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Sample records for piezoelectric pmn-pt crystals

  1. Characterization of PMN-PT piezoelectric single crystal and PMN-PT 1-3 composite at elevated temperatures by electrical impedance resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengbin; Xi, Kui

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric single crystal and its 1-3 composite counterpart were characterized and analyzed under different stable temperatures using both a Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm and the commercial software PRAP (Piezoelectric Resonance Analysis Program). Electrical impedance resonance characteristics of the two material samples over the range 25-125 °C were measured. The correlation between experimental data and numerical fits derived from both SA and PRAP is considered. Calculation of the determination coefficient (R1(2)) between numerically fitted and measured results is above 95% for both methods. Furthermore, variations in the number of data values used for the fit introduced no more than 3.1% uncertainty on the calculated material parameters. It is found that the complex material parameters of PMN-PT composite are more dependent on temperature than the single crystal. The phase transition of the PMN-PT, which is close to 90 °C, has an effect on the high temperature material characteristics of both piezoelectric materials. These calculated complex material parameters can be used for the design of ultrasonic transducers for elevated temperature applications.

  2. Measurements along the growth direction of PMN-PT crystals: dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Payne, David A

    2007-09-01

    Property measurements are reported for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)03-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals grown along (001) by a seeded-melt method. Chemical segregation occurs during crystal growth, leading to property changes along the growth direction. Variations in dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties were evaluated for specimens selected from the crystals. Room-temperature data are correlated with Tc and composition that ranged from 27 to 32% PT, i.e., in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). While there was little change in the high electromechanical coupling factor k33 (0.87-0.92), both the piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 (1100-1800 pC/N) and the free dielectric constant K3 (4400-7000) were found to vary significantly with position. Increases in d33 and KT33 were relatively offsetting in that the ratio yielded a relatively stable piezoelectric voltage coefficient g33 (27-31 x 10(-3) Vm/N). Values are also reported for the elastic compliance (3.3-6.3 x 10(-11) m2/N) determined from resonance measurements. Enhancements in d33 and K(T)33 were associated with lattice softening (increasing sE33) as the composition approached the MPB. Details are reported for the piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic properties as a function of growth direction, Tc, and composition. The results are useful for an understanding of properties in PMN-PT crystals and for the design of piezoelectric devices.

  3. Field stability of piezoelectric shear properties in PIN-PMN-PT crystals under large drive field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Luo, Jun; Xia, Ru; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The coercive fields (E(C)) of Pb(In₀.₅Nb₀.₅)O₃-Pb(Mg(¹/₃)Nb(²/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals were found to be 5 kV/cm, double the value of binary Pb(Mg(¹/₃)Nb(²/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMNT) crystals, further increased to 6 to 9 kV/cm using Mn modifications. In addition to an increased EC, the acceptor modification resulted in the developed internal bias (E(int)), on the order of ~1 kV/cm. The piezoelectric shear properties of unmodified and Mn-modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals with various domain configurations were investigated. The shear piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors for different domain configurations were found to be >2000 pC/N and >0.85, respectively, with slightly reduced properties observed in Mn-modified tetragonal crystals. Fatigue/cycling tests performed on shearmode samples as a function of ac drive field level demonstrated that the allowable ac field levels (the maximum applied ac field before the occurrence of depolarization) were only ~2 kV/cm for unmodified crystals, less than half of their coercive field. Allowable ac drive levels were on the order of 4 to 6 kV/cm for Mn-modified crystals with rhombohedral/orthorhombic phase, further increased to 5 to 8 kV/cm in tetragonal crystals, because of their higher coercive fields. It is of particular interest that the allowable ac drive field level for Mn-modified crystals was found to be ≥ 60% of their coercive fields, because of the developed E(int), induced by the acceptor-oxygen vacancy defect dipoles.

  4. Field Stability of Piezoelectric Shear Properties in PIN-PMN-PT Crystals Under Large Drive Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Luo, Jun; Xia, Ru; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    The coercive fields (EC) of Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals were found to be 5 kV/cm, double the value of binary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals, further increased to 6 to 9 kV/cm using Mn modifications. In addition to an increased EC, the acceptor modification resulted in the developed internal bias (Eint), on the order of ~1 kV/cm. The piezoelectric shear properties of unmodified and Mn-modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals with various domain configurations were investigated. The shear piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors for different domain configurations were found to be >2000 pC/N and >0.85, respectively, with slightly reduced properties observed in Mn-modified tetragonal crystals. Fatigue/cycling tests performed on shear-mode samples as a function of ac drive field level demonstrated that the allowable ac field levels (the maximum applied ac field before the occurrence of depolarization) were only ~2 kV/cm for unmodified crystals, less than half of their coercive field. Allowable ac drive levels were on the order of 4 to 6 kV/cm for Mn-modified crystals with rhombohedral/orthorhombic phase, further increased to 5 to 8 kV/cm in tetragonal crystals, because of their higher coercive fields. It is of particular interest that the allowable ac drive field level for Mn-modified crystals was found to be ≥60% of their coercive fields, because of the developed Eint, induced by the acceptor-oxygen vacancy defect dipoles. PMID:21342812

  5. Bulk Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric PMN-PT Crystals Using Gradient Freeze Technique for Improved SHM Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Kochary, F.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in lead based perovskite ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions because of their excellent dielectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties that make them very attractive for various sensing, actuating and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We are interested in the development of highly sensitive and efficient PMN-PT sensors based on large single crystals for the structural health monitoring of composite materials that may be used in future spacecrafts. Highly sensitive sensors are needed for detection of defects in these materials because they often tend to fail by distributed and interacting damage modes and much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate and not detectable by visual inspection. Research is being carried out for various combinations of solid solutions for PMN-PT piezoelectric materials and bigger size crystals are being sought for improved sensor applications. Single crystals of this material are of interest for sensor applications because of their high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 greater than 1700 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k33 greater than 0.90). For comparison, the commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has a d33 of about 600 pC/N and electromechanical coefficients k33 of about 0.75. At the present time, these piezoelectric relaxor crystals are grown by high temperature flux growth method and the size of these crystals are rather small (3x4x5 mm(exp 3). In the present paper, we have attempted to grow bulk single crystals of PMN-PT in a 2 inch diameter platinum crucible and successfully grown a large size crystal of 67%PMN-33%PT using the vertical gradient freeze technique with no flux. Piezoelectric properties of the grown crystals are investigated. PMN-PT plates show excellent piezoelectric properties. Samples were poled under an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm. Dielectric properties at a

  6. Elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric characterization of single domain PIN-PMN-PT: Mn crystals.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shujun; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Jun; Sahul, Raffi; Cao, Wenwu; Shrout, Thomas R

    2012-12-15

    Mn modified 0.26Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-0.42Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.32PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT:Mn) single crystals with orthorhombic perovskite crystal structure were polarized along [011] direction, resulting in the single domain state "1O." The complete set of material constants was determined using the combined resonance and ultrasonic methods. The thickness shear piezoelectric coefficient d(15) and electromechanical coupling factor k(15) were found to be on the order of 3100 pC/N and 94%, respectively, much higher than longitudinal d(33) ∼ 270 pC/N and k(33) ∼ 70%. Using the single domain data, the rotated value of d(33)* along [001] direction was found to be 1230 pC/N, in agreement with the experimentally determined d(33) value of 1370 pC/N, conferring extrinsic contributions being about 10%, which was also confirmed using the Rayleigh analysis. In addition, the mechanical quality factors Q(m) were evaluated for different "1O" vibration modes, where the longitudinal Q(m) was found to be ∼1200, much higher than the value for "4O" crystals, ∼300.

  7. PMN-PT nanowires with a very high piezoelectric constant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiyou; Poirier, Gerald; Yao, Nan

    2012-05-09

    A profound way to increase the output voltage (or power) of the piezoelectric nanogenerators is to utilize a material with higher piezoelectric constants. Here we report the synthesis of novel piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) nanowires using a hydrothermal process. The unpoled single-crystal PMN-PT nanowires show a piezoelectric constant (d(33)) up to 381 pm/V, with an average value of 373 ± 5 pm/V. This is about 15 times higher than the maximum reported value of 1-D ZnO nanostructures and 3 times higher than the largest reported value of 1-D PZT nanostructures. These PMN-PT nanostructures are of good potential being used as the fundamental building block for higher power nanogenerators, high sensitivity nanosensors, and large strain nanoactuators.

  8. Performance of PIN-PMN-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric versus PZT8 Piezoceramic Materials in Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeAngelis, D. A.; Schulze, G. W.

