  7. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  8. Development of Simulation Techniques for the M739 and M577 Fuzes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AD-E401 166 CONTRACTOR RWRRT ARLCD-CR-84003 DEVELOPMENT OF SIMUILATION TECNQUES? FOR THE M739 , AND ýM577 FUZES GERARD G. LOWEN nvN-,qMA’qCSASSOCIAT04...DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE M739 Final AND M4577 FUZES May 1982 - December 1983 6. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(a) SI. CONTRACT...2 Variation of Escapement Center Distance on Number of Turns-to-Arm of the M739 S&A Mathematical Models of Clock Gear Train S&A 3 Forward Kinematics

  9. Analysis of base fuze functioning of HESH ammunitions through high-speed photographic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, T. K.

    2007-01-01

    High-speed photography plays a major role in a Test Range where the direct access is possible through imaging in order to understand a dynamic process thoroughly and both qualitative and quantitative data are obtained thereafter through image processing and analysis. In one of the trials it was difficult to understand the performance of HESH ammunitions on rolled homogeneous armour. There was no consistency in scab formation even though all other parameters like propellant charge mass, charge temperature, impact velocity etc are maintained constant. To understand the event thoroughly high-speed photography was deployed to have a frontal view of the total process. Clear information of shell impact, embedding of HE propellant on armour and base fuze initiation are obtained. In case of scab forming rounds these three processes are clearly observed in sequence. However in non-scab ones base fuze is initiated before the completion of the embedding process resulting non-availability of threshold thrust on to the armour to cause scab. This has been revealed in two rounds where there was a failure of scab formation. As a quantitative measure, fuze delay was calculated for each round and there after premature functioning of base fuze was ascertained in case of non-scab rounds. Such potency of high-speed photography has been depicted in details in this paper.

  10. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

  11. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  12. Modal analysis of a loaded tire with non-contact measurements and piezoelectric excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, Ipar; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    The complex nature of tires requires very precise test data to model the structure accurately. The highly damped characteristics, geometric features and operational conditions of tires cause various testing difficulties that affect the reliability of the modal testing. One of the biggest challenges of tire testing is exciting the whole tire at once. Conventionally, impact hammers, shakers, and cleats are used as an excitation input. The shortcomings of these excitation methods are the directional and force inconsistency of hammer impacts, coupled dynamics of shakers and speed limitations of cleat excitation. Other challenges of modal testing of tires are the effect of added mass due to sensor placements and difficulty of vibration measurement of a rotating tire with accelerometers. In order to remedy these problems, we conduct experimental modal analysis (EMA) using a non-contact measurement technique and piezoelectric excitation. For non-contact measurement, a 3-D scanning laser doppler vibrometer (SLDV) is used. For the piezoelectric excitation, Micro Fiber Composite (MFC) patches are used due to their flexible nature and power capacity. This excitation method can also be crucial to the excitation of rotating tires since the cleat excitation is not adequate for low-speed measurements. Furthermore, the piezoelectric actuation could be used as sensors as well as noise controllers in operating conditions. For this work, we run experiments for a loaded tire in non-rotating condition. Experiments are carried out for the frequency bandwidth up to 500Hz to capture the structural behavior under high-frequency excitations and its potential coupled behavior to airborne noise.

  13. Bi-stable frequency up-conversion piezoelectric energy harvester driven by non-contact magnetic repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q. C.; Yang, Y. L.; Li, Xinxin

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents miniaturized energy harvesters, where the frequency up-conversion technique is used to improve the bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. The proposed and developed miniature piezoelectric energy harvester utilizes magnetic repulsion forces to achieve non-contact frequency up-conversion, thereby avoiding mechanical collision and wear for long-term working durability. A pair of piezoelectric resonant cantilevers is micro-fabricated to generate electric power. A simplified model involving linear oscillators and magnetic interaction is deployed to demonstrate the feasibility of the device design. A bench-top harvester has been fabricated and characterized, resulting in average power generation of over 10 µW within a broad frequency range of 10-22 Hz under 1g acceleration.

  14. Design and development of FZU-32/B bomb fuze initiator. Final report 23 Jun 72--15 Nov 73

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miazza, J.

    1974-05-01

    The primary objective of this program was to develop a cost effective, production engineered FZU-24/B Bomb Fuze Initiator. The initiator is an electric generating device which, when installed in the fuze charging well of general purpose bombs, is capable of deriving energy from the airstream passing the bomb in free fall and converting the energy into electric energy suitable for powering a bomb fuze. The objective was to be accomplished by means of a production engineering effort carried through the evolution of design, fabrication, assembly, test, and evaluation. The baseline for the design was Harry Diamond Laboratories' Drawing No. 11716160.more » A quantity of 60 units was fabricated and tested, in accordance with the production engineered design. After some additional redesign to correct identified deficiencies, 220 units were fabricated. These units were subjected to environmental, wind tunnel, and flight testing and performance requirements were met. The final unit design was designated the FZU-32/B Bomb Fuze Initiator.« less

  15. Nanogenerator comprising piezoelectric semiconducting nanostructures and Schottky conductive contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong L. (Inventor); Zhou, Jun (Inventor); Wang, Xudong (Inventor); He, Jr-Hau (Inventor); Song, Jinhui (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A semiconducting device includes a substrate, a piezoelectric wire, a structure, a first electrode and a second electrode. The piezoelectric wire has a first end and an opposite second end and is disposed on the substrate. The structure causes the piezoelectric wire to bend in a predetermined manner between the first end and the second end so that the piezoelectric wire enters a first semiconducting state. The first electrode is coupled to the first end and the second electrode is coupled to the second end so that when the piezoelectric wire is in the first semiconducting state, an electrical characteristic will be exhibited between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  16. Overview of the FuZE Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.

    2017-10-01

    Successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD have motivated the new FuZE project to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results from the FuZE device are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  17. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  18. Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Fuze.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    8217This is to be expected, since the probes are near the axis of symmetry 08 (where the bow shock wave is most nearly normal) and, being Pitot probes ...that simulated altitudes from 15.2 Km to 21 Km. The fuze ogive was instrumented with both static and pitot pressure probes , from which the pressure data...insights into the flow. Because the bow shock wave is curved, the static-pressure on the-- .urface should decrease from avalue__ of the stagnation pressure

  19. Impact Sensors for Use with Electronic Fuzes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    corroborated the major features of a theoretical analysis. More work is needed to 10R. Wasser , Impact Switch Tests, US Naval Ordnance...might be more fruitful if more effort were expended on electro- mechanical systems. One principle that could be applied to such a l0R. Wasser ...Switches for Artillery Fuzes, Part I: Development, Harry Diamond Laboratories TM-72-18 (July 1972). (10) R. Wasser , Impact Switch TestP, US Naval

  20. Proximity fuze

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the lightmore » pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.« less

  1. Proximity fuze

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Harrison, T.R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal dependingmore » upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.« less

  2. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  3. Inertial Impact Switches for Artillery Fuzes. Part III. Rocket Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    INtWT.INiUUITO» iiTwar mN.coimcT Nom > i. minrtwotMutt. SLOTS IN END UP MO SCOVTOBCmUNC«ITH EMM OTMR WITHIN 10* SCCNOTC...ENGR LAB COMMANDER NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER WHITE OAK, MD 20910 ATTN CODE 043 , PROJ MGR, FUZES ATTN CODE 511, ATTN CODE 512, ATTN CODE 522

  4. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r<1 cm, and tstable >20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  5. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 8. Arming and fuzing component test

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Taslitt, N.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) determine whether the radiation from a nuclear weapon can disable various arming and fuzing components by causing permanent damage; (2) determine whether transient nuclear radiation can induce an operating fuze to malfunction; and (3) compare nuclear weapon radiation effects with those produced by various radiation simulators. Data obtained revealed that none of the inertial components were detrimentally affected. The electronic components were severely degraded but would have satisfactorily accomplished their tactical functions. No electromagnetic effects were detected.

  6. Stacked mechanical nanogenerator comprising piezoelectric semiconducting nanostructures and Schottky conductive contacts

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L [Marietta, GA; Xu, Sheng [Atlanta, GA

    2011-08-23

    An electric power generator includes a first conductive layer, a plurality of semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures, a second conductive layer and a plurality of conductive nanostructures. The first conductive layer has a first surface from which the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures extend. The second conductive layer has a second surface and is parallel to the first conductive layer so that the second surface faces the first surface of the first conductive layer. The conductive nanostructures depend downwardly therefrom. The second conductive layer is spaced apart from the first conductive layer at a distance so that when a force is applied, the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures engage the conductive nanostructures so that the piezoelectric nanostructures bend, thereby generating a potential difference across the at semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures and also thereby forming a Schottky barrier between the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures and the conductive nanostructures.

  7. Piezoelectric and dielectric characterization of corona and contact poled PZT-epoxy-MWCNT bulk composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Cook-Chennault, K. A.; Du, W.; Sundar, U.; Halim, H.; Tang, A.

    2016-11-01

    Three-phase lead zirconate titanate (PZT, PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3)-epoxy-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bulk composites were prepared, where the volume fraction of PZT was held constant at 30%, while the volume fraction of the MWCNTs was varied from 1.0%-10%. The samples were poled using either a parallel plate contact or contactless (corona) poling technique. The piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33), dielectric constant (ɛ), and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of the samples were measured at 110 Hz, and compared as a function of poling technique and volume fraction of MWCNTs. The highest values for dielectric constant and piezoelectric strain coefficients were 465.82 and 18.87 pC/N for MWCNT volume fractions of 10% and 6%, respectively. These values were obtained for samples that were poled using the corona contactless method. The impedance and dielectric spectra of the composites were recorded over a frequency range of 100 Hz-20 MHz. The impedance values observed for parallel-plate contact poled samples are higher than that of corona poled composites. The fractured surface morphology and distribution of the PZT particles and MWCNTs were observed with the aid of electron dispersion spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope. The surface morphology of the MWCNTs was observed with the aid of a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  8. Bearing Survivability and Friction Determination for Fuze Decoupling Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    three types of ball bearings. The revolutions per minute versus time plots acquired from spin-down trials provide a qualitative view of bearing...ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Dragon Bearing Team would like to thank Jason DeVenezia and Michael Hollis for their assistance in developing test fixtures...Optimized Navigation ( DRAGON ) program, the bearings would be used to decouple the fuze from the remainder of the body to mitigate drive actuation

  9. Detection of fuze defects by image-processing methods

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chung, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of the detection of mechanical defects by the application of computer-processing methods to real-time radiographic images of fuze assemblies. The experimental results confirm that a new algorithm developed at Materials Research Laboratory has potential for the automatic inspection of these assemblies and of others that contain discrete components. The algorithm was applied to images that contain a range of grey levels and has been found to be tolerant to image variations encountered under simulated production conditions.

  10. Modified M505A3 Fuze with Delay Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    forward initiation on the firing pin entrance hole to the rotor cavity. The triple staked detonator also functioned on the 0.063-inch target at 75... effectiveness of this projectile against aircraft targets by Incorporating a time delay which enables the projectile to penetrate the aircraft skin...prior to detonation. This effort required the design of modifications to the M505A3 fuze to achieve a delay function without modifying the rotor

  11. Development of an automated fuzing station for the future armored resupply vehicle

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chesser, J.B.; Jansen, J.F.; Lloyd, P.D.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army is developing the Advanced Field Artillery System (SGSD), a next generation armored howitzer. The Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV) will be its companion ammunition resupply vehicle. The FARV with automate the supply of ammunition and fuel to the AFAS which will increase capabilities over the current system. One of the functions being considered for automation is ammunition processing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing equipment to demonstrate automated ammunition processing. One of the key operations to be automated is fuzing. The projectiles are initially unfuzed, and a fuze must be inserted and threaded into the projectile asmore » part of the processing. A constraint on the design solution is that the ammunition cannot be modified to simplify automation. The problem was analyzed to determine the alignment requirements. Using the results of the analysis, ORNL designed, built, and tested a test stand to verify the selected design solution.« less

  12. A novel contact model of piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motors with the finite volume method.

    PubMed

    Renteria-Marquez, I A; Renteria-Marquez, A; Tseng, B T L

    2018-06-06

    The operating principle of the piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor is based on two energy conversion processes: the generation of the stator traveling wave and the rectification of the stator movement through the stator-rotor contact mechanism. This paper presents a methodology to model in detail the stator-rotor contact interface of these motors. A contact algorithm that couples a model of the stator which is discretized with the finite volume method and an analytical model of the rotor is presented. The outputs of the proposed model are the normal and tangential force distribution produced at the stator-rotor contact interface, contact length, height and shape of the stator traveling wave and rotor speed. The torque-speed characteristic of the USR60 is calculated with the proposed model, and the results of the model are compared versus the real torque-speed of the motor. A good agreement between the proposed model results and the torque-speed characteristic of the USR60 was observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground-echo characteristics for a ground-target pulse-Doppler radar fuze of high duty ratio

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Williams, C.S.

    1973-11-21

    From Tri-service electronic fuse symposium; Washington, District of Columbia, USA (26 Nov 1973). A pulse-Doppler radar fuze for use against ground targets at high burst heights can operate at low peak power provided a high duty ratio is used. The high duty ratio brings about ambiguous ground return that is prevented from firing the fuze by randomly coding the phase of the transmitted pulses. This causes the ambiguous return to appear as random noise. This paper provides formulas for the calculation of the clutter-noise power density and of the signal power so that the performance of the radar can bemore » determined. The paper also discusses the myth of decorrelation'' that is alleged to destroy the transmittedphase modulation in the echo and so make it useless. (auth)« less

  14. Critical energy for shock initiation of fuze train explosives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Walker, F.E.; Wasley, R.J.; Green, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    Results of shock initiation experiments conducted for tetryl and A-5 are presented, along with some data on the shock initiation of other explosives. The experiments were conducted using a gun system. An equation which has been useful in correlating these shock data is given. Some applications of the critical energy concept (represented by the above equation), to explosive train designs for NASA space systems are included. The concept's usefulness to DOD ordnance agencies now replacing tetryl in fuze trains with A-5 is also indicated. (auth)

  15. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of percolative three-phase piezoelectric polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Udhay

    Three-phase piezoelectric bulk composites were fabricated using a mix and cast method. The composites were comprised of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), aluminum (Al) and an epoxy matrix. The volume fraction of the PZT and Al were varied from 0.1 to 0.3 and 0.0 to 0.17, respectively. The influences of three entities on piezoelectric and dielectric properties: inclusion of an electrically conductive filler (Al), poling process (contact and Corona) and Al surface treatment, were observed. The piezoelectric strain coefficient, d33, effective dielectric constant, epsilon r, capacitance, C, and resistivity were measured and compared according to poling process, volume fraction of constituent phases and Al surface treatment. The maximum values of d33 were 3.475 and 1.0 pC/N for Corona and contact poled samples respectively, for samples with volume fractions of 0.40 and 0.13 of PZT and Al (surface treated) respectively. Also, the maximum dielectric constant for the surface treated Al samples was 411 for volume fractions of 0.40 and 0.13 for PZT and Al respectively. The percolation threshold was observed to occur at an Al volume fraction of 0.13. The composites achieved a percolated state for Al volume fractions >0.13 for both contact and corona poled samples. In addition, a comparative time study was conducted to examine the influence of surface treatment processing time of Al particles. The effectiveness of the surface treatment, sample morphology and composition was observed with the aid of SEM and EDS images. These images were correlated with piezoelectric and dielectric properties. PZT-epoxy-aluminum thick films (200 mum) were also fabricated using a two-step spin coat deposition and annealing method. The PZT volume fraction were varied from 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4, wherein the Aluminum volume fraction was varied from 0.1 to 0.17 for each PZT volume fraction, respectively. The two-step process included spin coating the first layer at 500 RPM for 30 seconds, and the second

  16. Method of Fabricating a Piezoelectric Composite Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats (Inventor); Bryant, Robert (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); High, James W. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Little, Bruce D. (Inventor); Mirick, Paul H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for fabricating a piezoelectric macro-fiber composite actuator comprises providing a piezoelectric material that has two sides and attaching one side upon an adhesive backing sheet. The method further comprises slicing the piezoelectric material to provide a plurality of piezoelectric fibers in juxtaposition. A conductive film is then adhesively bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material, and the adhesive backing sheet is removed. The conductive film has first and second conductive patterns formed thereon which are electrically isolated from one another and in electrical contact with the piezoelectric material. The first and second conductive patterns of the conductive film each have a plurality of electrodes to form a pattern of interdigitated electrodes. A second film is then bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material. The second film may have a pair of conductive patterns similar to the conductive patterns of the first film.

  17. Exploratory Development on an Electronic Safing and Arming Device for Ordnance Fuzing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    to the bridges. Two units were subjected to MIL-STD-331, Test 101, Jolt. The EBMs were placed in the S & A cavity of an M739 fuze body for this test...of the program was to explore a concept for a safe, reliable, general purpose, low cost, electronic, A ’ zsafing and arming ( S & A ) system for use in...breadboard model hardware of the electronic S & A device. The electronic S & A devicu consists of an explosive barrier moduls (EBM) explosive train

  18. Mapping piezoelectric response in nanomaterials using a dedicated non-destructive scanning probe technique.

    PubMed

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Smith, Michael; Datta, Anuja; Benisty, Hadas; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2017-12-14

    There has been tremendous interest in piezoelectricity at the nanoscale, for example in nanowires and nanofibers where piezoelectric properties may be enhanced or controllably tuned, thus necessitating robust characterization techniques of piezoelectric response in nanomaterials. Piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) is a well-established scanning probe technique routinely used to image piezoelectric/ferroelectric domains in thin films, however, its applicability to nanoscale objects is limited due to the requirement for physical contact with an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip that may cause dislocation or damage, particularly to soft materials, during scanning. Here we report a non-destructive PFM (ND-PFM) technique wherein the tip is oscillated into "discontinuous" contact during scanning, while applying an AC bias between tip and sample and extracting the piezoelectric response for each contact point by monitoring the resulting localized deformation at the AC frequency. ND-PFM is successfully applied to soft polymeric (poly-l-lactic acid) nanowires, as well as hard ceramic (barium zirconate titanate-barium calcium titanate) nanowires, both previously inaccessible by conventional PFM. Our ND-PFM technique is versatile and compatible with commercial AFMs, and can be used to correlate piezoelectric properties of nanomaterials with their microstructural features thus overcoming key characterisation challenges in the field.

  19. Non-bonded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Eoff, James M.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  20. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-11-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2~1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm2. Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves.

  1. Development of thermocouple generators for small-caliber munitions fuze. Phase I. Final report, 1 Feb--3 Sep 1974. [Aerodynamically heated thermoelectric converters to power rf proximity fuses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Eggers, P.E.

    1975-03-01

    An analytical study has been performed to assess the feasibility of using aerodynamically heated thermoelectric convertors to power RF proximity fuzes. The collective results of this study indicate that such a thermoelectric power supply is feasible for use with 20 mm projectiles and is compatible with the existing RF fuze circuit and safe arming distance requirements. A disc module concept has evolved from this study involving thin-film bismuth telluride as the basic thermoelectric element. Preliminary experimental studies were completed in order to identify principal parameters for the bismuth telluride.

  2. Piezoelectric energy harvester having planform-tapered interdigitated beams

    DOEpatents

    Kellogg, Rick A [Tijeras, NM; Sumali, Hartono [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-05-24

    Embodiments of energy harvesters have a plurality of piezoelectric planform-tapered, interdigitated cantilevered beams anchored to a common frame. The plurality of beams can be arranged as two or more sets of beams with each set sharing a common sense mass affixed to their free ends. Each set thus defined being capable of motion independent of any other set of beams. Each beam can comprise a unimorph or bimorph piezoelectric configuration bonded to a conductive or non-conductive supporting layer and provided with electrical contacts to the active piezoelectric elements for collecting strain induced charge (i.e. energy). The beams are planform tapered along the entirety or a portion of their length thereby increasing the effective stress level and power output of each piezoelectric element, and are interdigitated by sets to increase the power output per unit volume of a harvester thus produced.

  3. An elastography method based on the scanning contact resonance of a piezoelectric cantilever

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin, E-mail: lifaxin@pku.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most tissues may become significantly stiffer than their normal states when there are lesions inside. The tissue's modulus can then act as an identification parameter for clinic diagnosis of tumors or fibrosis, which leads to elastography. This study introduces a novel elastography method that can be used for modulus imaging of superficial organs. Methods: This method is based on the scanning contact-resonance of a unimorph piezoelectric cantilever. The cantilever vibrates in its bending mode with the tip pressed tightly on the sample. The contact resonance frequency of the cantilever-sample system is tracked at each scanning point, from which themore » sample's modulus can be derived based on a beam dynamic model and a contact mechanics model. Scanning is performed by a three-dimensional motorized stage and the whole system is controlled by a homemade software program based on LabVIEW. Results: Testing onin vitro beef tissues indicates that the fat and the muscle can be easily distinguished using this system, and the accuracy of the modulus measurement can be comparable with that of nanoindentation. Imaging on homemade gelatin phantoms shows that the depth information of the abnormalities can be qualitatively obtained by varying the pressing force. The detection limit of this elastography method is specially examined both experimentally and numerically. Results show that it can detect the typical lesions in superficial organs with the depth of several centimeters. The lateral resolution of this elastography method/system is better than 0.5 mm, and could be further enhanced by using more scanning points. Conclusions: The proposed elastography system can be regarded as a sensitive palpation robot, which may be very promising in early diagnosis of tumors in superficial organs such as breast and thyroid.« less

  4. Energetic Residues from Blow-in-Place Detonation of 60-mm and 120-mm Fuzed High-Explosive Mortar Cartridges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -0 8 -1 9 Energetic Residues from Blow-in-Place Detonation of 60-mm and 120-mm Fuzed High-Explosive Mortar Cartridges...Figure 4. Sample filtration setup. ............................................................................................................. 8 ...15 Table 8 . HE munitions BIP and live-fire detonation energetics residues data. .................................. 17 ERDC/CRREL TR-08

  5. Recommended Replacements for Tetryl in Australian Production Fuzes and Related Ordnance,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    RDX/AC629 as lead filling confirms comparable or better performance by RDX/AC629 on either of the RDX-based boosters. A -5 leads in Fuze M739 are... S . zinc stearate/graphite 98.0:1.25:0.5:0.25 Comparison: Debrix 18AS 120 1.496 a Extrapolated from data for 98.94:1.06 and 98.69:1.31 formulations...71P 8 1 ~ Aq CENEN on FO A R IAN L/I t A IF. I 4JrgALs RLj A ) R SF L. 6UN~cLASSIFIED -- IM DO AA - 14 F/G 19/1 NL . 1I.. EL6 ’ I lin MRL-R-.lO89 AR

  6. Electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvester excited by rotary magnetic plucking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y. C.; Chang, Y. P.; Wang, W. C.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is focuses on the development of a theoretical framework together with an experimental validation to investigate rotational piezoelectric energy harvesting. The proposed device includes an electrically rectified piezoelectric bimorph mounted on a stationary base with a magnet attached to its free end. Energy is harvested by vibration of beam induced by non-contact rotary magnetic plucking. The DC power frequency response is predicted and found to be in good agreement with experiment. It shows that the harvested DC power is around 1 mW in average with the rotational frequency ranging from 5 Hz to 14 Hz. In addition, the parallel connection of two piezoelectric oscillators with respective electrical rectification is considered. It is observed that the power output of the array is the addition of the response from each individual piezoelectric oscillator.

  7. Prototype Automated Equipment to Perform Poising and Beat Rate Operations on the M577 MTSQ Fuze.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-30

    Regulation Machine which sets the M577 Fuze Timer beat rate and the Automatic Poising Machine which J dynamically balances the Timer balance wheel...in trouble shooting., The Automatic Poising Machine Figure 3 which inspects and corrects the dynamic I balance of the Balance Wheel Assembly was...machine is intimately related to the fastening method of the wire to the Timer at one end and the Balance Wheel at the other, a review of the history

  8. Improved Multiple-DOF SAW Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hull, Anthony; Wright, John

    2003-01-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) piezoelectric motors of a proposed type would be capable of operating in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) simultaneously and would be amenable to integration into diverse structures and mechanisms. These motors would be compact and structurally simple and would not contain bearings or lead screws. One example of a particularly useful motor of this type would be a two-dimensional- translation stage. Another such example would be a self-actuated spherical joint that could be made to undergo controlled, simultaneous rotations about two orthogonal axes: Such a motor could serve as a mechanism for aiming an "eyeball" camera or as a compact transducer in, and an integral part of, a joint in a robot arm. The multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors as now proposed would be successors to the ones reported in "Multiple-DOF Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Motors" (NPO-20735), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 5b. The basic principle of operation of a multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motor is a straightforward extension of that of single-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors, which have been reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: For example, in the case of a linear SAW piezoelectric motor, piezoelectric transducers at opposite ends of a stator excite surface acoustic waves that travel along the surface of the stator. An object (denoted the slider) is pressed against the stator with sufficient pressure (in practice .300 MPa) that it remains in frictional contact with the stator at all times. The slider rides the crests of the waves and is thereby made to move along the surface of the stator. The direction of motion (forward or backward) is controlled by selecting the relative phase of waves generated by the two piezoelectric transducers. The speed increases with the amplitude of the waves and thus with the magnitude of the voltage applied to the transducers.

  9. Analysis of a disk-type piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using impedance matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young H; Ha, Sung K

    2003-12-01

    The dynamic behavior and the performance characteristics of the disk-type traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motors (USM) are analyzed using impedance matrices. The stator is divided into three coupled subsystems: an inner metal disk, a piezoelectric annular actuator with segmented electrodes, and an outer metal disk with teeth. The effects of both shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in deriving an impedance matrix for the piezoelectric actuator. The impedance matrices for each subsystem then are combined into a global impedance matrix using continuity conditions at the interfaces. A comparison is made between the impedance matrix model and the three-dimensional finite element model of the piezoelectric stator, obtaining the resonance and antiresonance frequencies and the effective electromechanical coupling factors versus circumferential mode numbers. Using the calculated resonance frequency and the vibration modes for the stator and a brush model with the Coulomb friction for the stator and rotor contact, stall torque, and no-load speed versus excitation frequencies are calculated at different preloads. Performance characteristics such as speed-torque curve and the output efficiency of the USM also are estimated using the current impedance matrix and the contact model. The present impedance model can be shown to be very effective in the design of the USM.

  10. A users' manual for MCPRAM (Monte Carlo PReprocessor for AMEER) and for the fuze options in AMEER (Aero Mechanical Equation Evaluation Routines)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    LaFarge, R.A.

    1990-05-01

    MCPRAM (Monte Carlo PReprocessor for AMEER), a computer program that uses Monte Carlo techniques to create an input file for the AMEER trajectory code, has been developed for the Sandia National Laboratories VAX and Cray computers. Users can select the number of trajectories to compute, which AMEER variables to investigate, and the type of probability distribution for each variable. Any legal AMEER input variable can be investigated anywhere in the input run stream with either a normal, uniform, or Rayleigh distribution. Users also have the option to use covariance matrices for the investigation of certain correlated variables such as boostermore » pre-reentry errors and wind, axial force, and atmospheric models. In conjunction with MCPRAM, AMEER was modified to include the variables introduced by the covariance matrices and to include provisions for six types of fuze models. The new fuze models and the new AMEER variables are described in this report.« less

  11. Plant Equipment Package Modernization Program. Volume 4-1. Model Lines. Shell, HE, M483/M107-155MM Case, Cartridge, M115B1, M148A1B1, M150B1-105MM Shell, HEAT-T, M456A1-105MM Fuze, PD, M739

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Cartridge, M115B1, M148A1B1, M15#1B1-15MM J .. Shell, HEAT-T, M456A1-105MM Fuze, PD, M739 # prepared for Project Manager Munitions Production Base...ENGINEERS PLANT EQUIPMENT PACKAGE MODERNIZATION PROGRAM Volume 4-1 Report No. 75-86-R-4- MODEL LINE DEVELOPMENT FUZE,PD, M739 prepared for Project...In preparing the model line for the manufacture of piece parts for the M739 fuze, a number of facts became obvious and affect the detailed de- [ sign

  12. Investigation of small transverse electric CO/sub 2/ waveguide lasers for fuzing applications. Contractor report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hochuli, U.; McGuire, D.

    1982-10-01

    The properties of a compact, transversely excited, pulsed CO/sub 2/ waveguide laser are studied experimentally with the application of such a laser for an optical fuze transmitter in mind. Such parameters as peak power, pulse width, pulse shape, pulse jitter, repetition rate, beam profile, polarization, laser life, and optimum as mixture are investigated both for 10.6 and 9.6 micron output wavelengths, and for both sealed-off and flowing-gas operation of the laser. A computer simulation of the laser's operation is compared with the experimental results.

  13. An improved method for piezoelectric characterization of polymers for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarova, E.; Gusarov, B.; Zakharov, D.; Bousquet, M.; Viala, B.; Cugat, O.; Delamare, J.; Gimeno, L.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an improved method for measuring the direct piezoelectric voltage and energy of flexible polymers. Well-controlled stress is applied with a four-point bending system and voltage is measured in real open-circuit conditions. The presented method separates the piezoelectric part from the measurement part by introducing a mechanical switch, allowing instantaneous post-deformation discharge measurements. Oscilloscope and contact-less electrostatic voltmeter are compared. Direct piezoelectric measurements under open-circuit conditions have been performed on commercial PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and its copolymers. Significant differences to data sheet values (close-circuit conditions) are reported and commented.

  14. A small, linear, piezoelectric ultrasonic cryomotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Yan, Li; Wang, Naigang; Viehland, Dwight; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul; Hackenberger, Wes

    2005-01-01

    A small, linear-type, piezoelectric ultrasonic cryomotor has been developed for precision positioning at extremely low temperatures (⩾-200°C). This cryomotor consists of a pair of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal stacks, which are piezoelectrically excited into the rotating third-bending mode of the cryomotor stator's center, which in turn drives a contacted slider into linear motion via frictional forces. The performance characteristics achieved by the cryomotor are: (i) a maximum linear speed of >50mm /s; (ii) a stroke of >10mm; (iii) a driving force of >0.2N; (iv) a response time of ˜29ms; and (v) a step resolution of ˜20nm.

  15. Validation of a hybrid electromagnetic-piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Bryn; Hu, Patrick A.; Aw, Kean C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a low frequency vibration energy harvester with contact based frequency up-conversion and hybrid electromagnetic-piezoelectric transduction. An electromagnetic generator is proposed as a power source for low power wearable electronic devices, while a second piezoelectric generator is investigated as a potential power source for a power conditioning circuit for the electromagnetic transducer output. Simulations and experiments are conducted in order to verify the behaviour of the device under harmonic as well as wide-band excitations across two key design parameters—the length of the piezoelectric beam and the excitation frequency. Experimental results demonstrated that the device achieved a power output between 25.5 and 34 μW at an root mean squared (rms) voltage level between 16 and 18.5 mV for the electromagnetic transducer in the excitation frequency range of 3-7 Hz, while the output power of the piezoelectric transducer ranged from 5 to 10.5 μW with a minimum peak-to-peak output voltage of 6 V. A multivariate model validation was performed between experimental and simulation results under wide-band excitation in terms of the rms voltage outputs of the electromagnetic and piezoelectric transducers, as well as the peak-to-peak voltage output of the piezoelectric transducer, and it is found that the experimental data fit the model predictions with a minimum probability of 63.4% across the parameter space.

  16. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  17. Improvement of Piezoelectricity in Piezoelectric Paper Made With Cellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    Cellulose microfibril has ordered crystalline regions and disordered regions. b. EAPap is made from cellulose paper on which gold electrodes are...Final Report: AOARD-084035 Improvement of Piezoelectricity in Piezoelectric Paper made with Cellulose •Prof. Jaehwan Kim Center for EAPap...webpage: www.EAPap.com ABSTRACT This report deals with the improvement of piezoelectricity in the piezoelectric paper made with cellulose

  18. Elastomer degradation sensor using a piezoelectric material

    DOEpatents

    Olness, Dolores U.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring the degradation of elastomeric materials is provided. Piezoelectric oscillators are placed in contact with the elastomeric material so that a forced harmonic oscillator with damping is formed. The piezoelectric material is connected to an oscillator circuit,. A parameter such as the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q value of the oscillating system is related to the elasticity of the elastomeric material. Degradation of the elastomeric material causes changes in its elasticity which, in turn, causes the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q of the oscillator to change. These changes are monitored with a peak height monitor, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyzer, or other measurement circuit. Elasticity of elastomers can be monitored in situ, using miniaturized sensors.

  19. A double B1-mode 4-layer laminated piezoelectric linear motor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2012-12-01

    We report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor that is made of four Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layers for low-voltage work. The 4-layer piezoelectric laminate works in two orthogonal first-bending modes for producing elliptical oscillations, which are then used to drive a contacting slider into continuous linear motion. Experimental results show that the miniature linear motor (size: 4 × 4 × 12 mm, weight: 1.7 g) can generate a large driving force of 0.48 N and a linear motion speed of up to 160 mm/s, using a 40 V(pp)/mm voltage drive at its resonance frequency of 64.5 kHz. The maximum efficiency of the linear motor is 30%.

  20. Experimental verification of distributed piezoelectric actuators for use in precision space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, E. F.; De Luis, J.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic model for structures with distributed piezoelectric actuators is experimentally verified for the cases of both surface-bonded and embedded actuators. A technique for the selection of such piezoelectric actuators' location has been developed, and is noted to indicate that segmented actuators are always more effective than continuous ones, since the output of each can be individually controlled. Manufacturing techniques for the bonding or embedding of segmented piezoelectric actuators are also developed which allow independent electrical contact to be made with each actuator. Static tests have been conducted to determine how the elastic properties of the composite are affected by the presence of an embedded actuator, for the case of glass/epoxy laminates.

  1. Piezoelectric valve

    DOEpatents

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  2. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  3. Signal-processing analysis of the MC2823 radar fuze: an addendum concerning clutter effects

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jelinek, D.A.

    1978-07-01

    A detailed analysis of the signal processing of the MC2823 radar fuze was published by Thompson in 1976 which enabled the computation of dud probability versus signal-to-noise ratio where the noise was receiver noise. An addendum to Thompson's work was published by Williams in 1978 that modified the weighting function used by Thompson. The analysis presented herein extends the work of Thompson to include the effects of clutter (the non-signal portion of the echo from a terrain) using the new weighting function. This extension enables computation of dud probability versus signal-to-total-noise ratio where total noise is the sum of themore » receiver-noise power and the clutter power.« less

  4. One-Step Solvent Evaporation-Assisted 3D Printing of Piezoelectric PVDF Nanocomposite Structures.

    PubMed

    Bodkhe, Sampada; Turcot, Gabrielle; Gosselin, Frederick P; Therriault, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Development of a 3D printable material system possessing inherent piezoelectric properties to fabricate integrable sensors in a single-step printing process without poling is of importance to the creation of a wide variety of smart structures. Here, we study the effect of addition of barium titanate nanoparticles in nucleating piezoelectric β-polymorph in 3D printable polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and fabrication of the layer-by-layer and self-supporting piezoelectric structures on a micro- to millimeter scale by solvent evaporation-assisted 3D printing at room temperature. The nanocomposite formulation obtained after a comprehensive investigation of composition and processing techniques possesses a piezoelectric coefficient, d 31 , of 18 pC N -1 , which is comparable to that of typical poled and stretched commercial PVDF film sensors. A 3D contact sensor that generates up to 4 V upon gentle finger taps demonstrates the efficacy of the fabrication technique. Our one-step 3D printing of piezoelectric nanocomposites can form ready-to-use, complex-shaped, flexible, and lightweight piezoelectric devices. When combined with other 3D printable materials, they could serve as stand-alone or embedded sensors in aerospace, biomedicine, and robotic applications.

  5. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  6. Modeling of a rotary motor driven by an anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M L; Lee, S R; Zhang, T Y; Tong, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical model of a rotary motor driven by an anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate. The driving element of the motor is a three-layer laminated plate. A piezoelectric layer is sandwiched between two anti-symmetric composite laminae. Because of the material anisotropy and the anti-symmetric configuration, torsional vibration can be induced through the inplane strain actuated by the piezoelectric layer. The advantages of the motor are its magnetic field immunity, simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, and good low-speed performance. In this paper, the motor is considered to be a coupled dynamic system. The analytical model includes the longitudinal and torsional vibrations of the laminate and the rotating motion of the rotor under action of contact forces. The analytical model can predict the overall characteristics of the motor, including the modal frequency and the response of motion of the laminate, the rotating speed of the rotor, the input power, the output power, and the efficiency of the motor. The effects of the initial compressive force, the applied voltage, the moment of rotor inertia, and the frictional coefficient of the contact interface on the characteristics of the motor are simulated and discussed. A selection of the numerical results from the analytical model is confirmed by experimental data.

  7. A piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  8. Design and experiments of a linear piezoelectric motor driven by a single mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang; Fu, Qianwei

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we propose a novel linear piezoelectric motor with a compact stator that is driven by a single mode. The linear piezoelectric motor can realize bidirectional motion by changing the vibration modes of the stator. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the required vibration mode of the stator and obtain the optimal stator structure and dimensions. Furthermore, the trajectories of the driving foot are analyzed with and without consideration of the mechanical contact with the slider. It is shown that the trajectory of the driving foot is an oblique line when disregarding the contact, and the trajectory becomes an oblique ellipse while taking into account the contact. Finally, a prototype of the motor is fabricated based on the results of finite element analysis. The optimization results show that the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 4.0 kg, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 33.3, maximum unloaded velocity of 385 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-B, and maximum unloaded velocity of 315 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-L.

  9. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOEpatents

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  10. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  11. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  12. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  13. Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio greater than unity, whereas the maximum power when the PUC was connected to a resistor for immediate power consumption occurred at a unity nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio. PMID:21200444

  14. Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2010-12-06

    We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio greater than unity, whereas the maximum power when the PUC was connected to a resistor for immediate power consumption occurred at a unity nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio.