    The recent advancements in the manufacturing of single crystal PIN-PMN-PT piezoelectric materials now make them a cost-competitive alternative to PZT4 and PZT8 (Navy Types I and III) piezoceramic materials, which have been the workhorse of power ultrasonic applications (e.g., welding, cutting, sonar, etc.) for over 50 years. Although there are great benefits to the use of single crystal materials with respect to high output, as well as added actuating and sensing abilities, many transducer designers are still reluctant to explore these materials due to inadequate design guidelines for substituting the familiar PZT materials; for example, what are the implications of the higher capacitance, sensitivity to chipping/cracks, aging effects, frequency shifts, or how much preload can be used are all common questions. This research is a case study on the performance of identical ultrasonic transducer bodies, used for semiconductor wire bonding, assembled with either PZT8 or PIN-PMN-PT piezo material. The main purpose of the study is to establish rule-of-thumb design guidelines for direct substitution of single crystal materials in existing PZT8 transducer designs, along with a side-by-side performance comparison to highlight benefits. Several metrics are investigated such as impedance, frequency, displacement gain, quality factor and electromechanical coupling factor.

  9. Piezoelectric PMN-PT fibre hydrophone for ultrasonic transducer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. T.; Lam, K. H.; Chan, H. L. W.; Choy, C. L.; Luo, H. S.; Yin, Q. R.; Yin, Z. W.

    2005-01-01

    A newly developed ceramic fibre hydrophone with an active element as small as 0.25 mm in diameter is described in this work. Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) ceramic fibre with a nominal composition of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 was fabricated by an extrusion method. PMN-PT single crystals were ground to a powder form and then mixed with poly(acrylic) acid to form a homogenous slurry. The fibre was extruded by pressing the slurry through a spinneret and then sintering at 1250 °C for crystallization. The electrical characteristics of the PMN-PT fibre were evaluated by measuring the relative permittivity and the impedance spectrum. A piezoelectric PMN-PT fibre hydrophone was fabricated and its sensitivity, angular response, and spatial resolution were evaluated. The fibre hydrophone provides good spatial resolution, angular response and receiving sensitivity.

  10. Colloidal processing of PMN-PT thick films for piezoelectric sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongyu

    65%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-35%PbTiO3 (65PMN-35PT, or PMN-PT) is a highly piezoelectric ceramic with superior piezoelectric coefficients over the more popular Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (PZT). Because of its complex chemistry and high volatility of lead above 1000°C, the perovskite phase of PMN-PT is hard to process and has prevented PMN-PT from various piezoelectric applications, especially in the new area of piezoelectric micro-electro-mechanical systems (PMEMS) involving thick or thin piezoelectric films. In this thesis, a novel precursor suspension method is introduced that substantially lowers the sintering temperature of PMN-PT to 850°C from a PMN precursor powder made by coating Mg(OH) 2 on Nb2O5 particles. The precursor suspension method entails suspending PMN powders in PT precursor and uses the reaction sintering capability of PMN with nano-sized PT in the temperature range of 800°C˜1000°C. Moreover, free-standing PMN-PT thick films were obtained by tape casting the PMN-PT powder. This new geometry of PMN-PT shows giant electric-field enhanced piezoelectric responses comparable with those of single crystals. As an example of application, the PMN-PT thick film is bonded to a thinner layer of copper by electroplating and made into piezoelectric cantilever sensors. In conclusion, the colloidal suspension processing method produces free-standing PMN-PT thick films with ultrahigh piezoelectric properties.

  11. Ion-beam induced domain structure in piezoelectric PMN-PT single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Payne, David A.; Zuo Jianmin

    2010-12-27

    We report an investigation of the domain structure in Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-30%PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals after ion milling. We show that ion milling induces microdomains, typically 0.1-1 {mu}m in size. The induced microdomains disappear after temperature annealing or electric poling, leaving behind nanodomains of a few nanometers in size. We attribute the microdomains to surface stress induced by ion milling. The results demonstrate the general importance of separating sample preparation artifacts from the true domain structure in the study of ferroic materials.

  12. Fabrication of flexible piezoelectric PMN-PT based composite films for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satyabati; Biswal, Asutya Kumar; Roy, Amritendu

    2017-02-01

    Flexible piezoelectric composite films of lead magnesium niobate and lead titanate (PMN-PT) ceramic and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MW-CNT) in the matrix of polyvinyldene fluoride (PVDF) were fabricated for green energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. Compositions of PMN-PT was varied from 10-50 volume (vol. %) in PVDF matrix while a constant concentration of MW-CNT was maintained (1vol. %). Phase purity of the synthesized composites was confirm by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. PMN-PT powder was found to be in single phase without the presence of any additional peak, which generally arises due to crystallization of another pyrochlore phase. Surface morphology study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a well dispersed PMN-PT/CNT in PVDF matrix. The maximum measured output voltage and current during mechanical pressing and releasing conditions were found to be ∼ 3 volt and 30 nA, respectively in 30 vol. % PMN-PT composite.

  13. Energy scavenging based on a single-crystal PMN-PT nanobelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan; Cai, Wei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Yao, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Self-powered nanodevices scavenging mechanical energy require piezoelectric nanostructures with high piezoelectric coefficients. Here we report the fabrication of a single-crystal (1 ‑ x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ‑ xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanobelt with a superior piezoelectric constant (d33 = ~550 pm/V), which is approximately ~150%, 430%, and 2100% of the largest reported values for previous PMN-PT, PZT and ZnO nanostructures, respectively. The high d33 of the single-crystalline PMN-PT nanobelt results from the precise orientation control during its fabrication. As a demonstration of its application in energy scavenging, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) is built on the single PMN-PT nanobelt, generating a maximum output voltage of ~1.2 V. This value is ~4 times higher than that of a single-CdTe PNG, ~13 times higher than that of a single-ZnSnO3 PNG, and ~26 times higher than that of a single-ZnO PNG. The profoundly increased output voltage of a lateral PNG built on a single PMN-PT nanobelt demonstrates the potential application of PMN-PT nanostructures in energy harvesting, thus enriching the material choices for PNGs.

  14. Energy scavenging based on a single-crystal PMN-PT nanobelt

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Cai, Wei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Yao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Self-powered nanodevices scavenging mechanical energy require piezoelectric nanostructures with high piezoelectric coefficients. Here we report the fabrication of a single-crystal (1 − x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 − xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanobelt with a superior piezoelectric constant (d33 = ~550 pm/V), which is approximately ~150%, 430%, and 2100% of the largest reported values for previous PMN-PT, PZT and ZnO nanostructures, respectively. The high d33 of the single-crystalline PMN-PT nanobelt results from the precise orientation control during its fabrication. As a demonstration of its application in energy scavenging, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) is built on the single PMN-PT nanobelt, generating a maximum output voltage of ~1.2 V. This value is ~4 times higher than that of a single-CdTe PNG, ~13 times higher than that of a single-ZnSnO3 PNG, and ~26 times higher than that of a single-ZnO PNG. The profoundly increased output voltage of a lateral PNG built on a single PMN-PT nanobelt demonstrates the potential application of PMN-PT nanostructures in energy harvesting, thus enriching the material choices for PNGs. PMID:26928788

  15. Energy scavenging based on a single-crystal PMN-PT nanobelt.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Cai, Wei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Yao, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Self-powered nanodevices scavenging mechanical energy require piezoelectric nanostructures with high piezoelectric coefficients. Here we report the fabrication of a single-crystal (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanobelt with a superior piezoelectric constant (d33 = ~550 pm/V), which is approximately ~150%, 430%, and 2100% of the largest reported values for previous PMN-PT, PZT and ZnO nanostructures, respectively. The high d33 of the single-crystalline PMN-PT nanobelt results from the precise orientation control during its fabrication. As a demonstration of its application in energy scavenging, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) is built on the single PMN-PT nanobelt, generating a maximum output voltage of ~1.2 V. This value is ~4 times higher than that of a single-CdTe PNG, ~13 times higher than that of a single-ZnSnO3 PNG, and ~26 times higher than that of a single-ZnO PNG. The profoundly increased output voltage of a lateral PNG built on a single PMN-PT nanobelt demonstrates the potential application of PMN-PT nanostructures in energy harvesting, thus enriching the material choices for PNGs.

  16. Broadband ultrasonic linear array using ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiangyong; Or, Siu Wing; Leung, Chung Ming; Zhang, Yaoyao; Jiao, Jie; Luo, Haosu

    2012-09-01

    Ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal was investigated for potential application in ultrasonic linear array. Orientation and temperature dependences of height extensional electromechanical coupling coefficient k'(33) for PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were studied. It was found that the [001] poled PIN-PMN-PT diced along the [100] direction would achieve a maximum k'(33) (~87%) and the service temperature was up to 110 °C. Ultrasonic linear arrays using PIN-PMN-PT single crystal and PZT ceramic were fabricated and compared. The bandwidth at -6 dB, two-way insertion loss and pulse length of the PIN-PMN-PT array were 98.6%, -45.1 dB, and 0.28 μs, respectively, which were about 25% broader, 3.7dB higher, and 0.08 μs shorter than those of the PZT array. The experimental results agreed well with the theoretical simulation. These superior performances were attributable to the excellent piezoelectric properties of PIN-PMN-PT single crystal.

  17. Micromachined PIN-PMN-PT Crystal Composite Transducer for High-Frequency Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Ma, Teng; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the use of micromachined PbIn1/2Nb1/2O3–PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal 1–3 composite material for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging application. The effective electromechanical coupling coefficient kt(eff) of the composite was measured to be 0.75 to 0.78. Acoustic impedance was estimated to be 20 MRayl. Based on the composite, needle-type and flexible-type IVUS transducers were fabricated. The composite transducer achieved an 86% bandwidth at the center frequency of 41 MHz, which resulted in a 43 μm axial resolution. Ex vivo IVUS imaging was conducted to demonstrate the improvement of axial resolution. The composite transducer was capable of identifying the three layers of a cadaver coronary artery specimen with high resolution. The PIN-PMN-PT-based composite has superior piezoelectric properties comparable to PMN-PT-based composite and its thermal stability is higher than PMN-PT. PIN-PMN-PT crystal can be an alternative approach for fabricating high-frequency composite, instead of using PMN-PT. PMID:24960706

  18. Micromachined PIN-PMN-PT crystal composite transducer for high-frequency intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Ma, Teng; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report the use of micromachined PbIn1/2Nb1/2O3-PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO 3 (PIN-PMNPT) single crystal 1-3 composite material for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging application. The effective electromechanical coupling coefficient kt(eff) of the composite was measured to be 0.75 to 0.78. Acoustic impedance was estimated to be 20 MRayl. Based on the composite, needle-type and flexible-type IVUS transducers were fabricated. The composite transducer achieved an 86% bandwidth at the center frequency of 41 MHz, which resulted in a 43 μm axial resolution. Ex vivo IVUS imaging was conducted to demonstrate the improvement of axial resolution. The composite transducer was capable of identifying the three layers of a cadaver coronary artery specimen with high resolution. The PIN-PMN-PT-based composite has superior piezoelectric properties comparable to PMN-PT-based composite and its thermal stability is higher than PMN-PT. PIN-PMN-PT crystal can be an alternative approach for fabricating high-frequency composite, instead of using PMN-PT.

  19. Recent Developments on High Curie Temperature PIN-PMN-PT Ferroelectric Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Sherlock, Nevin P; Luo, Jun; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Xia, Ru; Meyer, Richard J; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric crystals attracted extensive attentions in last couple years, due to their higher usage temperatures range (> 30°C) and coercive fields (~5kV/cm), meanwhile maintaining similar electromechanical couplings (k(33)> 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)~1500pC/N), when compared to their binary counterpart Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3). In this article, we reviewed recent developments on the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, including the Bridgman crystal growth, dielectric, electromechanical, piezoelectric and ferroelectric behaviors as function of temperature and dc bias. Mechanical quality factor Q was studied as function of orientation and phase. Of particular interest is the dynamic strain, which related to the Q and d(33), was found to be improved when compared to binary system, exhibiting the potential usage of PIN-PMN-PT in high power application. Furthermore, PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit improved thickness dependent properties, due to their small domain size, being on the order of 1μm. Finally, the manganese acceptor dopant in the ternary crystals was investigated and discussed briefly in this paper.

  20. Design and fabrication of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Zhou, Qifa; Zhu, Benpeng; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Cannata, Jonathan M; Tian, Jin; Han, Pengdi; Wang, Gaofeng; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-12-01

    High-frequency PIN-PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducers at center frequencies of 35 MHz and 60 MHz were successfully fabricated using lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.23PIN- 0.5PMN-0.27PT) single crystal. The new PIN-PMN-PT single crystal has higher coercivity (6.0 kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (160 degrees C) than PMN-PT crystal. Experimental results showed that the PIN-PMN-PT transducers have similar performance but better thermal stability compared with the PMN-PT transducers.

  1. Effect of manganese doping on PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahul, Raffi

    Single crystals based on relaxor-lead titanate (relaxor-PT) solid solutions have advanced the world of piezoelectric materials for the past two decades with their giant piezoelectric properties achieved by domain engineered configurations. When single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) solid solution in the rhombohedral phase were poled along [001]c direction with "4R" domain configuration, they exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33 >2000 pC/N) and high electromechanical coupling (k33 >0.9) which led to their widespread use in advanced medical imaging systems and underwater acoustic devices. However, PMN-PT crystals suffer from low phase transition temperature (Trt ˜85-95 °C) and lower coercive field (depolarizing electric field, Ec ˜2-3 kV/cm). Lead indium niobate - lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals formed by adding indium as another constituent exhibit higher coercive field (E c ˜5kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (Tc >210 °C) than the binary PMN-PT crystals (Ec ˜2.5 kV/cm and Tc <140 °C). When these ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals are doped with manganese (Mn:PIN-PMN-PT), they behave like hard piezoelectric materials demonstrating an internal bias field (Ei ˜0.8-1.6 kV/cm), leading to low elastic losses and high mechanical Q-factor (Qm >600) compared to the undoped binary crystals (Qm of PMN-PT <150). Although the spontaneous polarization directions for these rhombohedral crystals are in the c directions, the giant piezoelectric effect (d33 >2000 pC/N for PMN-PT) occurs in the [001]c poled crystals, which is attributed to the polarization rotation mechanisms. Hence, domain engineering configurations induced by poling these crystals in orientations other than their polarization axis are critical for achieving large piezoelectric effects. Based on the phase diagram of these solid solutions, with the increase in PT content beyond the rhombohedral phase region, orthorhombic

  2. Flexible piezoelectric PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite and device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiyou; Yeh, Yao-wen; Poirier, Gerald; McAlpine, Michael C; Register, Richard A; Yao, Nan

    2013-06-12

    Piezoelectric nanocomposites represent a unique class of materials that synergize the advantageous features of polymers and piezoelectric nanostructures and have attracted extensive attention for the applications of energy harvesting and self-powered sensing recently. Currently, most of the piezoelectric nanocomposites were synthesized using piezoelectric nanostructures with relatively low piezoelectric constants, resulting in lower output currents and lower output voltages. Here, we report a synthesis of piezoelectric (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanowire-based nanocomposite with significantly improved performances for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. With the high piezoelectric constant (d33) and the unique hierarchical structure of the PMN-PT nanowires, the PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite demonstrated an output voltage up to 7.8 V and an output current up to 2.29 μA (current density of 4.58 μA/cm(2)); this output voltage is more than double that of other reported piezoelectric nanocomposites, and the output current is at least 6 times greater. The PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite also showed a linear relationship of output voltage versus strain with a high sensitivity. The enhanced performance and the flexibility of the PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite make it a promising building block for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing applications.

  3. PMN-PT piezoelectric-electrostrictive bi-layer composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngernchuklin, Piyalak

    In the past few decades, significant advances have been achieved to replace the conventional actuators, including hydraulic, shape memory alloy, electromagnetic and linear induction, with piezoelectric actuators since they are light weight and small in size, have precision positioning capabilities, offer a wide range of generative force, consume less power, and provide higher durability and reliability. The strain produced by bulk polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals are typically in the range of 0.1 to 1%, respectively, which is still low for many applications. Therefore, various strain amplification designs including multilayer, bimorph, unimorph, flextensional actuators (Moonie and cymbal), co-fired and functionally graded ceramics have been proposed to enhance the displacement. In this investigation, Piezoelectric/Electrostrictive Bi-Layer Monolithic Composites (PE-MBLC) were fabricated by co-pressing and co-sintering of the piezoelectric (PMN-PT 65/35: P) and electrostrictive (PMN/PT 90/10: E) powders. Flat and dome shaped of PE-MBLCs were obtained by optimizing processing conditions such as pressing pressure and sintering temperature. In addition, poling conditions of bilayer composite actuators were thoroughly studied to maximize their electromechanical properties. It was found that composites had lower d33eff and Keff values than the calculated values. This was attributed to a significant difference between relative permittivities of P and E materials as well as the presence of induced stresses in both P and E layers after sintering that hindered domain switching within piezoelectric layer during poling. The shape change (planar to dome), electromechanical properties, and actuation performance of PE-MBLC actuators were examined as a function of volume percent of piezoelectric phase. The highest displacement ˜15 mum was obtained from PE-MBLC actuator with 50 volume % piezoelectric phase due to the transverse strain response of

  4. Simultaneous measurement of electro-optical and converse-piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Pingping; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Jingjing; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Xianfeng; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2012-06-18

    A new scheme is proposed to measure the electro-optical (EO) and converse-piezoelectric (CPE) coefficients of the PMN-PT ceramics simultaneously, in which the PMN-PT ceramics acts as the guiding layer of a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. As the applied electric field exerts on the waveguide, the effective refractive index (RI) (or synchronous angle) can be effectively tuned from a selected mode to another adjacent mode owing to the high sensitivity and the small spacing of the ultra-high order modes. Subsequently, a correlation between EO and CPE coefficients is established. With this correlation and the measurement of the effective RI change to the applied voltage, the quadratic EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics are obtained simultaneously. The obtained results are further checked by fitting the variations of effective RI to a quadratic function. Our measurement method can be extended to a wide range of other materials.