  15. Computational Modeling of Piezoelectric Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challagulla, K. S.; Venkatesh, T. A.

    2013-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials, by virtue of their unique electromechanical characteristics, have been recognized for their potential utility in many applications as sensors and actuators. However, the sensing or actuating functionality of monolithic piezoelectric materials is generally limited. The composite approach to piezoelectric materials provides a unique opportunity to access a new design space with optimal mechanical and coupled characteristics. The properties of monolithic piezoelectric materials can be enhanced via the additive approach by adding two or more constituents to create several types of piezoelectric composites or via the subtractive approach by introducing controlled porosity in the matrix materials to create porous piezoelectric materials. Such porous piezoelectrics can be tailored to demonstrate improved signal-to-noise ratio, impedance matching, and sensitivity, and thus, they can be optimized for applications such as hydrophone devices. This article captures key results from the recent developments in the field of computational modeling of novel piezoelectric foam structures. It is demonstrated that the fundamental elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric foam are strongly dependent on the internal structure of the foams and the material volume fraction. The highest piezoelectric coupling constants and the highest acoustic impedance are obtained in the [3-3] interconnect-free piezoelectric foam structures, while the corresponding figures of merit for the [3-1] type long-porous structure are marginally higher. Among the [3-3] type foam structures, the sparsely-packed foam structures (with longer and thicker interconnects) display higher coupling constants and acoustic impedance as compared to closepacked foam structures (with shorter and thinner interconnects). The piezoelectric charge coefficients ( d h), the hydrostatic voltage coefficients ( g h), and the hydrostatic figures of merit ( d hgh) are observed to be

  16. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  17. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-05-13

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V(-1). We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  18. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana,; Charles, P [Leawood, KS

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  19. L-shaped piezoelectric motor--part I: design and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an L-shaped piezoelectric motor consisting of two piezoelectric bimorphs of different lengths arranged perpendicularly to each other. The coupling of the bending vibration mode of the bimorphs results in an elliptical motion at the tip. A detailed finite element model was developed to optimize the dimensions of bimorph to achieve an effective coupling at the resonance frequency of 246 Hz. The motor was characterized by developing rotational and linear stages. The linear stage was tested with different friction contact surfaces and the maximum velocity was measured to be 12 mm/s. The rotational stage was used to obtain additional performance characteristics from the motor: maximum velocity of 120 rad/s, mechanical torque of 4.7 × 10-(5) N·m, and efficiency of 8.55%. © 2012 IEEE

  20. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dongyu, Xu; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208; Xin, Cheng

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction ofmore » piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.« less

  1. Wave propagation through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fengyu; Wei, Peijun; Li, Yueqiu

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and transmission of plane waves through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces are studied in this paper. The secular equations in the flexoelectric piezoelectric material are first derived from the general governing equation. Different from the classical piezoelectric medium, there are five kinds of coupled elastic waves in the piezoelectric material with the microstructure effects taken into consideration. The state vectors are obtained by the summation of contributions from all possible partial waves. The state transfer equation of flexoelectric piezoelectric slab is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order, and the transfer matrix of flexoelectric piezoelectric slab is obtained by solving the state transfer equation. By using the continuous conditions at the interface and the approach of partition matrix, we get the resultant algebraic equations in term of the transfer matrix from which the reflection and transmission coefficients can be calculated. The amplitude ratios and further the energy flux ratios of various waves are evaluated numerically. The numerical results are shown graphically and are validated by the energy conservation law. Based on these numerical results, the influences of two characteristic lengths of microstructure and the flexoelectric coefficients on the wave propagation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) vibration sensor for stethoscope and contact microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Minoru; Thompson, Mitchell

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a new type of contact vibration sensor made by bonding piezoelectric PVDF film to a curved frame structure. The concave surface of the film is bonded to a rubber piece having a front contact face. Vibration is transmitted from this face through the rubber to the surface of the PVDF film. Pressure normal to the surface of the film is converted to circumferential strain, and an electric field is induced by the piezoelectric effect. The frequency response of the device was measured using an accelerometer mounted between the rubber face and a rigid vibration exciter plate. Sensitivity (voltage per unit displacement) was deduced from the device output and measured acceleration. The sensitivity was flat from 16 Hz to 3 kHz, peaking at 6 kHz due to a structural resonance. Calculations predicting performance against human tissue (stethoscope or contact microphone) show results similar to data measured against the metal vibrator. This implies that an accelerometer can be used for calibrating a stethoscope or contact microphone. The observed arterial pulse waveform showed more low-frequency content than a conventional electronic stethoscope.

  3. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Redondo, Antonio

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  4. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Li, Shan-Chien; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS). A new integration of print circuit board (PCB) technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG) concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  5. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-06-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  6. Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.

  7. Design Requirements for Amorphous Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Harrison, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the piezoelectric activity in amorphous piezoelectric polymers is presented. The criteria required to render a polymer piezoelectric are discussed. Although piezoelectricity is a coupling between mechanical and electrical properties, most research has concentrated on the electrical properties of potentially piezoelectric polymers. In this work, we present comparative mechanical data as a function of temperature and offer a summary of polarization and electromechanical properties for each of the polymers considered.

  8. Computer Simulation of Artillery S&A Mechanism (Involute Gear Train and Straight-Sided Verge Runaway Escapement)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Contin~ue an reverse aide It neoocemry and Identity by block number) Gear train S&A mechanism M739 fuze...as in the escapement. A simulation run with the dimensions of the M739 safing and arming mechanism showed excellent agreament with experimental...well as all non-impact contact forces. This program was extensively tested for the configuration no. 2 data (fig. 2) of the M739 fuze S&A mechanism

  9. Experiments to demonstrate piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Jiří

    2013-07-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature change. The direct piezoelectric effect is demonstrated by the electric charge generated from the bending of the piezoelectric ceramic membrane or from the gas igniter. The converse piezoelectric effect is presented in the experiments by the deflection of the bending piezoelectric element (piezoelectric bimorph).

  10. A fully wafer-level packaged RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage using a piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Hee-Chul; Park, Yong-Hee; Kim, Yong-Dae; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Bu, Jonguk; Nam, Hyo-Jin

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, a fully wafer-level packaged RF MEMS switch has been demonstrated, which has low operation voltage, using a piezoelectric actuator. The piezoelectric actuator was designed to operate at low actuation voltage for application to advanced mobile handsets. The dc contact type RF switch was packaged using the wafer-level bonding process. The CPW transmission lines and piezoelectric actuators have been fabricated on separate wafers and assembled together by the wafer-level eutectic bonding process. A gold and tin composite was used for eutectic bonding at a low temperature of 300 °C. Via holes interconnecting the electrical contact pads through the wafer were filled completely with electroplated copper. The fully wafer-level packaged RF MEMS switch showed an insertion loss of 0.63 dB and an isolation of 26.4 dB at 5 GHz. The actuation voltage of the switch was 5 V. The resonant frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was 38.4 kHz and the spring constant of the actuator was calculated to be 9.6 N m-1. The size of the packaged SPST (single-pole single-through) switch was 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm including the packaging sealing rim. The effect of the proposed package structure on the RF performance was characterized with a device having CPW through lines and vertical feed lines excluding the RF switches. The measured packaging loss was 0.2 dB and the return loss was 33.6 dB at 5 GHz.

  11. Design, Simulation and Experimental Evaluation of Tri-Phasic Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamez, Juan Pedro

    -phasic transducer to improve the Figures of Merit (FOM) for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. iv. Explore the performance of the diphasic and tri-phasic transducer for energy harvesting applications. v. Perform analysis and quantification of the transducers in a laboratory environment to analyze their performance for Non-Destructive Testing (NDE) using pulse echo acoustics and Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) measurements. The findings of this research are reported in this dissertation indicate that the measured piezoelectric properties of the fabricated tri-phasic transducers are in good agreement with those of the predicted designs. The simulation of the designed transducer has acoustic energy channeled in the d33 mode at resonance, with weak or no shear mode cross talk behavior from the other modes. The mechanical displacements measured were large and highly aligned along polar direction consistent with d33 mode. This implies that multiphasic piezoelectric transducer performs as a single device with improved mechanical and electrical response for sensing, actuation or single device transducer applications. Testing in a laboratory environment demonstrated that they can be highly useful for both the contact and air coupled noncontact Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive testing (NDT) applications.

  12. Parameter study and optimization for piezoelectric energy harvester for TPMS considering speed variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toghi Eshghi, Amin; Lee, Soobum; Lee, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we perform design parameter study and design optimization for a piezoelectric energy harvester considering vehicle speed variation. Initially, a FEM model using ANSYS is developed to appraise the performance of a piezoelectric harvester in a rotating tire. The energy harvester proposed here uses the vertical deformation at contact patch area from the car weight and centrifugal acceleration. This harvester is composed of a beam which is clamped at both ends and a piezoelectric material is attached on the top of that. The piezoelectric material possesses the 31 mode of transduction in which the direction of applied field is perpendicular to that of the electric field. To optimize the harvester performance, we would change the geometrical parameters of the harvester to obtain the maximum power. One of the main challenges in the design process is obtaining the required power while considering the constraints for harvester weight and volume. These two concerns are addressed in this paper. Since the final goal of this study is the development of an energy harvester with a wireless sensor system installed in a real car, the real time data for varied velocity of a vehicle are taken into account for power measurements. This study concludes that the proposed design is applicable to wireless tire sensor systems.

  13. Piezoelectric potential gated field-effect transistor based on a free-standing ZnO wire.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Zhou, Jun; Xu, Sheng; Gao, Yifan; Song, Jinhui; Gu, Yudong; Huang, Yanyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-10-01

    We report an external force triggered field-effect transistor based on a free-standing piezoelectric fine wire (PFW). The device consists of an Ag source electrode and an Au drain electrode at two ends of a ZnO PFW, which were separated by an insulating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The working principle of the sensor is proposed based on the piezoelectric potential gating effect. Once subjected to a mechanical impact, the bent ZnO PFW cantilever creates a piezoelectric potential distribution across it width at its root and simultaneously produces a local reverse depletion layer with much higher donor concentration than normal, which can dramatically change the current flowing from the source electrode to drain electrode when the device is under a fixed voltage bias. Due to the free-standing structure of the sensor device, it has a prompt response time less than 20 ms and quite high and stable sensitivity of 2%/microN. The effect from contact resistance has been ruled out.

  14. Fabrication and characteristics of thin disc piezoelectric transformers based on piezoelectric buzzers with gap circles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Tsai; Lee, Chun-Wei

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates design, fabrication and test of thin disc piezoelectric transformers (PTs) based on piezoelectric buzzers with gap circles at different diameters of the gap circles. The performance test is focused on characteristics of voltage gains, including maximum voltage gains and maximum-gain frequencies, for each piezoelectric transformer under different load conditions. Both a piezoelectric buzzer and a gap circle on a silver electrode of the buzzer are needed to build any type of the PTs. Here, the gap circle is used to form a ring-shaped input electrode and a circle-shaped output electrode for each piezoelectric transformer. To do so, both structure and connection of a PT are first expressed. Then, operating principle of a PT and its related vibration mode observed by a carbon-power imaging technique are described. Moreover, an experimental setup for characterizing each piezoelectric transformer is constructed. Finally, effects of diameters of the gap circles on characteristics of voltage gains at different load resistances are discussed.

  15. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor); Vipperman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cole, Daniel G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm implemented in digital or analog form is used in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier to compensate for the feedthrough capacitance of piezoelectric sensoriactuator. The mechanical response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator is resolved from the electrical response by adaptively altering the gain imposed on the electrical circuit used for compensation. For wideband, stochastic input disturbances, the feedthrough capacitance of the sensoriactuator can be identified on-line, providing a means of implementing direct-rate-feedback control in analog hardware. The device is capable of on-line system health monitoring since a quasi-stable dynamic capacitance is indicative of sustained health of the piezoelectric element.

  16. Torsion sensing based on patterned piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of piezoelectric beams under torsional loads. We used partially patterned piezoelectric beams to sense torsion. In particular, the piezoelectric patches are located symmetrically with respect to the line of the shear center of the beam. The patterned piezoelectric beam is modeled as a slender beam, and its electrical responses are obtained by piezoelectric electromechanical equations. To validate the modeling framework, experiments are performed using a setup that forces pure torsional deformation. Three different geometric configurations of the patterned piezoelectric layer are used for the experiments. The frequency and amplitude of the forced torsional load are systematically varied in order to study the behavior of the piezoelectric sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that two voltage outputs of the piezoelectric beam are approximately out of phase with identical amplitude. Moreover, the length of the piezoelectric layers has a significant influence on the sensing properties. Our theoretical predictions using the model support the experimental findings.

  17. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  18. A piezoelectric shock-loading response simulator for piezoelectric-based device developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Feng, Z.

    2017-04-01

    Pulsed loading of piezoelectric transducers occurs in many applications, such as those in munitions firing, or when a mechanical system is subjected to impact type loading. In this paper, an electronic simulator that can be programmed to generate electrical charges that a piezoelectric transducer generates as it is subjected to various shock loading profiles is presented. The piezoelectric output simulator can provide close to realistic outputs so that the circuit designer can use it to test the developed system under close to realistic conditions without the need for the costly and time consuming process of performing actual tests. The design of the electronic simulator and results of its testing are presented.

  19. A nanoscale piezoelectric transformer for low-voltage transistors.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sapan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-11-12

    A novel piezoelectric voltage transformer for low-voltage transistors is proposed. Placing a piezoelectric transformer on the gate of a field-effect transistor results in the piezoelectric transformer field-effect transistor that can switch at significantly lower voltages than a conventional transistor. The piezoelectric transformer operates by using one piezoelectric to squeeze another piezoelectric to generate a higher output voltage than the input voltage. Multiple piezoelectrics can be used to squeeze a single piezoelectric layer to generate an even higher voltage amplification. Coupled electrical and mechanical modeling in COMSOL predicts a 12.5× voltage amplification for a six-layer piezoelectric transformer. This would lead to more than a 150× reduction in the power needed for communications.

  20. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  1. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  2. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.

  3. A novel vibration measurement and active control method for a hinged flexible two-connected piezoelectric plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Xian-feng; Zhang, Xian-Min; Liu, Jin-guo

    2018-07-01

    A novel non-contact vibration measurement method using binocular vision sensors is proposed for piezoelectric flexible hinged plate. Decoupling methods of the bending and torsional low frequency vibration on measurement and driving control are investigated, using binocular vision sensors and piezoelectric actuators. A radial basis function neural network controller (RBFNNC) is designed to suppress both the larger and the smaller amplitude vibrations. To verify the non-contact measurement method and the designed controller, an experimental setup of the flexible hinged plate with binocular vision is constructed. Experiments on vibration measurement and control are conducted by using binocular vision sensors and the designed RBFNNC controllers, compared with the classical proportional and derivative (PD) control algorithm. The experimental measurement results demonstrate that the binocular vision sensors can detect the low-frequency bending and torsional vibration effectively. Furthermore, the designed RBF can suppress the bending vibration more quickly than the designed PD controller owing to the adjustment of the RBF control, especially for the small amplitude residual vibrations.

  4. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  5. Advanced Analog Signal Processing for Fuzing Final Report CRADA No. TC-1306-96

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fu, C. Y.; Spencer, D.

    The purpose of this CRADA between LLNL and Kaman Aerospace/Raymond Engineering Operations (Raymond) was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Analog/Digital Neural Network (ANN) Technology for advanced signal processing, fuzing, and other applications. This cooperation sought to Ieverage the expertise and capabilities of both parties--Raymond to develop the signature recognition hardware system, using Raymond’s extensive experience in the area of system development plus Raymond’s knowledge of military applications, and LLNL to apply ANN and related technologies to an area of significant interest to the United States government. This CRADA effort was anticipated to be a three-year project consisting of threemore » phases: Phase I, Proof-of-Principle Demonstration; Phase II, Proof-of-Design, involving the development of a form-factored integrated sensor and ANN technology processo~ and Phase III, Final Design and Release of the integrated sensor and ANN fabrication process: Under Phase I, to be conducted during calendar year 1996, Raymond was to deliver to LLNL an architecture (design) for an ANN chip. LLNL was to translate the design into a stepper mask and to produce and test a prototype chip from the Raymond design.« less

  6. Frequency Rectification Applied to Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting and Improving Available Power of Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuaki; LCGT Collaboration

    Piezoelectric materials are just now, within the last decade, coming into their own as a commercial material. Capable of converting energy from the mechanical domain to the electrical domain; piezos are ideal sensors, vibration dampers, energy harvesters, and actuators. Frequency rectification, or the conversion of small, high frequency piezoelectric vibrations into useful low frequency actuation, is required to obtain widespread industrial use of piezoelectric devices. This work examines three manifestations of piezoelectric frequency rectification: energy harvesting, a hydraulic motor, and friction based commercial-off-the-shelf motors. An energy harvesting device is developed, manufactured, and tested in this work, resulting in the development of a high Energy Density (J/m 3), high Power Density (W/m3) energy harvester. The device is shown to have an Energy Density nearly twice that of a similar conventional energy harvesting device. The result of this work is the development of an energy harvesting system that generates more energy in a given volume of piezoelectric material, opening the possibility of miniaturization of energy harvesting devices. Also presented is an effort to integrate a high frequency, high flow rate micromachined valve array into a PiezoHydraulic Pump (PHP), enabling resonant operation of the PHP. Currently, the device is limited by the resonant frequency of the proprietary passive check valves. The PHP is fully characterized, and the microvalve array is tested to determine its resonant frequency in a fluid medium. The valve testing resulted in a resonant frequency of 6.9 kHz, slightly lower than the target operating frequency of 10 kHz. Finally, the results of an examination of frequency rectification as applied to COTS piezoelectric motors are presented. Currently, motors are almost universally characterized based upon their available mechanical power. A better comparison is one based upon the actual Energy Density of the piezoelectric

  7. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  8. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  9. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  10. Touching force response of the piezoelectric Braille cell.

    PubMed

    Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Kanjantoe, Jinda; Tandayya, Pichaya

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate dynamic responses of the piezoelectric Braille cell when it is subjected to both electrical signal and touching force. Physical behavior of the piezoelectric actuator inside the piezoelectric Braille cell is analyzed. The mathematical model of the piezoelectric Braille system is presented. Then, data of visually impaired people using a Braille Note is studied as design information and a reference input for calculation of the piezoelectric Braille response under the touching force. The results show dynamic responses of the piezoelectric Braille cell. The designed piezoelectric bimorph has a settling time of 0.15 second. The relationship between the Braille dot height and applied voltage is linear. The behavior of the piezoelectric Braille dot when it is touched during operation shows that the dot height is decreased as the force increases. The result provides understanding of the piezoelectric Braille cell behavior under both touching force and electrical excitation simultaneously. This is the important issue for the design and development of piezoelectric Braille cells in senses of controlling Braille dot displacement or force-feedback in the future.

  11. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  12. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  13. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  14. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films and their applications for integrated capacitors, piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and piezoelectric switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, M.; Boots, H.; Kumar, B.; van Heesch, C.; Mauczok, R.; Keur, W.; de Wild, M.; van Esch, H.; Roest, A. L.; Reimann, K.; van Leuken, L.; Wunnicke, O.; Zhao, J.; Schmitz, G.; Mienkina, M.; Mleczko, M.; Tiggelman, M.

    2010-02-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are gaining more and more importance for the integration of high performance devices in small modules. High-K 'Integrated Discretes' devices have been developed, which are based on thin film ferroelectric capacitors integrated together with resistors and ESD protection diodes in a small Si-based chip-scale package. Making use of ferroelectric thin films with relative permittivity of 950-1600 and stacking processes of capacitors, extremely high capacitance densities of 20-520 nF/mm2, high breakdown voltages up to 140 V and lifetimes of more than 10 years at operating voltages of 5 V and 85°C are achieved. Thin film high-density capacitors play also an important role as tunable capacitors for applications such as tuneable matching circuits for RF sections of mobile phones. The performance of thin film tuneable capacitors at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz is investigated. Finally thin film piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, processed in Si- related processes, are attractive for medical imaging, since they enable large bandwidth (>100%), high frequency operation and have the potential to integrate electronics. With these piezoelectric thin film ultrasound transducers real time ultrasound images have been realized. Finally, piezoelectric thin films are used to manufacture galvanic MEMS switches. A model for the quasi-static mechanical behaviour is presented and compared with measurements.

  15. Piezoelectric transformer structural modeling--a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashi

    2007-06-01

    A review on piezoelectric transformer structural modeling is presented. The operating principle and the basic behavior of piezoelectric transformers as governed by the linear theory of piezoelectricity are shown by a simple, theoretical analysis on a Rosen transformer based on extensional modes of a nonhomogeneous ceramic rod. Various transformers are classified according to their structural shapes, operating modes, and voltage transforming capability. Theoretical and numerical modeling results from the theory of piezoelectricity are reviewed. More advances modeling on thermal and nonlinear effects also are discussed. The article contains 167 references.

  16. Study on the electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a piezoelectric force plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoummadi, Elias; Safaei, Mohsen; Anton, Steven R.

    2017-04-01

    Force plates are used to detect static and dynamic reaction forces due to presence of stationary or moving objects as well as the location of applied forces. The application of force plates in various biomechanical fields, such as gait analysis, has been widely suggested and investigated in the past. Several sensor technologies like piezoelectrics, capacitance gauges, and piezoresistive sensors are utilized to develop force plates with special characteristics. Among the technologies employed in force plate designs, piezoelectrics present the ability of providing a self-powered sensory system. Recently, it has been suggested to implement piezoelectric transducers as sensors in the tibial bearing of total knee replacement (TKR) implants in order to transform the knee bearing into a force plate with the ability to detect force and contact point location for in vivo knee load analysis. Considering this application, a simplified design of a force plate instrumented with six piezoelectric transducers is presented in this study. The force plate is modeled using a finite element (FE) model to investigate the sensing performance of the system. In order to validate the simulation, a prototype force plate is fabricated and tested under the same loading condition applied on the FE model. The results are presented in terms of measured location and amplitude of applied force measured by the piezoelectric transducers. For the FE simulation, the deviation of the measured location of the applied force from the actual location is obtained as 0.62 mm in the x-direction and 0.13 mm in the y-direction, and the error in the amplitude of the measured force is 0.03% of the applied force. On the other hand, the deviation in the measured location of the force from the experimental test is 0.53 mm in the x-direction and 0.1 mm in the y-direction, while the error in force is 3.6% of the applied force. The small quantities of error in both sensed location and amplitude of applied force

  18. Using Diffusion Bonding in Making Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Frank E.

    2003-01-01

    A technique for the fabrication of piezoelectric actuators that generate acceptably large forces and deflections at relatively low applied voltages involves the stacking and diffusion bonding of multiple thin piezoelectric layers coated with film electrodes. The present technique stands in contrast to an older technique in which the layers are bonded chemically, by use of urethane or epoxy agents. The older chemical-bonding technique entails several disadvantages, including the following: It is difficult to apply the bonding agents to the piezoelectric layers. It is difficult to position the layers accurately and without making mistakes. There is a problem of disposal of hazardous urethane and epoxy wastes. The urethane and epoxy agents are nonpiezoelectric materials. As such, they contribute to the thickness of a piezoelectric laminate without contributing to its performance; conversely, for a given total thickness, the performance of the laminate is below that of a unitary piezoelectric plate of the same thickness. The figure depicts some aspects of the fabrication of a laminated piezoelectric actuator by the present diffusion- bonding technique. First, stock sheets of the piezoelectric material are inspected and tested. Next, the hole pattern shown in the figure is punched into the sheets. Alternatively, if the piezoelectric material is not a polymer, then the holes are punched in thermoplastic films. Then both faces of each punched piezoelectric sheet or thermoplastic film are coated with a silver-ink electrode material by use of a silkscreen printer. The electrode and hole patterns are designed for minimal complexity and minimal waste of material. After a final electrical test, all the coated piezoelectric layers (or piezoelectric layers and coated thermoplastic films) are stacked in an alignment jig, which, in turn, is placed in a curved press for the diffusion-bonding process. In this process, the stack is pressed and heated at a specified curing temperature

  19. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  20. Polariton resonances in multilayered piezoelectric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliposyan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Coupled electro-elastic SH waves propagating in a periodic piezoelectric finite-length superlattice with identical piezoelectric materials in a unit cell are considered in the framework of the full system of Maxwell’s electrodynamic equations. In the long wavelength region, coupling between electro-magnetic and elastic waves creates frequency band gaps. It is shown that for piezoelectric superlattice at acoustic frequencies, acousto-optic coupling gives rise to polariton behavior at wavelengths much larger than the length of the unit cell. The results of the paper may be useful in design of narrow band filters or multi-channel piezoelectric filters.

  1. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  2. Conformal piezoelectric systems for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Joe, Pauline; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Balooch, Guive; Usgaonkar, Karan; Gur, Onur; Tran, Phat L.; Crosby, Jessi R.; Meyer, Marcin; Su, Yewang; Chad Webb, R.; Tedesco, Andrew S.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical assessment of soft biological tissues and organs has broad relevance in clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease. Existing characterization methods are invasive, lack microscale spatial resolution, and are tailored only for specific regions of the body under quasi-static conditions. Here, we develop conformal and piezoelectric devices that enable in vivo measurements of soft tissue viscoelasticity in the near-surface regions of the epidermis. These systems achieve conformal contact with the underlying complex topography and texture of the targeted skin, as well as other organ surfaces, under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the responses of piezoelectric actuator-sensor pairs laminated on a variety of soft biological tissues and organ systems in animal models provide information on the operation of the devices. Studies on human subjects establish the clinical significance of these devices for rapid and non-invasive characterization of skin mechanical properties.

  3. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  4. Design, Modeling and Performance Optimization of a Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Khanh A.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    1997-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a proof of concept for a torsional inchworm type motor. The prototype motor has shown that piezoelectric stack actuators can be used for rotary inchworm motor. The discrete linear motion of piezoelectric stacks can be converted into rotary stepping motion. The stacks with its high force and displacement output are suitable actuators for use in piezoelectric motor. The designed motor is capable of delivering high torque and speed. Critical issues involving the design and operation of piezoelectric motors were studied. The tolerance between the contact shoes and the rotor has proved to be very critical to the performance of the motor. Based on the prototype motor, a waveform optimization scheme was proposed and implemented to improve the performance of the motor. The motor was successfully modeled in MATLAB. The model closely represents the behavior of the prototype motor. Using the motor model, the input waveforms were successfully optimized to improve the performance of the motor in term of speed, torque, power and precision. These optimized waveforms drastically improve the speed of the motor at different frequencies and loading conditions experimentally. The optimized waveforms also increase the level of precision of the motor. The use of the optimized waveform is a break-away from the traditional use of sinusoidal and square waves as the driving signals. This waveform optimization scheme can be applied to any inchworm motors to improve their performance. The prototype motor in this dissertation as a proof of concept was designed to be robust and large. Future motor can be designed much smaller and more efficient with lessons learned from the prototype motor.

  5. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  6. Dielectric Properties of Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Simpson, J. O.; Farmer, B. L.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular modeling and dielectric measurements are being used to identify mechanisms governing piezoelectric behavior in polyimides such as dipole orientation during poling, as well as degree of piezoelectricity achievable. Molecular modeling on polyimides containing pendant, polar nitrile (CN) groups has been completed to determine their remanent polarization. Experimental investigation of their dielectric properties evaluated as a function of temperature and frequency has substantiated numerical predictions. With this information in hand, we are then able to suggest changes in the molecular structures, which will then improve upon the piezoelectric response.

  7. Piezoelectric bimorph optical-fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengguo; Xiao, Gaozhi; Zhang, Zhiyi; Grover, Chander P

    2004-03-20

    We propose and demonstrate a novel high-voltage optical-fiber sensor. This sensor consists of an emitting fiber, a receiving fiber, and a piezoelectric bimorph transducer. The emitting fiber is fixed in a base, whereas the receiving fiber is mounted on the free end of the piezoelectric bimorph transducer. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric bimorph transducer, its free end is displaced over a distance delta. The displacement induces a loss in the optical coupling between the emitting and the receiving fiber. The voltage can be measured by monitoring the coupling loss.

  8. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  9. Magnetic plucking of piezoelectric bimorphs for a wearable energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Michele

    2016-04-01

    A compact and low-profile energy harvester designed to be worn on the outside of the knee-joint is presented. Frequency up-conversion has been widely adopted in recent times to exploit the high frequency response of piezoelectric transducers within environments where only low frequencies are present. Contactless magnetic plucking is here introduced, in a variable reluctance framework, with the aim of improving the mechanical energy transfer into the transducers, which is sub-optimal with contact plucking. FEA and experiments were used to design an optimal arrangement of ferromagnetic teeth to interact with the magnets fixed to the piezoelectric beams. A prototype was made and extensively tested in a knee-joint simulator controlled with gait data available in the literature. Energy and power produced were measured for walking and running steps. A power management unit was developed using off-the-shelf components, permitting the generation of a stable and regulated supply of 26 mW at 3.3 V during walking. Record levels of rectified (unregulated) electrical power of over 50 and 70 mW per walking and running steps, respectively, were measured.

  10. New design for inertial piezoelectric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lige; Ge, Weifeng; Meng, Wenjie; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Qingyou

    2018-03-01

    We have designed, implemented, and tested a novel inertial piezoelectric motor (IPM) that is the first IPM to have controllable total friction force, which means that it sticks with large total friction forces and slips with severely reduced total friction forces. This allows the IPM to work with greater robustness and produce a larger output force at a lower threshold voltage while also providing higher rigidity. This is a new IPM design that means that the total friction force can be dramatically reduced or even canceled where necessary by pushing the clamping points at the ends of a piezoelectric tube that contains the sliding shaft inside it in the opposite directions during piezoelectric deformation. Therefore, when the shaft is propelled forward by another exterior piezoelectric tube, the inner piezoelectric tube can deform to reduce the total friction force acting on the shaft instantly and cause more effective stepping movement of the shaft. While our new IPM requires the addition of another piezoelectric tube, which leads to an increase in volume of 120% when compared with traditional IPMs, the average step size has increased by more than 400% and the threshold voltage has decreased by more than 50 V. The improvement in performance is far more significant than the increase in volume. This enhanced performance will allow the proposed IPM to work under large load conditions where a simple and powerful piezoelectric motor is needed.

  11. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  12. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  13. Piezoelectric diaphragm for vibration energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Minazara, E; Vasic, D; Costa, F; Poulin, G

    2006-12-22

    This paper presents a technique of electric energy generation using a mechanically excited unimorph piezoelectric membrane transducer. The electrical characteristics of the piezoelectric power generator are investigated under dynamic conditions. The electromechanical model of the generator is presented and used to predict its electrical performances. The experiments was performed with a piezoelectric actuator (shaker) moving a macroscopic 25 mm diameter piezoelectric membrane. A power of 0.65 mW was generated at the resonance frequency (1.71 kHz) across a 5.6 kOmega optimal resistor and for a 80 N force. A special electronic circuit has been conceived in order to increase the power harvested by the piezoelectric transducer. This electrical converter applies the SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) technique, and leads to remarkable results: under the same actuation conditions the generated power reaches 1.7 mW, which is sufficient to supply a large range of low consumption sensors.

  14. Piezoelectric monolayers as nonlinear energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, Miquel; Pruneda, Miguel; Abadal, Gabriel; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-05-02

    We study the dynamics of h-BN monolayers by first performing ab-initio calculations of the deformation potential energy and then solving numerically a Langevine-type equation to explore their use in nonlinear vibration energy harvesting devices. An applied compressive strain is used to drive the system into a nonlinear bistable regime, where quasi-harmonic vibrations are combined with low-frequency swings between the minima of a double-well potential. Due to its intrinsic piezoelectric response, the nonlinear mechanical harvester naturally provides an electrical power that is readily available or can be stored by simply contacting the monolayer at its ends. Engineering the induced nonlinearity, a 20 nm2 device is predicted to harvest an electrical power of up to 0.18 pW for a noisy vibration of 5 pN.

  15. Piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite foams.

    PubMed

    McCall, William R; Kim, Kanguk; Heath, Cory; La Pierre, Gina; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-11-26

    Piezoelectric polymer composite foams are synthesized using different sugar-templating strategies. By incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane mixtures containing barium titanate nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing, highly compliant materials with excellent piezoelectric properties can be fabricated. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio which gave an upper bound on the porosity of 73% and a lower bound on the elastic coefficient of 32 kPa. The electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs, giving piezoelectric coefficient values of ∼112 pC/N and a power output of ∼18 mW/cm3 under a load of 10 N for the highest porosity samples. These novel materials should find exciting use in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, biosensors, and acoustic actuators.

  16. [Piezoelectric property of novel biological piezoelectric ceramic HALNK and its effect on the functional expression of rat osteoblast cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Chen, Que-Ting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Zhi-Qing

    2009-09-01

    To test the Piezoelectric property of novel biological piezoelectric ceramic HALNK and its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of rat osteoblast cells. The biological piezoelectric ceramic HALNK1/9 and HALNK5/5 were prepared by mixing Hydroxyapatite (HA) with lithium sodium potassium niobate (LNK) piezoelectric ceramic at a ratio of 1/9 and 5/5 (wt/wt), respectively. After poling treatment, the piezoelectric constants were measured. The osteoblast cells were then seeded on the surfaces of HALNK. The proliferation and differentiation activities of the osteoblast cells were evaluated by MTT assays, ALP activities and scanning electron microscopy examinations. Cells grown on the surfaces of HALNK showed normal morphology, and had better proliferation and differentiation activities than the control. The growth of osteoblastic cells on the surface of HALNK1/9 was significantly better than others. The surface of HALNK 1/9 possesses better piezoelectric property and osteogenesis potential than HALNK5/5.

  17. Bone-Inspired Spatially Specific Piezoelectricity Induces Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Lin, Zefeng; Liu, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaolan; Yang, Haoqi; Li, Kang; Yi, Xin; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of bone can be pictured as a material made of parallel interspersed domains of fibrous piezoelectric collagenous materials and non-piezoelectric non-collagenous materials. To mimic this feature for enhanced bone regeneration, a material made of two parallel interspersed domains, with higher and lower piezoelectricity, respectively, is constructed to form microscale piezoelectric zones (MPZs). The MPZs are produced using a versatile and effective laser-irradiation technique in which K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramics are selectively irradiated to achieve microzone phase transitions. The phase structure of the laser-irradiated microzones is changed from a mixture of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (with higher piezoelectricity) to a tetragonal dominant phase (with lower piezoelectricity). The microzoned piezoelectricity distribution results in spatially specific surface charge distribution, enabling the MPZs to bear bone-like microscale electric cues. Hence, the MPZs induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo even without being seeded with stem cells. The concept of mimicking the spatially specific piezoelectricity in bone will facilitate future research on the rational design of tissue regenerative materials. PMID:28900517

  18. Identifiable piezoelectric security system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    Directing at the disadvantages of low environmental suitability, inferior anti-interference ability and being easy to be found and destroyed in existing security product, a kind of identifiable piezoelectric security system based on piezoelectric cable is designed. The present system gathers vibration signals of different moving bodies, such as human, vehicles, animals and so on, with piezoelectric cable buried under -ground and distinguishes the different moving bodies through recognition algorithm and thus giving an alarm. As is shown in experiments, the present system has the features of good concealment and high accuracy in distinguishing moving bodies.

  19. Energy harvesting from torsions of patterned piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the torsions using a piezoelectric beam. The piezoelectric beam is partially patterned and is tested in an experimental setup to force pure torsional deformation. In particular, the beam consists of two identical piezoelectric parts attached on one side of a supporting substrate. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the equations for a slender composite beam with the physical properties and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The theoretical predictions are validated by the comparison with the experimental results.

  20. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel, E-mail: zhiqun.deng@pnnl.gov

    2014-12-15

    In an effort to eliminate the replacement of the batteries of electronic devices that are difficult or impractical to service once deployed, harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations or impacts using piezoelectric materials has been researched over the last several decades. However, a majority of these applications have very low input frequencies. This presents a challenge for the researchers to optimize the energy output of piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to the relatively high elastic moduli of piezoelectric materials used to date. This paper reviews the current state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency (0–100 Hz) applications and themore » methods that have been developed to improve the power outputs of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various key aspects that contribute to the overall performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester are discussed, including geometries of the piezoelectric element, types of piezoelectric material used, techniques employed to match the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element to input frequency of the host structure, and electronic circuits specifically designed for energy harvesters.« less

  1. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO₃ Piezoelectric Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-06-07

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO₃ piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO₃ sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO₃ nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H₃O⁺ groups in the absorbed H₂O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential.

  2. Piezoelectricity of green carp scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H. Y.; Yen, F.; Huang, C. W.; Mei, R. B.; Chen, L.

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectricity takes part in multiple important functions and processes in biomaterials often vital to the survival of organisms. Here, we investigate the piezoelectric properties of fish scales of green carp by directly examining their morphology at nanometer levels. Two types of regions are found to comprise the scales, a smooth one and a rough one. The smooth region is comprised of a ridge and trough pattern and the rough region characterized by a flat base with an elevated mosaic of crescents. Piezoelectricity is found on the ridges and base regions of the scales. From clear distinctions between the composition of the inner and outer surfaces of the scales, we identify the piezoelectricity to originate from the presence of hydroxyapatite which only exists on the surface of the fish scales. Our findings reveal a different mechanism of how green carp are sensitive to their surroundings and should be helpful to studies related to the electromechanical properties of marine life and the development of bio-inspired materials.