  5. Mechanical confinement for tuning ferroelectric response in PMN-PT single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-02-01

    Ferroelectrics form an important class of materials and are employed for a variety of applications. However, specific applications dictate the need of tailored ferroelectric response. This creates a requirement to obtain ferroelectric materials with tunable properties. Generally, chemical modifications or domain engineering are employed to this effect. This study attempts to shed light on the use of compressive pre-stresses for tuning and enhancing the ferroelectric properties. For the purpose, polarization versus electric field hysteresis data for 68Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3-32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals were obtained as a function of uniaxial compressive stresses and operating temperatures. These data were utilized to investigate the effects of mechanical confinement for four individual case studies of electrocaloric effect, electrical energy storage, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric effect. A significant improvement was obtained for all case studies. The adiabatic temperature change was improved by ≈80% (28 MPa, 353 K); energy storage density increased by a factor of five (28 MPa, 353 K); pyroelectric figure of merits improved by an order of magnitude (21 MPa) and the piezoelectric coefficient was tailored (variable stress). The results offer promising insight into the use of directional confinement for improving application specific ferroelectric properties in PMN-PT single crystal.

  6. Growth and piezo-/ferroelectric properties of PIN-PMN-PT single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Wang, Zujian; He, Chao; Long, Xifa; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Ternary solid solution crystals of 0.19Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3- 0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- 0.35PbTiO3 [PIMNT(19/46/35)] with dimensions of 35 × 38 × 15 mm3 were grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The dielectric, piezo- and ferroelectric properties of the grown crystals were characterized. The ternary piezocrystals exhibit a Curie temperature TC = 190 °C and a tetragonal-rhombohedral phase transition temperature TR-T = 130 °C, which are increased significantly compared with TC ≈ 155 °C and TR-T ≈ 80 °C of PMN-PT crystals. The dielectric constant (ɛ') and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) are 4300 and 0.40 at room temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 is found to be 2380 pC/N. The longitudinal electromechanical coupling factor k33 reaches 90% at room temperature. A peak-to-peak bipolar strain value of 0.13% is obtained at E ≈ ± 14 kV/cm. The coercive field Ec and remanent polarization Pr are 5.50 kV/cm and 27.10 μC/cm2, respectively, which are also improved from the vales of PMN-PT crystals.

  7. The Strength of PIN-PMN-PT Single Crystals under Bending with a Longitudinal Electric Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-06

    The strength of PIN– PMN – PT single crystals under bending with a longitudinal electric field This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please...COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Strength Of PIN- PMN - PT Single Crystals Under Bending With A Longitudinal Electric Field... PMN ? PT ) single crystals was measured using a four point bending apparatus with a longitudinal electric field applied to the bar during bending. The

  8. Self-powered cardiac pacemaker enabled by flexible single crystalline PMN-PT piezoelectric energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Park, Hyewon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, SeKwon; Park, Kwi-Il; Byun, Myunghwan; Park, Hyelim; Ahn, Gun; Jeong, Chang Kyu; No, Kwangsoo; Kwon, HyukSang; Lee, Sang-Goo; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-07-23

    A flexible single-crystalline PMN-PT piezoelectric energy harvester is demonstrated to achieve a self-powered artificial cardiac pacemaker. The energy-harvesting device generates a short-circuit current of 0.223 mA and an open-circuit voltage of 8.2 V, which are enough not only to meet the standard for charging commercial batteries but also for stimulating the heart without an external power source.

  9. Shear piezoelectric coefficients of PZT, LiNbO3 and PMN-PT at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, Syed; Islam, Md; Haziot, Ariel; Beamish, John

    2014-12-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are used to detect stress and to generate nanometer scale displacements but their piezoelectric coefficients decrease with temperature, limiting their performance in cryogenic applications. We have developed a capacitive technique and directly measured the temperature dependence of the shear coefficient d15 for ceramic lead zirconium titanate (PZT), 41° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and single crystal lead magnesium niobium-lead titanate (PMN-PT). In PZT, d15 decreases nearly linearly with temperature, dropping by factor of about 4 by 1.3 K. LiNbO3 has the smallest room temperature d15, but its value decreased by only 6% at the lowest temperatures. PMN-PT had the largest value of d15 at room temperature (2.9 × 10-9 m/V, about 45 times larger than for LiNbO3) but it decreased rapidly below 75 K; at 1.3 K, d15 was only about 8% of its room temperature value.

  10. Single crystal PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite for energy-harvesting application.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kailiang; Liu, Yiming; Geng, Xuecang; Hofmann, Heath F; Zhang, Qiming M

    2006-03-01

    One key parameter in using electroactive materials to harvest electric energy from mechanical sources is the energy conversion efficiency. Recently, it was shown that, in the relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT single crystals, a very high longitudinal electromechanical coupling factor (>90%) can be obtained. This paper investigates energy harvesting using 1-3 composites of PMN-PT single crystals in a soft epoxy matrix. It is shown that 1-3 composites enable the single crystals operating in the longitudinal mode to achieve high efficiency for energy harvesting, and the soft-polymer, matrix-supported single-crystal rods maintain high mechanical integrity under different external loads. For comparison, 1-3 composites with piezoceramic PZT also are investigated in energy-harvesting applications, and the results show that the high coupling factor of single crystal PMN-PT 1-3 composites leads to much higher electric energy output for similar mechanical energy input. The harvested energy density of 1-3 composite with single crystal (22.1 mW/cm3 under a stress of 40.4 MPa) is about twice of that harvested with PZT ceramic 1-3 composite (12 mW/cm3 under a stress of 39 MPa). At a higher stress level, the harvested-energy density of 1-3 PMN-PT single crystal composite can reach 96 mW/cm3.

  11. Tuning of near-infrared luminescence of SrTiO3:Ni2+ thin films grown on piezoelectric PMN-PT via strain engineering.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gongxun; Zhang, Yang; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-07-17

    We report the tunable near-infrared luminescence of Ni(2+) doped SrTiO3 (STO:Ni) thin film grown on piezoelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.7)Ti(0.3)O3 (PMN-PT) substrate via strain engineering differing from conventional chemical approach. Through controlling the thickness of STO:Ni film, the luminescent properties of the films including emission wavelength and bandwidth, as well as lifetime can be effectively tuned. The observed phenomena can be explained by the variation in the crystal field around Ni(2+) ions caused by strain due to the lattice mismatch. Moreover, the modulation of strain can be controlled under an external electric field via converse piezoelectric effect of PMN-PT used in this work. Consequently, controllable emission of the STO:Ni thin film is demonstrated in a reversible and real-time way, arising from the biaxial strain produced by piezoelectric PMN-PT. Physical mechanism behind the observation is discussed. This work will open a door for not only investigating the luminescent properties of the phosphors via piezoelectric platform, but also potentially developing novel planar light sources.

  12. Tuning of near-infrared luminescence of SrTiO3:Ni2+ thin films grown on piezoelectric PMN-PT via strain engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Gongxun; Zhang, Yang; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    We report the tunable near-infrared luminescence of Ni2+ doped SrTiO3 (STO:Ni) thin film grown on piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrate via strain engineering differing from conventional chemical approach. Through controlling the thickness of STO:Ni film, the luminescent properties of the films including emission wavelength and bandwidth, as well as lifetime can be effectively tuned. The observed phenomena can be explained by the variation in the crystal field around Ni2+ ions caused by strain due to the lattice mismatch. Moreover, the modulation of strain can be controlled under an external electric field via converse piezoelectric effect of PMN-PT used in this work. Consequently, controllable emission of the STO:Ni thin film is demonstrated in a reversible and real-time way, arising from the biaxial strain produced by piezoelectric PMN-PT. Physical mechanism behind the observation is discussed. This work will open a door for not only investigating the luminescent properties of the phosphors via piezoelectric platform, but also potentially developing novel planar light sources. PMID:25030046

  13. Effect of Elevated Pressure on the Heat Transfer and Power Requirements During Bridgman Growth of PMN-PT Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris; Ostrogorsky, Aleksandar; Marin, Carlos; Nicoara, Irina; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Performance of the furnace during Bridgman growth of the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate crystal (PMN-PT) is analyzed. PMN-PT is electrostrictive ceramic that has near ideal strain-voltage function. Furthermore piezoelectric (2000 to 2300 pC/N) and coupling (92 to 95%) constants are exceptionally good. Due to these properties PMN-PT has wide range of applications - from sonars to transducers in a high precision optical systems. In this research first attempt to crystallize PMN-PT in a Mellen type vertical Bridgman furnace was not successful, as melting temperature of precursor materials was not achieved. At this point choice was between building a new more powerful facility or finding ways to enhance performance of the existing furnace. Besides adjusting power supply to the individual heating elements, redesigning ampoule holding cartridge and improving furnace insulation one more radical improvement was proposed. The entire furnace was placed into the high pressure chamber. Further experiments confirmed that temperature inside the furnace was increased sufficiently to melt precursor materials to obtain PMN-PT. Numerical modeling is undertaken to find limitations of this technique and to predict temperature distribution inside the ampoule. It is of interest also to account for main factors contributing to a higher temperatures achieved in the furnace under the higher pressure (up to 10 atm.). Numerical model of the furnace is based on general purpose finite - element code FIDAP and on previous efforts to model Bridgman type furnace with multiply heaters. In order to account for all heat transfer mechanism involved - conduction, convection and radiation - different parts of the furnace are modeled in accordance with expected dominant mode of heat transfer - conduction in the solid parts, conduction and radiation in the ampoule, gas convection and conduction in the furnace openings complemented with wall-to-wall radiation. Because of these complicating factors

  14. A comparative study of ultrasonic micro-motors based on single crystal PMN-PT and polycrystalline PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Stephen A.; Rayner, Philip J.; Gore, Jonathan; Bowles, Adrian R.; McBride, Richard C.

    2008-03-01

    A comparative study has been made to explore the potential benefits of newly available single-crystal ferroelectric materials when used in a practical device, in this case an ultrasonic micro-motor. This type of micro-motor exhibits exceptional power-to-weight characteristics, which could be exploited beneficially, for example, in unmanned air-vehicle (UAV) systems. The operating principles of a range of commercial and experimental motor designs were evaluated objectively in order to identify areas of performance that can potentially be enhanced using PMN-PT single-crystal piezoelectric ceramics. Based on this analysis a practical motor design was selected for construction and experimentation. Detailed numerical analysis indicated that a motor constructed from single crystal PMN-PT could be expected to provide an improvement in motor stall-torque by up to a factor of 2.8 and a no-load speed improvement by a factor of 1.5 when compared with motors based on standard polycrystalline lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) ceramics. In practice single-crystal versions of the motor were found to produce double the power output of their polycrystalline counterparts. Overall efficiency was found to be improved two-fold. There were significant discrepancies between the numerical predictions for the single-crystal devices and their measured performance, whereas the polycrystalline devices were found to perform closely in line with predictions.

  15. Probing the Nanodomain Origin and Phase Transition Mechanisms in (Un)Poled PMN-PT Single Crystals and Textured Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Slodczyk, Aneta; Colomban, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Outstanding electrical properties of solids are often due to the composition heterogeneity and/or the competition between two or more sublattices. This is true for superionic and superprotonic conductors and supraconductors, as well as for many ferroelectric materials. As in PLZT ferroelectric materials, the exceptional ferro- and piezoelectric properties of the PMN-PT ((1−x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3−xPbTiO3) solid solutions arise from the coexistence of different symmetries with long and short scales in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region. This complex physical behavior requires the use of experimental techniques able to probe the local structure at the nanoregion scale. Since both Raman signature and thermal expansion behavior depend on the chemical bond anharmonicity, these techniques are very efficient to detect and then to analyze the subtitle structural modifications with an efficiency comparable to neutron scattering. Using the example of poled (field cooling or room temperature) and unpoled PMN-PT single crystal and textured ceramic, we show how the competition between the different sublattices with competing degrees of freedom, namely the Pb-Pb dominated by the Coulombian interactions and those built of covalent bonded entities (NbO6 and TiO6), determine the short range arrangement and the outstanding ferro- and piezoelectric properties. PMID:28883367

  16. PMN-PT Single-Crystal High-Frequency Kerfless Phased Array

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruimin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor E.; Lam, Kwok Ho; Hsu, Hsiu-sheng; Zheng, Fan; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniature high-frequency kerfless phased array prepared from a PMN-PT single crystal for forward-looking intravascular or endoscopic imaging applications. After lapping down to around 40 μm, the PMN-PT material was utilized to fabricate 32-element kerfless phased arrays using micromachining techniques. The aperture size of the active area was only 1.0 × 1.0 mm. The measured results showed that the array had a center frequency of 40 MHz, a bandwidth of 34% at −6 dB with a polymer matching layer, and an insertion loss of 20 dB at the center frequency. Phantom images were acquired and compared with simulated images. The results suggest that the feasibility of developing a phased array mounted at the tip of a forward-looking intravascular catheter or endoscope. The fabricated array exhibits much higher sensitivity than PZT ceramic-based arrays and demonstrates that PMN-PT is well suited for this application. PMID:24859667

  17. PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency kerfless phased array.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruimin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor E; Lam, Kwok Ho; Hsu, Hsiu-sheng; Zheng, Fan; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniature high-frequency kerfless phased array prepared from a PMN-PT single crystal for forward-looking intravascular or endoscopic imaging applications. After lapping down to around 40 μm, the PMN-PT material was utilized to fabricate 32-element kerfless phased arrays using micromachining techniques. The aperture size of the active area was only 1.0 × 1.0 mm. The measured results showed that the array had a center frequency of 40 MHz, a bandwidth of 34% at -6 dB with a polymer matching layer, and an insertion loss of 20 dB at the center frequency. Phantom images were acquired and compared with simulated images. The results suggest that the feasibility of developing a phased array mounted at the tip of a forward-looking intravascular catheter or endoscope. The fabricated array exhibits much higher sensitivity than PZT ceramic-based arrays and demonstrates that PMN-PT is well suited for this application.

  18. Fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Bok; Hsu, David K; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Young-Gil; Barnard, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT, and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications. As a front matching layer between test material (Austenite stainless steel, SUS316) and piezoelectric materials, alumina ceramics was selected. The appropriate acoustic impedance of the backing materials for each transducer was determined based on the results of KLM model simulation. Prototype ultrasonic transducers with the center frequencies of approximately 2.25 and 5MHz for contact measurement were fabricated and compared to each other. The PMN-PT single crystal ultrasonic transducer shows considerably improved performance in sensitivity over the PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave Magnetoelectric Effects in Single Crystal YIG/PMN-PT Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Mantese, J. V.

    2004-03-01

    Layered magnetostrictive/piezoelectric structures are multifunctional due to mechanical force mediated electromagnetic coupling. This study is concerned with microwave magnetoelectric (ME) interactions in layered ferrite-piezoelectric oxides. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is a powerful tool for such studies. An electric field E applied to the composite produces a mechanical deformation in PZT that in turn is coupled to the ferrite, resulting in a shift in the resonance field. Information on the nature of high frequency ME coupling could therefore be obtained from data on field shift vs E. Since the measurement accuracy depends very much on the FMR line width, bilayers consisting of single crystal or epitaxial low-loss ferrites are ideal for the investigations. Studies were performed at 9.4 GHz on bilayers consisting of (100), (110) or (111) epitaxial yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films (1-130 micron) and (100) lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT). The samples were positioned outside a hole at the bottom or side of a TE102-reflection type cavity. Resonance absorption vs bias magnetic field H were obtained as a function of E = 0-8 kV/cm for both in-plane and out-of-plane H. Important results are as follows. (i) The ME coupling is stronger for H perpendicular to the bilayer than for in-plane H. (ii) The coupling strength is maximum for E and H along <111> in YIG. (iii) The ME constant varies from a maximum of 6 Oe cm/kV for bilayers with 4 micron YIG to a minimum of 3 Oe cm/kV for 110 micron YIG. (iv) The variation of resonance field shift with the volume ratio for the two phases is in agreement with theory [1,2]. 1. M. I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 2. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, Yu. V. Kiliba, G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002). This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0322254)

  20. PMN-PT single crystal focusing transducer fabricated using a mechanical dimpling technique.

    PubMed

    Lam, K H; Chen, Y; Cheung, K F; Dai, J Y

    2012-01-01

    A ∼5MHz focusing PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducer has been fabricated utilizing a mechanical dimpling technique, where the dimpled crystal wafer was used as an active element of the focusing transducer. For the dimpled focusing transducer, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient was enhanced significantly from 0.42 to 0.56. The dimpled transducer also yields a -6dB bandwidth of 63.5% which is almost double the bandwidth of the plane transducer. An insertion loss of the dimpled transducer (-18.1dB) is much lower than that of the plane transducer. Finite element simulation also reveals specific focused beam from concave crystal surface. These promising results show that the dimpling technique can be used to develop high-resolution focusing single crystal transducers.

  1. Thermal-independent properties of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal linear-array ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruimin; Wu, Jinchuan; Ho Lam, Kwok; Yao, Liheng; Zhou, Qifa; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, low-frequency 32-element linear-array ultrasonic transducers were designed and fabricated using both ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) and binary Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))-PbTiO(3) (PMNPT) single crystals. Performance of the array transducers was characterized as a function of temperature ranging from room temperature to 160°C. It was found that the array transducers fabricated using the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were capable of satisfactory performance at 160°C, having a -6-dB bandwidth of 66% and an insertion loss of 37 dB. The results suggest that the potential of PIN-PMN-PT linear-array ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature ultrasonic transducer applications is promising.