  3. Modeling NDT piezoelectric ultrasonic transmitters.

    PubMed

    San Emeterio, J L; Ramos, A; Sanz, P T; Ruíz, A; Azbaid, A

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic NDT applications are frequently based on the spike excitation of piezoelectric transducers by means of efficient pulsers which usually include a power switching device (e.g. SCR or MOS-FET) and some rectifier components. In this paper we present an approximate frequency domain electro-acoustic model for pulsed piezoelectric ultrasonic transmitters which, by integrating partial models of the different stages (driving electronics, tuning/matching networks and broadband piezoelectric transducer), allows the computation of the emission transfer function and output force temporal waveform. An approximate frequency domain model is used for the evaluation of the electrical driving pulse from the spike generator. Tuning circuits, interconnecting cable and mechanical impedance matching layers are modeled by means of transmission lines and the classical quadripole approach. The KLM model is used for the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, a PSPICE scheme is used for an alternative simulation of the broadband driving spike, including the accurate evaluation of non-linear driving effects. Several examples illustrate the capabilities of the specifically developed software.

  4. Polarization Stability of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Ounaies, Z.; Su, J.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Harrison, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous polyimides containing polar functional groups have been synthesized and investigated for potential use as high temperature piezoelectric sensors. The thermal stability of the piezoelectric effect of one polyimide was evaluated as a function of various curing and poling conditions under dynamic and static thermal stimuli. First, the polymer samples were thermally cycled under strain by systematically increasing the maximum temperature from 50 C to 200 C while the piezoelectric strain coefficient was being measured. Second, the samples were isothermally aged at an elevated temperature in air, and the isothermal decay of the remanent polarization was measured at room temperature as a function of time. Both conventional and corona poling methods were evaluated. This material exhibited good thermal stability of the piezoelectric properties up to 100 C.

  5. Piezoelectric devices for generating low power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilibon, Irinela

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews concepts and applications in low-power electronics and energy harvesting technologies. Various piezoelectric materials and devices for small power generators useful in renewable electricity are presented. The vibrating piezoelectric device differs from the typical electrical power source in that it has capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. In general, vibration energy could be converted into electrical energy using one of three techniques: electrostatic charge, magnetic fields and piezoelectric. A low power piezoelectric generator, having a PZT element was realised in order to supply small electronic elements, such as optoelectronic small devices, LEDs, electronic watches, small sensors, interferometry with lasers or Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS) array with multi-cantilevers.

  6. Heartbeat detection system using piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamonangan, Yosua; Purnamaningsih, Wigajatri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simple piezoelectric based heartbeat detection system. The signal produced by the piezoelectric will undergo signal conditioning and then converted into digital data by Arduino Nano. Using serial communication, the data will be sent to a computer for display and further analysis. The detection of heartbeat is carried out on three locations; wrist, chest, and diaphragm. From the measurement results, it is shown that the system work best when the piezoelectric is placed on wrist.

  7. Nonlinear Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Li, Chao; Wang, Haibo; Zhu, Zhiwen

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear constitutive modeling of piezoelectric ceramics is discussed in this paper. Van der Pol item is introduced to explain the simple hysteretic curve. Improved nonlinear difference items are used to interpret the hysteresis phenomena of piezoelectric ceramics. The fitting effect of the model on experimental data is proved by the partial least-square regression method. The results show that this method can describe the real curve well. The results of this paper are helpful to piezoelectric ceramics constitutive modeling.

  8. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  9. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  10. A nondisturbing electric-field sensor using piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongkwan; Kim, Ilryong; Lee, Soonchil

    1997-12-01

    An electric-field sensor was developed using both piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric resonances. Composed of no metallic parts, this probe minimizes field disturbance. The most distinguishing feature of this probe is that a signal is transmitted neither electrically nor optically, but mechanically. To demonstrate the field sensing capability of this probe, we measured both the capacitive and inductive fields inside empty and plasma-filled solenoidal coils. The result shows that the capacitive field is dominant in an empty solenoid, although it is almost completely shielded by inductively excited plasma.

  11. AlN based piezoelectric micromirror.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jian; Li, Qi; Feng, Chuhuan; Li, Wei; Yu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Aiming to pursue a micromirror possessing many desired characteristics, such as linear control, low power consumption, fast response, and easy fabrication, a new piezoelectric actuation strategy is presented. Different from conventional piezoelectric actuation cases, we first propose using AlN film as the active layer for actuating the micromirror. Owing to its good CMOS compatible deposition and patterning techniques, the AlN based piezoelectric micromirror has been successfully fabricated with a modified silicon-on-insulator-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) process. At the same time, various mirror movement modes operating at high frequencies and excellent linear relationship between the movement and the control signal both have been experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Non-Contact Photoacoustic Imaging Using a Commercial Heterodyne Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chao; Feng, Ting; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Qian; Oliver, David E.; Wang, Xueding

    2017-01-01

    Most current photoacoustic imaging (PAI) systems employ piezoelectric transducers to receive photoacoustic signals, which requires coupling medium to facilitate photoacoustic wave propagation and are not favored in many applications. Here, we report an all-optical non-contact PAI system based on a commercial heterodyne interferometer working at 1550 nm. The interferometer remotely detects ultrasound-induced surface vibration and does not involve any physical contact with the sample. The theoretically predicated and experimentally measured noise equivalent detection limits of the optical sensor are about 4.5 and 810 Pa over 1.2 MHz bandwidth. Using a raster-scan PAI system equipped with the non-contact design, stereotactic boundaries of an artificial tumor in a pig brain were accurately delineated. The non-contact design also enables the tomographic PAI of biological tissue samples in a non-invasive manner. The preliminary results and analyses reveal that the heterodyne interferometer-based non-contact PAI system holds good potential in biomedical imaging. PMID:28210188

  13. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOEpatents

    Renschler, Clifford L.; White, Christine A.; Carter, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor.

  14. Peculiar Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevik, Cem; Cakir, Deniz; Gulseren, Oguz; Peeters, Francois M.

    Recently, two dimensional materials with noncentrosymmetric structure have received significant interest due to their potential usage in piezoelectric applications. It has been reported by first principles calculations that relaxed-ion piezoelectric strain (d11) and stress (e11) coefficients of some transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers are comparable or even better than that of conventional bulk piezoelectric materials. Furthermore, e11 coefficient of MoS2 has been measured as 2.9 .10-10 C/m, which agrees well with the theoretical calculations. In order to deeply investigate this potential, we have performed first-principles calculations and systematically investigated the piezoelectric properties of various single layer structures: TMDCs, transition metal oxides, and hexagonal group II-VI compounds. The results clearly show that not only the Mo- and W-based TMDCs but also the other materials with Cr, Ti, Zr and Sn exhibit highly promising piezoelectric properties. Moreover, d11coefficient of some II-VI compounds have been predicted as quite larger than that of TMDCs and the bulk materials, α-quartz, w-GaN, and w-AlN which are widely used in applications.

  15. Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.

    1994-07-01

    For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also

  16. A very promising piezoelectric property of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. II: Birefringence and piezoelectricity

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Audier, M., E-mail: Marc.Audier@grenoble-inp.fr; Chenevier, B.; Roussel, H.

    2011-08-15

    Birefringent and piezoelectric properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic thin films of monoclinic and trigonal structures were analyzed. The birefringence, observed by reflected polarized light microscopy, yields information on thin film microstructures, crystal shapes and sizes and on crystallographic orientations of grains of trigonal structure. Such an information was considered for investigating piezoelectric properties by laser Doppler vibrometry and by piezoresponse force microscopy. The vibration velocity was measured by applying an oscillating electric field between electrodes on both sides of a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film deposited on a Si substrate which was pasted on an isolating mica sheet. In thismore » case, it is shown that the vibration velocity results were not only from a converse piezoelectric effect, proportional to the voltage, but also from the Coulomb force, proportional to the square of the voltage. A huge piezoelectric strain effect, up to 7.6%, is found in the case of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} of trigonal structure. From an estimation of the electrical field through the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin film, this strain likely corresponds to a very high longitudinal coefficient d{sub 33} of several thousand picometers. Results obtained by piezoresponse force microscopy show that trigonal grains exhibit a polarization at zero field, which is probably due to stress caused expansion in the transition monoclinic-trigonal, presented in a previous article (part I). - Graphical abstract: Image of cross-polarized optical microscopy showing grains of trigonal structure embedded in the monoclinic phase (on the left); (a) mounting of the sample for Laser Doppler Vibrometry, sample constituted of several layers and its equivalent electrical circuit; (b) longitudinal displacements due to converse piezoelectric and Coulomb effects and corresponding piezoelectric strain-U{sub app.}. hystereses. Highlights: > A new Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} trigonal phase is shown to be birefringent

  17. Applications of piezoelectric materials in oilfield services.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Nicolas; Hori, Hiroshi; Liang, Kenneth K; Sinha, Bikash K

    2012-09-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used in many applications in the oilfield services industry. Four illustrative examples are given in this paper: marine seismic survey, precision pressure measurement, sonic logging-while-drilling, and ultrasonic bore-hole imaging. In marine seismics, piezoelectric hydrophones are deployed on a massive scale in a relatively benign environment. Hence, unit cost and device reliability are major considerations. The remaining three applications take place downhole in a characteristically harsh environment with high temperature and high pressure among other factors. The number of piezoelectric devices involved is generally small but otherwise highly valued. The selection of piezoelectric materials is limited, and the devices have to be engineered to withstand the operating conditions. With the global demand for energy increasing in the foreseeable future, the search for hydrocarbon resources is reaching into deeper and hotter wells. There is, therefore, a continuing and pressing need for high-temperature and high-coupling piezoelectric materials.

  18. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOEpatents

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.; Carter, R.M.

    1998-09-29

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor. 3 figs.

  19. Piezoelectric Templates - New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-05-23

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template's piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V(-1) compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature.

  20. Piezoelectric Templates - New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template’s piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V-1 compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature.

  1. Piezoelectric coefficients of bulk 3R transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konabe, Satoru; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2017-09-01

    The piezoelectric properties of bulk transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with a 3R structure were investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory combined with the Berry phase treatment. Values for the elastic constant Cijkl , the piezoelectric coefficient eijk , and the piezoelectric coefficient dijk are given for bulk 3R-TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2). The piezoelectric coefficients of bulk 3R-TMDCs are shown to be sufficiently large or comparable to those of conventional bulk piezoelectric materials such as α-quartz, wurtzite GaN, and wurtzite AlN.

  2. High Frequency Supercapacitors for Piezo-based Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervin, Matthew; Pereira, Carlos; Miller, John; Outlaw, Ronald; Rastegar, Jay; Murray, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Energy harvesting is being investigated as an alternative to batteries for powering munition guidance and fuzing functions during flight. A piezoelectric system that generates energy from the oscillation of a mass on a spring (set in motion by the launch acceleration) is being developed. Original designs stored this energy in an electrolytic capacitor for use during flight. Here we replace the electrolytic capacitor with a smaller, lighter, and potentially more reliable electrochemical double layer capacitor (aka, supercapacitor). The potential problems with using supercapacitors in this application are that the piezoelectric output greatly exceeds the supercapacitor electrolyte breakdown voltage, and the frequency greatly exceeds the operating frequency of commercial supercapacitors. Here we have investigated the use of ultrafast vertically oriented graphene array-based supercapacitors for storing the energy in this application. We find that the electrolyte breakdown is not a serious limitation as it is either kinetically limited by the relatively high frequency of the piezoelectric output, or it is overcome by the self-healing nature of supercapacitors. We also find that these supercapacitors have sufficient dynamic response to efficiently store the generated energy.

  3. A comparison study between electrospun polycaprolactone and piezoelectric poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gorodzha, Svetlana N; Muslimov, Albert R; Syromotina, Dina S; Timin, Alexander S; Tcvetkov, Nikolai Y; Lepik, Kirill V; Petrova, Aleksandra V; Surmeneva, Maria A; Gorin, Dmitry A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Surmenev, Roman A

    2017-12-01

    In this study, bone scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), piezoelectric poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and a combination of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and silicate containing hydroxyapatite (PHBV-SiHA) were successfully fabricated by a conventional electrospinning process. The morphological, chemical, wetting and biological properties of the scaffolds were examined. All fabricated scaffolds are composed of randomly oriented fibres with diameters from 800nm to 12μm. Fibre size increased with the addition of SiHA to PHBV scaffolds. Moreover, fibre surface roughness in the case of hybrid scaffolds was also increased. XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to analyse the chemical composition of the scaffolds, and contact angle measurements were performed to reveal the wetting behaviour of the synthesized materials. To determine the influence of the piezoelectric nature of PHBV in combination with SiHA nanoparticles on cell attachment and proliferation, PCL (non-piezoelectric), pure PHBV, and PHBV-SiHA scaffolds were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vitro study on hMSC adhesion, viability, spreading and osteogenic differentiation showed that the PHBV-SiHA scaffolds had the largest adhesion and differentiation abilities compared with other scaffolds. Moreover, the piezoelectric PHBV scaffolds have demonstrated better calcium deposition potential compared with non-piezoelectric PCL. The results of the study revealed pronounced advantages of hybrid PHBV-SiHA scaffolds to be used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of High Performance Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Welch, Sharon S.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a series of polyimides are investigated which exhibit a strong piezoelectric response and polarization stability at temperatures in excess of 100 C. This work was motivated by the need to develop piezoelectric sensors suitable for use in high temperature aerospace applications.

  5. Piezoelectric Motors and Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, K.

    Piezoelectric ceramics forms a new field between electronic and structural ceramics [1-4]. Application fields are classified into three categories: positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. From the market research result for 80 Japanese component industries in 1992, tiny motors in the range of 5-8 mm are required in large numbers for office and portable equipment; the conventional electromagnetic (EM) motors are rather difficult to produce in this size with sufficient energy efficiency, while Silicon MEMS actuators are too small to be used in practice. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the millimeter motor area. The manufacturing precision of optical instruments such as lasers and cameras, and the positioning accuracy for fabricating semiconductor chips are of the order of 0.1μm which is much smaller than the backlash of the EM motors. Vibration suppression in space structures and military vehicles also require compact but mighty piezoelectric actuators.

  6. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  7. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  8. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  9. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol–gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed. PMID:21720451

  10. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-02-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol-gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed.

  11. Self-Powered Real-Time Arterial Pulse Monitoring Using Ultrathin Epidermal Piezoelectric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae Yong; Joe, Daniel J; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hyewon; Han, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Park, Hyelim; Park, Jung Gyu; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2017-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of an arterial pulse using a pressure sensor attached on the epidermis is an important technology for detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and assessing personal health status. Conventional pulse sensors have the capability of detecting human biosignals, but have significant drawbacks of power consumption issues that limit sustainable operation of wearable medical devices. Here, a self-powered piezoelectric pulse sensor is demonstrated to enable in vivo measurement of radial/carotid pulse signals in near-surface arteries. The inorganic piezoelectric sensor on an ultrathin plastic achieves conformal contact with the complex texture of the rugged skin, which allows to respond to the tiny pulse changes arising on the surface of epidermis. Experimental studies provide characteristics of the sensor with a sensitivity (≈0.018 kPa -1 ), response time (≈60 ms), and good mechanical stability. Wireless transmission of detected arterial pressure signals to a smart phone demonstrates the possibility of self-powered and real-time pulse monitoring system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Topology optimized design of functionally graded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Buiochi, Flávio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new approach to systematically design piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers based on Topology Optimization Method (TOM) and Functionally Graded Material (FGM) concepts. The main goal is to find the optimal material distribution of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers, to achieve the following requirements: (i) the transducer must be designed to have a multi-modal or uni-modal frequency response, which defines the kind of generated acoustic wave, either short pulse or continuous wave, respectively; (ii) the transducer is required to oscillate in a thickness extensional mode or piston-like mode, aiming at acoustic wave generation applications. Two kinds of piezoelectric materials are mixed for producing the FGM transducer. Material type 1 represents a PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic and material type 2 represents a PZT-5H piezoelectric ceramic. To illustrate the proposed method, two Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers are designed. The TOM has shown to be a useful tool for designing Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers with uni-modal or multi-modal dynamic behavior.

  13. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  14. Voltage generation of piezoelectric cantilevers by laser heating

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Liu, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.; Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Converting ambient thermal energy into electricity is of great interest in harvesting energy from the environment. Piezoelectric cantilevers have previously been shown to be an effective biosensor and a tool for elasticity mapping. Here we show that a single piezoelectric (lead-zirconate titanate (PZT)) layer cantilever can be used to convert heat to electricity through pyroelectric effect. Furthermore, piezoelectric-metal (PZT-Ti) bi-layer cantilever showed an enhanced induced voltage over the single PZT layer alone due to the additional piezoelectric effect. This type of device can be a way for converting heat energy into electricity. PMID:23258941

  15. Piezoelectricity in two dimensions: Graphene vs. molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoxue; Hui, Fei; Knobloch, Theresia; Wang, Bingru; Fan, Zhongchao; Grasser, Tibor; Jing, Xu; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis of piezoelectric two-dimensional (2D) materials is very attractive for implementing advanced energy harvesters and transducers, as these materials provide enormously large areas for the exploitation of the piezoelectric effect. Among all 2D materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has shown the largest piezoelectric activity. However, all research papers in this field studied just a single material, and this may raise concerns because different setups could provide different values depending on experimental parameters (e.g., probes used and areas analyzed). By using conductive atomic force microscopy, here we in situ demonstrate that the piezoelectric currents generated in MoS2 are gigantic (65 mA/cm2), while the same experiments in graphene just showed noise currents. These results provide the most reliable comparison yet reported on the piezoelectric effect in graphene and MoS2.

  16. Postbuckling Investigations of Piezoelectric Microdevices Considering Damage Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed. PMID:24618774

  17. Piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conragan, J.; Muller, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Transducer consists of a hybrid thin film and a piezoelectric transistor that acts as a stress-sensitive device with built-in gain. It provides a stress/strain transducer that incorporates a signal amplification stage and sensor in a single package.

  18. Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding heat transfer equipment.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Hao; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Costa, François; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2012-10-01

    It is known that piezoelectric transformers have several inherent advantages compared with conventional electromagnetic transformers. However, the maximum power capacity of piezoelectric transformers is not as large as electromagnetic transformers in practice, especially in the case of high output current. The theoretical power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm(3), but no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited to 33 W/cm(3) in practical applications. The underlying reason is that the maximum passing current of the piezoelectric material (mechanical current) is limited by the temperature rise caused by heat generation. To increase this current and the power capacity, we proposed to add a thermal pad to the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate heat. The experimental results showed that the proposed techniques can increase by 3 times the output current of the piezoelectric transformer. A theoretical-phenomenological model which explains the relationship between vibration velocity and generated heat is also established to verify the experimental results.

  19. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  20. Analysis and Testing of Plates with Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Piezoelectric material inherently possesses coupling between electrostatics and structural dynamics. Utilizing linear piezoelectric theory results in an intrinsically coupled pair of piezoelectric constitutive equations. One equation describes the direct piezoelectric effect where strains produce an electric field and the other describes the converse effect where an applied electrical field produces strain. The purpose of this study is to compare finite element analysis and experiments of a thin plate with bonded piezoelectric material. Since an isotropic plate in combination with a thin piezoelectric layer constitutes a special case of a laminated composite, the classical laminated plate theory is used in the formulation to accommodated generic laminated composite panels with multiple bonded and embedded piezoelectric layers. Additionally, the von Karman large deflection plate theory is incorporated. The formulation results in laminate constitutive equations that are amiable to the inclusion of the piezoelectric constitutive equations yielding in a fully electro-mechanically coupled composite laminate. Using the finite element formulation, the governing differential equations of motion of a composite laminate with embedded piezoelectric layers are derived. The finite element model not only considers structural degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) but an additional electrical d.o.f. for each piezoelectric layer. Comparison between experiment and numerical prediction is performed by first treating the piezoelectric as a sensor and then again treating it as an actuator. To assess the piezoelectric layer as a sensor, various uniformly distributed pressure loads were simulated in the analysis and the corresponding generated voltages were calculated using both linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. Experiments were carried out by applying the same uniformly distributed loads and measuring the resulting generated voltages and corresponding maximum plate deflections. It is

  1. Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yener, Serra

    This thesis presents modeling and prototype fabrication and characterization of new types of piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. Our approach in designing these piezoelectric motors was: (i) to simplify the structure including the poling configuration of piezoelectric elements used in the stator and (ii) to reduce the number of components in order to decrease the cost and enhance the driving reliability. There are two different types of piezoelectric motors designed throughout this research. The first of these designs consists of a metal tube, on which two piezoelectric ceramic plates poled in thickness direction, were bonded. Two orthogonal bending modes of the hollow cylinder were superimposed resulting in a rotational vibration. Since the structure and poling configuration of the active piezoelectric elements used in the stator are simple, this motor structure is very suitable for miniaturization. Moreover, a single driving source can excite two bending modes at the same time, thus generate a wobble motion. Three types of prototypes are included in this design. The piezoelectric stator structure is the same for all. However, the dimensions of the motors are reduced by almost 50 percent. Starting with a 10 mm long stator, we reached to 4 mm in the last prototype. The initial diameter was 2.4 mm, which was reduced to 1.6 mm. In the final design, the rotor part of the motor was changed resulting in the reduction in the number of components. In terms of driving circuit, a single driving source was enough to run the motors and a conventional switching power supply type resonant L-C circuit was used. A simple motor structure with a simple driving circuit were combined successfully and fabricated inexpensively. The second design is a shear type piezoelectric linear motor. The behavior of a single rectangular piezoelectric shear plate was analyzed and after optimizing the dimensions and the mode characteristics, a prototype was fabricated. The prototype consists of

  2. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  3. Computational and Experimental Insight Into Single-Molecule Piezoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, Christopher Wayne

    Piezoelectric materials allow for the harvesting of ambient waste energy from the environment. Producing lightweight, highly responsive materials is a challenge for this type of material, requiring polymer, foam, or bio-inspired materials. In this dissertation, I explore the origin of the piezoelectric effect in single molecules through density functional theory (DFT), analyze the piezoresponse of bio-inspired peptidic materials through the use of atomic and piezoresponse force microscopy (AFM and PFM), and develop a novel class of materials combining flexible polyurethane foams and non-piezoelectric, polar dopants. For the DFT calculations, functional group, regiochemical, and heteroatom derivatives of [6]helicene were examined for their influence on the piezoelectric response. An aza[6]helicene derivative was found to have a piezoelectric response (108 pm/V) comparable to ceramics such as lead zirconium titanate (200+ pm/V). These computed materials have the possibility to compete with current field-leading piezomaterials such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT), zinc oxide (ZnO), and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and its derivatives. The use of AFM/PFM allows for the demonstration of the piezoelectric effect of the selfassembled monolayer (SAM) peptidic systems. Through PFM, the influence that the helicity and sequence of the peptide has on the overall response of the molecule can be analyzed. Finally, development of a novel class of piezoelectrics, the foam-based materials, expands the current understanding of the qualities required for a piezoelectric material from ceramic and rigid materials to more flexible, organic materials. Through the exploration of these novel types of piezoelectric materials, new design rules and figures of merit have been developed.

  4. Development, Characterization and Piezoelectric Fatigue Behavior of Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Eric Andrew

    Much recent research has focused on the development lead-free perovskite piezoelectrics as environmentally compatible alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Two main categories of lead free perovskite piezoelectric ceramic systems were investigated as potential replacements to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for actuator devices. First, solid solutions based on Li, Ta, and Sb modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) lead-free perovskite systems were created using standard solid state methods. Secondly, Bi-based materials a variety of compositions were explored for (1-x)(Bi 0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (BNT-BZT) and Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi 0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO 3 (BZT-BKT-BNT). It was shown that when BNT-BKT is combined with increasing concentrations of Bi(Zn1/2i1/2)O3 (BZT), a transition from normal ferroelectric behavior to a material with large electric field induced strains was observed. The higher BZT containing compositions are characterized by large hysteretic strains(> 0.3%) with no negative strains that might indicate domain switching. This work summarizes and analyzes the fatigue behavior of the new generation of Pb-free piezoelectric materials. In piezoelectric materials, fatigue is observed as a degradation in the electromechanical properties under the application of a bipolar or unipolar cyclic electrical load. In Pb-based materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), fatigue has been studied in great depth for both bulk and thin film applications. In PZT, fatigue can result from microcracking or electrode effects (especially in thin films). Ultimately, however, it is electronic and ionic point defects that are the most influential mechanism. Therefore, this work also analyzes the fatigue characteristics of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of the modified-KNN and BNT-BKT-BZT compositions developed. The defect chemistry that underpins the fatigue behavior will be examined and the results will be compared to the existing body of work on PZT. It will

  5. Stable and High Piezoelectric Output of GaN Nanowire-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanogenerator by Suppression of Internal Screening.

    PubMed

    Johar, Muhammad Ali; Hassan, Mostafa Afifi; Waseem, Aadil; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, June Key; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2018-06-14

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) that is based on c-axis GaN nanowires is fabricated on flexible substrate. In this regard, c-axis GaN nanowires were grown on GaN substrate using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Further, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was coated on nanowire-arrays then PDMS matrix embedded with GaN nanowire-arrays was transferred on Si-rubber substrate. The piezoelectric performance of nanowire-based flexible PNG was measured, while the device was actuated using a cyclic stretching-releasing agitation mechanism that was driven by a linear motor. The piezoelectric output was measured as a function of actuation frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 10 Hz and a linear tendency was observed for piezoelectric output current, while the output voltages remained constant. A maximum of piezoelectric open circuit voltages and short circuit current were measured 15.4 V and 85.6 nA, respectively. In order to evaluate the feasibility of our flexible PNG for real application, a long term stability test was performed for 20,000 cycles and the device performance was degraded by less than 18%. The underlying reason for the high piezoelectric output was attributed to the reduced free carriers inside nanowires due to surface Fermi-level pinning and insulating metal-dielectric-semiconductor interface, respectively; the former reduced the free carrier screening radially while latter reduced longitudinally. The flexibility and the high aspect ratio of GaN nanowire were the responsible factors for higher stability. Such higher piezoelectric output and the novel design make our device more promising for the diverse range of real applications.

  6. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  7. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  8. Characterization of a Piezoelectric Buzzer Using a Michelson Interferometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, S.; Paetkau, M.

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric material generates an electric potential across its surface when subjected to mechanical stress; conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect describes the expansion or contraction of the material when subjected to some applied voltage. Piezoelectric materials are used in devices such as doorbell buzzers, barbeque igniters, and…

  9. Piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled power generating process of a single ZnO belt/wire. A technology for harvesting electricity from the environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinhui; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental observation of piezoelectric generation from a single ZnO wire/belt for illustrating a fundamental process of converting mechanical energy into electricity at nanoscale. By deflecting a wire/belt using a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode, the energy is first created by the deflection force and stored by piezoelectric potential, and later converts into piezoelectric energy. The mechanism of the generator is a result of coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO. A piezoelectric effect is required to create electric potential of ionic charges from elastic deformation; semiconducting property is necessary to separate and maintain the charges and then release the potential via the rectifying behavior of the Schottky barrier at the metal-ZnO interface, which serves as a switch in the entire process. The good conductivity of ZnO is rather unique because it makes the current flow possible. This paper demonstrates a principle for harvesting energy from the environment. The technology has the potential of converting mechanical movement energy (such as body movement, muscle stretching, blood pressure), vibration energy (such as acoustic/ultrasonic wave), and hydraulic energy (such as flow of body fluid, blood flow, contraction of blood vessels) into electric energy that may be sufficient for self-powering nanodevices and nanosystems in applications such as in situ, real-time, and implantable biosensing, biomedical monitoring, and biodetection.

  10. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  11. Low-Temperature Solution Processable Electrodes for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Julin, Tuomas; Rantanen, Ville; Zakrzewski, Mari; Moilanen, Pasi; Lupo, Donald

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin-film sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications from physiological measurements to industrial monitoring systems. The use of flexible materials in combination with high-throughput printing technologies enables cost-effective manufacturing of custom-designed, highly integratable piezoelectric sensors. This type of sensor can, for instance, improve industrial process control or enable the embedding of ubiquitous sensors in our living environment to improve quality of life. Here, we discuss the benefits, challenges and potential applications of piezoelectric thin-film sensors. The piezoelectric sensor elements are fabricated by printing electrodes on both sides of unmetallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) film. We show that materials which are solution processable in low temperatures, biocompatible and environmental friendly are suitable for use as electrode materials in piezoelectric sensors.

  12. Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  13. Electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngernchuklin, P.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Jadidian, B.

    2009-02-01

    We examine the electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites with various piezoelectric volume percentage obtained by cosintering piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 and electrostrictive 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/.3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 under unipolar and bipolar electric field excitation up to 10 kV/cm experimentally. It is shown that the effective d33 of the composites is limited by the electrostrictive layer, which acts as a capacitor in series to the piezoelectric layer, causing incomplete poling. We show that by controlling the volume content of the piezoelectric layer and constraining it with an electrostrictor, substantial strain amplification (15 μm for bipolar excitation) can be achieved while inducing asymmetry to the displacement with respect to the polarity of the applied field, which we discuss in the context of symmetry superposition.

  14. Modelling of cantilever based on piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, N. F.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Recent technology allows devices to become smaller and with more functions. However, the battery size remained the same and for some devices, the battery must be larger in order to accommodate the greater power demands by the portable device. Piezoelectric energy harvester has been suggested as a substitute for the batteries in coming future. In this paper, a cantilever based piezoelectric energy harvester was modelled and simulated using COMSOL software. The analysis focused on the mechanical part of the harvesting system such as output power, output voltage and vibration frequency. Results of the simulations proved that flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters using nano-materials had remarkable strength under the large strain. However, although the large strain was induced on the flexible energy harvesters, the output power was still lower than the bulk and MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters that operated at the resonance frequency. The off-resonance operation and very lower packing density of the active piezoelectric materials of the flexible energy harvesters resulted in a low output power.

  15. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  16. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  17. Advances in Valveless Piezoelectric Pump with Cone-shaped Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Ying; Huang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of valveless piezoelectric pump with cone-shaped tube chronologically, which have widely potential application in biomedicine and micro-electro-mechanical systems because of its novel principles and deduces the research direction in the future. Firstly, the history of valveless piezoelectric pumps with cone-shaped tubes is reviewed and these pumps are classified into the following types: single pump with solid structure or plane structure, and combined pump with parallel structure or series structure. Furthermore, the function of each type of cone-shaped tubes and pump structures are analyzed, and new directions of potential expansion of valveless piezoelectric pumps with cone-shaped tubes are summarized and deduced. The historical argument, which is provided by the literatures, that for a valveless piezoelectric pump with cone-shaped tubes, cone angle determines the flow resistance and the flow resistance determines the flow direction. The argument is discussed in the reviewed pumps one by one, and proved to be convincing. Finally, it is deduced that bionics is pivotal in the development of valveless piezoelectric pump with cone-shaped tubes from the perspective of evolution of biological structure. This paper summarizes the current valveless piezoelectric pumps with cone-shaped tubes and points out the future development, which may provide guidance for the research of piezoelectric actuators.

  18. Piezoelectric loudspeaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Curtis Randall (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A piezoelectric loudspeaker suitable for midrange frequencies uses a dome shaped piezoelectric actuator to drive a speaker membrane directly. The dome shaped actuator is made from a reduced and internally biased oxygen wafer, and generates excursion of the apex of the dome in the order of 0.02 - 0.05 inches when a rated drive voltage of 350 V rms is applied between the convex and the concave surfaces of the dome shaped actuator. The load capacity exceeds 10 lbs. The edge of the rim of the dome shaped actuator must be free to rock when the dome height varies to ensure low distortion in the loudspeaker. This is achieved by mounting the rim of the dome shaped actuator on a support surface by prestress only. An exceptionally simple design uses a planar speaker membrane with the center part of one side pressed against the rim of a dome shaped actuator by prestress from a stretched latex surround member.

  19. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  20. Electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fibrous mat showing piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobeshima, Taiki; Ishii, Yuya; Sakai, Heisuke; Uemura, Sei; Yoshida, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    A piezoelectric effect, such as actuation behavior with voltage application, could be observed from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibrous mat fabricated by electrospinning. This fibrous mat increased or decreased its thickness in accordance with the polarity of the applied voltage, which appears to be an inverse piezoelectric effect. The appearance d T constant was as large as 8.5 nm/V owing to the softness of the fibrous structure, and the coupling constant K T = 0.31 indicated its efficient piezoelectric property. This piezoelectric behavior was repeatedly observed to be stable at room temperature. In addition, the polarization components of the fibrous mat, which are considered to be the origin of its piezoelectric effect, and its relaxation behavior were confirmed from the results of thermally stimulated current measurements.

  1. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  2. Piezoelectric Composites by Solid Freeform Fabrication: A Nature-Inspired Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.; Akdoğan, E. K.

    Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors are indispensable materials for use in transducer technology, as they inherently possess both direct (sensing) and converse (actuation) effects. A piezoelectric/electrostrictive sensor converts a mechanical input (displacement or force) into a measurable electrical output through piezoelectric/electrostrictive energy conversion. In the case of a piezoelectric, an applied mechanical force (stress) induces a voltage across the terminals of the transducer. On the other hand, an applied mechanical force induces a change in the capacitance of an electrostrictive transducer that could be electrically detected. Hence, the mechanical to electrical energy conversion is accomplished directly when a piezoelectric is used, while the same is obtained indirectly if the electroactive material of choice is an electrostrictor. Conversely, both piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials develop an elastic strain under an applied electric field. The said elastic strain is linearly proportional to the applied field in a piezoelectric, whereas electrostrictive coupling involves the second-order (quadratic) coupling of electric field with elastic strain. While piezoelectricity is possible only in noncentrosymetric point groups, electrostriction is observed in all solids, which make it a much more general solid-state phenomenon. Sensing and actuation functions can coexist in a given transducer by the intelligent use of such materials. Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors, therefore, constitute the backbone of modern transducer technology, as mechanical to electric energy (and vice versa) conversion can be accomplished with great efficiency in a way that is second to none among all phenomena known to date [1,2].

  3. Piezoelectric polymer multilayer on flexible substrate for energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Wong, Ting Chong; Tan, Chin Yaw; Yao, Kui

    2013-09-01

    A piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure formed on a flexible substrate is investigated for mechanical energy harvesting under bending mode. Analytical and numerical models are developed to clarify the effect of material parameters critical to the energy harvesting performance of the bending multilayer structure. It is shown that the maximum power is proportional to the square of the piezoelectric stress coefficient and the inverse of dielectric permittivity of the piezoelectric polymer. It is further found that a piezoelectric multilayer with thinner electrodes can generate more electric energy in bending mode. The effect of improved impedance matching in the multilayer polymer on energy output is remarkable. Comparisons between piezoelectric ceramic multilayers and polymer multilayers on flexible substrate are discussed. The fabrication of a P(VDF-TrFE) multilayer structure with a thin Al electrode layer is experimentally demonstrated by a scalable dip-coating process on a flexible aluminum substrate. The results indicate that it is feasible to produce a piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure on flexible substrate for harvesting mechanical energy applicable for many low-power electronics.

  4. Digital Refractometry of Piezoelectric Crystalline Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Research and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-87-0727-1 III DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA CD Dr. Edward Collett...1L 1 DA313485 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr...GROUP SUB-GROUP Lasers; quartz; dielectrics; permittivity; refractometry 9 U-1optics; millimeter waves; microwaves; crystals. ,𔄃. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  5. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  6. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved in one or more charging chambers to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  7. Characterization of Hard Piezoelectric Lead-Free Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Lim, Jong Bong; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    K4CuNb8O23 doped K0.45Na0.55NbO3 (KNN-KCN) ferroelectric ceramics were found to exhibit asymmetrical polarization hysteresis loops, related to the development of an internal bias field. The internal bias field is believed to be the result of defect dipoles of acceptor ions and oxygen vacancies, which lead to piezoelectric “hardening” effect, by stabilizing and pinning of the domain wall motion. The dielectric loss for the hard lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was found to be 0.6%, with mechanical quality factors Q on the order of >1500. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties were found to decrease and the coercive field increased, when compared with the undoped material, exhibiting a typical characteristic of “hard” behavior. The temperature usage range was limited by the polymorphic phase transition temperature, being 188°C. The full set of material constants was determined for the KNN-KCN materials. Compared with conventional hard PZT ceramics, the lead-free possessed lower dielectric and piezoelectric properties; however, comparable values of mechanical Q, dielectric loss, and coercive fields were obtained, making acceptor modified KNN based lead-free piezoelectric material promising for high-power applications, where lead-free materials are desirable. PMID:19686966

  8. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  9. Quantification of a contact stimulus by diapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomata, Takuya; Okuyama, Takeshi; Teraoka, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a development of a sensor system for measurement of a contact stimulus which diapers give to infants. A polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) film and a strain gauge are used as the sensor receptors. The PVDF is a kind of piezoelectric material. The sensor consists of a surface contact layer, a PVDF film, a strain gauge and an aluminum plate. First, in order to investigate the sensor performance, the sensor was located on a silicone plate and the upper part of the sensor was rubbed with an acrylic artificial finger. The finger enabled the measurement to carry out at a constant speed and force. Next, the sensor was attached on an infant dummy and the sensor outputs were measured under conditions with and without diapers. By comparison of the output under two different conditions, it was confirmed that there is a clearly difference between the two conditions. It was found that the developed sensor system has the possibility to quantify a contact stimulus which diapers give infants.

  10. Understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganley, Jeffrey Mark

    2007-12-01

    Piezoelectricity describes the behavior of a class of materials which exhibit a relationship between mechanical strain and electrical field. Piezoelectric materials can be crystals (e.g. quartz), ceramic (e.g. lead-zirconate-titanate---PZT---the primary focus of the present research), or polymers (e.g. polyvinylidine-fluoride - PVDF). Piezopolymers and piezoceramics offer a significant improvement in piezoelectric properties over naturally occurring piezoelectrics like quartz. In the last five years, research in piezoelectrics has begun to change focus from the more traditional sensor/actuator applications to utilizing piezoelectric materials in energy harvesting applications. The present research will explore the very low frequency response of piezoelectrics, including several energy harvesting applications, as well as the interactions between thermal, mechanical and electrical energy in a thermally driven piezoelectric energy generation system. In Chapter 1, the history of piezoelectric research and development is given, along with an overview of piezoelectricity for those readers who are not familiar with the topic. In Chapter 2, current investigations in piezoelectric energy harvesting research are summarized. The present research, namely understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials is also summarized. In addition, two applications: thermal management in a satellite and energy harvesting from a vibrating highway bridge are detailed as motivators for the present research. Chapter 3 gives a summary of the relevant piezoelectric theory. In addition, electrical circuit theory and thermodynamic heat capacity/heat energy considerations required to complete the present research are given. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the experimental testing completed during the course of the present research. Significant testing, including determination of the PZT/Aluminum substrate sample time constants, thermal calibration testing

  11. Modeling and Application of Piezoelectric Materials in Repair of Engineering Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan

    The shear horizontal wave propagation and vibration of piezoelectric coupled structures under an open circuit electrical boundary condition are studied. Following the studies on the dynamic response of piezoelectric coupled structures, the repair of both crack/notch and delaminated structures using piezoelectric materials are conducted. The main contribution was the proposed the active structural repair design using piezoelectric materials for different structures. An accurate model for the piezoelectric effect on the shear wave propagation is first proposed to guide the application of piezoelectric materials as sensors and actuators in the repair of engineering structures. A vibration analysis of a circular steel substrate surface bonded by a piezoelectric layer with open circuit is presented. The mechanical models and solutions for the wave propagation and vibration analysis of piezoelectric coupled structures are established based on the Kirchhoff plate model and Maxwell equation. Following the studies of the dynamic response of piezoelectric coupled structures, a close-loop feedback control repair methodology is proposed for a vibrating delaminated beam structure by using piezoelectric patches. The electromechanical characteristic of the piezoelectric material is employed to induce a local shear force above the delamination area via an external actuation voltage, which is designed as a feedback of the deflection of a vibrating beam and a delaminated plate, to reduce the stress singularity around the delamination tips. Furthermore, an experimental realization of an effective repair of a notched cantilever beam structure subjected to a dynamic loading by use of piezoelectric patches is reported. A small piezoelectric patch used as a sensor is placed on the notch position to monitor the severity of the stress singularity around the notch area by measuring the charge output on the sensor, and a patch used as an actuator is located around the notch area to generate

  12. Doped ZrO2 for future lead free piezoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starschich, S.; Böttger, U.

    2018-01-01

    The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of doped ZrO2 prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD) are investigated. Doping with different elements such as Mg, In, La, and Y leads to a stabilization of the constricted hysteresis. As shown in a previous work, for the constricted hysteresis of ZrO2, the piezoelectric response is significantly larger compared to ZrO2 with a normal hysteresis. The Mg doped ZrO2 shows a strong temperature and cycle stability. For the piezoelectric properties, a magnesium concentration of 7% shows the largest piezoelectric response with a piezoelectric coefficient of >10 pm/V, as well as the best cycle stability. Due to thicker films, which can be realized by the CSD technique, the shown doped ZrO2 films are a promising candidate for energy related applications such as piezoelectric energy harvesting as well as for microelectromechanical systems.

  13. Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieven, Nicholas A. J.

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.

  14. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-01-01

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d33 of HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics. PMID:28240268

  15. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-02-27

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d 33 of HA/BaTiO 3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO 3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO 3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO 3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO 3 piezoelectric ceramics.

  16. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-02-01

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d33 of HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics.

  17. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  18. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ. PMID:27399705

  19. Enhanced piezoelectric effect in Janus group-III chalcogenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Si; Bai, Yizhen; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectricity is a unique material property that converts mechanical energy into electricity or vice versa. Starting from the group-III monochalcogenide monolayers, we design a series of derivative Janus structures for piezoelectric materials, including Ga2SSe, Ga2STe, Ga2SeTe, In2SSe, In2STe, In2SeTe, GaInS2, GaInSe2, and GaInTe2. Our first-principles calculations show that these Janus structures are thermodynamically and dynamically stable. They have a bandgap in the range of 0.89-2.03 eV, lower than those of the perfect monolayers, and Ga2STe, Ga2SeTe, In2STe, and In2SeTe monolayers are direct gap semiconductors. They possess piezoelectric coefficients up to 8.47 pm/V, over four times the maximum value obtained in perfect group-III monochalcogenide monolayers. Moreover, the broken mirror symmetry of these Janus structures induces out-of-plane dipolar polarization, yielding additional out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients of 0.07-0.46 pm/V. The enhanced piezoelectric properties enable the development of these novel two-dimensional materials for piezoelectric sensors and nanogenerators.

  20. Physics of direct-contact ultrasonic cloth drying process

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peng, Chang; Ravi, Saitej; Patel, Viral K.

    Existing methods of drying fabrics involve energy-intensive thermal evaporation of moisture from clothes. Drying fabrics using high-frequency vibrations of piezoelectric transducers can substantially reduce drying time and energy consumption. In this method, vibrational energy generates instability on the liquid-air interface and mechanically ejects water from a wet fabric. For the first time, the physics of the ultrasonic fabric drying process in direct-contact mode is studied. The kinematic and thermal responses of water droplets and fabrics on piezoelectric crystal transducers and metal mesh–based transducers are studied. The results suggest that on piezoelectric crystal transducers, the response of a droplet subjected tomore » ultrasonic excitation is dictated by the relative magnitude of the surface tension and the ultrasonic excitation forces. The drying process for a fabric on the studied transducers consists of two regimes—vibrational and thermal. When the water content is high, the vibrational forces can eject bulk water rapidly. But the more strongly bound water within the smaller fabric pores evaporates by the thermal energy generated as a result of the viscous losses. Our study finds that a metal mesh–based transducer is more suitable for dewatering fabrics, as it facilitates the ejection of water from the fabric–transducer interface to the opposite side of the mesh. A demonstration unit developed consumes 10–20% of the water latent heat energy at water contents greater than 20%.« less

  1. Physics of direct-contact ultrasonic cloth drying process

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Chang; Ravi, Saitej; Patel, Viral K.; ...

    2017-02-27

    Existing methods of drying fabrics involve energy-intensive thermal evaporation of moisture from clothes. Drying fabrics using high-frequency vibrations of piezoelectric transducers can substantially reduce drying time and energy consumption. In this method, vibrational energy generates instability on the liquid-air interface and mechanically ejects water from a wet fabric. For the first time, the physics of the ultrasonic fabric drying process in direct-contact mode is studied. The kinematic and thermal responses of water droplets and fabrics on piezoelectric crystal transducers and metal mesh–based transducers are studied. The results suggest that on piezoelectric crystal transducers, the response of a droplet subjected tomore » ultrasonic excitation is dictated by the relative magnitude of the surface tension and the ultrasonic excitation forces. The drying process for a fabric on the studied transducers consists of two regimes—vibrational and thermal. When the water content is high, the vibrational forces can eject bulk water rapidly. But the more strongly bound water within the smaller fabric pores evaporates by the thermal energy generated as a result of the viscous losses. Our study finds that a metal mesh–based transducer is more suitable for dewatering fabrics, as it facilitates the ejection of water from the fabric–transducer interface to the opposite side of the mesh. A demonstration unit developed consumes 10–20% of the water latent heat energy at water contents greater than 20%.« less

  2. Special Defense Acquisition Fund (SDAF) Requirement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-15

    the the TOW HEAT Missile and PD Fuses M557 and M739 were diverted every year. f. As a system is set up for collecting and analyzing data, the...684 225 Fuze, MTSQ H278 1506 Fuze# MTSQ 1564 *2000 736 2208 13824 Fuze, PD, M557 90000 3612 50448 4666 Fuze, PD, M739 7233 1252 Fuze, Prox. M514

  3. Vibration Analysis of Composite Laminate Plate Excited by Piezoelectric Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control. PMID:23529121

  4. Hysteresis compensation for piezoelectric actuators in single-point diamond turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Dejin; Wan, Daping; Liu, Hongbin

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, interests have been growing for fast tool servo (FTS) systems to increase the capability of existing single-point diamond turning machines. Although piezoelectric actuator is the most universal base of FTS system due to its high stiffness, accuracy and bandwidth, nonlinearity in piezoceramics limits both the static and dynamic performance of piezoelectric-actuated control systems evidently. To compensate the nonlinear hysteresis behavior of piezoelectric actuators, a hybrid model coupled with Preisach model and feedforward neural network (FNN) has been described. Since the training of FNN does not require a special calibration sequence, it is possible for on-line identification and real-time implementation with general operating data of a specific piezoelectric actuator. To describe the rate dependent behavior of piezoelectric actuators, a hybrid dynamic model was developed to predict the response of piezoelectric actuators in a wider range of input frequency. Experimental results show that a maximal error of less than 3% was accomplished by this dynamic model.

  5. The conversion of PN-junction influencing the piezoelectric output of a CuO/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator and its application as a room-temperature self-powered active H₂S sensor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Zhao, Yayu; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-07-04

    Room-temperature, high H2S sensing has been realized from a CuO/ZnO nanoarray self-powered, active gas sensor. The piezoelectric output of CuO/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as the power source of the device, but also as the H2S sensing signal at room temperature. Upon exposure to 800 ppm H2S at room temperature, the piezoelectric output of the device greatly decreased from 0.738 V (in air) to 0.101 V. The sensitivity increased to 629.8, much higher than bare ZnO nanoarrays. As the device was exposed to H2S, a CuO/ZnO PN-junction was converted into a CuS/ZnO Ohmic contact, which greatly increased the electron density in the nanowire and enhanced the screen effect on the piezoelectric output. Our results can stimulate a research trend on designing new composite piezoelectric material for high-performance self-powered active gas sensors.

  6. Polarization and Piezoelectric Properties of a Nitrile Substituted Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Fay, Catharine

    1997-01-01

    This research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of a piezoelectric (beta-CN)- APB/ODPA polyimide. The remanent polarization and piezoelectric d(sub 31) and g(sub 33) coefficients are reported to assess the effect of synthesis variations. Each of the materials exhibits a level of piezoelectricity which increases with temperature. The remanent polarization is retained at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the polyimide.

  7. Acoustics of the piezo-electric pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustical properties of a piezoelectric device are reported for measuring the pressure in the plasma flow from an MPD arc. A description and analysis of the acoustical behavior in a piezoelectric probe is presented for impedance matching and damping. The experimental results are presented in a set of oscillographic records.

  8. System and Method for Monitoring Piezoelectric Material Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Chattin, Richard L. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for monitoring performance capacity of a piezoelectric material that may form part of an actuator or sensor device. A switch is used to selectively electrically couple an inductor to the piezoelectric material to form an inductor-capacitor circuit. Resonance is induced in the inductor-capacitor circuit when the switch is operated to create the circuit. The resonance of the inductor-capacitor circuit is monitored with the frequency of the resonance being indicative of performance capacity of the device's piezoelectric material.

  9. Piezoelectrically tunable resonance frequency beam utilizing a stress-sensitive film

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting particular frequencies of acoustic vibration utilize a piezoelectrically-tunable beam element having a piezoelectric layer and a stress sensitive layer and means for providing an electrical potential across the piezoelectric layer to controllably change the beam's stiffness and thereby change its resonance frequency. It is then determined from the response of the piezoelectrically-tunable beam element to the acoustical vibration to which the beam element is exposed whether or not a particular frequency or frequencies of acoustic vibration are detected.

  10. Passively Damped Laminated Piezoelectric Shell Structures with Integrated Electric Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1999-01-01

    Multi-field mechanics are presented for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates interfaced with distributed passive electric components. The equations of motion for laminated piezoelectric shell structures with embedded passive electric networks are directly formulated and solved using a finite element methodology. The modal damping and frequencies of the piezoelectric shell are calculated from the poles of the system. Experimental and numerical results are presented for the modal damping and frequency of composite beams with a resistively shunted piezoceramic patch. The modal damping and frequency of plates, cylindrical shells and cylindrical composite blades with piezoelectric-resistor layers are predicted. Both analytical and experimental studies illustrate a unique dependence of modal damping and frequencies on the shunting resistance and show the effect of structural shape and curvature on piezoelectric damping.

  11. LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, Richard L.; Fox, Robert Lee; Moses, Robert W.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2005-01-01

    A recently invented method of nonintrusively detecting faults in piezoelectric devices involves measurement of the resonance frequencies of inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuits. The method is intended especially to enable diagnosis of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and sensor/actuators that are embedded in structures and/or are components of multilayer composite material structures.

  12. Piezoelectric MEMS switch to activate event-driven wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Okada, H.; Makimoto, N.; Maeda, R.; Itoh, T.

    2013-09-01

    We have developed piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches and applied them to ultra-low power wireless sensor nodes, to monitor the health condition of chickens. The piezoelectric switches have ‘S’-shaped piezoelectric cantilevers with a proof mass. Since the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric switches is around 24 Hz, we have utilized their superharmonic resonance to detect chicken movements as low as 5-15 Hz. When the vibration frequency is 4, 6 and 12 Hz, the piezoelectric switches vibrate at 0.5 m s-2 and generate 3-5 mV output voltages with superharmonic resonance. In order to detect such small piezoelectric output voltages, we employ comparator circuits that can be driven at low voltages, which can set the threshold voltage (Vth) from 1 to 31 mV with a 1 mV increment. When we set Vth at 4 mV, the output voltages of the piezoelectric MEMS switches vibrate below 15 Hz with amplitudes above 0.3 m s-2 and turn on the comparator circuits. Similarly, by setting Vth at 5 mV, the output voltages turn on the comparator circuits with vibrations above 0.4 m s-2. Furthermore, setting Vth at 10 mV causes vibrations above 0.5 m s-2 that turn on the comparator circuits. These results suggest that we can select small or fast chicken movements to utilize piezoelectric MEMS switches with comparator circuits.

  13. Fabrication and calibration of a piezoelectric nanocomposite paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osho, Samuel; Wu, Nan; Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang; Ojo, Olanrewaju

    2018-03-01

    A new liquid form piezoelectric nanocomposite paint material is fabricated with possible applications as dynamic strain sensors and/or piezoelectric transducers. The applied coating is in the form of low-cost paint, which is flexible and bonds strongly on a metallic surface after drying out via the solvent-casting method. The nanocomposite is produced by an ultrasonic mixture of varying percentages of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle water dispersion, poly vinyl acetate glue (PVA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). ZnO nanoparticles are used as the piezoelectric sensing elements in a PVA matrix of the paint, while CNTs are introduced as robust bridge of ZnO particles enhancing the piezoelectricity and material properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the linkages of ZnO nanoparticles in the composite by CNTs. Through piezoelectricity calibration, the optimum mixing ratio with the highest piezoelectricity is 78.1 wt% ZnO, 19.5 wt% PVA glue and 2.4 wt% multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Through nanoindentation tests for the characterization of the mechanical properties of the nano-composite paint, it is found that Young’s modulus and hardness reached a threshold point in the increment in the addition of CNTs to the paint before showing signs of decline. Detailed analysis and explanation of the calibration results and physical phenomenon are provided. The stable paint material is ready to be applied on rough area of engineering structures as sensor and transducer.

  14. Electronics for Piezoelectric Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warkentin, D. J.; Tani, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly presents work addressing some of the basic considerations for the electronic components used in smart structures incorporating piezoelectric elements. After general remarks on the application of piezoelectric elements to the problem of structural vibration control, three main topics are described. Work to date on the development of techniques for embedding electronic components within structural parts is presented, followed by a description of the power flow and dissipation requirements of those components. Finally current work on the development of electronic circuits for use in an 'active wall' for acoustic noise is introduced.

  15. Control of piezoelectricity in amino acids by supramolecular packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Sarah; Stapleton, Aimee; Chovan, Drahomir; Mouras, Rabah; Gleeson, Matthew; McKeown, Cian; Noor, Mohamed Radzi; Silien, Christophe; Rhen, Fernando M. F.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Liu, Ning; Soulimane, Tewfik; Tofail, Syed A. M.; Thompson, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V-1, limiting technological applications. Guided by quantum mechanical calculations we have measured a high shear piezoelectricity (178 pm V-1) in the amino acid crystal beta (β) glycine, which is of similar magnitude to barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate. Our calculations show that the high piezoelectric coefficients originate from an efficient packing of the molecules along certain crystallographic planes and directions. The highest predicted piezoelectric voltage constant for β-glycine crystals is 8 V mN-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage generated by any currently used ceramic or polymer.

  16. Control of piezoelectricity in amino acids by supramolecular packing.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Sarah; Stapleton, Aimee; Chovan, Drahomir; Mouras, Rabah; Gleeson, Matthew; McKeown, Cian; Noor, Mohamed Radzi; Silien, Christophe; Rhen, Fernando M F; Kholkin, Andrei L; Liu, Ning; Soulimane, Tewfik; Tofail, Syed A M; Thompson, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V -1 , limiting technological applications. Guided by quantum mechanical calculations we have measured a high shear piezoelectricity (178 pm V -1 ) in the amino acid crystal beta (β) glycine, which is of similar magnitude to barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate. Our calculations show that the high piezoelectric coefficients originate from an efficient packing of the molecules along certain crystallographic planes and directions. The highest predicted piezoelectric voltage constant for β-glycine crystals is 8 V mN -1 , which is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage generated by any currently used ceramic or polymer.

  17. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K V; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-07

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic M_{A} structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic M_{B}, rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  18. Electrostatic potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire with consideration of size-dependent piezoelectricity and semiconducting characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, K F; Wang, B L

    2018-06-22

    Determining the electric potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire (NW) is a fundamental issue of nanogenerators and nanopiezotronics. The combined influence of the flexoelectric effect, the semiconducting performance and the angle of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has never been studied previously and will be investigated in this paper. The exact solution for the electric potential of a bent piezoelectric semiconductor NW is derived. The electric potential of the present model with consideration of flexoelectric effect varies along the length of the NW and is different from that of the classical piezoelectric model. Flexoelectric effect enhances but the semiconducting performance reduces the electric potential of the NW. In addition, it is found that if the angle of the AFM tip reaches 30°, the error of the electric potential obtained from the model ignored the effect of the angle of the AFM tip is almost 16%, which is unacceptable.

  19. Electrostatic potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire with consideration of size-dependent piezoelectricity and semiconducting characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. F.; Wang, B. L.

    2018-06-01

    Determining the electric potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire (NW) is a fundamental issue of nanogenerators and nanopiezotronics. The combined influence of the flexoelectric effect, the semiconducting performance and the angle of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has never been studied previously and will be investigated in this paper. The exact solution for the electric potential of a bent piezoelectric semiconductor NW is derived. The electric potential of the present model with consideration of flexoelectric effect varies along the length of the NW and is different from that of the classical piezoelectric model. Flexoelectric effect enhances but the semiconducting performance reduces the electric potential of the NW. In addition, it is found that if the angle of the AFM tip reaches 30°, the error of the electric potential obtained from the model ignored the effect of the angle of the AFM tip is almost 16%, which is unacceptable.

  20. Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

  1. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffery L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  2. Flow energy piezoelectric bimorph nozzle harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Arrazola, Alvaro; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary

    2014-04-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  3. Development and characterization of silicone embedded distributed piezoelectric sensors for contact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acer, Merve; Salerno, Marco; Agbeviade, Kossi; Paik, Jamie

    2015-07-01

    Tactile sensing transfers complex interactive information in a most intuitive sense. Such a populated set of data from the environment and human interactions necessitates various degrees of information from both modular and distributed areas. A sensor design that could provide such types of feedback becomes challenging when the target component has a nonuniform, agile, high resolution, and soft surface. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the manufacture of novel soft sensors that have a high resolution sensing array due to the sensitivity of ceramic piezoelectric (PZT) elements, while uncommonly matched with the high stretchability of the soft substrate and electrode design. Further, they have a low profile and their transfer function is easy to tune by changing the material and thickness of the soft substrate in which the PZTs are embedded. In this manuscript, we present experimental results of the soft sensor prototypes: PZTs arranged in a four by two array form, measuring 1.5-2.3 mm in thickness, with the sensitivity in the range of 0.07-0.12 of the normalized signal change per unit force. We have conducted extensive tests under dynamic loading conditions that include impact, step and cyclic. The presented prototype's mechanical and functional capacities are promising for applications in biomedical systems where soft, wearable and high precision sensors are needed.

  4. Piezoelectric power generation using friction-induced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Chiharu; Matsumoto, Aya; Nagamine, Takuo; Sasaki, Shinya

    2017-06-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of power generation by using friction-induced vibration with a piezoelectric element, we performed experiments and numerical analysis. In the experiments, the generated power in the piezoelectric element and the displacement of an oscillator were measured by a newly developed apparatus that embodied a single-degree-of-freedom (1-DOF) system with friction. In the numerical analysis, an analytical model of a 1-DOF system with friction and piezoelectric element was proposed to simulate the experiments. The experimental results demonstrated that the power of a few microwatts was generated by sliding between a steel ball and a steel plate lubricated with glycerol. In this study, a maximum power of approximately 10 μW was generated at a driving velocity of 40 mm s-1 and a normal load of 15 N. The numerical results demonstrated good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. This implies that this analytical model can be applied to optimize the oscillator design in piezoelectric power generation using friction-induced vibration.

  5. High-frequency performance for a spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua; Ma, Yu Ting; Pan, Qiao Sheng; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Liu, Yong Bin; He, Liang Guo

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric cantilever is suitable as an actuator for micro-flapping-wing aircraft. Higher resonant frequency brings about stronger flight energy, and the flight amplitude can be compensated by displacement-amplification mechanism, such as lever. To obtain a higher resonant frequency, straight piezoelectric bimorph was rolled into spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph with identical effective length in this study, which is verified in COMSOL simulations. Simulation results show that compared with the straight piezoelectric bimorph, the spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph with two turns has higher inherent frequencies (from 204.79 Hz to 504.84 Hz in terms of axial oscillation mode, and from 319.77 Hz to 704.48 Hz in terms of tangential torsional mode). The spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph is fabricated by a precise laser cutting process and consists of two turns with effective length of 60 mm, width of 2.5 mm, and thickness of 1.6 mm, respectively. With the excitation voltage of 100 Vpp applying an electric field across the thickness of the bimorph, the tip displacement of the actuator in the axial oscillation and tangential torsional modes are 85 μm and 15 μm, respectively.

  6. 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Sun, Mei; Wei, Xianlong; Shan, Chongxin

    2018-01-01

    Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced. PMID:29570639

  7. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.

  8. Electrode Coverage Optimization for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Tip Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangzhu; Bai, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting using cantilever-type structures has been extensively investigated due to its potential application in providing power supplies for wireless sensor networks, but the low output power has been a bottleneck for its further commercialization. To improve the power conversion capability, a piezoelectric beam with different electrode coverage ratios is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. A distributed-parameter theoretical model is established for a bimorph piezoelectric beam with the consideration of the electrode coverage area. The impact of the electrode coverage on the capacitance, the output power and the optimal load resistance are analyzed, showing that the piezoelectric beam has the best performance with an electrode coverage of 66.1%. An experimental study was then carried out to validate the theoretical results using a piezoelectric beam fabricated with segmented electrodes. The experimental results fit well with the theoretical model. A 12% improvement on the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) output power was achieved with the optimized electrode converge ratio (66.1%). This work provides a simple approach to utilizing piezoelectric beams in a more efficient way. PMID:29518934

  9. Theoretical study on the top- and enclosed-contacted single-layer MoS{sub 2} piezotronic transistors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Wei, E-mail: wliu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: zlwang@gatech.edu; Zhou, Yongli; Zhang, Aihua

    Recently, the piezotronic effect has been observed in two-dimensional single-layer MoS{sub 2} materials, which have potential applications in force and pressure triggered or controlled electronic devices, sensors, and human-machine interfaces. However, classical theory faces the difficulty in explaining the mechanism of the piezotronic effect for the top- and enclosed-contacted MoS{sub 2} transistors, since the piezoelectric charges are assumed to exist only at the edge of the MoS{sub 2} flake that is far from the electronic transport pathway. In the present study, we identify the piezoelectric charges at the MoS{sub 2}/metal-MoS{sub 2} interface by employing both the density functional theory andmore » finite element method simulations. This interface is on the transport pathway of both top- and enclosed-contacted MoS{sub 2} transistors, thus it is capable of controlling their transport properties. This study deepens the understanding of piezotronic effect and provides guidance for the design of two-dimensional piezotronic devices.« less

  10. Damage detection of civil infrastructures with piezoelectric oscillator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y. R.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, S. H.; Yun, C. B.

    2006-03-01

    Many researches have been reported on the condition monitoring of civil infrastructures by means of piezoelectric sensors. Most of them made use of the impedance change of the piezoelectric device in relation to the creation of internal damages to the structure. The impedance measurement is a well accepted method in the piezoelectric sensor area, and has been proved by many authors to be useful for civil structure diagnosis. However, the impedance measurement normally requires sophisticated equipment and analysis technology. For more general and wide application of the piezoelectric diagnosis tool, a new methodology is desired to overcome the limitations of the impedance measurement. This paper presents the feasibility of a piezoelectric oscillator sensor to detect the damages in civil infrastructures. The oscillator sensor is composed of an electronic feedback oscillator circuit and a piezoelectric thickness mode vibrator to be attached to the structure of interest. Damage to the structure causes a change in the impedance spectrum of the structure, which results in a corresponding change of the resonant frequency of the structure. The oscillator sensors can instantly detect the frequency change in a very simple manner. Feasibility of the piezoelectric oscillator sensor was verified in this work with a sample aluminum plate where artificial cracks of different depth were imposed in sequence. Validity of the measurement was confirmed through comparison of the experimental data with the results of finite element analyses of the plate with cracks. Performance of the oscillator sensor was also compared with that of its conventional counterpart, i.e. impedance measurement, to manifest the superiority of the oscillator sensor.

  11. Complete passive vibration suppression using multi-layered piezoelectric element, inductor, and resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes passive technique for suppressing vibration in flexible structures using a multi-layered piezoelectric element, an inductor, and a resistor. The objective of using a multi-layered piezoelectric element is to increase its capacitance. A piezoelectric element with a large capacitance value does not require an active electrical circuit to simulate an inductor with a large inductance value. The effect of multi-layering of piezoelectric elements was theoretically analyzed through an equivalent transformation of a multi-layered piezoelectric element into a single-layered piezoelectric element. The governing equations were derived using this equivalent transformation. The effect of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements were considered because the sum of these resistances may exceed the optimum resistance. The performance of the passive vibration suppression using an LR circuit was compared to that of the method where a resistive circuit is used assuming that the sum of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements exceeds the optimum resistance. The effectiveness of the proposed method and theoretical analysis was verified through simulations and experiments.

  12. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  13. Mechanical and Vibration Testing of Carbon Fiber Composite Material with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Kray, Nicholas; Gemeinhardt, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing turbomachinery blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. Before implementation of a piezoelectric element within a PMFC blade, the effect on PMFC mechanical properties needs to be understood. This study attempts to determine how the inclusion of a packaged piezoelectric patch affects the material properties of the PMFC. Composite specimens with embedded piezoelectric patches were tested in four-point bending, short beam shear, and flatwise tension configurations. Results show that the embedded piezoelectric material does decrease the strength of the composite material, especially in flatwise tension, attributable to failure at the interface or within the piezoelectric element itself. In addition, the sensing properties of the post-cured embedded piezoelectric materials were tested, and performed as expected. The piezoelectric materials include a non-flexible patch incorporating solid piezoceramic material, and two flexible patch types incorporating piezoelectric fibers. The piezoceramic material used in these patches was Navy Type-II PZT.

  14. Enhanced Piezoelectric Response of AlN via CrN Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sukriti; Talley, Kevin R.; Gorai, Prashun; Mangum, John; Zakutayev, Andriy; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2018-03-01

    Since AlN has emerged as an important piezoelectric material for a wide variety of applications, efforts have been made to increase its piezoelectric response via alloying with transition metals that can substitute for Al in the wurtzite lattice. We report on density functional theory calculations of structure and properties of the Crx Al1 -x N system for Cr concentrations ranging from zero to beyond the wurtzite-rocksalt transition point. By studying the different contributions to the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, we propose that the physical origin of the enhanced piezoelectricity in Crx Al1 -x N alloys is the increase of the internal parameter u of the wurtzite structure upon substitution of Al with the larger Cr ions. Among a set of wurtzite-structured materials, we find that Crx Al1 -x N has the most sensitive piezoelectric coefficient with respect to alloying concentration. Based on these results, we propose that Crx Al1 -x N is a viable piezoelectric material whose properties can be tuned via Cr composition. We support this proposal by combinatorial synthesis experiments, which show that Cr can be incorporated in the AlN lattice up to 30% before a detectable transition to rocksalt occurs. At this Cr content, the piezoelectric modulus d33 is approximately 4 times larger than that of pure AlN. This finding, combined with the relative ease of synthesis under nonequilibrium conditions, may position Crx Al1 -x N as a prime piezoelectric material for applications such as resonators and acoustic wave generators.

  15. Enhanced Piezoelectric Response of AlN via CrN Alloying

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Manna, Sukriti; Talley, Kevin R.; Gorai, Prashun

    2018-03-01

    Since AlN has emerged as an important piezoelectric material for a wide variety of applications, efforts have been made to increase its piezoelectric response via alloying with transition metals that can substitute for Al in the wurtzite lattice. We report on density functional theory calculations of structure and properties of the CrxAl1-xN system for Cr concentrations ranging from zero to beyond the wurtzite-rocksalt transition point. By studying the different contributions to the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, we propose that the physical origin of the enhanced piezoelectricity in CrxAl1-xN alloys is the increase of the internal parameter u of the wurtzite structuremore » upon substitution of Al with the larger Cr ions. Among a set of wurtzite-structured materials, we find that CrxAl1-xN has the most sensitive piezoelectric coefficient with respect to alloying concentration. Based on these results, we propose that CrxAl1-xN is a viable piezoelectric material whose properties can be tuned via Cr composition. We support this proposal by combinatorial synthesis experiments, which show that Cr can be incorporated in the AlN lattice up to 30% before a detectable transition to rocksalt occurs. At this Cr content, the piezoelectric modulus d33 is approximately 4 times larger than that of pure AlN. This finding, combined with the relative ease of synthesis under nonequilibrium conditions, may position CrxAl1-xN as a prime piezoelectric material for applications such as resonators and acoustic wave generators.« less

  16. Impact of Reflow on the Output Characteristics of Piezoelectric Microelectromechanical System Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Hironao; Masuda, Takashi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2012-09-01

    An animal health monitoring system and a wireless sensor node aimed at preventing the spread of animal-transmitted diseases and improving pastoral efficiency which are especially suitable for chickens, were developed. The sensor node uses a piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device and an event-driven system that is activated by the movements of a chicken. The piezoelectric MEMS device has two functions: a) it measures the activity of a chicken and b) switches the micro-control unit (MCU) of the wireless sensor node from the sleep mode. The piezoelectric MEMS device is required to produce high output voltages when the chicken moves. However, after the piezoelectric MEMS device was reflowed to the wireless sensor node, the output voltages of the piezoelectric MEMS device decreased. The main reason for this might be the loss of residual polarization, which is affected by the thermal load during the reflow process. After the reflow process, we were not able to apply a voltage to the piezoelectric MEMS device; thus, the piezoelectric output voltage was not increased by repoling the piezoelectric MEMS device. To address the thermal load of the reflow process, we established a thermal poling treatment, which achieves a higher temperature than the reflow process. We found that on increasing the thermal poling temperature, the piezoelectric output voltages did not decreased low significantly. Thus, we considered that a thermal poling temperature higher than that of the reflow process prevents the piezoelectric output voltage reduction caused by the thermal load.

  17. Design of a piezoelectric shaker for centrifuge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canclini, J. G.; Henderson, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a prototype piezoelectric shaker and its development to date is described. Although certain design problems remain to be solved, the piezoelectric system shows promise for adaptation to a larger payload system, such as the proposed geotechnical centrifuge at the Ames Research Center.

  18. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  19. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  20. Ultrasonic resonant piezoelectric actuator with intrinsic torque measurement.

    PubMed

    Pott, Peter P; Matich, Sebastian; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2012-11-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators are widely used in small-scale actuation systems, in which a closed-loop position control is usually utilized. To save an additional torque sensor, the intrinsic measurement capabilities of the piezoelectric material can be employed. To prove feasibility, a motor setup with clearly separated actuation for the friction and driving forces is chosen. The motor concept is based on resonant ultrasonic vibrations. To assess the effects of the direct piezoelectric effect, a capacitance bridge-type circuit has been selected. Signal processing is done by a measurement card with an integrated field-programmable gate array. The motor is used to drive a winch, and different torques are applied by means of weights to be lifted. Assessing the bridge voltage, a good proportionality to the applied torque of 1.47 mV/mN·m is shown. A hysteresis of 1% has been determined. The chosen motor concept is useful for intrinsic torque measurement. However, it provides drawbacks in terms of limited mechanical performance, wear, and thermal losses because of the soft piezoelectric material. Future work will comprise the application of the method to commercially available piezoelectric actuators as well as the implementation of the measurement circuit in an embedded system.

  1. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  2. A temperature compensation methodology for piezoelectric based sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong F.; Lou, Xueqiao; Bao, Aijian; Yang, Xu; Zhao, Ji

    2017-08-01

    A temperature compensation methodology comprising a negative temperature coefficient thermistor with the temperature characteristics of a piezoelectric material is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of piezoelectric sensing based devices. The piezoelectric disk is characterized by using a disk-shaped structure and is also used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed compensation method. The measured output voltage shows a nearly linear relationship with respect to the applied pressure by introducing the proposed temperature compensation method in a temperature range of 25-65 °C. As a result, the maximum measurement accuracy is observed to be improved by 40%, and the higher the temperature, the more effective the method. The effective temperature range of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed by introducing the constant coefficient of the thermistor (B), the resistance of initial temperature (R0), and the paralleled resistance (Rx). The proposed methodology can not only eliminate the influence of piezoelectric temperature dependent characteristics on the sensing accuracy but also decrease the power consumption of piezoelectric sensing based devices by the simplified sensing structure.

  3. Proposition for sensorless self-excitation by a piezoelectric device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kokubun, Y.; Yabuno, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to realize self-excitation in an oscillator actuated by a piezoelectric device without a sensor. In general, the positive feedback associated with the oscillator velocity causes the self-excitation. Instead of measuring the velocity with a sensor, we utilize the electro-mechanical coupling effect in the oscillator and piezoelectric device. We drive the piezoelectric device with a current proportional to the linear combination of the voltage across the terminals of the piezoelectric device and its differential voltage signal. Then, the oscillator with the piezoelectric device behaves like a third-order system, which has three eigenvalues. The self-excitation can be realized because appropriate feedback gains can set two of the eigenvalues to be conjugate complex roots with a positive real part and the other eigenvalue to be a negative real root. To confirm the validity of the proposed method, we experimentally demonstrated the sensorless self-excitation and, as an application example, carried out mass sensing in a sensorless self-excited macrocantilever.

  4. Hydroelectromechanical modelling of a piezoelectric wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the hydroelectromechanical-coupled dynamics of a piezoelectric wave energy converter. The converter is made of a flexible bimorph plate, clamped at its ends and forced to motion by incident ocean surface waves. The piezoceramic layers are connected in series and transform the elastic motion of the plate into useful electricity by means of the piezoelectric effect. By using a distributed-parameter analytical approach, we couple the linear piezoelectric constitutive equations for the plate with the potential-flow equations for the surface water waves. The resulting system of governing partial differential equations yields a new hydroelectromechanical dispersion relation, whose complex roots are determined with a numerical approach. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling in the hydroelastic domain generates a system of short- and long-crested weakly damped progressive waves travelling along the plate. We show that the short-crested flexural wave component gives a dominant contribution to the generated power. We determine the hydroelectromechanical resonant periods of the device, at which the power output is significant.

  5. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration.

  6. Multidirection Piezoelectricity in Mono- and Multilayered Hexagonal α-In2Se3.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Junwei; Hu, Weijin; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Han, Ali; Leung, Siu-Fung; Huang, Jing-Kai; Wan, Yi; Liu, Shuhai; Zhang, Junli; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Wen-Hao; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-05-22

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used for sensors, actuators, electronics, and energy conversion. Two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin semiconductors, such as monolayer h-BN and MoS 2 with their atom-level geometry, are currently emerging as new and attractive members of the piezoelectric family. However, their piezoelectric polarization is commonly limited to the in-plane direction of odd-number ultrathin layers, largely restricting their application in integrated nanoelectromechanical systems. Recently, theoretical calculations have predicted the existence of out-of-plane and in-plane piezoelectricity in monolayer α-In 2 Se 3 . Here, we experimentally report the coexistence of out-of-plane and in-plane piezoelectricity in monolayer to bulk α-In 2 Se 3 , attributed to their noncentrosymmetry originating from the hexagonal stacking. Specifically, the corresponding d 33 piezoelectric coefficient of α-In 2 Se 3 increases from 0.34 pm/V (monolayer) to 5.6 pm/V (bulk) without any odd-even effect. In addition, we also demonstrate a type of α-In 2 Se 3 -based flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator as an energy-harvesting cell and electronic skin. The out-of-plane and in-plane piezoelectricity in α-In 2 Se 3 flakes offers an opportunity to enable both directional and nondirectional piezoelectric devices to be applicable for self-powered systems and adaptive and strain-tunable electronics/optoelectronics.