  2. Thermal-Independent Properties of PIN-PMN-PT Single-Crystal Linear-Array Ultrasonic Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruimin; Wu, Jinchuan; Lam, Kwok Ho; Yao, Liheng; Zhou, Qifa; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, low-frequency 32-element linear-array ultrasonic transducers were designed and fabricated using both ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)–PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) and binary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals. Performance of the array transducers was characterized as a function of temperature ranging from room temperature to 160°C. It was found that the array transducers fabricated using the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal were capable of satisfactory performance at 160°C, having a −6-dB bandwidth of 66% and an insertion loss of 37 dB. The results suggest that the potential of PIN-PMN-PT linear-array ultrasonic transducers for high-temperature ultrasonic transducer applications is promising. PMID:23221227

  3. [111]-oriented PIN-PMN-PT crystals with ultrahigh dielectric permittivity and high frequency constant for high-frequency transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Geng, Xuecang; Xu, Zhuo; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2016-08-01

    The electromechanical properties of [111]-oriented tetragonal Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3)-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were investigated for potential high frequency ultrasonic transducers. The domain-engineered tetragonal crystals exhibit an ultrahigh free dielectric permittivity ɛ33T > 10 000 with a moderate electromechanical coupling factor k33 ˜ 0.79, leading to a high clamped dielectric permittivity ɛ33S of 2800, significantly higher than those of the rhombohedral relaxor-PT crystals and high-K (dielectric permittivity) piezoelectric ceramics. Of particular significance is that the [111]-oriented tetragonal crystals were found to possess high elastic stiffness, with frequency constant N33 of ˜2400 Hz m, allowing relatively easy fabrication of high-frequency transducers. In addition, no scaling effect of piezoelectric and dielectric properties was observed down to thickness of 0.1 mm, corresponding to an operational frequency of ˜24 MHz. These advantages of [111]-oriented tetragonal PIN-PMN-PT crystals will benefit high-frequency ultrasonic array transducers, allowing for high sensitivity, broad bandwidth, and reduced noise/crosstalk.

  4. In situ detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using fully submersible, self-exciting, self-sensing PMN-PT/Sn piezoelectric microcantilevers.

    PubMed

    McGovern, John-Paul; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated in situ, all-electrical detection of Bacillus anthracis (BA) spores using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate/tin (PMN-PT/Sn) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) fabricated from PMN-PT freestanding films and electrically insulated with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) coatings on the tin surface. Antibody specific to BA spore surface antigen was immobilized on the platinum electrode of the PMN-PT layer. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, the PMN-PT/Sn PEMS exhibited quality (Q) values ranging from 50 to 75. The detection was carried out in a closed-loop flow cell with a liquid volume of 0.8 ml and a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1). It was shown that one sensor, "PEMS-A" (500 microm long, 800 microm wide, with a 22 microm thick PMN-PT layer, a 20 microm thick tin layer and a 1 +/- 0.5 x 10(-12) g Hz(-1) mass detection sensitivity) exhibited resonance frequency shifts of 2100 +/- 200, 1100 +/- 100 and 700 +/- 100 Hz at concentrations of 20,000, 2000, and 200 spores ml(-1) or 16,000, 1600, and 160 total spores, respectively. Additionally, "PEMS-B" (350 microm long, 800 microm wide, with an 8 microm thick PMN-PT layer, a 6 microm thick tin layer and a 2 +/- 1 x 10(-13) g Hz(-1) mass detection sensitivity) exhibited resonance frequency shifts of 2400 +/- 200, 1500 +/- 200, 500 +/- 150 and 200 +/- 100 Hz at concentrations of 20,000, 2000, 100, and 45 spores ml(-1) or 16,000, 1600, 80, and 36 total spores, respectively.

  5. A plastic-composite-plastic structure high performance flexible energy harvester based on PIN-PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 2-2 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhou; Gai, Linlin; Wang, Xian; Lin, Di; Wang, Sheng; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Dong

    2017-03-01

    We present a high performance flexible piezoelectric energy harvester constituted by a Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal/epoxy 2-2 composite flake, a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, and a PET cover, which is capable of harvesting energy from biomechanical movements. Electrical properties of the device under different epoxy volume fractions, load resistances, and strains are studied systematically. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the plastic-composite-plastic structure contributes to the flexibility of the device, and a high performance bulk PIN-PMN-PT single crystal (a thickness of 50 μm) results in its high electrical output. At a low excitation frequency of 4.2 Hz, the optimal flexible energy harvester (with ve = 21%) can generate a peak voltage of 12.9 V and a maximum power density of 0.28 mW/cm3 under a bending radius of 10.5 mm, and maintain its performance after 40 000 bending-unbending cycles. High flexibility and excellent electrical output at low operational frequency demonstrate the promise of the device in biomechanical motion energy harvesting for wireless and portable low-power electronics.

  6. Equivalent properties of 1-3 piezocomposites made of PMN-PT single crystals for underwater sonar transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinwook; Roh, Yongrae

    2011-04-01

    The design of a piezocomposite transducer is accomplished by such advanced modeling technique as finite element method (FEM). However, accurate analysis of a 1-3 piezocomposite transducer enforces three dimensional (3D) modeling that requires very finemeshing of the transducer structure, which is frequently over affordable calculation resource capacity. In order to simplify the FEM model for complicated underwater transducers, the 1-3 piezocomposite needs to be simulated with a single phase material of equivalent properties. The 1-3 piezocomposite material in this study is made of the PMN-PT single crystal as the active material and urethane as the matrix material. Theoretical models for the calculation of new material parameters of 1-3 composites having fine lateral periodicity have been derived. For the validation of the equivalent properties, TE (thickness extensional), LE (length extensional), LTE (length thickness extensional), and TS (thickness shear) FEM models have been built to compare the impedance-frequency spectra of the 1-3 composite material and an equivalent material. Through the simulation with the models, all the equivalent elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants of the single phase material are determined. Further, 3D and axis-symmetric 2D FEM models of a multi-mode Tonpilz transducer have been constructed with the equivalent material properties. The equivalent material provides a very good correlation between the 2D and 3D transducer models, which is not easily attainable with the full 1-3 piezocomposite model. This result confirms the efficacy of the equivalent material properties of the 1-3 piezocomposites.

  7. Effect of biaxial strain induced by piezoelectric PMN-PT on the upconversion photoluminescence of BaTiO₃:Yb/Er thin films.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenping; Zhang, Yang; Bai, Gongxun; Tang, Weihua; Gao, Ju; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-11-17

    Thin films of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped BaTiO3 (BTO:Yb/Er) have been epitaxially grown on piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Biaxial strain can be effectively controlled by applying electric field on PMN-PT substrate. A reversible, in situ and dynamic modification of upconversion photoluminescence in BTO:Yb/Er film was observed via converse piezoelectric effect. Detailed analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction indicate that such modulations are possibly due to the change in the lattice deformation of the thin films. This result suggests an alternative method to rationally tune the upconversion emissions via strain engineering.

  8. Anisotropic Laminar Piezocomposite Actuator Incorporating Machined PMN-PT Single Crystal Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Inman, Daniel J.; Lloyd, Justin M.; High, James W.

    2006-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a flexible, laminar, anisotropic piezoelectric composite actuator utilizing machined PMN-32%PT single crystal fibers is presented. The device consists of a layer of rectangular single crystal piezoelectric fibers in an epoxy matrix, packaged between interdigitated electrode polyimide films. Quasistatic free-strain measurements of the single crystal device are compared with measurements from geometrically identical specimens incorporating polycrystalline PZT-5A and PZT-5H piezoceramic fibers. Free-strain actuation of the single crystal actuator at low bipolar electric fields (+/- 250 V/mm) is approximately 400% greater than that of the baseline PZT-5A piezoceramic device, and 200% greater than that of the PZT-5H device. Free-strain actuation under high unipolar electric fields (0-4kV/mm) is approximately 200% of the PZT-5A baseline device, and 150% of the PZT-5H alternate piezoceramic device. Performance increases at low field are qualitatively consistent with predicted increases based on scaling the low-field d33 piezoelectric constants of the respective piezoelectric materials. High-field increases are much less than scaled d33 estimates, but appear consistent with high-field freestrain measurements reported for similar bulk single-crystal and piezoceramic compositions. Measurements of single crystal actuator capacitance and coupling coefficient are also provided. These properties were poorly predicted using scaled bulk material dielectric and coupling coefficient data. Rules-of-mixtures calculations of the effective elastic properties of the single crystal device and estimated actuation work energy densities are also presented. Results indicate longitudinal stiffnesses significantly lower (50% less) than either piezoceramic device. This suggests that single-crystal piezocomposite actuators will be best suited to low induced-stress, high strain and deflection applications.