  7. Piezoelectric antibacterial fabric comprised of poly(l-lactic acid) yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masamichi; Takeshima, Satoshi; Ishiura, Yutaka; Ando, Kanako; Onishi, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    A lactic acid monomer has an asymmetric carbon in the molecule, so there are optical isomer l- and d-type. The most widely used poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for commercial applications is poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). PLLA is the polymerization product of l-lactide. Certain treatments of PLLA can yield a film that exhibits shear piezoelectricity. Thus, piezoelectric PLLA fiber can be generated by micro slitting piezoelectric PLLA films or by a melt spinning method. We prepared left-handed helical multi fiber yarn (S-yarn) and right-handed helical yarn (Z-yarn) using piezoelectric PLLA fiber. PLLA exhibited shear mode piezoelectricity, causing the electric polarity of the yarn surface to be reversed on the S-yarn and Z-yarn when tension was applied. An SZ-yarn was produced by combining the S-yarn and Z-yarn, and fabric was prepared using the SZ-yarn. This study demonstrated that the fabric has a strong antibacterial effect, which is thought to be due to the strong electric field between the yarns. The field is generated by a piezoelectric effect when the fabric was extended and contracted.

  8. Energy harvesting performance of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Sam; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2015-08-28

    Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity to small-scale vibrations and may possess superior mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency when compared to bulk or thin-film devices of the same material. However, candidate piezoelectric nanowires have hitherto been predominantly analyzed in terms of NG output (i.e. output voltage, output current and output power density). Surprisingly, the corresponding dynamical properties of the NG, including details of how the nanowires are mechanically driven and its impact on performance, have been largely neglected. Here we investigate all realizable NG driving contexts separately involving inertial displacement, applied stress T and applied strain S, highlighting the effect of driving mechanism and frequency on NG performance in each case. We argue that, in the majority of cases, the intrinsic high resonance frequencies of piezoelectric nanowires (∼tens of MHz) present no barrier to high levels of NG performance even at frequencies far below resonance (<1 kHz) typically characteristic of ambient vibrations. In this context, we introduce vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) coefficients ηS and ηT, based on intrinsic materials properties, for comparing piezoelectric NG performance under strain-driven and stress-driven conditions respectively. These figures of merit permit, for the first time, a general comparison of piezoelectric nanowires for NG applications that takes into account the nature of the mechanical excitation. We thus investigate the energy harvesting performance of prototypical piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires. We find that even though ceramic and polymer nanowires have been found, in

  9. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  10. Design and implementation of a versatile and variable-frequency piezoelectric coefficient measurement system.

    PubMed

    Wu, J S; Huang, Y K; Wu, F L; Lin, D Y

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple but versatile piezoelectric coefficient measurement system, which can measure the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients in the pressing and bending modes, respectively, at different applied forces and a wide range of frequencies. The functionality of this measurement system has been demonstrated on three samples, including a PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic bulk, a ZnO thin film, and a laminated piezoelectric film sensor. The static longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT bulk and the ZnO film are estimated to be around 210 and 8.1 pC/N, respectively. The static transverse piezoelectric coefficients of the ZnO film and the piezoelectric film sensor are determined to be, respectively, -0.284 and -0.031 C/m(2).

  11. Piezoelectric modulation of surface voltage in GaN and AlGaN/GaN: charge screening effects and 2DEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Marshall; Schrayer, Bret; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Hillard, Bob; Lagowski, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    Surface voltage response to pulses of piezoelectric polarization is measured with a Kelvin-probe providing a unique means for investigation of the dynamics of polarization induced sheet charge and 2DEG. Combined with biasing of the surface with a corona-deposited charge from accumulation to deep depletion and corresponding non-contact C-V type characterization, the technique identifies surface band bending and interface traps as key factors that affect the magnitude and time decay of piezoelectric polarization. For 2DEG structures, surface potential pinning is observed when the 2DEG is fully populated. Pinning is released by negative corona charging to fully deplete the 2DEG. These results are consistent with the role of surface states. Presently demonstrated polarization modulation and wafer scale measurements shall impact the in-depth characterization and fundamental understanding of AlGaN/GaN 2DEG structures.

  12. Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results.

  13. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  14. The Inhomogeneous Waves in a Rotating Piezoelectric Body

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and numerical results of rotation, propagation angle, and attenuation angle upon the waves propagating in the piezoelectric body. Via considering the centripetal and Coriolis accelerations in the piezoelectric equations with respect to a rotating frame of reference, wave velocities and attenuations are derived and plotted graphically. It is demonstrated that rotation speed vector can affect wave velocities and make the piezoelectric body behaves as if it was damping. Besides, the effects of propagation angle and attenuation angle are presented. Critical point is found when rotation speed is equal to wave frequency, around which wave characteristics change drastically. PMID:24298219

  15. Minimization of thickness of ultrasonic transducer by using piezoelectric backing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jiyoung; Kim, Jungsoon; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon

    2018-07-01

    To realize an insertion transducer with broadband characteristic, a transducer with a piezoelectric backing layer is proposed. The characteristic of the transducer was analyzed by using an equivalent circuit for a different electrical impedance connected to the piezoelectric backing layer. In the transducer designed to achieve optimization, the thickness of the transducer is less than 2.4 times that of the driving piezoelectric layer, and the frequency bandwidth is more than 110%. It is confirmed that the bandwidth of the fabricated transducer can be controlled by adjusting the electrical impedance in the piezoelectric backing layer.

  16. Fabrication of flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caifeng; Hong, Daiwei; Wang, Andong; Ni, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C.

  17. Fabrication of Flexible Piezoelectric PZT/Fabric Composite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Caifeng; Hong, Daiwei; Wang, Andong; Ni, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C. PMID:24348194

  18. Electromechanical coupling and temperature-dependent polarization reversal in piezoelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Paul M; Cain, Markys G; Correia, Tatiana M; Stewart, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Electrostriction plays a central role in describing the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric materials, including widely used piezoelectric ceramics. The piezoelectric properties are closely related to the underlying electrostriction. Small-field piezoelectric properties can be described as electrostriction offset by the remanent polarization which characterizes the ferroelectric state. Indeed, even large-field piezoelectric effects are accurately accounted for by quadratic electrostriction. However, the electromechanical properties deviate from this simple electrostrictive description at electric fields near the coercive field. This is particularly important for actuator applications, for which very high electromechanical coupling can be obtained in this region. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric ceramics at electric field strengths close to the coercive field, and the effects of temperature on electromechanical processes during polarization reversal. The roles of intrinsic ferroelectric strain coupling and extrinsic domain processes and their temperature dependence in determining the electromechanical response are discussed.

  19. Characterization of Piezoelectric Actuators for Flow Control over a Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossi, Karla M.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, piezoelectric actuators as the active element in synthetic jets demonstrated that they could significantly enhance the overall lift on an airfoil. However, durability, system weight, size, and power have limited their use outside a laboratory. These problems are not trivial, since piezoelectric actuators are physically brittle and display limited displacement. The objective of this study is to characterize the relevant properties for the design of a synthetic jet utilizing three types of piezoelectric actuators as mechanical diaphragms, Radial Field Diaphragms, Thunders, and Bimorphs so that the shape cavity volume does not exceed 147.5 cubic centimeters on a 7centimeter x 7centimeter aerial coverage. These piezoelectric elements were selected because of their geometry, and overall free-displacement. Each actuator was affixed about its perimeter in a cavity, and relevant parameters such as clamped displacement variations with voltage and frequency, air velocities produced through an aperture, and sound pressure levels produced by the piezoelectric diaphragms were measured.

  20. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ring Shaped Contour-Mode MEMS Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasambe, P. V.; Asgaonkar, V. V.; Bangera, A. D.; Lokre, A. S.; Rathod, S. S.; Bhoir, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Flexibility in setting fundamental frequency of resonator independent of its motional resistance is one of the desired criteria in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonator design. It is observed that ring-shaped piezoelectric contour-mode MEMS resonators satisfy this design criterion than in case of rectangular plate MEMS resonators. Also ring-shaped contour-mode piezoelectric MEMS resonator has an advantage that its fundamental frequency is defined by in-plane dimensions, but they show variation of fundamental frequency with different Platinum (Pt) thickness referred as change in ratio of fNEW /fO . This paper presents the effects of variation in geometrical parameters and change in piezoelectric material on the resonant frequencies of Platinum piezoelectric-Aluminium ring-shaped contour-mode MEMS resonators and its electrical parameters. The proposed structure with Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) as the piezoelectric material was observed to be a piezoelectric material with minimal change in fundamental resonant frequency due to Platinum thickness variation. This structure was also found to exhibit extremely low motional resistance of 0.03 Ω as compared to the 31-35 Ω range obtained when using AlN as the piezoelectric material. CoventorWare 10 is used for the design, simulation and corresponding analysis of resonators which is Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis and design tool for MEMS devices.

  1. Monitoring of bone healing by piezoelectric-EMI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlina, M. H.; Sarpinah, Bibi; Tawie, Rudy; Daho, Claira Dalislone; Annuar, Ishak

    2016-02-01

    Smart Piezoelectric devices which have excellent piezoelectric properties have been employed for various sensor and actuators applications. The work presented here is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of bone healing monitoring by using piezoelectric-electromechanical impedance (EMI) method that have several advantages such as low cost, portable, light weight and simplicity in measurement. A Piezoelectric sensor (PZT) has been widely used in damage detection of various structures including concrete, pipes and bones due to their unique sensing and actuating properties. The EMI technique has emerged as a universal Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) tool suitable for almost all engineering materials and structures. The method used for this proposed study consists of put healing agent in the host structure in particular cracks bone to be monitored by PZT-needle sensor which is embedded to the host structure. The measurements were taken in the frequency range between 0.04 to 100 kHz at 1 kHz interval using AD5933 evaluation board. The signals retrieved from the AD5933 evaluation board, were quantify and analyse to obtain Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) percentage value. Measurements were taken every hour for 12 hours. The result from the study shows the feasibility of the piezoelectric-EMI method to effectively detect changes during bone-cracks healing process until the cracks bone is fully recovered.

  2. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.

  3. Piezoelectric materials as stimulatory biomedical materials and scaffolds for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Biranche; Blaker, Jonny J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2018-04-16

    The process of bone repair and regeneration requires multiple physiological cues including biochemical, electrical and mechanical - that act together to ensure functional recovery. Myriad materials have been explored as bioactive scaffolds to deliver these cues locally to the damage site, amongst these piezoelectric materials have demonstrated significant potential for tissue engineering and regeneration, especially for bone repair. Piezoelectric materials have been widely explored for power generation and harvesting, structural health monitoring, and use in biomedical devices. They have the ability to deform with physiological movements and consequently deliver electrical stimulation to cells or damaged tissue without the need of an external power source. Bone itself is piezoelectric and the charges/potentials it generates in response to mechanical activity are capable of enhancing bone growth. Piezoelectric materials are capable of stimulating the physiological electrical microenvironment, and can play a vital role to stimulate regeneration and repair. This review gives an overview of the association of piezoelectric effect with bone repair, and focuses on state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials (polymers, ceramics and their composites), the fabrication routes to produce piezoelectric scaffolds, and their application in bone repair. Important characteristics of these materials from the perspective of bone tissue engineering are highlighted. Promising upcoming strategies and new piezoelectric materials for this application are presented. Electrical stimulation/electrical microenvironment are known effect the process of bone regeneration by altering the cellular response and are crucial in maintaining tissue functionality. Piezoelectric materials, owing to their capability of generating charges/potentials in response to mechanical deformations, have displayed great potential for fabricating smart stimulatory scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The growing

  4. Modeling and experiment of three-degree-of-freedom actuators using piezoelectric buzzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2013-10-01

    This study presents innovative three-degree-of-freedom piezoelectric actuators. Under the piezoelectric force and dry friction, the piezoelectric actuators not only can move in the Z-axis direction, but also rotate around the Y-axis and Z-axis. The Z-axis displacement can reach 62 mm and the rotation angle around the Y-axis and Z-axis can reach 270° and 360°, respectively. Compared with the literature, this innovative actuator design achieves one-degree-of-freedom translation and two-degree-of-freedom rotation. Equations of motion are derived based on the piezoelectric properties and Newton’s law. Two types of actuators are created in this study. In the first type, the centers of four piezoelectric buzzers are attached to an arm while in the other type each rim of the four piezoelectric buzzers is attached to the arm. Experimental results are compared with theoretical results. According to the experimental results, the present actuator can accomplish a translational velocity of 11 mm s-1, a Y-axis angular velocity of 8.96 rad s-1, a Z-axis angular velocity of 2.63 rad s-1, and a force of 2.49 mN. By using four piezoelectric buzzers, this study creates piezoelectric actuators capable of both translational and rotational motions.

  5. An exact analysis of a rectangular plate piezoelectric generator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashi; Chen, Ziguang; Hu, Yuantai

    2007-01-01

    We study thickness-twist vibration of a finite, piezoelectric plate of polarized ceramics or 6-mm crystals driven by surface mechanical loads. An exact solution from the three-dimensional equations of piezoelectricity is obtained. The plate is properly electroded and connected to a circuit such that an electric output is generated. The structure analyzed represents a piezoelectric generator for converting mechanical energy to electrical energy. Analytical expressions for the output voltage, current, power, efficiency, and power density are given. The basic behaviors of the generator are shown by numerical results.

  6. Membrane Vibration Tests Using Surface-Bonded Piezoelectric Patch Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasper, James L.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the dynamics of thin membranes. The test article is a one-meter square pre-tensioned Kapton membrane that incorporates small surface-bonded piezoelectric patches strategically positioned to excite many modes. It is shown that PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macro fiber composite) piezoelectric patch actuators provide adequate excitation energy to obtain modal frequencies and mode shapes. Results from modal tests performed on the membrane using piezoelectric patches of different sizes and positions are discussed.

  7. Analysis of the transfer function for layered piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrrez-Reyes, E.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.; Reyes-Ramírez, B.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Guadarrama-Santana, A.

    2017-06-01

    We model theoretically the voltage response to an acoustic pulse of a multilayer system forming a low noise capacitive sensor including a Polyvinylidene Fluoride piezoelectric film. First we model a generic piezoelectric detector consisting of a piezoelectric film between two metallic electrodes that are the responsible to convert the acoustic signal into a voltage signal. Then we calculate the pressure-to-voltage transfer function for a N-layer piezo-electric capacitor detector, allowing to study the effects of the electrode and protective layers thickness in typical layered piezoelectric sensors. The derived transfer function, when multiplied by the Fourier transform of the incident acoustic pulse, gives the voltage electric response in the frequency domain. An important concern regarding the transfer function is that it may have zeros at specific frequencies, and thus inverting the voltage Fourier transform of the pulse to recover the pressure signal in the time domain is not always, in principle, possible. Our formulas can be used to predict the existence and locations of such zeroes. We illustrate the use of the transfer function by predicting the electric signal generated at a multilayer piezoelectric sensor to an ultrasonic pulse generated photoacoustically by a laser pulse at a three media system with impedance mismatch. This theoretical calculations are compared with our own experimental measurements.

  8. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays as thermal interface material for vibrational structure of piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lie; Ju, Bin; Feng, Zhihua; Zhao, Yang

    2018-07-01

    The application and characterization of thermal interface material (TIM) for vibrational structures is investigated in this paper. The vibrating feature during the operation requires unique solution for its thermal management, since the connection between the device and heat dissipater should be able to conduct heat efficiently and impose minimum constraint onto the vibration simultaneously. As a typical vibrational device, piezoelectric transformers (PTs) are discussed in this paper. The PTs have urgent demands for thermal dissipation since their power conversion efficiency decrease rapidly with the rising temperature. A novel method by applying vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays to the interface between PT and heat dissipater is presented to enhance the performance of piezoelectric transformers. VACNT arrays are one of the excellent TIMs. It can directly establish thermal contact between two surfaces by van der Waals’ forces. In addition, the unique anisotropic character of CNT arrays provides enough flexibility to accommodate the vibration during the operation. Different configurations of TIMs are compared with each other in this work, including CNT arrays, tape of polypropylene (PP) membrane and without heat transfer structure (HTS). The results indicate that the temperature rise is lowest and the efficiency is highest at the same power density while CNT arrays served as the TIM. Almost no significant fretting and wearing damage occurred on PT electrode surface with CNT arrays TIM even after working continuously for 120 days. Meanwhile, the thermo-physical properties of CNT arrays at contact interface are measured by optical transient thermo-reflectance technique.

  9. Using Piezoelectric Devices to Transmit Power through Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A method denoted wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) has been conceived for transmitting power and/or data signals through walls or other solid objects made of a variety of elastic materials that could be electrically conductive or nonconductive. WAEF would make it unnecessary to use wires, optical fibers, tubes, or other discrete wall-penetrating signal-transmitting components, thereby eliminating the potential for structural weakening or leakage at such penetrations. Avoidance of such penetrations could be essential in some applications in which maintenance of pressure, vacuum, or chemical or biological isolation is required. In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall would be driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall would convert the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which would then be detected and otherwise processed in a manner that would depend on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal was used to transmit power, data, or both. An electromechanical-network model has been derived as a computationally efficient means of analyzing and designing a WAEF system. This model is a variant of a prior model, known in the piezoelectric-transducer art as Mason's equivalent-circuit model, in which the electrical and mechanical dynamics, including electromechanical couplings, are expressed as electrical circuit elements that can include inductors, capacitors, and lumped-parameter complex impedances. The real parts of the complex impedances are used to account for dielectric, mechanical, and coupling losses in all components (including all piezoelectric-transducer, wall, and intermediate material layers). In an application to a three-layer piezoelectric structure, this model was shown to yield the same results as do solutions of the wave equations of piezoelectricity and acoustic

  10. Energy harvesting from controlled buckling of piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2015-11-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is presented that can generate electricity from the weight of passing cars or crowds. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam, which buckles when the device is stepped on. The energy harvester can have a horizontal or vertical configuration. In the vertical (direct) configuration, the piezoelectric beam is vertical and directly sustains the weight of the vehicles or people. In the horizontal (indirect) configuration, the vertical weight is transferred to a horizontal axial force through a scissor-like mechanism. Buckling of the beam results in significant stresses and, thus, large power production. However, if the beam’s buckling is not controlled, the beam will fracture. To prevent this, the axial deformation is constrained to limit the deformations of the beam. In this paper, the energy harvester is analytically modeled. The considered piezoelectric beam is a general non-uniform beam. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the critical buckling force corresponding to each mode shape are calculated. The electro-mechanical coupling and the geometric nonlinearities are included in the model. The design criteria for the device are discussed. It is demonstrated that a device, realized with commonly used piezoelectric patches, can generate tens of milliwatts of power from passing car traffic. The proposed device could also be implemented in the sidewalks or integrated in shoe soles for energy generation. One of the key features of the device is its frequency up-conversion characteristics. The piezoelectric beam undergoes free vibrations each time the weight is applied to or removed from the energy harvester. The frequency of the free vibrations is orders of magnitude larger than the frequency of the load. The device is, thus, both efficient and insensitive to the frequency of the force excitations.

  11. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  12. Piezoelectrically-induced trap-depth reduction model of elastico-mechanoluminescent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, B. P.; Chandra, V. K.; Jha, Piyush

    2015-03-01

    Considering the detrapping of charge carriers due to reduction in trap-depth caused by piezoelectric field produced by applied pressure, an expression is derived for the detrapping rate of electrons. Then, an expression is obtained for the rate of generation of excited ions produced during capture of detrapped electrons by Eu3+ ions in persistent luminescent materials or by the energy released during electron-hole recombination in ZnS:Mn crystals. Finally, an expression is explored for the elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML) intensity, which is able to explain satisfactorily the characteristics of EML for the application of static pressure as well as for impact pressure. The total number of detrapped electrons and the total EML intensity are found to increase linearly with the electrostatic energy of the crystals in piezoelectric field. It is shown that the EML intensity should increase with the EML efficiency, number of crystallites (volume of sample), concentration of local piezoelectric regions in crystallites, piezoelectric constant of local piezoelectric regions, average length of the local piezoelectric regions, total number of electron traps, pressing rate, and applied pressure, and it should be higher for the materials having low value of threshold pressure and low value of trap-depth in unstressed condition. On the basis of the piezoelectrically-induced trap-depth reduction model of EML reported in the present investigation novel intense elastico mechanoluminescent materials having repetitive EML with undiminished intensity for successive loadings can be tailored which may find applications in sensing, imaging, lighting, colored displays, and other mechano-optical devices.

  13. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; He, Xuexia; Zhu, Hongfei; Sun, Linfeng; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xingli; Hoong, Lai Chee; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhao, Wu; Wei, Jun; Jin, Zhong; Shen, Zexiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the development of high-performance piezoelectric materials, actuators become an important tool for positioning objects with high accuracy down to nanometer scale, and have been used for a wide variety of equipment, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, positioning at the subatomic scale is still a great challenge. Ultrathin piezoelectric materials may pave the way to positioning an object with extreme precision. Using ultrathin CdS thin films, we demonstrate vertical piezoelectricity in atomic scale (three to five space lattices). With an in situ scanning Kelvin force microscopy and single and dual ac resonance tracking piezoelectric force microscopy, the vertical piezoelectric coefficient (d33) up to 33 pm·V−1 was determined for the CdS ultrathin films. These findings shed light on the design of next-generation sensors and microelectromechanical devices. PMID:27419234

  14. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; He, Xuexia; Zhu, Hongfei; Sun, Linfeng; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xingli; Hoong, Lai Chee; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhao, Wu; Wei, Jun; Jin, Zhong; Shen, Zexiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Driven by the development of high-performance piezoelectric materials, actuators become an important tool for positioning objects with high accuracy down to nanometer scale, and have been used for a wide variety of equipment, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, positioning at the subatomic scale is still a great challenge. Ultrathin piezoelectric materials may pave the way to positioning an object with extreme precision. Using ultrathin CdS thin films, we demonstrate vertical piezoelectricity in atomic scale (three to five space lattices). With an in situ scanning Kelvin force microscopy and single and dual ac resonance tracking piezoelectric force microscopy, the vertical piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) up to 33 pm·V(-1) was determined for the CdS ultrathin films. These findings shed light on the design of next-generation sensors and microelectromechanical devices.

  15. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-02-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h-1 to 70 km h-1, the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement.

  16. Accurate determination of complex materials coefficients of piezoelectric resonators.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qing-Ming; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents a method of accurately determining the complex piezoelectric and elastic coefficients of piezoelectric ceramic resonators from the measurement of the normalized electric admittance, Y, which is electric admittance Y of piezoelectric resonator normalized by the angular frequency omega. The coefficients are derived from the measurements near three special frequency points that correspond to the maximum and the minimum normalized susceptance (B) and the maximum normalized conductance (G). The complex elastic coefficient is determined from the frequencies at these points, and the real and imaginary parts of the piezoelectric coefficient are related to the derivative of the susceptance with respect to the frequency and the asymmetry of the conductance, respectively, near the maximum conductance point. The measurements for some lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based ceramics are used as examples to demonstrate the calculation and experimental procedures and the comparisons with the standard methods.

  17. Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Leontsev, Serhiy O; Eitel, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The ‘structural engineering’ approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications. PMID:27877343

  18. A new piezoelectric energy harvesting design concept: multimodal energy harvesting skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced design concept for a piezoelectric energy harvesting (EH), referred to as multimodal EH skin. This EH design facilitates the use of multimodal vibration and enhances power harvesting efficiency. The multimodal EH skin is an extension of our previous work, EH skin, which was an innovative design paradigm for a piezoelectric energy harvester: a vibrating skin structure and an additional thin piezoelectric layer in one device. A computational (finite element) model of the multilayered assembly - the vibrating skin structure and piezoelectric layer - is constructed and the optimal topology and/or shape of the piezoelectric layer is found for maximum power generation from multiple vibration modes. A design rationale for the multimodal EH skin was proposed: designing a piezoelectric material distribution and external resistors. In the material design step, the piezoelectric material is segmented by inflection lines from multiple vibration modes of interests to minimize voltage cancellation. The inflection lines are detected using the voltage phase. In the external resistor design step, the resistor values are found for each segment to maximize power output. The presented design concept, which can be applied to any engineering system with multimodal harmonic-vibrating skins, was applied to two case studies: an aircraft skin and a power transformer panel. The excellent performance of multimodal EH skin was demonstrated, showing larger power generation than EH skin without segmentation or unimodal EH skin.

  19. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drouant, George J. (Inventor); Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  20. Three-dimensional piezoelectric boundary elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Lisa Renee

    The strong coupling between mechanical and electrical fields in piezoelectric ceramics makes them appropriate for use as actuation devices; as a result, they are an important part of the emerging technologies of smart materials and structures. These piezoceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture, especially under the severe loading conditions which may occur in service. A significant portion of the applications under investigation involve dynamic loading conditions. Once a crack is initiated in the piezoelectric medium, the mechanical and electrical fields can act to drive the crack growth. Failure of the actuator can result from a catastrophic fracture event or from the cumulative effects of cyclic fatigue. The presence of these cracks, or other types of material defects, alter the mechanical and electrical fields inside the body. Specifically, concentrations of stress and electric field are present near a flaw and can lead to material yielding or localized depoling, which in turn can affect the sensor/actuator performance or cause failure. Understanding these effects is critical to the success of these smart structures. The complex coupling behavior and the anisotropy of the material makes the use of numerical methods necessary for all but the simplest problems. To this end, a three-dimensional boundary element method program is developed to evaluate the effect of flaws on these piezoelectric materials. The program is based on the linear governing equations of piezoelectricity and relies on a numerically evaluated Green's function for solution. The boundary element method was selected as the evaluation tool due to its ability to model the interior domain exactly. Thus, for piezoelectric materials the coupling between mechanical and electrical fields is not approximated inside the body. Holes in infinite and finite piezoceramics are investigated, with the localized stresses and electric fields clearly developed. The accuracy of the piezoelectric

  1. Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Wirebound Wood Box Containing Two M2A1 Ammunition Boxes for Packing Group II Hazardous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    00-892-4302 FUZE M557 8861213 1.1B 0106 16 19.4 N335 1390-01-080-4171 FUZE M557 8861213 1.4B 0257 16 19.4 N340 1390-00-574-7705 FUZE M739 8861213...1.1D 0408 16 20.9 N340-1390-01-080-9447 FUZE M739 8861213 1.2D 0409 16 20.9 N340 1390-01-132-7481 FUZE M739A1 8861213 1.2D 0409 16 20.9 N402 1390-00-764

  2. Novel linear piezoelectric motor for precision position stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Yunlai; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Junshan

    2016-03-01

    Conventional servomotor and stepping motor face challenges in nanometer positioning stages due to the complex structure, motion transformation mechanism, and slow dynamic response, especially directly driven by linear motor. A new butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric motor for linear motion is presented. A two-degree precision position stage driven by the proposed linear ultrasonic motor possesses a simple and compact configuration, which makes the system obtain shorter driving chain. Firstly, the working principle of the linear ultrasonic motor is analyzed. The oscillation orbits of two driving feet on the stator are produced successively by using the anti-symmetric and symmetric vibration modes of the piezoelectric composite structure, and the slider pressed on the driving feet can be propelled twice in only one vibration cycle. Then with the derivation of the dynamic equation of the piezoelectric actuator and transient response model, start-upstart-up and settling state characteristics of the proposed linear actuator is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and is applicable to evaluate step resolution of the precision platform driven by the actuator. Moreover the structure of the two-degree position stage system is described and a special precision displacement measurement system is built. Finally, the characteristics of the two-degree position stage are studied. In the closed-loop condition the positioning accuracy of plus or minus <0.5 μm is experimentally obtained for the stage propelled by the piezoelectric motor. A precision position stage based the proposed butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric is theoretically and experimentally investigated.

  3. Design and dynamic analysis of a piezoelectric linear stage for pipetting liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Jen, Wang; Chien, Lee; Yi-Bin, Jiang; Kuo-Chieh, Fu

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have been widely used in positioning stages because of their compact size, stepping controllability, and holding force. This study proposes a piezoelectric-driven stage composed of a bi-electrode piezoelectric slab, capacitive position sensor, and capillary filling detector for filling liquid samples into nanopipettes using capillary flow. This automatic sample-filling device is suitable for transmission electron microscopy image-based quantitative analysis of aqueous products with added nanoparticles. The step length of the actuator is adjusted by a pulse width modulation signal that depends on the stage position; the actuator stops moving once the capillary filling has been detected. A novel dynamic model of the piezoelectric-driven stage based on collision interactions between the piezoelectric actuator and the sliding clipper is presented. Unknown model parameters are derived from the steady state solution of the equivalent steady phase angle. The output force of the piezoelectric actuator is formulated using the impulse and momentum principle. Considering the applied forces and related velocity between the sliding clipper and the piezoelectric slab, the stage dynamic response is confirmed with the experimental results. Moreover, the model can be used to explain the in-phase slanted trajectories of piezoelectric slab to drive sliders, but not elliptical trajectories. The maximum velocity and minimum step length of the piezoelectric-driven stage are 130 mm s-1 and 1 μm respectively.

  4. Deflection of cross-ply composite laminates induced by piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate.

  5. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  6. Bending-induced electromechanical coupling and large piezoelectric response in a micromachined diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Xianbin; Yue, Weisheng; Chen, Longqing; Zhang, Xi Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response of a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragm on its curvature by observing the impedance spectrum and central deflection responses to a small AC voltage. The curvature of the diaphragm was controlled by applying air pressure to its back. We found that a depolarized flat diaphragm does not initially exhibit electromechanical coupling or the piezoelectric response. However, upon the application of static air pressure to the diaphragm, both electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response can be induced in the originally depolarized diaphragm. The piezoelectric response increases as the curvature increases and a giant piezoelectric response can be obtained from a bent diaphragm. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that a high strain gradient in a diaphragm can polarize a PZT film through a flexoelectric effect, and that the induced piezoelectric response of the diaphragm can be controlled by adjusting its curvature. PMID:24185198

  7. Cryogenic motion performances of a piezoelectric single crystal micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuting; Chen, Zhijiang; Wei, Xiaoyong; Luo, Haosu; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the cryogenic performances of a millimeter-size piezoelectric ultrasonic linear micromotor. The piezoelectric vibrator of the micromotor is made of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 -Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbTiO3 single crystal and operated in first-bending wobbling mode. Experiments show that the piezoelectric single crystal micromotor works effectively even at extremely low temperature of -175 °C, although its resonance peaks vary with temperature significantly. This work confirms the feasibility of cryogenic operation of the piezo-micromotor, which is meaningful for aerospace or superconducting microwave application.

  8. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  9. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with <7mW power consumption. The close match between test data and simulation results suggests that the piezoelectric properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized

  10. Energy harvesting “3-D knitted spacer” based piezoelectric textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, S.; Soin, N.; Shah, T. H.; Siores, E.

    2016-07-01

    The piezoelectric effect in Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high p-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3-D knitted spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high p-phase (~80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.105.10 gWcm-2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02-0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2-D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator is highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from ambient environment or by human movement.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Aligned Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanofibers for Wearable Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sang Hyun; Yun, Ji Sun

    2018-01-01

    Flexible lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers, based on BNT-ST (0.78Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.22SrTiO3) ceramic and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) copolymers, were fabricated by an electrospinning method and the effects of the degree of alignment in the nanofibers on the piezoelectric characteristics were investigated. The microstructure of the lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and the orientation was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the phase was not changed by the electrospinning process and maintained a perovskite phase. Polarization-electric field (P-E) loops and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) were used to investigate the piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric nanofibers, according to the degree of alignment—the well aligned piezoelectric nanofibers had higher piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the output voltage of the aligned lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was measured according to the vibration frequency and the bending motion and the aligned piezoelectric nanofibers with a collector rotation speed of 1500 rpm performed the best. PMID:29596372

  12. Conception of the system for traffic measurements based on piezoelectric foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.

    2016-08-01

    A concept of mechatronic system for traffic measurements based on the piezoelectric transducers used as sensors is presented. The aim of the work project is to theoretically and experimentally analyse the dynamic response of road infrastructure forced by vehicles motion. The subject of the project is therefore on the borderline of civil engineering and mechanical and covers a wide range of issues in both these areas. To measure the dynamic response of the tested pieces of road infrastructure application of piezoelectric, in particular piezoelectric transducers in the form of piezoelectric films (MFC - Macro Fiber Composite) is proposed. The purpose is to verify the possibility to use composite piezoelectric transducers as sensors used in traffic surveillance systems - innovative methods of controlling the road infrastructure and traffic. Presented paper reports works that were done in order to receive the basic information about analysed systems and their behaviour under excitation by passing vehicles. It is very important to verify if such kind of systems can be controlled by the analysis of the dynamic response of road infrastructure measured using piezoelectric transducers. Obtained results show that it could be possible.

  13. Resonant efficiency improvement design of piezoelectric biosensor for bacteria gravimetric sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chen, Ching-Jung; Shie, Dung-Ting; Liu, Jen-Tsai

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric biosensor have been widely used in ultra-small mass detection of biomolecular, based on PZT piezoelectric material can create a variety of compositions geometrically; it could widely develop a high-frequency resonator and measure the change of the slightest mass while improve the limited detection simultaneously. Therefore, the piezoelectric biosensor of this study was fabricated by a spin-coating method and backside etching process for improving the characteristic of piezoelectric biosensor. The result exhibited that the 250 μm × 250 μm working size has the most favorable piezoelectric characteristic. The tunability was approximately 38.56 % and it showed that reducing the substrate thickness could obtain a clear resonance signal in a range of 60 to 380 MHz. In theory calculated for gravimetric sensing, it could achieve 0.1 ng sensing sensitivity. In gravimetric sensing, the sensing range was between 50,000~100,000 CFU/ml. Sensing range was lower in clinical urinary tract infection (100,000 CFU/ml), thus demonstrating its usefulness for preventive medicine. It can understand the piezoelectric sensor of this study has potential application in the future for biomedical gravimetric sensing.

  14. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael; Calahorra, Yonatan; Jing, Qingshen; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM), we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  15. BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics: Fundamentals, current status, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, M.; Novak, N.; Rojas, V.; Patel, S.; Vaish, R.; Koruza, J.; Rossetti, G. A.; Rödel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a critical review that encompasses the fundamentals and state-of-the-art knowledge of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics. First, the essential crystallography, thermodynamic relations, and concepts necessary to understand piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in barium titanate are discussed. Strategies to optimize piezoelectric properties through microstructure control and chemical modification are also introduced. Thereafter, we systematically review the synthesis, microstructure, and phase diagrams of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics and provide a detailed compilation of their functional and mechanical properties. The most salient materials treated include the (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3, (Ba,Ca)(Sn,Ti)O3, and (Ba,Ca)(Hf,Ti)O3 solid solution systems. The technological relevance of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics is also discussed and some potential market indicators are outlined. Finally, perspectives on productive lines of future research and promising areas for the applications of these materials are presented.

  16. A piezoelectric film-based intrasplint detection method for bruxism.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Ikeda, T; Clark, G T

    2001-08-01

    An accurate, easy-to-use, long-term method other than EMG is needed to monitor bruxism. This article presents pilot data on the reproducibility, validity, and utility of an intrasplint piezoelectric film method. Simulated bruxism behaviors (steady-state and rhythmic clenching, grinding, and tapping) in 5 subjects were recorded with the use of both masseter EMG and an intrasplint piezoelectric film method. Correlation coefficients calculated for simulated bruxism event duration with the use of a masseter EMG or an intrasplint piezoelectric film method were 0.99 for tapping and steady-state clenching, 0.96 for rhythmic clenching, and 0.79 for grinding. Piezoelectric film has its limitations and does not faithfully capture sustained force magnitudes. However, for the target behaviors associated with bruxism (tooth grinding, clenching, and tapping), it appears to faithfully reproduce above-baseline events with durations statistically indistinguishable from those recorded with masseter EMG. Masseter EMG was poorest at detecting a simulated side-to-side grinding behavior.

  17. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  18. Piezoelectric Actuator with Frequency Characteristics for a Middle-Ear Implant.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2018-05-24

    The design and implementation of a novel piezoelectric-based actuator for an implantable middle-ear hearing aid is described in this paper. The proposed actuator has excellent low-frequency output characteristics, and can generate high output in a specific frequency band by adjusting the mechanical resonance. The actuator consists of a piezoelectric element, a miniature bellows, a cantilever membrane, a metal ring support, a ceramic tip, and titanium housing. The optimal structure of the cantilever-membrane design, which determines the frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric actuator, was derived through finite element analysis. Based on the results, the piezoelectric actuator was implemented, and its performance was verified through a cadaveric experiment. It was confirmed that the proposed actuator provides better performance than currently used actuators, in terms of frequency characteristics.

  19. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Elena; Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1−x] O3 (PZT), are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb). Due to its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided. PMID:22294907

  20. Design, Manufacturing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Flextensional Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigo, R. C. R.; Vatanabe, S. L.; Silva, E. C. N.

    2013-03-01

    Previous works have been shown several advantages in using Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) for the performance of flextensional devices, such as reduction of stress concentrations and gains in reliability. In this work, the FGM concept is explored in the design of graded devices by using the Topology Optimization Method (TOM), in order to determine optimal topologies and gradations of the coupled structures of piezoactuators. The graded pieces are manufactured by using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique and are bonded to piezoelectric ceramics. The graded actuators are then tested by using a modular vibrometer system for measuring output displacements, in order to validate the numerical simulations. The technological path developed here represents the initial step toward the manufacturing of an integral piezoelectric device, constituted by piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric materials without bonding layers.

  1. Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A new modeling approach is proposed for predicting the bulk electromechanical properties of piezoelectric composites. The proposed model offers the same level of convenience as the well-known Mori-Tanaka method. In addition, it is shown to yield predicted properties that are, in most cases, more accurate or equally as accurate as the Mori-Tanaka scheme. In particular, the proposed method is used to determine the electromechanical properties of four piezoelectric polymer composite materials as a function of inclusion volume fraction. The predicted properties are compared to those calculated using the Mori-Tanaka and finite element methods.

  2. An Evaluation System for the Contact Electrification of a Single Microparticle Using Microelectromechanical-Based Actuated Tweezers.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Daichi

    2018-06-05

    The image quality of laser and multi-function printers that make use of electrophotography depends on the amount of surface charge generated by contact electrification on the toner particles. However, because it has been impossible to experimentally evaluate such amounts under controlled contact conditions using macroscopic measurements, theoretical elucidation of the contact electrification mechanism has not progressed sufficiently. In the present study, we have developed a system to experimentally evaluate the contact electrification of a single particle using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanotweezers (microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based actuated tweezers). This system performs, in succession, (i) a contact test that makes use of the nanotweezers and three piezoelectric stages, and (ii) an image force measurement using the AFM cantilever. Using this system, contact electrification was evaluated under controlled conditions, such as the contact number and the indentation depth. In addition, differences in contact electrification due to the amount of external surface additives were investigated. The results reveal that a coating with external additives leads to a decrease in the amount of contact electrification due to a reduction in the contact area with the substrate.

  3. Development and Research of Peristaltic Multiphase Piezoelectric Micro-Pump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradov, Alexander N.; Ivanikin, Igor A.; Lubchenco, Roman V.; Matveev, Yegor V.; Titov, Pavel A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of existing models and mathematical representations of a range of truly peristaltic multiphase micro-pumps with a piezoelectric actuator (piezo drive). Piezo drives with different types of substrates use vertical movements at deformation of individual piezoelectric elements, which define device…

  4. Development of a commercially viable piezoelectric force sensor system for static force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Xinwei; Liu, Jingcheng; Li, Min; Qin, Lan

    2017-09-01

    A compensation method for measuring static force with a commercial piezoelectric force sensor is proposed to disprove the theory that piezoelectric sensors and generators can only operate under dynamic force. After studying the model of the piezoelectric force sensor measurement system, the principle of static force measurement using a piezoelectric material or piezoelectric force sensor is analyzed. Then, the distribution law of the decay time constant of the measurement system and the variation law of the measurement system’s output are studied, and a compensation method based on the time interval threshold Δ t and attenuation threshold Δ {{u}th} is proposed. By calibrating the system and considering the influences of the environment and the hardware, a suitable Δ {{u}th} value is determined, and the system’s output attenuation is compensated based on the Δ {{u}th} value to realize the measurement. Finally, a static force measurement system with a piezoelectric force sensor is developed based on the compensation method. The experimental results confirm the successful development of a simple compensation method for static force measurement with a commercial piezoelectric force sensor. In addition, it is established that, contrary to the current perception, a piezoelectric force sensor system can be used to measure static force through further calibration.

  5. Distributed parameter modeling to prevent charge cancellation for discrete thickness piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasamy, M.; Qian, Feng; Zuo, Lei; Lenka, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    The charge cancellation due to the change of strain along single continuous piezoelectric layer can remarkably affect the performance of a cantilever based harvester. In this paper, analytical models using distributed parameters are developed with some extent of averting the charge cancellation in cantilever piezoelectric transducer where the piezoelectric layers are segmented at strain nodes of concerned vibration mode. The electrode of piezoelectric segments are parallelly connected with a single external resistive load in the 1st model (Model 1). While each bimorph piezoelectric layers are connected in parallel to a resistor to form an independent circuit in the 2nd model (Model 2). The analytical expressions of the closed-form electromechanical coupling responses in frequency domain under harmonic base excitation are derived based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption for both models. The developed analytical models are validated by COMSOL and experimental results. The results demonstrate that the energy harvesting performance of the developed segmented piezoelectric layer models is better than the traditional model of continuous piezoelectric layer.

  6. Fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic micro-actuator and its reliability for hard disk drives.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yang; Luo, Jianbin; Yang, Wenyan; Ju, Guoxian

    2004-11-01

    A new U-type micro-actuator for precisely positioning a magnetic head in high-density hard disk drives was proposed and developed. The micro-actuator is composed of a U-type stainless steel substrate and two piezoelectric ceramic elements. Using a high-d31 piezoelectric coefficient PMN-PZT ceramic plate and adopting reactive ion etching process fabricate the piezoelectric elements. Reliability against temperature was investigated to ensure the practical application to the drive products. The U-type substrate attached to each side via piezoelectric elements also was simulated by the finite-element method and practically measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer in order to testify the driving mechanics of it. The micro-actuator coupled with two piezoelectric elements featured large displacement of 0.875 microm and high-resonance frequency over 22 kHz. The novel piezoelectric micro-actuators then possess a useful compromise performance to displacement, resonance frequency, and generative force. The results reveal that the new design concept provides a valuable alternative for multilayer piezoelectric micro-actuators.

  7. Concomitant sensing and actuation for piezoelectric microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Jafferis, Noah T.; Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Ben; Wood, Robert J.

    2018-06-01

    Sensor fabrication for microrobots is challenging due to their small size and low mass. As a potential solution, we present a technique for estimating the velocity of piezoelectric bending bimorph actuators, a popular choice for driving such microscale devices, that requires simple electronics and no additional mechanical components. Our approach relies on the insight that motion of the actuators causes varying strains on the surface on the piezoelectric material, which via the direct piezoelectric effect, results in a current proportional to the actuator velocity. We propose that the actuator be electrically approximated as a parallel combination of a frequency and voltage dependent resistor and capacitor, and a velocity proportional current source. We develop an experimental procedure to measure these quantities, and are able to experimentally determine the actuator tip velocity to within 10% accuracy over a range of voltages (25–200 V) and frequencies (1–2000 Hz, well beyond actuator resonance). We successfully apply this sensing methodology to two microrobots, the RoboBee and the Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR), to estimate the wing and limb motion respectively. We further use sensor feedback to close the loop on HAMR’s leg phase and obtain desired leg trajectories near transmission resonance. The proposed sensor methodology is generic and can be applied to piezoelectric actuators of different geometries and configurations for uses in microrobotic applications.

  8. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  9. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric propertiesmore » is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.« less

  10. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; ...

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric propertiesmore » is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.« less

  11. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  12. Novel composite piezoelectric material for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Prosycevas, Igoris; Ponelyte, Sigita; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2015-04-01

    Past few decades were concentrated on researches related to effective energy harvesting applied in modern technologies, MEMS or MOEMS systems. There are many methods for harvesting energy as, for example, usage of electromagnetic devices, but most dramatic changes were noticed in the usage of piezoelectric materials in small scale devices. Major limitation faced was too small generated power by piezoelectric materials or high resonant frequencies of such smallscale harvesters. In this research, novel composite piezoelectric material was created by mixing PZT powder with 20% solution of polyvinyl butyral in benzyl alcohol. Obtained paste was screen printed on copper foil using 325 mesh stainless steel screen and dried for 30 min at 100 °C. Polyvinyl butyral ensures good adhesion and flexibility of a new material at the conditions that requires strong binding. Five types of a composite piezoelectric material with different concentrations of PZT (40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80 %) were produced. As the results showed, these harvesters were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. In experimental setup, electromagnetic shaker was used to excite energy harvester that is fixed in the custom-built clamp, while generated electric potential were registered with USB oscilloscope PICO 3424. The designed devices generate up to 80 μV at 50 Hz excitation. This property can be applied to power microsystem devices or to use them in portable electronics and wireless sensors. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is possibility to apply it on any uniform or nonuniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  13. Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition (Implementing Joint Conventional Ammunition Policies and Procedures)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    W/Fuze Army/Marine M-2 PD, M508 Corps 1315-01-028-1234 Cartridge, 105mm, M360, W/Fuze Army/Marine PD, M557 Corps NOTE: The M739 (1390-N340) and M577...NOTE: The M739 1390-N340 point detonating (PD) fuze may also be used on this round. PROJECTILE, 155MM, M121A1 CHEEMICAL AGENT: GB; (1320-D542\\) CHEMICAL...1390-N340 Fuze, PD; M739 1390-00-574-7705 Prime Stock 1390-01-080-9447 Prime Stock 1390-01-032-7481 Alternate Stock 1390-N463 Fuze, Proximity, M728

  14. Logistics Complete Round Charts: Grenades, Mines, Pyrotechnics, Rockets, Rocket Motors, Demolition Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Flash 3. (342 g) Electrically Comp Actuated By Blasting Machine or Battery 5/ 8 STD 37524 Simulator, Projectile M1lSA2 0.30 7549246 MIL-S-10058 Hand...8799710 Blastin Comp (0.07 oz) Blasting (Whistle) Fuze Fuze 8-14 Frictio Friction (Burst) ’ l3AI M3A1 721 Igniter 8833721 Igniter last 5-10 8799714...8799715 iBlasti Blasting Sec FuzeN Fuze M3A1 •721 Igniter 8833721 Igniter Inst 6-10 8799714 879971 Blast Blasting See Fuze Puze N13A1 587 FrictLi 8848587

  15. Distributed structural control using multilayered piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudney, Harley H.; Inman, Daniel J.; Oshman, Yaakov

    1990-01-01

    A method of segmenting piezoelectric sensors and actuators is proposed which can preclude the currently experienced cancelation of sensor signals, or the reduction of actuator effectiveness, due to the integration of the property undergoing measurement or control. The segmentation method is demonstrated by a model developed for beam structures, to which multiple layers of piezoelectric materials are attached. A numerical study is undertaken of increasing active and passive damping of a beam using the segmented sensors and actuators over unsegmented sensors and actuators.

  16. Overview of Piezoelectric Biosensors, Immunosensors and DNA Sensors and Their Applications.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2018-03-19

    Piezoelectric biosensors are a group of analytical devices working on a principle of affinity interaction recording. A piezoelectric platform or piezoelectric crystal is a sensor part working on the principle of oscillations change due to a mass bound on the piezoelectric crystal surface. In this review, biosensors having their surface modified with an antibody or antigen, with a molecularly imprinted polymer, with genetic information like single stranded DNA, and biosensors with bound receptors of organic of biochemical origin, are presented and discussed. The mentioned recognition parts are frequently combined with use of nanoparticles and applications in this way are also introduced. An overview of the current literature is given and the methods presented are commented upon.

  17. Lead-free multilayer piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingsen; Jiang, X P; Lam, K H; Wang, S; Sun, C L; Chan, Helen L W; Zhao, X Z

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a multilayer piezoelectric transformer based on lead-free Mn-doped 0.94(Bi(12)Na(12))TiO(3)-0.06BaTiO(3) ceramics is presented. This piezoelectric transformer, with a multilayered construction in the thickness direction, is 8.3 mm long, 8.3 mm wide, and 2.3 mm thick. It operates in the second thickness extensional vibration mode. For a temperature rise of 20 degrees C, the transformer has an output power of >0.3 W. With a matching load resistance of 10 Omega, its maximum efficiency approaches 81.5%, and the maximum voltage gain is 0.14. It has potential to be used in low voltage power supply units such as low power adapter and other electronic circuits.

  18. Identification of elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants in piezoceramic disks.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nicolas; Andrade, Marco A B; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C

    2010-12-01

    Three-dimensional modeling of piezoelectric devices requires a precise knowledge of piezoelectric material parameters. The commonly used piezoelectric materials belong to the 6mm symmetry class, which have ten independent constants. In this work, a methodology to obtain precise material constants over a wide frequency band through finite element analysis of a piezoceramic disk is presented. Given an experimental electrical impedance curve and a first estimate for the piezoelectric material properties, the objective is to find the material properties that minimize the difference between the electrical impedance calculated by the finite element method and that obtained experimentally by an electrical impedance analyzer. The methodology consists of four basic steps: experimental measurement, identification of vibration modes and their sensitivity to material constants, a preliminary identification algorithm, and final refinement of the material constants using an optimization algorithm. The application of the methodology is exemplified using a hard lead zirconate titanate piezoceramic. The same methodology is applied to a soft piezoceramic. The errors in the identification of each parameter are statistically estimated in both cases, and are less than 0.6% for elastic constants, and less than 6.3% for dielectric and piezoelectric constants.

  19. Piezoelectric Bimorphs' Characteristics as In-Socket Sensors for Transfemoral Amputees

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Amr M.; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2014-01-01

    Alternative sensory systems for the development of prosthetic knees are being increasingly highlighted nowadays, due to the rapid advancements in the field of lower limb prosthetics. This study presents the use of piezoelectric bimorphs as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. An Instron machine was used in the calibration procedure and the corresponding output data were further analyzed to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the piezoelectric bimorph. The piezoelectric bimorph showed appropriate static operating range, repeatability, hysteresis, and frequency response for application in lower prosthesis, with a force range of 0–100 N. To further validate this finding, an experiment was conducted with a single transfemoral amputee subject to measure the stump/socket pressure using the piezoelectric bimorph embedded inside the socket. The results showed that a maximum interface pressure of about 27 kPa occurred at the anterior proximal site compared to the anterior distal and posterior sites, consistent with values published in other studies. This paper highlighted the capacity of piezoelectric bimorphs to perform as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. However, further experiments are recommended to be conducted with different amputees with different socket types. PMID:25513823

  20. Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRoo, Casey T.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Hertz, Edward; Marquez, Vanessa; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Eric D.; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Walker, Julian; Jackson, Thomas N.; Liu, Tianning; Tendulkar, Mohit

    2018-01-01

    Thin x-ray optics with high angular resolution (≤ 0.5 arcsec) over a wide field of view enable the study of a number of astrophysically important topics and feature prominently in Lynx, a next-generation x-ray observatory concept currently under NASA study. In an effort to address this technology need, piezoelectrically adjustable, thin mirror segments capable of figure correction after mounting and on-orbit are under development. We report on the fabrication and characterization of an adjustable cylindrical slumped glass optic. This optic has realized 100% piezoelectric cell yield and employs lithographically patterned traces and anisotropic conductive film connections to address the piezoelectric cells. In addition, the measured responses of the piezoelectric cells are found to be in good agreement with finite-element analysis models. While the optic as manufactured is outside the range of absolute figure correction, simulated corrections using the measured responses of the piezoelectric cells are found to improve 5 to 10 arcsec mirrors to 1 to 3 arcsec [half-power diameter (HPD), single reflection at 1 keV]. Moreover, a measured relative figure change which would correct the figure of a representative slumped glass piece from 6.7 to 1.2 arcsec HPD is empirically demonstrated. We employ finite-element analysis-modeled influence functions to understand the current frequency limitations of the correction algorithm employed and identify a path toward achieving subarcsecond corrections.

  1. Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.

  2. Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Alameh, Abdul Hafiz; Gratuze, Mathieu; Elsayed, Mohannad Y; Nabki, Frederic

    2018-05-16

    Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance.

  3. Giant piezoelectricity of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Wenbin; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M =Sn or Ge, X =Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique ``puckered'' C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  4. Piezoelectric energy harvesting computer controlled test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Rodriguez, M.; Jiménez, F. J.; de Frutos, J.; Alonso, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new computer controlled (C.C.) laboratory test bench is presented. The patented test bench is made up of a C.C. road traffic simulator, C.C. electronic hardware involved in automating measurements, and test bench control software interface programmed in LabVIEW™. Our research is focused on characterizing electronic energy harvesting piezoelectric-based elements in road traffic environments to extract (or "harvest") maximum power. In mechanical to electrical energy conversion, mechanical impacts or vibrational behavior are commonly used, and several major problems need to be solved to perform optimal harvesting systems including, but no limited to, primary energy source modeling, energy conversion, and energy storage. It is described a novel C.C. test bench that obtains, in an accurate and automatized process, a generalized linear equivalent electrical model of piezoelectric elements and piezoelectric based energy store harvesting circuits in order to scale energy generation with multiple devices integrated in different topologies.

  5. Piezoelectric energy harvesting computer controlled test bench.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rodriguez, M; Jiménez, F J; de Frutos, J; Alonso, D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new computer controlled (C.C.) laboratory test bench is presented. The patented test bench is made up of a C.C. road traffic simulator, C.C. electronic hardware involved in automating measurements, and test bench control software interface programmed in LabVIEW™. Our research is focused on characterizing electronic energy harvesting piezoelectric-based elements in road traffic environments to extract (or "harvest") maximum power. In mechanical to electrical energy conversion, mechanical impacts or vibrational behavior are commonly used, and several major problems need to be solved to perform optimal harvesting systems including, but no limited to, primary energy source modeling, energy conversion, and energy storage. It is described a novel C.C. test bench that obtains, in an accurate and automatized process, a generalized linear equivalent electrical model of piezoelectric elements and piezoelectric based energy store harvesting circuits in order to scale energy generation with multiple devices integrated in different topologies.

  6. Modeling and analysis on ring-type piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shine-Tzong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents an electromechanical model for a ring-type piezoelectric transformer (PT). To establish this model, vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric ring with free boundary conditions are analyzed in advance. Based on the vibration analysis of the piezoelectric ring, the operating frequency and vibration mode of the PT are chosen. Then, electromechanical equations of motion for the PT are derived based on Hamilton's principle, which can be used to simulate the coupled electromechanical system for the transformer. Such as voltage stepup ratio, input impedance, output impedance, input power, output power, and efficiency are calculated by the equations. The optimal load resistance and the maximum efficiency for the PT will be presented in this paper. Experiments also were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis, and a good agreement was obtained.

  7. Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide mechanosynthesis in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Silvia; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Cozza, Federica; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Farris, Stefano; Borghesi, Alessandro

    2014-11-26

    Drug-loaded contact lenses are emerging as the preferred treatment method for several ocular diseases, and efforts are being directed to promote extended and controlled delivery. One strategy is based on delivery induced by environmental triggers. One of these triggers can be hydrogen peroxide, since many platforms based on drug-loaded nanoparticles were demonstrated to be hydrogen-peroxide responsive. This is particularly interesting when hydrogen peroxide is the result of a specific pathophysiological condition. Otherwise, an alternative route to induce drug delivery is here proposed, namely the mechano-synthesis. The present work represents the proof-of-concept of the mechanosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses as a consequence of the cleavage of siloxane bonds at the interface between the polymer and water in aqueous phase. Their spongy morphology makes contact lenses promising systems for mechanical-to-chemical energy conversion, since the amount of hydrogen peroxide is expected to scale with the interfacial area between the polymer and water. The eyelid pressure during wear is sufficient to induce the hydrogen peroxide synthesis with concentrations which are biocompatible and suitable to trigger the drug release through hydrogen-peroxide-responsive platforms. For possible delivery on demand, the integration of piezoelectric polymers in the siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses could be designed, whose mechanical deformation could be induced by an applied wireless-controlled voltage.

  9. Direct and ultrasonic measurements of macroscopic piezoelectricity in sintered hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofail, S. A. M.; Haverty, D.; Cox, F.; Erhart, J.; Hána, P.; Ryzhenko, V.

    2009-03-01

    Macroscopic piezoelectricity in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic was measured by a direct quasistatic method and an ultrasonic interference technique. The effective symmetry of polycrystalline aggregate was established and a detailed theoretical analysis was carried out to determine by these two methods the shear piezoelectric coefficient, d14, of HA. Piezoelectric nature of HA was proved qualitatively although a specific quantitative value for the d14 coefficient could not be established. Ultrasound method was also employed to anisotropic elastic constants, which agreed well with those measured from the first principles.

  10. Coupled mixed-field laminate theory and finite element for smart piezoelectric composite shell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite shells with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. A new mixed-field laminate theory for piezoelectric shells is formulated in curvilinear coordinates which combines single-layer assumptions for the displacements and a layerwise representation for the electric potential. The resultant coupled governing equations for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates are described. Structural mechanics are subsequently developed and an 8-node finite-element is formulated for the static and dynamic analysis of adaptive composite structures of general laminations containing piezoelectric layers. Evaluations of the method and comparisons with reported results are presented for laminated piezoelectric-composite plates, a closed cylindrical shell with a continuous piezoceramic layer and a laminated composite semi-circular cantilever shell with discrete cylindrical piezoelectric actuators and/or sensors.

  11. Ultrahigh Piezoelectric Properties in Textured (K,Na)NbO3 -Based Lead-Free Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Xiaolong; Zhu, Fangyuan; Zhang, Xingmin

    2018-02-01

    High-performance lead-free piezoelectric materials are in great demand for next-generation electronic devices to meet the requirement of environmentally sustainable society. Here, ultrahigh piezoelectric properties with piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 ≈700 pC N -1 , d 33 * ≈980 pm V -1 ) and planar electromechanical coupling factor (k p ≈76%) are achieved in highly textured (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN)-based ceramics. The excellent piezoelectric properties can be explained by the strong anisotropic feature, optimized engineered domain configuration in the textured ceramics, and facilitated polarization rotation induced by the intermediate phase. In addition, the nanodomain structures with decreased domain wall energy and increased domain wall mobility also contribute to the ultrahigh piezoelectric properties. This work not only demonstrates the tremendous potential of KNN-based ceramics to replace lead-based piezoelectrics but also provides a good strategy to design high-performance piezoelectrics by controlling appropriate phase and crystallographic orientation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fundamental understanding of wave generation and reception using d(36) type piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wensong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-03-01

    A new piezoelectric wafer made from a PMN-PT single crystal with dominant piezoelectric coefficient d36 is proposed to generate and detect guided waves on isotropic plates. The in-plane shear coupled with electric field arising from the piezoelectric coefficient is not usually present for conventional piezoelectric wafers, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The direct piezoelectric effect of coefficient d36 indicates that under external in-plane shear stress the charge is induced on a face perpendicular to the poled z-direction. On thin plates, this type of piezoelectric wafer will generate shear horizontal (SH) waves in two orthogonal wave propagation directions as well as two Lamb wave modes in other wave propagation directions. Finite element analyses are employed to explore the wave disturbance in terms of time-varying displacements excited by the d36 wafer in different directions of wave propagation to understand all the guided wave modes accurately. Experiments are conducted to examine the voltage responses received by this type of wafer, and also investigate results of tuning frequency and effects of d31 piezoelectric coefficient, which is intentionally ignored in the finite element analysis. All results demonstrate the main features and utility of proposed d36 piezoelectric wafer for guided wave generation and detection in structural health monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  14. Piezoelectric energy harvester under parquet floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischur, E.; Schwesinger, N.

    2011-03-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric energy harvesting modules for floors is described. These modules are used beneath a parquet floor to harvest the energy of people walking over it. The harvesting modules consist of monoaxial stretched PVDF-foils. Multilayer modules are built up as roller-type capacitors. The fabrication process of the harvesting modules is simple and very suitable for mass production. Due to the use of organic polymers, the modules are characterized by a great flexibility and the possibility to create them in almost any geometrical size. The energy yield was determined depending on the dynamic loading force, the thickness of piezoelectric active material, the size of the piezoelectric modules, their alignment in the walking direction and their position on the floor. An increase of the energy yield at higher loading forces and higher thicknesses of the modules was observed. It was possible to generate up to 2.1mWs of electric energy with dynamic loads of 70kg using a specific module design. Furthermore a test floor was assembled to determine the influence of the size, alignment and position of the modules on the energy yield.

  15. Piezoelectric ceramic implants: in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Park, J B; Kelly, B J; Kenner, G H; von Recum, A F; Grether, M F; Coffeen, W W

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic for direct substitution of hard tissues was evaluated using both electrically stimulated (piezoelectric) and inactive (nonpolarized) test implants. Textured cylindrical specimens, half of them made piezoelectric by polarization in a high electric field, were implanted into the cortex of the midshaft region of the femora of dogs for various periods of time. Interfacial healing and bio-compatibility of the implant material were studied using mechanical, microradiographical, and histological techniques. Our results indicate that barium titanate ceramic shows a very high degree of biocompatibility as evidenced by the absence of inflammatory or foreign body reactions at the implant-tissue interface. Furthermore, the material and its surface porosity allowed a high degree of bone ingrowth as evidenced by microradiography and a high degree of interfacial tensile strength. No difference was found between the piezoelectric and the electrically neutral implant-tissue interfaces. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The excellent mechanical properties of barium titanate, its superior biocompatibility, and the ability of bone to form a strong mechanical interfacial bond with it, makes this material a new candidate for further tests for hard tissue replacement.

  16. Structural control by the use of piezoelectric active members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J. L.; Chen, J.-C.

    1987-01-01

    Large Space Structures (LSS) exhibit characteristics which make the LSS control problem different form other control problems. LSS will most likely exhibit low frequency, densely spaced and lightly damped modes. In theory, the number of these modes is infinite. Because these structures are flexible, Vibration Suppression (VS) is an important aspect of LSS operation. In terms of VS, the control actuators should be as low mass as possible, have infinite bandwidth, and be electrically powered. It is proposed that actuators be built into the structure as dual purpose structural elements. A piezoelectric active member is proposed for the control of LSS. Such a device would consist of a piezoelectric actuator and sensor for measuring strain, and screwjack actuator in series for use in quasi-static shape control. An experiment simulates an active member using piezoelectric ceramic thin sheet material on a thin, uniform cantilever beam. The feasibility of using the piezoelectric materials for VS on LSS was demonstrated. Positive positive feedback as a VS control strategy was implemented. Multi-mode VS was achieved with dramatic reduction in dynamic response.

  17. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, David K.; Margetan, Frank J.; Hasselbusch, Michael D.; Wormley, Samuel J.; Hughes, Michael S.; Thompson, Donald O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions.

  18. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, D.K.; Margetan, F.J.; Hasselbusch, M.D.; Wormley, S.J.; Hughes, M.S.; Thompson, D.O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions. 14 figs.

  19. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method. PMID:25133237

  20. Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric-actuator-based active vibration control (AVC) are presented. The evolution of this technology starts with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model where the pushers force the squirrel cage ball bearing supports of a rotating shaft. The piezoelectric pushers consist of a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks that are arranged on top of one another and connected in parallel electrically. This model consists of a prescribed displacement that is proportional to the input voltage and a spring that represents the stiffness of the stack of piezoelectric disks. System tests were carried out to stabilize the AVC system, verify its effectiveness in controlling vibration, and confirm the theory presented.

  1. Broadband pulsed flow using piezoelectric microjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Joshua; Solomon, John; Hays, Michael; Alvi, Farrukh; Oates, William

    2010-04-01

    A piezohydraulic microjet design and experimental results are presented to demonstrate broadband active flow control for applications on various aircraft structures including impinging jets, rotor blades, cavity bays, etc. The microjet actuator includes a piezoelectric stack actuator and hydraulic circuit that is used to throttle a 400 μm diameter microjet using hydraulic amplification of the piezoelectric stack actuator. This system is shown to provide broadband pulsed flow actuation up to 800 Hz. Unsteady pressure measurements of the microjet's exit flow are coupled with high-speed phase imagery using micro-Schlieren techniques to quantify the flow field. These results are compared with in situ stack actuator displacements using strain gauge measurements.

  2. Design and performance testing of an ultrasonic linear motor with dual piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Suybangdum, Panumas; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Muensit, Nantakan

    2012-05-01

    In this work, design and performance testing of an ultrasonic linear motor with dual piezoelectric actuator patches are studied. The motor system consists of a linear stator, a pre-load weight, and two piezoelectric actuator patches. The piezoelectric actuators are bonded with the linear elastic stator at specific locations. The stator generates propagating waves when the piezoelectric actuators are subjected to harmonic excitations. Vibration characteristics of the linear stator are analyzed and compared with finite element and experimental results. The analytical, finite element, and experimental results show agreement. In the experiments, performance of the ultrasonic linear motor is tested. Relationships between velocity and pre-load weight, velocity and applied voltage, driving force and applied voltage, and velocity and driving force are reported. The design of the dual piezoelectric actuators yields a simpler structure with a smaller number of actuators and lower stator stiffness compared with a conventional design of an ultrasonic linear motor with fully laminated piezoelectric actuators.

  3. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Lin, R. R.; Montague, J.; Alexander, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers was discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Analyses are contained which extend quadratic regulator, pole placement and derivative feedback control methods to the prescribed displacement character of piezoelectric pushers. The structural stiffness of the pusher is also included in the theory. Tests are currently being conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results performed on the NASA test rig as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  4. Modelling of piezoelectric actuator dynamics for active structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Chung, Walter H.; Von Flotow, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    The paper models the effects of dynamic coupling between a structure and an electrical network through the piezoelectric effect. The coupled equations of motion of an arbitrary elastic structure with piezoelectric elements and passive electronics are derived. State space models are developed for three important cases: direct voltage driven electrodes, direct charge driven electrodes, and an indirect drive case where the piezoelectric electrodes are connected to an arbitrary electrical circuit with embedded voltage and current sources. The equations are applied to the case of a cantilevered beam with surface mounted piezoceramics and indirect voltage and current drive. The theoretical derivations are validated experimentally on an actively controlled cantilevered beam test article with indirect voltage drive.

  5. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  6. Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters

    PubMed Central

    Gratuze, Mathieu; Elsayed, Mohannad Y.

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance. PMID:29772706

  7. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  8. 3D interlock design 100% PVDF piezoelectric to improve energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbourdet, Anaëlle; Rault, François; Lemort, Guillaume; Cochrane, Cédric; Devaux, Eric; Campagne, Christine

    2018-07-01

    Piezoelectric textile structures based on 100% poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were developed and characterised. Multifilaments of 246 tex were produced by melt spinning. The mechanical stretching during the process provides PVDF fibres with a piezoelectric β-phase of up to 97% has been measured by FTIR experiments. Several studies have been carried out on piezoelectric PVDF-based flexible structures (films or textiles), the aim of the study being the investigation of the differences between 2D and 3D woven fabrics from 100% optimised (by optimising piezoelectric crystalline phase) piezoelectric PVDF multifilament yarns. The textile structures were poled after the weaving process, and a maximum output voltage of 2.3 V was observed on 3D woven under compression by DMA tests. Energy harvesting is optimised in a 3D interlock thanks to the stresses of the multifilaments in the thickness. The addition of a resistor makes it possible to measure energy of 10.5 μJ.m‑2 during 10 cycles of stress in compression of 5 s each.

  9. Piezoelectric Flexible LCP-PZT Composites for Sensor Applications at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, Jarkko; Hannu, Jari; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2018-03-01

    In this paper fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites is demonstrated via filament extrusion enabling cost-efficient large-scale production of highly bendable pressure sensors feasible for elevated temperatures. These composites are fabricated by utilizing environmentally resistant and stable liquid crystal polymer matrix with addition of lead zirconate titanate at loading levels of 30 vol%. These composites, of approximately 0.99 mm thick and length of > 50 cm, achieved excellent bendability with minimum bending radius of 6.6 cm. The maximum piezoelectric coefficients d33 and g33 of the composites were > 14 pC/N and > 108 mVm/N at pressure < 10 kPa. In all cases, the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of the composites decreased as a function of pressure. Also, piezoelectric coefficient (d33) further decreased in the case of increased frequency press-release cycle sand pre-stress levels by approximately 37-50%. However, the obtained results provide tools for fabricating novel piezoelectric sensors in highly efficient way for environments with elevated temperatures.

  10. Rectifying the output of vibrational piezoelectric energy harvester using quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijie

    2017-03-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvester scavenges mechanical vibrations and generates electricity. Researchers have strived to optimize the electromechanical structures and to design necessary external power management circuits, aiming to deliver high power and rectified outputs ready for serving as batteries. Complex deformation of the mechanical structure results in charges with opposite polarities appearing on same surface, leading to current loss in the attached metal electrode. External power management circuits such as rectifiers comprise diodes that consume power and have undesirable forward bias. To address the above issues, we devise a novel integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting device that is structured by stacking a layer of quantum dots (QDs) and a layer of piezoelectric material. We find that the QD can rectify electrical charges generated from the piezoelectric material because of its adaptable conductance to the electrochemical potentials of both sides of the QDs layer, so that electrical current causing energy loss on the same surface of the piezoelectric material can be minimized. The QDs layer has the potential to replace external rectification circuits providing a much more compact and less power-consumption solution.

  11. Piezoelectric Pre-Stressed Bending Mechanism for Impact-Driven Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdal, A. M.; Leong, K. S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper experimentally demonstrates and evaluates a piezoelectric power generator bending mechanism based on pre-stressed condition whereby the piezoelectric transducer being bended and remained in the stressed condition before applying a force on the piezoelectric bending structure, which increase the stress on the piezoelectric surface and hence increase the generated electrical charges. An impact force is being exerted onto bending the piezoelectric beam and hence generating electrical power across an external resistive load. The proposed bending mechanism prototype has been manufactured by employing 3D printer technology in order to conduct the evaluation. A free fall test has been conducted as the evaluation method with varying force using a series of different masses and different fall heights. A rectangular piezoelectric harvester beam with the size of 32mm in width, 70mm in length, and 0.55mm in thickness is used to demonstrate the experiment. It can be seen from the experiment that the instantaneous peak to peak AC volt output measured at open-circuit is increasing and saturated at about of 70V when an impact force of about 80N is being applied. It is also found that a maximum power of about 53mW is generated at an impact force of 50N when it is connected to an external resistive load of 0.7KΩ. The reported mechanism is a promising candidate in the application of energy harvesting for powering various wireless sensor nodes (WSN) which is the core of Internet of Things (IoT).

  12. A novel traveling wave piezoelectric actuated tracked mobile robot utilizing friction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Jin, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-03-01

    A novel traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot with potential application to robotic rovers was proposed and investigated in this study. The proposed tracked mobile robot is composed of a parallelogram-frame-structure piezoelectric transducer with four rings and a metal track. Utilizing the converse piezoelectric and friction effects, traveling waves were propagated in the rings and then the metal track was actuated by the piezoelectric transducer. Compared with traditional tracked mechanisms, the proposed tracked mobile robot has a simpler and more compact structure without lubricant, which eliminates the problem of lubricant volatilization and deflation, thus, it could be operated in the vacuum environment. Dynamic characteristics were simulated and measured to reveal the mechanism of actuating track of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental investigations of the traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot were then carried out, and the results indicated that the robot prototype with a pair of exciting voltages of 460 Vpp is able to achieve a maximum velocity of 57 mm s-1 moving on the foam plate and possesses the obstacle crossing capability with a maximum height of 27 mm. The proposed tracked mobile robot exhibits potential to be the driving system of robotic rovers.

  13. An Equivalent Circuit of Longitudinal Vibration for a Piezoelectric Structure with Losses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Li, Chaodong; Fan, Pingqing

    2018-03-22

    Equivalent circuits of piezoelectric structures such as bimorphs and unimorphs conventionally focus on the bending vibration modes. However, the longitudinal vibration modes are rarely considered even though they also play a remarkable role in piezoelectric devices. Losses, especially elastic loss in the metal substrate, are also generally neglected, which leads to discrepancies compared with experiments. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit with four kinds of losses is proposed for a beamlike piezoelectric structure under the longitudinal vibration mode. This structure consists of a slender beam as the metal substrate, and a piezoelectric patch which covers a partial length of the beam. In this approach, first, complex numbers are used to deal with four kinds of losses-elastic loss in the metal substrate, and piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic losses in the piezoelectric patch. Next in this approach, based on Mason's model, a new equivalent circuit is developed. Using MATLAB, impedance curves of this structure are simulated by the equivalent circuit method. Experiments are conducted and good agreements are revealed between experiments and equivalent circuit results. It is indicated that the introduction of four losses in an equivalent circuit can increase the result accuracy considerably.

  14. An Equivalent Circuit of Longitudinal Vibration for a Piezoelectric Structure with Losses

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao; Li, Chaodong; Fan, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    Equivalent circuits of piezoelectric structures such as bimorphs and unimorphs conventionally focus on the bending vibration modes. However, the longitudinal vibration modes are rarely considered even though they also play a remarkable role in piezoelectric devices. Losses, especially elastic loss in the metal substrate, are also generally neglected, which leads to discrepancies compared with experiments. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit with four kinds of losses is proposed for a beamlike piezoelectric structure under the longitudinal vibration mode. This structure consists of a slender beam as the metal substrate, and a piezoelectric patch which covers a partial length of the beam. In this approach, first, complex numbers are used to deal with four kinds of losses—elastic loss in the metal substrate, and piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic losses in the piezoelectric patch. Next in this approach, based on Mason’s model, a new equivalent circuit is developed. Using MATLAB, impedance curves of this structure are simulated by the equivalent circuit method. Experiments are conducted and good agreements are revealed between experiments and equivalent circuit results. It is indicated that the introduction of four losses in an equivalent circuit can increase the result accuracy considerably. PMID:29565825

  15. L-shaped piezoelectric motor--part II: analytical modeling.

    PubMed

    Avirovik, Dragan; Karami, M Amin; Inman, Daniel; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for an L-shaped piezoelectric motor. The motor structure has been described in detail in Part I of this study. The coupling of the bending vibration mode of the bimorphs results in an elliptical motion at the tip. The emphasis of this paper is on the development of a precise analytical model which can predict the dynamic behavior of the motor based on its geometry. The motor was first modeled mechanically to identify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. Next, an electromechanical model of the motor was developed to take into account the piezoelectric effect, and dynamics of L-shaped piezoelectric motor were obtained as a function of voltage and frequency. Finally, the analytical model was validated by comparing it to experiment results and the finite element method (FEM). © 2012 IEEE

  16. Piezoelectric Response of Aligned Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Carbon Nanotube Nanofibrous Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Mou; Chou, Min-Hui; Zeng, Wun-Yuan

    2018-06-10

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shows piezoelectricity related to its β-phase content and mechanical and electrical properties influenced by its morphology and crystallinity. Electrospinning (ES) can produce ultrafine and well-aligned PVDF nanofibers. In this study, the effects of the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and optimized ES parameters on the crystal structures and piezoelectric properties of aligned PVDF/CNT nanofibrous membranes were examined. The optimal β content and piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) of the aligned electrospun PVDF reached 88% and 27.4 pC/N; CNT addition increased the β-phase content to 89% and d 33 to 31.3 pC/N. The output voltages of piezoelectric units with aligned electrospun PVDF/CNT membranes increased linearly with applied loading and showed good stability during cyclic dynamic compression and tension. The sensitivities of the piezoelectric units with the membranes under dynamic compression and tension were 2.26 mV/N and 4.29 mV/%, respectively. In bending tests, the output voltage increased nonlinearly with bending angle because complicated forces were involved. The output of the aligned membrane-based piezoelectric unit with CNT was 1.89 V at the bending angle of 100°. The high electric outputs indicate that the aligned electrospun PVDF/CNT membranes are potentially effective for flexible wearable sensor application with high sensitivity.