  9. Anisotropic Piezocomposite Actuator Incorporating Machined PMN-PT Single Crystal Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Inman, Daniel J.; Lloyd, Justin M.; High, James W.

    2004-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a flexible, planar, anisotropic piezoelectric composite actuator utilizing machined PMN-32%PT single crystal fibers is presented. The device consists of a layer of rectangular single crystal piezoelectric fibers in an epoxy matrix, packaged between interdigitated electrode polyimide films. Quasistatic free-strain measurements of the single crystal device are compared with measurements from geometrically identical specimens incorporating polycrystalline PZT-5A and PZT-5H piezoceramic fibers. Free-strain actuation of the single crystal actuator at low bipolar electric fields (+/- 250 V/mm) is approximately 400% greater than that of the baseline PZT-5A piezoceramic device, and 200% greater than that of the PZT-5H device. Free-strain actuation under high unipolar electric fields (0-4kV/mm) is approximately 200% of the PZT-5A baseline device, and 150% of the PZT-5H alternate piezoceramic device. Performance increases at low field are qualitatively consistent with predicted increases based on scaling the low-field d(sub 33) piezoelectric constants of the respective piezoelectric materials. High-field increases are much less than scaled d(sub 33) estimates, but appear consistent with high-field freestrain measurements reported for similar bulk single-crystal and piezoceramic compositions. Measurements of single crystal actuator capacitance and coupling coefficient are also provided. These properties were poorly predicted using scaled bulk material dielectric and coupling coefficient data. Rules-of-mixtures calculations of the effective elastic properties of the single crystal device and estimated actuation work energy densities are also presented. Results indicate longitudinal stiffnesses significantly lower (50% less) than either piezoceramic device. This suggests that single-crystal piezocomposite actuators will be best suited to low induced-stress, high strain and deflection applications.

  10. Surface acoustic load sensing using a face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2012-11-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) resonators for surface acoustic load sensing are presented in this paper. Different acoustic loads are applied to thickness mode, thickness-shear mode, and face-shear mode resonators, and the electrical impedances at resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are recorded. More than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity (ratio of electrical impedance change to surface acoustic impedance change) at the resonance is achieved for the face-shear-mode resonator compared with other resonators with the same dimensions. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model is used to verify the surface acoustic loading effect on the electrical impedance spectrum of face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonators. The demonstrated high sensitivity of face-shear mode resonators to surface loads is promising for a broad range of applications, including artificial skin, biological and chemical sensors, touch screens, and other touch-based sensors.

  11. PMN-PT nanostructures for energy scavenging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan; Yao, Nan

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric nanocrystals have been used for self-powered nanosystems, implantable biodevices, wireless sensors and portable/wearable electronics. A profound way to increase the output voltage (or power) of the piezoelectric devices is to utilize a material with higher piezoelectric constants. (1 - x)Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - x PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) has been considered as the piezoelectric material of the next generation due to the high piezoelectric constant. The high flexibility, sensitivity and strain tolerance of PMN-PT nanostructures make them ideal for self-powered nanosystems. This article reviews the fabrication and structural characterization of different PMN-PT nanostructures, and their applications in various devices.

  12. Influence of piezoelectric strain on the Raman spectra of BiFeO{sub 3} films deposited on PMN-PT substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Himcinschi, Cameliu Talkenberger, Andreas; Kortus, Jens; Guo, Er-Jia; Dörr, Kathrin

    2016-01-25

    BiFeO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films were deposited on piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.28PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) substrates with a conductive buffer layer (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} or SrRuO{sub 3}) using pulsed laser deposition. The calibration of the strain values induced by the electric field applied on the piezoelectric PMN-PT substrates was realised using X-Ray diffraction measurements. The method of piezoelectrically induced strain allows one to directly obtain a quantitative correlation between the strain and the shift of the Raman-active phonons. This is a prerequisite for making Raman scattering a strong tool to probe the strain coupling in multiferroic nanostructures. Using the Poisson's number for BiFeO{sub 3}, one can determine the volume change induced by strain, and therefore the Grüneisen parameters for specific phonon modes.

  13. Influence of piezoelectric strain on the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films deposited on PMN-PT substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himcinschi, Cameliu; Guo, Er-Jia; Talkenberger, Andreas; Dörr, Kathrin; Kortus, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films were deposited on piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates with a conductive buffer layer (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 or SrRuO3) using pulsed laser deposition. The calibration of the strain values induced by the electric field applied on the piezoelectric PMN-PT substrates was realised using X-Ray diffraction measurements. The method of piezoelectrically induced strain allows one to directly obtain a quantitative correlation between the strain and the shift of the Raman-active phonons. This is a prerequisite for making Raman scattering a strong tool to probe the strain coupling in multiferroic nanostructures. Using the Poisson's number for BiFeO3, one can determine the volume change induced by strain, and therefore the Grüneisen parameters for specific phonon modes.

  14. Influence of piezoelectric strain on the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films deposited on PMN-PT substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Himcinschi, Cameliu; Guo, Er -Jia; Talkenberger, Andreas; Dorr, Kathrin; Kortus, Jens

    2016-01-27

    In this study, BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films were deposited on piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates with a conductive buffer layer (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 or SrRuO3) using pulsed laser deposition. The calibration of the strain values induced by the electric field applied on the piezoelectric PMN-PT substrates was realised using X-Ray diffraction measurements. The method of piezoelectrically induced strain allows to obtain a quantitative correlation between strain and the shift of the Raman-active phonons, ruling out the influence of extrinsic factors, such as growth conditions, crystalline quality of substrates, or film thickness. Using the Poisson number for BiFeO3 one can determine the volume change induced by strain, and therefore the Gr neisen parameters for specific phonon modes.

  15. Influence of piezoelectric strain on the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films deposited on PMN-PT substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Himcinschi, Cameliu; Guo, Er -Jia; Talkenberger, Andreas; ...

    2016-01-27

    In this study, BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films were deposited on piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates with a conductive buffer layer (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 or SrRuO3) using pulsed laser deposition. The calibration of the strain values induced by the electric field applied on the piezoelectric PMN-PT substrates was realised using X-Ray diffraction measurements. The method of piezoelectrically induced strain allows to obtain a quantitative correlation between strain and the shift of the Raman-active phonons, ruling out the influence of extrinsic factors, such as growth conditions, crystalline quality of substrates, or film thickness. Using the Poisson number for BiFeO3 one can determine the volume changemore » induced by strain, and therefore the Gr neisen parameters for specific phonon modes.« less

  16. Fabrication of a PMN-PT Single Crystal-Based Transcranial Doppler Transducer and the Power Regulation of Its Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Qingwen; Liu, Dongxu; Wang, Wei; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Wang, Xi'an; Luo, Haosu

    2014-01-01

    Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) were chosen to be the piezoelectric transducer material due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high electromechanical coupling coefficients and low dielectric loss. The pulse-echo response of the transducer was measured using the conventional pulse-echo method in a water bath at room temperature. The −6 dB bandwidth of the transducer is 68.4% and the sensitivity is −17.4 dB. In order to get a good match between transducer and detection system, different transmission powers have been regulated by changing the impedance of the transmitting electric circuit. In the middle cerebral artery (MCA) measurement photograph results, as the transmission power is increasing, the detection results become clearer and clearer. A comparison at the same transmission power for different transducers shows that the detection photograph obtained by the crystal transducer was clearer than that obtained with a commercial transducer, which should make it easier for doctors to find the cerebral arteries. PMID:25536000

  17. Fabrication of a PMN-PT single crystal-based transcranial Doppler transducer and the power regulation of its detection system.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qingwen; Liu, Dongxu; Wang, Wei; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Wang, Xi'an; Luo, Haosu

    2014-12-19

    Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) were chosen to be the piezoelectric transducer material due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high electromechanical coupling coefficients and low dielectric loss. The pulse-echo response of the transducer was measured using the conventional pulse-echo method in a water bath at room temperature. The -6 dB bandwidth of the transducer is 68.4% and the sensitivity is -17.4 dB. In order to get a good match between transducer and detection system, different transmission powers have been regulated by changing the impedance of the transmitting electric circuit. In the middle cerebral artery (MCA) measurement photograph results, as the transmission power is increasing, the detection results become clearer and clearer. A comparison at the same transmission power for different transducers shows that the detection photograph obtained by the crystal transducer was clearer than that obtained with a commercial transducer, which should make it easier for doctors to find the cerebral arteries.