  17. Experimental measurements and finite element models of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuators.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Gilberto; Ashford, Gevale; Naco, Eris; Usher, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have many applications including morphable wing technology and piezoelectric transformers. A Piezoelectric ceramic is a material that will move when a voltage is applied and conversely produces a charge when a pressure is applied. In our study, we examine THUNDER (Thin Layer Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor) actuators (Thunder TM is a trademark of FACE International Corporation.) Thunder actuators are constructed by bonding thin PZT piezoelectric ceramics to metal sheets. We will present physical measurements of piezoelectric actuators, as well as measurements of the displacements due to applied voltages. In our studies we used a laser micrometer to measure the dimensional characteristics of four sizes of THUNDER actuators including TH-8R, TH-9R, TH-10R, and finally the TH-11R. We also developed computer models using a commercial fine element modeling package (FEM) known as ANSYS6.0®. This software enables us to construct our models controlling such attributes as exact dimensions of the three layers of the piezoelectric actuator, the material properties of each element, the type of load that is to be applied as well as the manner in which the layers are bonded together. The computer model compares favorably with the experimental results. Acknowledgements: NASA Grant No. 0051-0078 Department of Defense (DoD) Control No.ISP02-EUG15

  18. Energy harvesting from mouse click of robot finger using piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the mouse click motion using a piezoelectric energy transducer. Specifically, we use a robotic finger to realize repeatable mouse click motion. The robotic finger wears a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material as an energy transducer. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in the finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. Experiments are performed to elucidate the effect of the load resistance and the mouse click motion on energy harvesting.

  19. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator. Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50). Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks (p<0.05). At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator. The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues.

  20. Fatigue crack monitoring with coupled piezoelectric film acoustic emission sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changjiang

    Fatigue-induced cracking is a commonly seen problem in civil infrastructures reaching their original design life. A number of high-profile accidents have been reported in the past that involved fatigue damage in structures. Such incidences often happen without prior warnings due to lack of proper crack monitoring technique. In order to detect and monitor the fatigue crack, acoustic emission (AE) technique, has been receiving growing interests recently. AE can provide continuous and real-time monitoring data on damage progression in structures. Piezoelectric film AE sensor measures stress-wave induced strain in ultrasonic frequency range and its feasibility for AE signal monitoring has been demonstrated recently. However, extensive work in AE monitoring system development based on piezoelectric film AE sensor and sensor characterization on full-scale structures with fatigue cracks, have not been done. A lack of theoretical formulations for understanding the AE signals also hinders the use of piezoelectric film AE sensors. Additionally, crack detection and source localization with AE signals is a very important area yet to be explored for this new type of AE sensor. This dissertation presents the results of both analytical and experimental study on the signal characteristics of surface stress-wave induced AE strain signals measured by piezoelectric film AE sensors in near-field and an AE source localization method based on sensor couple theory. Based on moment tensor theory, generalized expression for AE strain signal is formulated. A special case involving the response of piezoelectric film AE sensor to surface load is also studied, which could potentially be used for sensor calibration of this type of sensor. A new concept of sensor couple theory based AE source localization technique is proposed and validated with both simulated and experimental data from fatigue test and field monitoring. Two series of fatigue tests were conducted to perform fatigue crack

  1. Cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites for sensor applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin

    The objectives of this thesis are to develop and apply a new smart composite for the sensing and actuation application of civil engineering. Piezoelectric ceramic powder is incorporated into cement-based composite to achieve the sensing and actuation capability. The research investigates microstructure, polarization and aging, material properties and performance of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites both theoretically and experimentally. A hydrogen bonding is found at the interface of piezoelectric ceramic powder and cement phase by IR (Infrared Ray), XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy). It largely affects the material properties of composites. A simple first order model is introduced to explain the poling mechanism of composites and the dependency of polarization is discussed using electromechanical coupling coefficient kt. The mechanisms acting on the aging effect is explored in detail. Dielectrical, piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites are studied by experiment and theoretical calculation based on modified cube model (n=1) with chemical bonding . A complex circuit model is proposed to explain the unique feature of impedance spectra and the instinct of high-loss of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite. The sensing ability of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite has been evaluated by using step wave, sine wave, and random wave. It shows that the output of the composite can reflects the nature and characteristics of mechanical input. The work in this thesis opens a new direction for the current actuation/sensing technology in civil engineering. The materials and techniques, developed in this work, have a great potential in application of health monitoring of buildings and infrastructures.

  2. Electromechanical modeling and power performance analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvester having an attached mass and a segmented piezoelectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sinwoo; Cho, Jae Yong; Sung, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2017-03-01

    Conventional vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have advantages including the ubiquity of their energy source and their ease of manufacturing. However, they have a critical disadvantage as well: they can produce a reasonable amount of power only if the excitation frequency is concentrated near a natural frequency of the PEH. Because the excitation frequency is often spread and/or variable, it is very difficult to successfully design a conventional PEH. In this paper, we propose a new cantilevered PEH whose design includes an attached mass and a segmented piezoelectric layer. By choosing a proper size and location for the attached mass, the gap between the first and second natural frequencies of the PEH can be decreased in order to broaden the effective excitation frequency range and thus to allow reasonable power generation. Especially, the output power performance improves significantly around the second natural frequency of the PEH since the voltage cancellation effect can be made very weak by segmenting the piezoelectric layer at an appropriate location. To investigate the power performance of the new PEH, herein a reduced-order electromechanical analysis model is proposed and the accuracy of this model is validated experimentally. The effects of variable load resistance and piezoelectric layer segmentation location upon the power performance of the new PEH are investigated by means of the reduced-order analysis model.

  3. Simple electronics for inertial and Pan-type piezoelectric positioners used in scanning probe microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, LeuJen; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Alfred K. H.; de Lozanne, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new type of circuit designed for driving piezoelectric positioners that rely on the stick-slip phenomenon. The circuit can be used for inertial positioners that have only one piezoelectric element (or multiple elements that are moved simultaneously) or for designs using a sequential movement of independent piezoelectric elements. A relay switches the piezoelectric elements between a high voltage source and ground, thus creating a fast voltage step followed by a slow ramp produced by the exponential discharging of the piezoelectric elements through a series resistor. A timing cascade is generated by having each relay power the next relay in the sequence. This design is simple and inexpensive. While it was developed for scanning probe microscopes, it may be useful for any piezoelectric motor based on a fast jump followed by a slow relaxation.

  4. Applications of Piezoelectric Materials in Structural Health Monitoring and Repair: Selected Research Examples

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wen Hui; Wang, Quan; Quek, Ser Tong

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the recent applications of piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and repair conducted by the authors. First, commonly used piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and structure repair are introduced. The analysis of plain piezoelectric sensors and actuators and interdigital transducer and their applications in beam, plate and pipe structures for damage detection are reviewed in detail. Second, an overview is presented on the recent advances in the applications of piezoelectric materials in structural repair. In addition, the basic principle and the current development of the technique are examined. PMID:28883375

  5. Piezoelectric Motion of Multilayer Film with Alternate Rows of Optical Isomers of Chiral Polymer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tetsuo; Imoto, Kenji; Nakai, Takaaki; Uwami, Ryouta; Kataoka, Takuya; Inoue, Masataka; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Kamimura, Yuuki; Kato, Atsuko; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2011-09-01

    We realized a multilayer film laminated alternately with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) films in order to improve the piezoelectric performance of the PLLA film. In the fabrication processes, the thicknesses of PLLA and PDLA films were reduced to improve the effective electric field, and a multilayer composed of more than 100 layers (PDLA/PLLA multilayer film) was realized to improve the piezoelectric performance. In general, a single PLLA film has a piezoelectric constant of about 5 pC/N, and it is difficult to observe the piezoelectric resonance in this film of centimeter-order size using a commercial impedance analyzer because of its small Q-value. In contrast, the PDLA/PLLA multilayer film of centimeter-order size has a piezoelectric performance equivalent to that of the piezoelectric material with a piezoelectric constant of 100 pC/N, and also, the piezoelectric resonance can be observed in this film. On the basis of these results, we confirmed that even an object of 259 g mass is made to vibrate under the piezoelectric resonance vibration of this PDLA/PLLA multilayer film. In other words, necessary quantities for actual work as an actuator could be obtained in the PDLA/PLLA multilayer film.

  6. Finite Element Study on Acoustic Energy Harvesting Using Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuruddh; Sharma, Anshul; Kumar, Rajeev; Vaish, Rahul

    2018-02-01

    In this article, a numerical investigation is performed for ambient acoustic energy harvesting at a low-frequency acoustic signal. A model of a quarter-wavelength resonator with a rectangular cross section is constructed, and piezoelectric-laminated bimorph plates are placed inside the system. Finite element modeling is implemented to numerically formulate the piezoelectric energy harvester. With the application of acoustic pressure at the open end of the resonator, amplified acoustic pressure inside the tube vibrates the piezolaminated bimorphs inside the tube, thus generating electric potential on the piezoelectric layers. To generate higher voltage and power in the acoustic harvester, multiple piezolaminated plates are positioned inside the resonator. The lead-free piezoelectric material K0.475Na0.475Li0.05 (Nb0.92Ta0.05Sb0.03)O3 (KNLNTS) is laminated on the host structure as a layer of piezoelectric material for the acoustic energy harvester. With the application of an acoustic sound pressure of 1 dB at the opening of the tube, a maximum output voltage of 16.3 V is measured at the first natural frequency, while the maximum power calculated is 0.033 mW. Maximum voltage is obtained when five piezoelectric bimorphs are place inside the resonator. At the second natural frequency, the maximum voltage measured is 8.40 V, obtained when eight piezoelectric bimorphs are placed inside the resonator, and the maximum power calculated is 0.020 mW.

  7. Phenomenally High Transduction Air/gas Transducers for Practical Non-Contact Ultrasonic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Mahesh C.

    2009-03-01

    Based on novel acoustic impedance matching layers and high coupling piezoelectric materials this paper describes exceptionally high air/gas transduction ultrasonic transducers. By providing applications oriented performance of these transducers we also usher in the era of much desired Non-Contact Ultrasound (NCU) testing and analysis of a wide range of materials including early stage formation of materials such as uncured composite prepregs, green ceramics and powder metals, plastics, elastomers, porous, hygroscopic, chemically bonded and other materials. Besides quality control, ultimately NCU offers timely opportunities for cost-effective materials production, energy savings, and environment protection.

  8. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  9. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  10. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  11. Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Studer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  12. Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  13. Optimal Design of Piezoelectric Materials for Maximal Energy Harvesting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Wright. . 22 Figure 3.1 Energy harvesting bimorph cantilever with distributed piezoelectric transducers (gray) bonded to a substrate ( white ). Adapted...certain materials, such as zinc blende, sodium chlorate, boracite, tourmaline, cane sugar, Rochelle salt, and quartz, mechanical stresses induce...cantilever with distributed piezoelectric transducers (gray) bonded to a substrate ( white ). Adapted from Dutoit, Wardle and Kim [16]. 25 The general equations

  14. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

  15. Low-Frequency and Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Base-Mounted Piezoelectric Transducers.

    PubMed

    Koven, Robert; Mills, Matthew; Gale, Richard; Aksak, Burak

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters often consist of a cantilevered beam composed of a support layer and one or two piezoelectric layers with a tip mass. While this configuration is advantageous for maximizing electromechanical coupling, the mechanical properties of the piezoelectric material can place limitations on harvester size and resonant frequency. Here, we present numerical and experimental results from a new type of piezoelectric energy harvester in which the mechanical properties and the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam resonator are effectively decoupled from the piezoelectric component. Referred to as a base-mounted piezoelectric (BMP) harvester in this paper, this new design features a piezoelectric transducer mounted beneath the base of the cantilevered beam resonator. The flexibility in the material choice for the cantilever beam resonator means that the resonant frequency and the beam dimensions are essentially free parameters. A prototype made with a 1.6 mm mm mm polyurethane beam, a PZT-5H piezoelectric transducer, and an 8.36-g tip mass is shown to produce an average power of 8.75 and at 45 Hz across a 13.0- load under harmonic base excitations of constant peak acceleration at 0.25 and 1.0-g, respectively. We also show an increase in full-width half-maximum bandwidth approximately from 1.5 to 5.6 Hz using an array of four individual BMP harvesters of similar dimensions with peak power generation of at 37.6 Hz across a 1.934- load at 0.25-g peak base excitation. Finite elements-based numerical simulations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results, indicating that the harvester behaves like a damped mass-spring system as proposed in this paper. Fabricated using casting and laser machining techniques, this harvester shows potential as a low-cost option for powering small, low-power wireless sensor nodes and other low-power devices.

  16. A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting

  17. Giant piezoelectric voltage coefficient in grain-oriented modified PbTiO 3 material

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Yongke; Zhou, Jie E.; Maurya, Deepam; ...

    2016-10-11

    A rapid surge in the research on piezoelectric sensors is occurring with the arrival of the Internet of Things. Single-phase oxide piezoelectric materials with giant piezoelectric voltage coefficient (g, induced voltage under applied stress) and high Curie temperature (T c) are crucial towards providing desired performance for sensing, especially under harsh environmental conditions. Here, we report a grain-oriented (with 95% <001> texture) modified PbTiO 3 ceramic that has a high T c (364°C) and an extremely large g 33 (115 × 10 -3 Vm N -1) in comparison with other known single-phase oxide materials. Our results reveal that self-polarization duemore » to grain orientation along the spontaneous polarization direction plays an important role in achieving large piezoelectric response in a domain motion-confined material. Finally, the phase field simulations confirm that the large piezoelectric voltage coefficient g 33 originates from maximized piezoelectric strain coefficient d 33 and minimized dielectric permittivity ε 33 in [001]-textured PbTiO 3 ceramics where domain wall motions are absent.« less

  18. Giant piezoelectric voltage coefficient in grain-oriented modified PbTiO3 material

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yongke; Zhou, Jie E.; Maurya, Deepam; Wang, Yu U.; Priya, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    A rapid surge in the research on piezoelectric sensors is occurring with the arrival of the Internet of Things. Single-phase oxide piezoelectric materials with giant piezoelectric voltage coefficient (g, induced voltage under applied stress) and high Curie temperature (Tc) are crucial towards providing desired performance for sensing, especially under harsh environmental conditions. Here, we report a grain-oriented (with 95% <001> texture) modified PbTiO3 ceramic that has a high Tc (364 °C) and an extremely large g33 (115 × 10−3 Vm N−1) in comparison with other known single-phase oxide materials. Our results reveal that self-polarization due to grain orientation along the spontaneous polarization direction plays an important role in achieving large piezoelectric response in a domain motion-confined material. The phase field simulations confirm that the large piezoelectric voltage coefficient g33 originates from maximized piezoelectric strain coefficient d33 and minimized dielectric permittivity ɛ33 in [001]-textured PbTiO3 ceramics where domain wall motions are absent. PMID:27725634

  19. Piezoelectric Actuator Modeling Using MSC/NASTRAN and MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for modeling structures containing piezoelectric actuators using MSCMASTRAN and MATLAB. The paper describes the utility and functionality of one set of validated modeling tools. The tools described herein use MSCMASTRAN to model the structure with piezoelectric actuators and a thermally induced strain to model straining of the actuators due to an applied voltage field. MATLAB scripts are used to assemble the dynamic equations and to generate frequency response functions. The application of these tools is discussed using a cantilever aluminum beam with a surface mounted piezoelectric actuator as a sample problem. Software in the form of MSCINASTRAN DMAP input commands, MATLAB scripts, and a step-by-step procedure to solve the example problem are provided. Analysis results are generated in terms of frequency response functions from deflection and strain data as a function of input voltage to the actuator.

  20. Tunable acoustic metamaterial based on piezoelectric ceramic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Jing; Zhang, Guangyu; Zhou, Qiang; Wu, Yingdan; Li, Longqiu

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a tunable metamaterial consisting of periodic layers of steel, polyurea and piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) was presented. The PZT layer in this structure was connected to an inductor L. Transfer matrix method was used to calculate the band structure of the sample. It was observed that an extremely narrow stop band was induced by the PZT layer with inductor L. This narrow stop band was attributed to the resonance circuit constituted by the piezoelectric layer, for the piezoelectric layer with electrodes could be seen as a capacitor. Further, homogenization was used to calculate the effective elastic constants of the sample. Results showed that the effective parameters of this structure behaved negative in the narrow stop band. The location of the narrow stop band was in the charge of inductor L, which could be used to design acoustic filters or noise insulators by changing the parameters of structure.

  1. Piezo-phototronic sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L.; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-10-15

    A device includes a substrate having a first surface. A piezoelectric nanowire is disposed on the first surface of the substrate. The piezoelectric nanowire has a first end and an opposite second end. The piezoelectric nanowire is subjected to an amount of strain. A first Schottky contact is in electrical communication with the first end of the piezoelectric nanowire. A second Schottky contact is in electrical communication with the second end of the piezoelectric nanowire. A bias voltage source is configured to impart a bias voltage between the first Schottky contact and the second Schottky contact. A mechanism is configured to measure current flowing through the piezoelectric nanowire. The amount of strain is selected so that a predetermined current will flow through the piezoelectric nanowire when light of a selected intensity is applied to a first location on the piezoelectric nanowire.

  2. Piezoelectric Characteristics of Chiral Polymer Composite Films Obtained under Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakiri, Takuo; Okuno, Masaki; Maki, Nobuyuki; Kanasaki, Masayoshi; Morimoto, Yu; Okamoto, Satoshi; Ishizuka, Masayuki; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Takaki, Toshihiko; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2005-09-01

    It is difficult to obtain a drawn chiral polymer/inorganic material composite membrane with shear piezoelectricity by the conventional method because the chiral polymer/inorganic material composite membrane breaks during the drawing process by which shear piezoelectricity is realized. Using a strong magnetic field, we propose to manufacture a drawn composite membrane of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), a chiral polymer, and hydroxyapatite (Hap), an inoroganic material (PLLA/Hap composite membrane). The manufacturing method used here is effective for obtaining a drawn PLLA/Hap composite membrane with a large uniform area. Also, the shear piezoelectric constant of the drawn PLLA/Hap composite membrane is about 20 pC/N. This value is large for piezoelectric polymers.

  3. Aeroservoelastic DAP missile fin development. [directionally attached piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron

    1993-01-01

    The development of an active aeroservoelastic missile fin using directionally attached piezoelectric (DAP) actuator elements is detailed. Several different types of actuator elements are examined, including piezoelectric polymers, piezoelectric fiber composites, and conventionally attached piezoelectric (CAP) and DAP elements. These actuator elements are bonded to the substrate of a torque plate. The root of the torque plate is attached to a fuselage hard point or folding pivot. The tip of the plate is bonded to an aerodynamic shell which undergoes a pitch change as the plate twists. The design procedures used on the plate are discussed. A comparison of the various actuator element shows that DAP elements provide the highest deflections with the highest torsional stiffness. A torque plate was constructed from 0.2032 mm thick DAP elements bonded to a 0.127 mm thick AISI 1010 steel substrate. The torque plate produced static twist deflections in excess of +/- 3 deg. An aerodynamic shell with a modified NACA 0012 profile was added to the torque plate. This fin was tested in a wind tunnel at speeds up to 50 ms/sec. The static deflection of the fin was predicted to within 6 percent of the experimental data.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using a Piezo-Electric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Erdenebayar, Urtnasan; Park, Jong Uk; Jeong, Pilsoo; Lee, Kyoung Joung

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we propose a novel method for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection using a piezo-electric sensor. OSA is a relatively common sleep disorder. However, more than 80% of OSA patients remain undiagnosed. We investigated the feasibility of OSA assessment using a single-channel physiological signal to simplify the OSA screening. We detected both snoring and heartbeat information by using a piezo-electric sensor, and snoring index (SI) and features based on pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis were extracted from the filtered piezo-electric sensor signal. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier to detect OSA events. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 45 patients from mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. The method achieved a mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 72.5%, 74.2%, and 71.5%; 85.8%, 80.5%, and 80.0%; and 70.3%, 77.1%, and 71.9% for the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. Finally, these results not only show the feasibility of OSA detection using a piezo-electric sensor, but also illustrate its usefulness for monitoring sleep and diagnosing OSA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using a Piezo-Electric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we propose a novel method for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection using a piezo-electric sensor. OSA is a relatively common sleep disorder. However, more than 80% of OSA patients remain undiagnosed. We investigated the feasibility of OSA assessment using a single-channel physiological signal to simplify the OSA screening. We detected both snoring and heartbeat information by using a piezo-electric sensor, and snoring index (SI) and features based on pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis were extracted from the filtered piezo-electric sensor signal. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier to detect OSA events. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on 45 patients from mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. The method achieved a mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 72.5%, 74.2%, and 71.5%; 85.8%, 80.5%, and 80.0%; and 70.3%, 77.1%, and 71.9% for the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. Finally, these results not only show the feasibility of OSA detection using a piezo-electric sensor, but also illustrate its usefulness for monitoring sleep and diagnosing OSA. PMID:28480645

  6. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5more » pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.« less

  7. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  8. Survey of the present state of the art of piezoelectric linear motors

    PubMed

    Hemsel; Wallaschek

    2000-03-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been investigated for several years and have already found their first practical applications. Their key feature is that they are able to produce a high thrust force related to their volume. Beside rotary drives like the travelling wave motor, linear drives have also been developed, but only a few are presently commercially available. In the present paper, we first describe the state of the art of linear piezoelectric motors. The motors are characterized with respect to their no-load velocity, maximum thrust force, efficiency and other technical properties. In the second part, we present a new motor, which is judged to be capable of surpassing the characteristics of other piezoelectric motors because of its unique design which allows the piezoelectric drive elements to be pre-stressed in the direction of their polarization. The piezoelectric elements convert energy using the longitudinal d33 effect which allows an improved reliability, large vibration amplitudes and excellent piezoelectric coupling. Energy loss by vibration damping is minimized, and the efficiency can be improved significantly. Experimental results show that the motor characteristics can be optimized for a particular task by choosing the appropriate operating parameters such as exciting voltage, exciting frequency and normal force.

  9. Optimum shape control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the static deformation and shape of flexible beams is examined. An optimum design procedure is presented to enable the selection of the optimal location, thickness and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the deflection of the beam to which these actuators are bonded. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed optimization procedure in minimizing structural deformation of beams using ceramic and polymeric piezoelectric actuators bonded to the beams with a typical bonding agent. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised rational produce in designing beam-actuator systems with minimal elastic distortions.

  10. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  11. Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J., E-mail: jtang@engr.uconn.edu

    This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined.

  12. A microwave piezoelectric transducer with a microstrip exciter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, M. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Tolstikov, A. V.

    1990-12-01

    The paper considers a microwave electroacoustic bulk-wave transducer with a microstrip exciter system. The operation of the device is analyzed on the basis of the dependence of the dimensionless radiation resistance on the phase advance in the piezoelectric. The optimal wave resistance, the area of the piezoelectric element, the length of the short-circuited section, the SWR, and the conversion factor are determined.

  13. Analytical and experimental investigation of flutter suppression by piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of piezoelectric plate actuators for suppressing flutter. Piezoelectric materials are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two-degree-of-freedom wind tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid wing and a flexible mount system that permitted a translational and a rotational degree of freedom. The model was designed such that flutter was encountered within the testing envelope of the wind tunnel. Actuators made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs of the mount system. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed by using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. Plant characteristics were determined from this model and verified by open loop experimental tests. A flutter suppression control law was designed and implemented on a digital control computer. Closed loop flutter testing was conducted. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. They demonstrate that small, carefully placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  14. Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.

  15. Response of Metal Core Piezoelectric Fibers to Unsteady Airflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, J. H.; Ji, H. L.; Zhu, K. J.; Park, M. J.

    In the previous study, possible applications of metal core piezoelectric fibers with a diameter of 200 to 250 µm as bionic airflow sensors mimicking the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets have been proposed. This study aims to investigate the dynamic responses of the metal core piezoelectric fibers to unsteady airflow. The metal core piezoelectric fiber is half coated on the outer surface and is used in the bending mode. Wind tunnel tests were carried out and the output voltage of the fiber under the excitation of the unsteady aerodynamic force during flow acceleration and deceleration was measured when the wind tunnel was suddenly closed or opened by a shutter. The relationship between the maximum voltage and the steady-state velocity and that between the voltage and the acceleration of flow were also obtained.

  16. ZnO thin film piezoelectric micromachined microphone with symmetric composite vibrating diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junhong; Wang, Chenghao; Ren, Wei; Ma, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Residual stress is an important factor affecting the sensitivity of piezoelectric micromachined microphone. A symmetric composite vibrating diaphragm was adopted in the micro electro mechanical systems piezoelectric microphone to decrease the residual stress and improve the sensitivity of microphone in this paper. The ZnO film was selected as piezoelectric materials of microphone for its higher piezoelectric coefficient d 31 and lower relative dielectric constant. The thickness optimization of piezoelectric film on square diaphragm is difficult to be fulfilled by analytic method. To optimize the thickness of ZnO films, the stress distribution in ZnO film was analyzed by finite element method and the average stress in different thickness of ZnO films was given. The ZnO films deposited using dc magnetron sputtering exhibits a densely packed structure with columnar crystallites preferentially oriented along (002) plane. The diaphragm of microphone fabricated by micromachining techniques is flat and no wrinkling at corners, and the sensitivity of microphone is higher than 1 mV Pa-1. These results indicate the diaphragm has lower residual stress.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontsev, Serhiy O.; Eitel, Richard E.

    2010-08-01

    Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The 'structural engineering' approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications.

  18. Development of a directivity controlled piezoelectric transducer for sound reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, Magella; Berry, Alain

    2005-04-01

    One of the inherent limitations of loudspeaker systems in audio reproduction is their inability to reproduce the possibly complex acoustic directivity patterns of real sound sources. For music reproduction for example, it may be desirable to separate diffuse field and direct sound components and project them with different directivity patterns. Because of their properties, poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films offer lot of advantages for the development of electroacoustic transducers. A system of piezoelectric transducers made with PVDF that show a controllable directivity was developed. A cylindrical omnidirectional piezoelectric transducer is used to produce an ambient field, and a piezoelectric transducers system, consisting of a series of curved sources placed around a cylinder frame, is used to produce a sound field with a given directivity. To develop the system, a numerical model was generated with ANSYS Multiphysics TM8.1 and used to calculate the mechanical response of the piezoelectric transducer. The acoustic radiation of the driver was then computed using the Kirchoff-Helmoltz theorem. Numerical and experimental results of the mechanical and acoustical response of the system will be shown.

  19. Piezoelectric Diffraction-Based Optical Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Fuhr, Peter; Schipper, John

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric diffraction-based optoelectronic devices have been invented to satisfy requirements for switching signals quickly among alternative optical paths in optical communication networks. These devices are capable of operating with switching times as short as microseconds or even nanoseconds in some cases.

  20. Three-dimensional ceramic molding process based on microstereolithography for the production of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruo, Shoji; Sugiyama, Kenji; Daicho, Yuya; Monri, Kensaku

    2014-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) molding process using a master polymer mold produced by microstereolithography has been developed for the production of piezoelectric ceramic elements. In this method, ceramic slurry is injected into a 3-D polymer mold via a centrifugal casting process. The polymer master mold is thermally decomposed so that complex 3-D piezoelectric ceramic elements can be produced. As an example of 3-D piezoelectric ceramic elements, we produced a spiral piezoelectric element that can convert multidirectional loads into a voltage. It was confirmed that a prototype of the spiral piezoelectric element could generate a voltage by applying a load in both parallel and lateral directions in relation to the helical axis. The power output of 123 pW was obtained by applying the maximum load of 2.8N at 2 Hz along the helical axis. In addition, to improve the performance of power generation, we utilized a two-step sintering process to obtain dense piezoelectric elements. As a result, we obtained a sintering body with relative density of 92.8%. Piezoelectric constant d31 of the sintered body attained to -40.0 pC/N. Furthermore we analyzed the open-circuit voltage of the spiral piezoelectric element using COMSOL multiphysics. As a result, it was found that use of patterned electrodes according to the surface potential distribution of the spiral piezoelectric element had a potential to provide high output voltage that was 20 times larger than that of uniform electrodes.

  1. Piezoelectric properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite-based organic-inorganic hydrated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Rogelio; Rangel, Domingo; Fonseca, Gerardo; Gonzalez, Maykel; Vargas, Susana

    Disks of synthetic hydroxyapatite agglutinated with a synthetic polymer and hydrated in a moisture fog, were prepared. A well-defined piezoelectric signal of these samples was obtained when a relative small compression stress of 35 MPa (corresponding a force of 450 daN) was applied; piezoelectric signals of up to 12 mV were obtained with this stress. Two different compression methods were followed to obtain the piezoelectric signal: (a) hold method, where the load was maintained constant once it reaches the maximum stress and (b) release method, where the load was removed rapidly when the stress reaches its maximum value. The samples were characterized using the techniques: X-ray Diffraction, Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy and mechanical test.

  2. Static deflection control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study deals with the utilization of piezo-electric actuators in controlling the static deformation of flexible beams. An optimum design procedure is presented to enable the selection of the optimal location, thickness and excitation voltage of the piezo-electric actuators in a way that would minimize the deflection of the beam to which these actuators are bonded. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed optimization procedure in minimizing the structural deformation of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezo-electric actuators. The results obtained emphasize the importance of the devised rational procedure in designing beam-actuator systems with minimal elastic distortions.

  3. Quantitative evaluation method for nonlinear characteristics of piezoelectric transducers under high stress with complex nonlinear elastic constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Susumu; Kasashima, Takashi; Yamazaki, Masato; Okimura, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Hajime; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Morita, Takeshi

    2018-07-01

    The high power properties of piezoelectric transducers were evaluated considering a complex nonlinear elastic constant. The piezoelectric LCR equivalent circuit with nonlinear circuit parameters was utilized to measure them. The deformed admittance curve of piezoelectric transducers was measured under a high stress and the complex nonlinear elastic constant was calculated by curve fitting. Transducers with various piezoelectric materials, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, (K,Na)NbO3, and Ba(Zr,Ti)O3–(Ba,Ca)TiO3, were investigated by the proposed method. The measured complex nonlinear elastic constant strongly depends on the linear elastic and piezoelectric constants. This relationship indicates that piezoelectric high power properties can be controlled by modifying the linear elastic and piezoelectric constants.

  4. High precision optical measurement of displacement and simultaneous determinations of piezoelectric coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Bryan M.; Malladi, Madhuri; Vadlamani, Ramya; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2016-09-01

    PZT are also well known for their applications in Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS). It is necessary to study the piezoelectric coefficients of the materials accurately in order to design a sensor as an example, which defines their strain dependent applications. Systematic study of the electro mechanic displacement measurement was conducted and compared using a white light fiber optic sensor, a heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer, and a homodyne laser interferometry setup. Frequency dependent measurement is conducted to evaluate displacement values well below and near the piezoelectric resonances. UHF-120 ultra-high frequency Vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal piezoelectric displacement or x33 and the MTI 2000 FotonicTM Sensor is used to measure the transverse piezoelectric displacement or x11 over 100Hz to 2MHz. A Multiphysics Finite Element Analysis method, COMSOL, is also adopted in the study to generate a three dimensional electromechanical coupled model based on experimentally determined strains x33 and x11 as a function of frequency of the electric field applied. The full family of piezoelectric coefficients of the poled electronic ceramic PZT, d33, d31, and d15, can be then derived, upon satisfactory simulation of the COMSOL. This is achieved without the usual need of preparation of piezoelectric resonators of fundamental longitudinal, transversal, and shear modes respectively.

  5. Characteristics of fundamental acoustic wave modes in thin piezoelectric plates.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S G; Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Teplykh, A A; Pasachhe, A

    2006-12-22

    The characteristics of the three lowest order plate waves (A(0), S(0), and SH(0)) propagating in piezoelectric plates whose thickness h is much less than the acoustic wavelength lambda are theoretically analyzed. It is found that these waves can provide much higher values of electromechanical coupling coefficient K(2) and lower values of temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) than is possible with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). For example, in 30Y-X lithium niobate, the SH(0) mode has K(2)=0.46 and TCD=55 ppm/degrees C. The corresponding values for SAW in the widely used, strong coupling material of 128Y-X lithium niobate are K(2)=0.053 and TCD=75 ppm/degrees C. Another important advantage of plate waves is that, unlike the case of SAWs, they can operate satisfactorily in contact with a liquid medium, thus making possible their use in liquid phase sensors.

  6. Exact analysis of two kinds of piezoelectric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Han; Zhifei, Shi

    2008-02-01

    Two kinds of piezoelectric hollow cylinder actuator are studied in this paper. One is the expansion actuator and the other is the contraction actuator. Using the Airy stress function method, the analytical solutions of these two kinds of actuators are obtained based on the theory of piezo-elasticity. The solutions are compared with numerical results and good agreement is found. Inherent properties of these two kinds of piezoelectric cylinder actuator are presented and discussed. Findings have applications in the field of micromechanics and microengineering.

  7. Electromechanical Simulation of Actively Controlled Rotordynamic Systems with Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, G.

    1991-01-01

    Theories and tests for incorporating piezoelectric pushers as actuator devices for active vibration control are discussed. It started from a simple model with the assumption of ideal pusher characteristics and progressed to electromechanical models with nonideal pushers. Effects on system stability due to the nonideal characteristics of piezoelectric pushers and other elements in the control loop were investigated.

  8. Tuning piezoelectric properties through epitaxy of La2Ti2O7 and related thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Hong, Seungbum; Bowden, Mark E.

    2018-02-14

    Current piezoelectric sensors and actuators are limited to operating temperatures less than ~200°C due to the low Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. High temperature piezoelectric materials such as La2Ti2O7 (LTO) would facilitate the development of high-temperature sensors if the piezoelectric coupling coefficient could be maximized. We have deposited epitaxial LTO films on SrTiO3(001), SrTiO3(110), and rutile TiO2(110) substrates by pulsed laser deposition, and show that the crystalline orientation of the LTO film, and thus its piezoelectric coupling direction, can be controlled by epitaxial matching to the substrate. The structure and phase purity of the films were investigated by x-raymore » diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. To characterize the piezoelectric properties, piezoresponse force microscopy was used to measure the in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric coupling in the films. We find that the strength of the out-of-plane piezoelectric coupling can be increased when the piezoelectric crystalline direction is rotated partially out-of-plane via epitaxy. The strongest out-of-plane coupling is observed for LTO/STO(001). Deposition on TiO2(110) results in epitaxial La2/3TiO3, an orthorhombic perovskite of interest as a microwave dielectric material. La2/3TiO3 can be difficult to stabilize in bulk form, and epitaxial deposition has not been previously reported. These results confirm that control of the crystalline orientation of LTO-based materials can increase the out-of-plane strength of its piezoelectric coupling, which can be exploited in piezoelectric devices.« less

  9. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  10. Monolithic piezoelectric sensor (MPS) for sensing chemical, biochemical and physical measurands

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.; Lec, Ryszard M.

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric sensor and assembly for measuring chemical, biochemical and physical measurands is disclosed. The piezoelectric sensor comprises a piezoelectric material, preferably a crystal, a common metal layer attached to the top surface of the piezoelectric crystal, and a pair of independent resonators placed in close proximity on the piezoelectric crystal such that an efficacious portion of acoustic energy couples between the resonators. The first independent resonator serves as an input port through which an input signal is converted into mechanical energy within the sensor and the second independent resonator serves an output port through which a filtered replica of the input signal is detected as an electrical signal. Both a time delay and an attenuation at a given frequency between the input signal and the filtered replica may be measured as a sensor output. The sensor may be integrated into an assembly with a series feedback oscillator and a radio frequency amplifier to process the desired sensor output. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a selective film is disposed upon the grounded metal layer of the sensor and the resonators are encapsulated to isolate them from the measuring environment. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, more than two resonators are used in order to increase the resolution of the sensor.

  11. Ultrahigh piezoelectricity in ferroelectric ceramics by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Lin, Dabin; Chen, Zibin; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Jianli; Li, ChunChun; Xu, Zhuo; Huang, Qianwei; Liao, Xiaozhou; Chen, Long-Qing; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Shujun

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials, which respond mechanically to applied electric field and vice versa, are essential for electromechanical transducers. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that high piezoelectricity in perovskite oxides is associated with a flat thermodynamic energy landscape connecting two or more ferroelectric phases. Here, guided by phenomenological theories and phase-field simulations, we propose an alternative design strategy to commonly used morphotropic phase boundaries to further flatten the energy landscape, by judiciously introducing local structural heterogeneity to manipulate interfacial energies (that is, extra interaction energies, such as electrostatic and elastic energies associated with the interfaces). To validate this, we synthesize rare-earth-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), as rare-earth dopants tend to change the local structure of Pb-based perovskite ferroelectrics. We achieve ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients d33 of up to 1,500 pC N-1 and dielectric permittivity ɛ33/ɛ0 above 13,000 in a Sm-doped PMN-PT ceramic with a Curie temperature of 89 °C. Our research provides a new paradigm for designing material properties through engineering local structural heterogeneity, expected to benefit a wide range of functional materials.

  12. Ultrahigh piezoelectricity in ferroelectric ceramics by design.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Lin, Dabin; Chen, Zibin; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Jianli; Li, ChunChun; Xu, Zhuo; Huang, Qianwei; Liao, Xiaozhou; Chen, Long-Qing; Shrout, Thomas R; Zhang, Shujun

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric materials, which respond mechanically to applied electric field and vice versa, are essential for electromechanical transducers. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that high piezoelectricity in perovskite oxides is associated with a flat thermodynamic energy landscape connecting two or more ferroelectric phases. Here, guided by phenomenological theories and phase-field simulations, we propose an alternative design strategy to commonly used morphotropic phase boundaries to further flatten the energy landscape, by judiciously introducing local structural heterogeneity to manipulate interfacial energies (that is, extra interaction energies, such as electrostatic and elastic energies associated with the interfaces). To validate this, we synthesize rare-earth-doped Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT), as rare-earth dopants tend to change the local structure of Pb-based perovskite ferroelectrics. We achieve ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients d 33 of up to 1,500 pC N -1 and dielectric permittivity ε 33 /ε 0 above 13,000 in a Sm-doped PMN-PT ceramic with a Curie temperature of 89 °C. Our research provides a new paradigm for designing material properties through engineering local structural heterogeneity, expected to benefit a wide range of functional materials.

  13. Feasibility of Piezoelectric Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Craniotomy: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Gellner, Verena; Koele, Wolfgang; Hammer, Georg Philipp; Braun, Eva Maria; Gerstenberger, Claus; Clarici, Georg; Holl, Etienne; Braun, Hannes; Stammberger, Heinz; Mokry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach has become the gold standard for surgical treatment of treating pituitary adenomas or other lesions in that area. Opening of bony skull base has been performed with burrs, chisels, and hammers or standard instruments like punches and circular top knives. The creation of primary bone flaps—as in external craniotomies—is difficult.The piezoelectric osteotomes used in the present study allows creating a bone flap for endoscopic transnasal approaches in certain areas. The aim of this study was to prove the feasibility of piezoelectric endoscopic transnasal craniotomies. Study Design. Cadaveric study. Methods. On cadaveric specimens (N = 5), a piezoelectric system with specially designed hardware for endonasal application was applied and endoscopic transsphenoidal craniotomies at the sellar floor, tuberculum sellae, and planum sphenoidale were performed up to a size of 3–5 cm2. Results. Bone flaps could be created without fracturing with the piezoosteotome and could be reimplanted. Endoscopic handling was unproblematic and time required was not exceeding standard procedures. Conclusion. In a cadaveric model, the piezoelectric endoscopic transsphenoidal craniotomy (PETC) is technically feasible. This technique allows the surgeon to create a bone flap in endoscopic transnasal approaches similar to existing standard transcranial craniotomies. Future trials will focus on skull base reconstruction using this bone flap. PMID:24689037

  14. Design and experimental evaluation of flextensional-cantilever based piezoelectric transducers for flow energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Cantilever type piezoelectric harvesters, such as bimorphs, are typically used for vibration induced energy harvesting. However, a major drawback of a piezoelectric bimorph is its brittle nature in harsh environments, precipitating short life-times as well as output power degradation. The emphasis in this work is to design robust, highly efficient piezoelectric harvesters that are capable of generating electrical power in the milliwatt range. Various harvesters were modeled, designed and prototyped, and the flextensional actuator based harvester, where the metal cantilever is mounted and coupled between two flextensional actuators, was found to be a viable alternative to the cantilever type piezoelectric harvesters. Preliminary tests show that these devices equipped with 5x5x36 mm two piezoelectric PZT stacks can produce greater than 50 mW of power under air flow induced vibrations.

  15. A normally-closed piezoelectric micro-valve with flexible stopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Lu, Song; Liu, Yong; Wang, Jiantao; Tian, Xiaochao; Liu, Guojun; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-04-01

    In the field of controlled drug delivery system, there are still many problems on those reported micro-valves, such as the small opening height, unsatisfactory particle tolerance and high cost. To solve the above problems, a novel normally-closed piezoelectric micro-valve is presented in this paper. The micro-valve was driven by circular unimorph piezoelectric vibrator and natural rubber membrane with high elasticity was used as the valve stopper. The small axial displacement of piezoelectric vibrator can be converted into a large stroke of valve stopper based on hydraulic amplification mechanism. The experiment indicates that maximum hydraulic amplification ratio is up to 14, and the cut-off pressure of the micro-valve is 39kPa in the case of no working voltage. The presented micro valve has a large flow control range (ranging from 0 to 8.75mL/min).

  16. Piezoelectric thin films and their applications for electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Yukio

    2009-03-01

    ZnO and AlN piezoelectric thin films have been studied for applications in bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator. This article introduces methods of forming ZnO and AlN piezoelectric thin films by radio frequency sputtering and applications of BAW resonators considering the relationship between the crystallinity of piezoelectric thin films and the characteristics of the BAW resonators. Using ZnO thin films, BAW resonators were fabricated for a contour mode at 3.58 MHz and thickness modes from 200 MHz to 5 GHz. The ZnO thin films were combined with various materials, substrates, and thin films to minimize the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). The minimum TCF of BAW resonators was approximately 2 ppm/°C in the range -20 to 80 °C. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (k2) in a 1.9 GHz BAW resonator was 6.9%. Using AlN thin films, 5-20 GHz BAW resonators with an ultrathin membrane were realized. The membrane thickness of a 20 GHz BAW resonator was about 200 nm, k2 was 6.1%, and the quality factor (Q) was about 280. Q decreased with increasing resonant frequency. The value of k2 is almost the same for 5-20 GHz resonators. This result could be obtained by improving the thickness uniformity, by controlling internal stress of thin films, and by controlling the crystallinity of AlN piezoelectric thin film.

  17. A digital output piezoelectric accelerometer using a Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin film array electrically connected in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Okada, H.; Masuda, T.; Maeda, R.; Itoh, T.

    2010-10-01

    A digital output piezoelectric accelerometer is proposed to realize an ultra-low power consumption wireless sensor node. The accelerometer has patterned piezoelectric thin films (piezoelectric plates) electrically connected in series accompanied by CMOS switches at the end of some of the piezoelectric plates. The connected piezoelectric plates amplify the output voltage without the use of amplifiers. The CMOS switches turn on when the output voltage of the piezoelectric plates is higher than the CMOS threshold voltage. The piezoelectric accelerometer converts the acceleration into a number of on-state CMOS switches, which can be called the digital output. The proposed digital output piezoelectric accelerometer, using Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films as the piezoelectric material, was fabricated through a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microfabrication process. The output voltage was found to be amplified by the number of connected piezoelectric plates. The DC output voltage obtained by using an AC to DC conversion circuit is proportional to the number of connections. The results show the potential for realizing the proposed digital output piezoelectric accelerometer.

  18. Electrical and mechanical fully coupled theory and experimental verification of Rosen-type piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin

    2005-10-01

    A piezoelectric transformer is a power transfer device that converts its input and output voltage as well as current by effectively using electrical and mechanical coupling effects of piezoelectric materials. Equivalent-circuit models, which are traditionally used to analyze piezoelectric transformers, merge each mechanical resonance effect into a series of ordinary differential equations. Because of using ordinary differential equations, equivalent circuit models are insufficient to reflect the mechanical behavior of piezoelectric plates. Electromechanically, fully coupled governing equations of Rosen-type piezoelectric transformers, which are partial differential equations in nature, can be derived to address the deficiencies of the equivalent circuit models. It can be shown that the modal actuator concept can be adopted to optimize the electromechanical coupling effect of the driving section once the added spatial domain design parameters are taken into account, which are three-dimensional spatial dependencies of electromechanical properties. The maximum power transfer condition for a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer is detailed. Experimental results, which lead us to a series of new design rules, also are presented to prove the validity and effectiveness of the theoretical predictions.

  19. Time-varying nonlinear dynamics of a deploying piezoelectric laminated composite plate under aerodynamic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. F.; Zhang, W.; Song, X. J.

    2017-09-01

    Using Reddy's high-order shear theory for laminated plates and Hamilton's principle, a nonlinear partial differential equation for the dynamics of a deploying cantilevered piezoelectric laminated composite plate, under the combined action of aerodynamic load and piezoelectric excitation, is introduced. Two-degree of freedom (DOF) nonlinear dynamic models for the time-varying coefficients describing the transverse vibration of the deploying laminate under the combined actions of a first-order aerodynamic force and piezoelectric excitation were obtained by selecting a suitable time-dependent modal function satisfying the displacement boundary conditions and applying second-order discretization using the Galerkin method. Using a numerical method, the time history curves of the deploying laminate were obtained, and its nonlinear dynamic characteristics, including extension speed and different piezoelectric excitations, were studied. The results suggest that the piezoelectric excitation has a clear effect on the change of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of such piezoelectric laminated composite plates. The nonlinear vibration of the deploying cantilevered laminate can be effectively suppressed by choosing a suitable voltage and polarity.

  20. Creation and Optimization of Novel Solar Cell Power via Bimaterial Piezoelectric MEMS Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    piezoelectric mechanical vibration energy harvesters ,” Integrated Ferroelectrics, vol. 71, pp. 121–160, 2005. [32] Y. C. Shu, I. C. Lien, “Efficiency of...energy conversion for a piezoelectric power harvesting system.” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 16, pp. 2429–2438, 2006. [33] C. D...maximum efficiency for piezoelectric vibrations occurs at the natural, or resonant, frequency for the referenced material. If the alternative

  1. Anomalous piezoelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ionic liquid gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukagawa, Miki; Koshiba, Yasuko; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Masahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric gels were prepared from low-volatile ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][TFSI]) gels, and their structural, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties were investigated. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE)/IL gels were formed using thermally reversible physical gels. The structural characterization indicated that the P(VDF-TrFE) molecules in the gels predominantly formed a ferroelectric phase (Form I) of P(VDF-TrFE). Polarization switching peaks were clearly observed using a three-layer stacked device structure. The coercive field of the P(VDF-TrFE)/IL gels substantially decreased to 4-9 MV/m, and their remnant polarizations were maintained at 63-71 mC/m2, which is similar to that for typical solid-state P(VDF-TrFE). Finally, the P(VDF-TrFE)/IL gel films exhibited a piezoelectric response, and the highest piezoelectric coefficient was ˜300 pm/V at an applied voltage frequency of 4 kHz.

  2. High-efficiency piezoelectric micro harvester for collecting low-frequency mechanical energy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Song, Jinhui; Feng, Shuanglong; Xie, Xiong; Li, Zhenhu; Wang, Liang; Pu, Yayun; Soh, Ai Kah; Shen, Jun; Lu, Wenqiang; Liu, Shuangyi

    2016-12-02

    A single-layer zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array-based micro energy harvester was designed and integrated with a piezoelectric metacapacitor. The device presents outstanding low-frequency (1-10 Hz) mechanical energy harvesting capabilities. When compared with conventional pristine ZnO nanostructured piezoelectric harvesters or generators, both open-circuit potential and short-circuit current are significantly enhanced (up to 3.1 V and 124 nA cm -2 ) for a single mechanical knock (∼34 kPa). Higher electromechanical conversion efficiency (1.3 pC/Pa) is also observed. The results indicate that the integration of the piezoelectric metacapacitor is a crucial factor for improving the low-frequency energy harvesting performance. A double piezoelectric-driven mechanism is proposed to explain current higher output power, in which the metacapacitor plays the multiple roles of charge pumping, storing and transferring. An as-fabricated prototype device for lighting an LED demonstrates high power transference capability, with over 95% transference efficiency to the external load.

  3. Scavenging energy from human walking through a shoe-mounted piezoelectric harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kangqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Liansong; Zhu, Yingmin; Yu, Bo

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a shoe-mounted nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) with intent to capture energy from human walking. The PEH consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam magnetically coupled to a ferromagnetic ball and a crossbeam. A sleeve is included to guide the travel of the ball. Experimental measurements and theoretical simulations demonstrate that the proposed design can collect energy from diverse excitation sources with different directions produced by the foot, including vibrations, swing motions, and the compressive force. The ball and the crossbeam sense the swing motion and the compressive force, respectively, and then actuate the piezoelectric beam to function. The piezoelectric beam senses the vibration along the tibial axis and generates electricity. The proposed PEH achieves the superposition of these excitations and generates multiple peaks in voltage output within one gait cycle. The output power generated by the fabricated prototype ranges from 0.03 mW to 0.35 mW when the walking velocity varies from 2 km/h to 8 km/h.

  4. Cryogenic mount for mirror and piezoelectric actuator for an optical cavity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A N; Moreira, L S; Sacramento, R L; Kosulic, L; Brasil, V B; Wolff, W; Cesar, C L

    2017-06-01

    We present the development of a mount that accommodates a mirror and a piezoelectric actuator with emphasis on physical needs for low temperature operation. The design uses a monolithic construction with flexure features that allow it to steadily hold the mirror and the piezoelectric actuator without glue and accommodate differential thermal contraction. The mount is small and lightweight, adding little heat capacity and inertia. It provides a pre-loading of the piezoelectric actuator as well as a good thermal connection to the mirror and a thermal short across the piezoelectric actuator. The performance of the assemblies has been tested by thermally cycling from room temperature down to 3 K more than a dozen times and over one hundred times to 77 K, without showing any derating. Such mounts are proposed for the cryogenic optical enhancement cavities of the ALPHA experiment at CERN for laser spectroscopy of antihydrogen and for hydrogen spectroscopy in our laboratory at UFRJ.

  5. Analysis on Coupled Vibration of a Radially Polarized Piezoelectric Cylindrical Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Lin, Shuyu; Ma, Yan; Tang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Coupled vibration of a radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer is analyzed with the mechanical coupling coefficient method. The method has been utilized to analyze the metal cylindrical transducer and the axially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer. In this method, the mechanical coupling coefficient is introduced and defined as the stress ratio in different directions. Coupled vibration of the cylindrical transducer is regarded as the interaction of the plane radial vibration of a ring and the longitudinal vibration of a tube. For the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer, the radial and longitudinal electric admittances as functions of mechanical coupling coefficients and angular frequencies are derived, respectively. The resonance frequency equations are obtained. The dependence of resonance frequency and mechanical coupling coefficient on aspect ratio is studied. Vibrational distributions on the surfaces of the cylindrical transducer are presented with experimental measurement. On the support of experiments, this work is verified and provides a theoretical foundation for the analysis and design of the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer. PMID:29292785

  6. Piezoelectric effect in non-uniform strained carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, M. V.; Blinov, Yu F.; Ilin, O. I.; Rudyk, N. N.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    The piezoelectric effect in non-uniform strained carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been studied. It is shown that the magnitude of strained CNTs surface potential depends on a strain value. It is established that the resistance of CNT also depends on the strain and internal electric field, which leads to the hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. Analysis of experimental studies of the non-uniform strained CNT with a diameter of 92 nm and a height of 2.1 μm allowed us to estimate the piezoelectric coefficient 0.107 ± 0.032 C/m2.

  7. An Examination of Protocols for The Collection of Munitions-Derived Explosives Residues on Snow-Covered Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    with a single demolition block charge of C4 (DODIC M023) as the donor charge. An M739 point- detonating fuze (DODIC N340) was installed in each round...All rounds contained a supplementary TNT charge in the fuze well below the M739 fuze (see Appendix A). Figure 3 shows the setup common for all the...Charge, demolition block, Comp C4, M112 MA-97A003-007A 16 1390010809447 N340 Fuze, point detonating, M739 MA-84B007-013 7 Notes: Drawn from Fort

  8. Piezoelectric Nanostructures for Mechanical Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, G.; Hinchet, R.; Montès, L.; Mouis, M.

    2013-05-01

    We present the most studied piezoelectric materials at the nanoscale and discuss their vertical integration into harvesting devices. Finite element method (FEM) simulations are used to obtain optimization guidelines rules of a specific design.

  9. Micromechanical Prediction of the Effective Coefficients of Thermo-Piezoelectric Multiphase Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    The micromechanical generalized method of cells model is employed for the prediction of the effective elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric, pyroelectric and thermal-expansion constants of multiphase composites with embedded piezoelectric materials. The predicted effective constants are compared with other micromechanical methods available in the literature and good agreements are obtained.

  10. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Jie

    2017-02-10

    The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:28208583

  12. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented. PMID:28336861

  13. Modified Continuum Mechanics Modeling on Size-Dependent Properties of Piezoelectric Nanomaterials: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying

    2017-01-26

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.

  14. A classical mechanics model for the interpretation of piezoelectric property data

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bell, Andrew J., E-mail: a.j.bell@leeds.ac.uk

    2015-12-14

    In order to provide a means of understanding, the relationship between the primary electromechanical coefficients and simple crystal chemistry parameters for piezoelectric materials, a static analysis of a 3 atom, dipolar molecule has been undertaken to derive relationships for elastic compliance s{sup E}, dielectric permittivity ε{sup X}, and piezoelectric charge coefficient d in terms of an effective ionic charge and two inter-atomic force constants. The relationships demonstrate the mutual interdependence of the three coefficients, in keeping with experimental evidence from a large dataset of commercial piezoelectric materials. It is shown that the electromechanical coupling coefficient k is purely an expressionmore » of the asymmetry in the two force constants or bond compliances. The treatment is extended to show that the quadratic electrostriction relation between strain and polarization, in both centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric systems, is due to the presence of a non-zero 2nd order term in the bond compliance. Comparison with experimental data explains the counter-intuitive, positive correlation of k with s{sup E} and ε{sup X} and supports the proposition that high piezoelectric activity in single crystals is dominated by large compliance coupled with asymmetry in the sub-cell force constants. However, the analysis also shows that in polycrystalline materials, the dielectric anisotropy of the constituent crystals can be more important for attaining large charge coefficients. The model provides a completely new methodology for the interpretation of piezoelectric and electrostrictive property data and suggests methods for rapid screening for high activity in candidate piezoelectric materials, both experimentally and by novel interrogation of ab initio calculations.« less

  15. Analytical and finite element performance evaluation of embedded piezoelectric sensors in polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Mohsen; Anton, Steven R.

    2017-04-01

    A common application of piezoelectric transducers is to obtain operational data from working structures and dynamic components. Collected data can then be used to evaluate dynamic characterization of the system, perform structural health monitoring, or implement various other assessments. In some applications, piezoelectric transducers are bonded inside the host structure to satisfy system requirements; for example, piezoelectric transducers can be embedded inside the biopolymers of total joint replacements to evaluate the functionality of the artificial joint. The interactions between the piezoelectric device (inhomogeneity) and the surrounding polymer matrix determine the mechanical behavior of the matrix and the electromechanical behavior of the sensor. In this work, an analytical approach is employed to evaluate the electromechanical performance of 2-D plane strain piezoelectric elements of both circular and rectangular-shape inhomogeneities. These piezoelectric elements are embedded inside medical grade ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene, a material commonly used for bearing surfaces of joint replacements, such as total knee replacements (TKRs). Using the famous Eshelby inhomogeneity solution, the stress and electric field inside the circular (elliptical) inhomogeneity is obtained by decoupling the solution into purely elastic and dielectric systems of equations. For rectangular (non-elliptical) inhomogeneities, an approximation method based on the boundary integral function is utilized and the same decoupling method is employed. In order to validate the analytical result, a finite element analysis is performed for both the circular and rectangular inhomogeneities and the error for each case is calculated. For elliptical geometry, the error is less than 1% for stress and electric fields inside and outside the piezoelectric inhomogeneity, whereas, the error for non-elliptical geometry is obtained as 11% and 7% for stress and electric field inside

  16. A 3D scanning laser endoscope architecture utilizing a circular piezoelectric membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Çivitci, Fehmi; Ferhanoğlu, Onur

    2017-12-01

    A piezo-scanning fiber endoscopic device architecture is proposed for 3D imaging or ablation. The endoscopic device consists of a piezoelectric membrane that is placed perpendicular to the optical axis, a fiber optic cable that extends out from and actuated by the piezoelectric membrane, and one or multiple lenses for beam delivery and collection. Unlike its counterparts that utilize piezoelectric cylinders for fiber actuation, the proposed architecture offers quasi-static actuation in the axial direction along with resonant actuation in the lateral directions forming a 3D scanning pattern, allowing adjustment of the focus plane. The actuation of the four-quadrant piezoelectric membrane involves driving of two orthogonal electrodes with AC signals for lateral scanning, while simultaneously driving all electrodes for axial scanning and focus adjustment. We have characterized piezoelectric membranes (5 -15mm diameter) with varying sizes to monitor axial displacement behavior with respect to applied DC voltage. We also demonstrate simultaneous lateral and axial actuation on a resolution target, and observe the change of lateral resolution on a selected plane through performing 1D cross-sectional images, as an indicator of focal shift through axial actuation. Based on experimental results, we identify the optical and geometrical parameters for optimal 3D imaging of tissue samples. Our findings reveal that a simple piezoelectric membrane, having comparable dimensions and drive voltage requirement with off-the-shelf MEMS scanner chips, offers tissue epithelial imaging with sub-cellular resolution.

  17. Local piezoelectric behavior in PZT-based thin films for ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggio, Flavio

    Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are currently used in inkjet printers and precision resonators; numerous additional applications are being investigated for sensors, low-voltage actuators, and transducers. This work was aimed at improving piezoelectric MEMS by taking two approaches: 1) identifying factors affecting the piezoelectric response of ferroelectric thin films and 2) demonstrating integration of these films into a high frequency array transducer. It was found that there are several key factors influencing the piezoelectric response of thin films for a given material composition. First, large grain size improves the piezoelectric response. This was demonstrated using chemical solution deposited lead nickel niobate -- lead zirconate titanate (0.3)Pb(Ni 0.33Nb0.67)O3 - (0.7)Pb(Zr0.45Ti 0.55O3), (PNN-PZT) ferroelectric thin films. It was shown that this composition allows greater microstructural control than does PZT. Dielectric permittivities ranging from 1350 to 1520 and a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f as high as -- 9.7 C/m 2 were observed for films of about 0.25 mum in thickness. The permittivity and piezoelectric response as well as extrinsic contributions to the dielectric constant increased by 14 and 12 % respectively for samples with grain sizes ranging from 110 to 270 nm. A second factor influencing the piezoelectric response is film composition with respect to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The composition dependence of the dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities was characterized in epitaxially grown (0.3)Pb(Ni0.33Nb0.67)O3-(0.7)Pb(Zr xTi1-xO3) thin films deposited on SrTiO 3 to minimize the influence of large-angle grain boundaries. Tetragonal, MPB and rhombohedral films were prepared by changing the Zr/Ti ratio. The largest dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinearities were observed for the rhombohedral sample; this resulted from a higher domain wall mobility due to a smaller ferroelectric distortion and

  18. Effects of a new piezoelectric device on periosteal microcirculation after subperiosteal preparation.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Felgenträger, Dörthe; Kampmann, Andreas; Schumann, Paul; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-07-01

    Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local periosteal microcirculation. Soft-tissue damage can usually be considerably reduced using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, we investigated the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on local periosteal microcirculation and compared this approach with the conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator. A total of 20 Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Intravital microscopy was performed immediately after the procedure as well as three and eight days postoperatively. Statistical analysis of microcirculatory parameters was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks (p<0.05). At all time points investigated, intravital microscopy demonstrated significantly higher levels of periosteal perfusion in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator. The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with better periosteal microcirculation than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect on bone metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of aging on the piezoelectric properties of sol-gel derived lead-free BCZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrakala, E.; Hazra, Binoy Krishna; Praveen, J. Paul; Das, Dibakar

    2018-04-01

    Aging is well observed in piezoelectric materials and plays a major role in determining the sustainabilityand performance issues of the piezoelectric based devices. Aging behavior is usually defined as the spontaneous decay of the piezoelectric properties with time. In this present study, the effect of aging on the piezoelectric properties of sol-gel derived lead-free BCZT ceramics has been investigated. During the aging process, the ferroelectric hysteresis loop was shifted along the field axis. The results revealed that the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were rapidly decreased linearly with increasing aging time and become stable with further increase in aging time. Piezoelectric (d33, g33 &kp) and dielectric properties (ɛr) were decreased approximately by 18% after 70 days. This could be due to the gradual stabilization of the ferroelectric domain structurewhich originates from the reorientation of the local defect dipoles and the migration of free oxygen vacancies towards the grain boundaries.

  20. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage. PMID:25421736

  1. Principle research on a single mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2013-08-16

    A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model) of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  2. Larger-Stroke Piezoelectrically Actuated Microvalve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    A proposed normally-closed microvalve would contain a piezoelectric bending actuator instead of a piezoelectric linear actuator like that of the microvalve described in the preceding article. Whereas the stroke of the linear actuator of the preceding article would be limited to approximately equal to 6 micrometers, the stroke of the proposed bending actuator would lie in the approximate range of 10 to 15 micrometers-large enough to enable the microvalve to handle a variety of liquids containing suspended particles having sizes up to 10 m. Such particulate-laden liquids occur in a variety of microfluidic systems, one example being a system that sorts cells or large biomolecules for analysis. In comparison with the linear actuator of the preceding article, the bending actuator would be smaller and less massive. The combination of increased stroke, smaller mass, and smaller volume would be obtained at the cost of decreased actuation force: The proposed actuator would generate a force in the approximate range of 1 to 4 N, the exact amount depending on operating conditions and details of design. This level of actuation force would be too low to enable the valve to handle a fluid at the high pressure level mentioned in the preceding article. The proposal encompasses two alternative designs one featuring a miniature piezoelectric bimorph actuator and one featuring a thick-film unimorph piezoelectric actuator (see figure). In either version, the valve would consume a power of only 0.01 W when actuated at a frequency of 100 Hz. Also, in either version, it would be necessary to attach a soft elastomeric sealing ring to the valve seat so that any particles that settle on the seat would be pushed deep into the elastomeric material to prevent or reduce leakage. The overall dimensions of the bimorph version would be 7 by 7 by 1 mm. The actuator in this version would generate a force of 1 N and a stroke of 10 m at an applied potential of 150 V. The actuation force would be

  3. Torsion analysis of cracked circular bars actuated by a piezoelectric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, A. R.; Faal, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a formulation for a bar with circular cross-section, coated by a piezoelectric layer and subjected to Saint-Venant torsion loading. The bar is weakened by a Volterra-type screw dislocation. First, with aid of the finite Fourier transform, the stress fields in the circular bar and the piezoelectric layer are obtained. The problem is then reduced to a set of singular integral equations with a Cauchy-type singularity. Unknown dislocation density is achieved by numerical solution of these integral equations. Numerical results are discussed, to reveal the effect of the piezoelectric layer on the reduction of the mechanical stress intensity factor in the bar.

  4. Nanoscale mapping of electromechanical response in ionic conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Seol, Daehee; Seo, Hosung; Kim, Yunseok, E-mail: yunseokkim@skku.edu

    Electromechanical (EM) response in ion conductive ceramics with piezoelectric inclusions was spatially explored using strain-based atomic force microscopy. Since the sample is composed of two dominant phases of ionic and piezoelectric phases, it allows us to explore two different EM responses of electrically induced ionic response and piezoresponse over the same surface. Furthermore, EM response of the ionic phase, i.e., electrochemical strain, was quantitatively investigated from the comparison with that of the piezoelectric phase, i.e., piezoresponse. These results could provide additional information on the EM properties, including the electrochemical strain at nanoscale.

  5. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  6. Flutter and divergence instability of supported piezoelectric nanotubes conveying fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaadini, Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad; Jamali, Behnam

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, divergence and flutter instabilities of supported piezoelectric nanotubes containing flowing fluid are investigated. To take the size effects into account, the nonlocal elasticity theory is implemented in conjunction with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory incorporating surface stress effects. The Knudsen number is applied to investigate the slip boundary conditions between the flow and wall of nanotube. The nonlocal governing equations of nanotube are obtained using Newtonian method, including the influence of piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number and nonlocal parameter. Applying Galerkin approach to transform resulting equations into a set of eigenvalue equations under the simple-simple (S-S) and clamped-clamped (C-C) boundary conditions. The effects of the piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number, nonlocal parameter and boundary conditions on the divergence and flutter boundaries of nanotubes are discussed. It is observed that the fluid-conveying nanotubes with both ends supported lose their stability by divergence first and then by flutter with increase in fluid velocity. Results indicate the importance of using piezoelectric voltage, nonlocal parameter and Knudsen number in decrease of critical flow velocities of system. Moreover, the surface effects have a significant role on the eigenfrequencies and critical fluid velocity.

  7. Plasmonic piezoelectric nanomechanical resonator for spectrally selective infrared sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Yu; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Qian, Zhenyun; Alù, Andrea; Rinaldi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces have proven their ability to control and manipulate light at unprecedented levels, leading to exciting optical functionalities and applications. Although to date metasurfaces have mainly been investigated from an electromagnetic perspective, their ultrathin nature may also provide novel and useful mechanical properties. Here we propose a thin piezoelectric plasmonic metasurface forming the resonant body of a nanomechanical resonator with simultaneously tailored optical and electromechanical properties. We experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to achieve high thermomechanical coupling between electromagnetic and mechanical resonances in a single ultrathin piezoelectric nanoplate. The combination of nanoplasmonic and piezoelectric resonances allows the proposed device to selectively detect long-wavelength infrared radiation with unprecedented electromechanical performance and thermal capabilities. These attributes lead to the demonstration of a fast, high-resolution, uncooled infrared detector with ∼80% absorption for an optimized spectral bandwidth centered around 8.8 μm. PMID:27080018

  8. Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (<100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. Different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices. Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of a sandwiched NG for a handwriting enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for a wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self- powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  9. Electrostrain in excess of 1% in polycrystalline piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Bastola; Malhotra, Jaskaran Singh; Pandey, Rishikesh; Yaddanapudi, Krishna; Nukala, Pavan; Dkhil, Brahim; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical energy, and because of their compactness, quick response time and accurate displacement, they are sought after in many applications. Polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are technologically more appealing than single crystals due to their simpler and less expensive processing, but have yet to display electrostrain values that exceed 1%. Here we report a material design strategy wherein the efficient switching of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains by an electric field is exploited to achieve a high electrostrain value of 1.3% in a pseudo-ternary ferroelectric alloy system, BiFeO3-PbTiO3-LaFeO3. Detailed structural investigations reveal that this electrostrain is associated with a combination of several factors: a large spontaneous lattice strain of the piezoelectric phase, domain miniaturization, a low-symmetry ferroelectric phase and a very large reverse switching of the non-180° domains. This insight for the design of a new class of polycrystalline piezoceramics with high electrostrains may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.

  10. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuators for active structural acoustic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart

    1997-09-01

    A new transducer technology with application to active control systems, modal analysis, and autonomous system health monitoring, is brought to fruition in this work. It has the advantages of being lightweight, potentially cost-effective, self-tuning, has negligible dynamics, and most importantly (from a robustness perspective), it provides a colocated sensor/actuator pair. The transducer consists of a piezoceramic element which serves as both an actuator and a sensor and will be referred to in this work as a sensoriactuator. Simple, adaptive signal processing in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier, reference capacitor, and a common-mode rejection circuit extract the mechanical response from the total response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator for sensing. The digital portion of the adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator merely serves to tune the circuit, avoiding the potentially destabilizing effects of introducing a digital delay in the signal path, when used for feedback control applications. Adaptive compensation of the sensoriactuator is necessary since the signal to noise ratio is typically greater than 40 dB, making it prohibitive to tune the circuit manually. In addition, the constitutive properties of piezoceramics vary with time and environment, necessitating that the circuit be periodically re-tuned. The analog portion of the hardware is based upon op-amp circuits and an AD632 analog multiplier chip, which serves as both a voltage controlled amplifier (VCA) and a common mode rejection (CMR) circuit. A single coefficient least-mean square (LMS) adaptive filter continuously adjusts the gain of the VCA circuit as necessary. Nonideal behavior of piezoceramics is discussed along with methods to counter the consequential deterioration in circuit performance. A multiple input multiple output (MIMO) implementation of the adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator is developed using orthogonal white noise training signals for each sensoriactuator. Two

  11. Enhanced piezoelectric operation of NiO/GaN heterojunction generator by suppressed internal carrier screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Dae Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ha, Jun-Seok; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2017-10-01

    A NiO/GaN heterojunction piezoelectric generator was fabricated, and the improvement in device performance was analyzed. The electrical properties of NiO were varied by regulating the gas environment during sputtering. An optimized NiO layer was adopted for high piezoelectric voltage generation. Internal carrier screening was revealed to be the dominant mechanism degrading the piezoelectric performance, necessitating the suppression of carrier screening. The highly resistive NiO layer was advantageous in the suppression of carrier transport across the junction that screened the piezoelectric field. The maximum piezoelectric voltage and current density values obtained were 7.55 V and 1.14 µA cm-2, respectively. The power obtained was sufficient to operate a light-emitting diode combined with a charging circuit.

  12. Calvarial bone harvesting with piezoelectric device.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lagunas, Javier; Mareque, Javier

    2007-11-01

    We introduce the use of a piezoelectric device in order to harvest calvarial bone grafts. The vibration frequency of the instrument allows for the efficient cutting of bone without the risk of accidentally damaging the dura.

  13. Effects of mechanical deformation on energy conversion efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinho; Cho, Seunghyeon; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Seunghyun; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Chang-Wan; Choi, Dukhyun

    2015-07-10

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) are capable of converting energy from various mechanical sources into electric energy and have many attractive features such as continuous operation, replenishment and low cost. However, many researchers still have studied novel material synthesis and interfacial controls to improve the power production from PNGs. In this study, we report the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of PNGs dependent on mechanical deformations such as bending and twisting. Since the output power of PNGs is caused by the mechanical strain of the piezoelectric material, the power production and their ECE is critically dependent on the types of external mechanical deformations. Thus, we examine the output power from PNGs according to bending and twisting. In order to clearly understand the ECE of PNGs in the presence of those external mechanical deformations, we determine the ECE of PNGs by the ratio of output electrical energy and input mechanical energy, where we suggest that the input energy is based only on the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer. We calculate the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer using numerical simulation of bending and twisting of the PNG. Finally, we demonstrate that the ECE of the PNG caused by twisting is much higher than that caused by bending due to the multiple effects of normal and lateral piezoelectric coefficients. Our results thus provide a design direction for PNG systems as high-performance power generators.

  14. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  15. Noninvasive Dissection of Mouse Sleep Using a Piezoelectric Motion Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yaghouby, Farid; Donohue, Kevin D.; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Sunderam, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in autonomic control cause regular breathing during NREM sleep to fluctuate during REM. Piezoelectric cage-floor sensors have been used to successfully discriminate sleep and wake states in mice based on signal features related to respiration and other movements. This study presents a classifier for noninvasively classifying REM and NREM using a piezoelectric sensor. New Method Vigilance state was scored manually in 4-second epochs for 24-hour EEG/EMG recordings in twenty mice. An unsupervised classifier clustered piezoelectric signal features quantifying movement and respiration into three states: one active; and two inactive with regular and irregular breathing respectively. These states were hypothesized to correspond to Wake, NREM, and REM respectively. States predicted by the classifier were compared against manual EEG/EMG scores to test this hypothesis. Results Using only piezoelectric signal features, an unsupervised classifier distinguished Wake with high (89% sensitivity, 96% specificity) and REM with moderate (73% sensitivity, 75% specificity) accuracy, but NREM with poor sensitivity (51%) and high specificity (96%). The classifier sometimes confused light NREM sleep—characterized by irregular breathing and moderate delta EEG power—with REM. A supervised classifier improved sensitivities to 90, 81, and 67% and all specificities to over 90% for Wake, NREM, and REM respectively. Comparison with Existing Methods Unlike most actigraphic techniques, which only differentiate sleep from wake, the proposed piezoelectric method further dissects sleep based on breathing regularity into states strongly correlated with REM and NREM. Conclusions This approach could facilitate large-sample screening for genes influencing different sleep traits, besides drug studies or other manipulations. PMID:26582569

  16. Layerwise mechanics and finite element for the dynamic analysis of piezoelectric composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Heyliger, Paul R.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    Laminate and structural mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite plate structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. The theories implement layerwise representations of displacements and electric potential, and can model both the global and local electromechanical response of smart composite laminates. Finite-element formulations are developed for the quasi-static and dynamic analysis of smart composite structures containing piezoelectric layers. Comparisons with an exact solution illustrate the accuracy, robustness and capability of the developed mechanics to capture the global and local response of thin and/or thick laminated piezoelectric plates. Additional correlations and numerical applications demonstrate the unique capabilities of the mechanics in analyzing the static and free-vibration response of composite plates with distributed piezoelectric actuators and sensors.

  17. Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-07

    Transient thickness-shear vibration of apiezoelectric plate of monoclinic crystals, International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics 38...52, 1461-1467 (2005)., (04 2012): 811. doi: N Liu, J S Yang, F Jin. Transient thickness-shear vibration of a piezoelectric plate of monoclinic...2012) 27–37, (02 2012): 27. doi: Zhi Wang, Minghao Zhao, Jiashi Yang. Amplitude evolution equation and transient effects in piezoelectric crystal

  18. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Robert A. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Strittmatter, Robert P. (Inventor); Bell, Lloyd Douglas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photocathode, for generating electrons in response to incident photons in a photodetector, includes a base layer having a first lattice structure and an active layer having a second lattice structure and epitaxially formed on the base layer, the first and second lattice structures being sufficiently different to create a strain in the active layer with a corresponding piezoelectrically induced polarization field in the active layer, the active layer having a band gap energy corresponding to a desired photon energy.

  19. Theoretical analysis of a ceramic plate thickness-shear mode piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Limei; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui; Hu, Junhui; Yang, Jiashi

    2009-03-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis on a ceramic plate piezoelectric transformer operating with thickness-shear modes. Mindlin's first-order theory of piezoelectric plates is employed, and a forced vibration solution is obtained. Transforming ratio, resonant frequencies, and vibration mode shapes are calculated, and the effects of plate thickness and electrode dimension are examined.

  20. Piezoelectric transformer and modular connections for high power and high voltage power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular design for combining piezoelectric transformers is provided for high voltage and high power conversion applications. The input portions of individual piezoelectric transformers are driven for a single power supply. This created the vibration and the conversion of electrical to electrical energy from the input to the output of the transformers. The output portions of the single piezoelectric transformers are combining in series and/or parallel to provide multiple outputs having different rating of voltage and current.