  18. PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Xu, Xiaochen; Gottlieb, Emanuel J; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Ameri, Hossein; Humayun, Mark S; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-03-01

    High-frequency needle ultrasound transducers with an aperture size of 0.4 mm were fabricated using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-33% PT) as the active piezoelectric material. The active element was bonded to a conductive silver particle matching layer and a conductive epoxy backing through direct contact curing. An outer matching layer of parylene was formed by vapor deposition. The active element was housed within a polyimide tube and a 20-gauge needle housing. The magnitude and phase of the electrical impedance of the transducer were 47 omega and -38 degrees, respectively. The measured center frequency and -6 dB fractional bandwidth of the PMN-PT needle transducer were 44 MHz and 45%, respectively. The two-way insertion loss was approximately 15 dB. In vivo high-frequency, pulsed-wave Doppler patterns of blood flow in the posterior portion and in vitro ultrasonic backscatter microscope (UBM) images of the rabbit eye were obtained with the 44-MHz needle transducer.

  19. Investigations on ferroelectric PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals ability for power or resonant actuators.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, L; Sebald, G; Guiffard, B; Richard, C; Guyomar, D; Pleska, E

    2004-04-01

    Ferroelectric single crystals of PZN-PT and PMN-PT exhibit outstanding properties: high charge coefficient (dij), high coupling factor (kij) and high strain levels under DC fields. Besides, their mechanical quality factor is believed to be low. Their usefulness for non-resonant or large bandwidth transducers has therefore been previously investigated. However, few studies have been devoted to the dielectric and mechanical losses of single crystals and to their stability under high levels of excitations (electric fields, temperature and mechanical stress). A knowledge and understanding of such performances is needed to determine whether single crystals are suitable materials for power or resonant transducers. In this work, losses and non-linearity versus external excitations are investigated. Dielectric losses and mechanical losses are measured versus electric field for different compositions, orientations. The evolution of d33 and epsilonT33 are obtained versus electric field and temperature for the longitudinal mode. Strain and hysteresis versus sweep mode (up and down) are measured near the resonance frequency using a laser Doppler vibrometer.

  20. High frequency PMN-PT single crystal focusing transducer fabricated by a mechanical dimpling technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Lam, K H; Zhou, D; Cheng, W F; Dai, J Y; Luo, H S; Chan, H L W

    2013-02-01

    High frequency (∼30MHz and ∼80MHz) focusing ultrasound transducers were fabricated using a PMN-0.28PT single crystal by a mechanical dimpling technique. The dimpled single crystal was used as an active element for the focusing transducer. Compared with a plane transducer, the focusing transducer fabricated with a dimpled active element exhibits much broader bandwidth and higher sensitivity. Besides, a high quality image can be obtained by the 30MHz focusing transducer, in which the -6dB axial and lateral resolution is 27μm and 139μm, respectively. These results prove that the dimpling technique is capable to fabricate the high frequency focusing transducers with excellent performance for imaging applications.

  1. Self-Powered Ultrabroadband Photodetector Monolithically Integrated on a PMN-PT Ferroelectric Single Crystal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Huajing; Xu, Chao; Ding, Jie; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin; Dai, Ji-Yan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Yan, Qingfeng

    2016-12-07

    Photodetectors capable of detecting two or more bands simultaneously with a single system have attracted extensive attentions because of their critical applications in image sensing, communication, and so on. Here, we demonstrate a self-powered ultrabroadband photodetector monolithically integrated on a 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-28PT) single crystal. By combining the optothermal and pyroelectric effect, the multifunctional PMN-28PT single crystal can response to a wide wavelength range from UV to terahertz (THz). At room temperature, the photodetector could generate a pyroelectric current under the intermittent illumination of incident light in absence of external bias. A systematic study of the photoresponse was investigated. The pyroelectric current shows an almost linear relationship to illumination intensity. Benefiting from the excellent pyroelectric property of PMN-28PT single crystal and the optimized device architecture, the device exhibited a dramatic improvement in operation frequency up to 3 kHz without any obvious degradation in sensitivity. Such a self-powered photodetector with ultrabroadband response may open a window for the novel application of ferroelectric materials in optoelectronics.

  2. High Frequency PMN-PT 1–3 Composite Transducer for Ultrasonic Imaging Application

    PubMed Central

    SUN, PING; WANG, GAOFENG; WU, DAWEI; ZHU, BENPENG; HU, CHANGHONG; LIU, CHANGGENG; DJUTH, FRANK T.; ZHOU, QIFA; SHUNG, K. KIRK

    2011-01-01

    Development of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 1–3 composites for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers application is presented. The composite was fabricated by using a DRIE dry etching process with a 45% volume fraction of PMN-PT. A 35 MHz ultrasound flat transducer was fabricated with the composite, which was found to have an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.81, an insertion loss of 18 db, and a –6 dB bandwidth as high as 100%. Tungsten wire phantom image shows that the transducer had an axial resolution of 30 μm, which was in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. The initial results showed that the PMN-PT/epoxy 1–3 composite has many attractive properties over conventional piezoelectric materials for medical imaging applications. PMID:21869845

  3. High Frequency PMN-PT 1-3 Composite Transducer for Ultrasonic Imaging Application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Wang, Gaofeng; Wu, Dawei; Zhu, Benpeng; Hu, Changhong; Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank T; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Development of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 1-3 composites for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers application is presented. The composite was fabricated by using a DRIE dry etching process with a 45% volume fraction of PMN-PT. A 35 MHz ultrasound flat transducer was fabricated with the composite, which was found to have an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.81, an insertion loss of 18 db, and a -6 dB bandwidth as high as 100%. Tungsten wire phantom image shows that the transducer had an axial resolution of 30 μm, which was in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. The initial results showed that the PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite has many attractive properties over conventional piezoelectric materials for medical imaging applications.

  4. PMN-PT single crystal for endoscopic ultrasound 2D array application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuhang; Liang, Huageng; Zhu, Benpeng; Zhou, Dan; Yang, Xiaofei

    2017-03-01

    Based on lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal, a 24 × 24 row-column addressing endoscopic two-dimensional array has been successfully fabricated using novel flanged electrodes and "semi-kerf" technologies. Each row/column array element was measured to have an electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.81, a center frequency of 5MHz, and a fractional bandwidth of approximately 88% at -6 dB. Of particular significance was that the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate element exhibits much higher sensitivity compared with lead zirconate titanate-based 2D arrays with similar operational frequency and element area. According to the Field II simulated results, although the obtained beamwidth at -6 dB was a little inferior to that of the fully sampled 24 × 24 two-dimensional array, it is believed that the beamwidth can be improved by appropriately increasing the element number. These results demonstrated that the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single-crystal 2D array is a promising candidate for real-time three-dimensional endoscopic ultrasound imaging.

  5. On the Binding Stress-Enhanced Sensitivity of (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3) 0.35 (PMN-PT) Piezoelectric Plate Sensor (PEPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei

    (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO 3)0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) showed enhanced sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications which has been attributed to binding-induced crystalline orientation switching in the PMN-PT layer. However, so far there has been no direct demonstration of PEPS crystalline orientation switching upon target-analyte binding. Using biotin and streptavidin binding as a model detection system and by direct X-Ray diffraction observations after analyte binding we have unambiguously demonstrated that switching of the crystalline orientations of the PMN-PT layer indeed occurred. In addition, we have shown that PEPS sensitivity enhancement increased with an increasing transverse electromechanical coupling constant, -k31, of the PMN-PT layer--which is known to correlate with the crystalline orientation switching capability--by increasing the grain size of the PMN-PT layer or by applying a DC bias electric field. Finally, unprecedented high sensitivity of PEPS with high -k31, (i.e., -k31 > 0.3) were illustrated by the aM (10-18 M) sensitivity of in situ DNA hybridization detection without amplification and by the 100 fg/ml (10-13 g/ml) sensitivity of rapid, in situ protein detection in biological fluids such as troponin I detection in serum for early sign of myocardial infarction (heart attack), Her2 detection in serum for cancer treatment and monitoring, Tn antigen and anti-Tn antibody detection in serum for early cancer detection, and Toxins detection in stool for Clostridium difficile infection detection.

  6. Fabrication and performance of endoscopic ultrasound radial arrays based on PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy 1-3 composite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Cheung, Kwok Fung; Chen, Yan; Lau, Sien Ting; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Luo, Hao Su; Dai, Jiyan; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, 0.7Pb(Mg(¹/₃)Nb(²/₃)O₃-0.3PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) single crystal/epoxy 1/3 composite was used as the active material of the endoscopic ultrasonic radial array transducer, because this composite exhibited ultrahigh electromechanical coupling coefficient (k(t) = 0.81%), very low mechanical quality factor (Q(m) = 11) and relatively low acoustic impedance (Z(t) = 12 MRayls). A 6.91 MHz PMN-PT/epoxy 1/3 composite radial array transducer with 64 elements was tested in a pulseecho response measurement. The -6-dB bandwidth of the composite array transducer was 102%, which was ~30% larger than that of traditional lead zirconate titanate array transducer. The two-way insertion loss was found to be -32.3 dB. The obtained results show that this broadband array transducer is promising for acquiring high-resolution endoscopic ultrasonic images in many clinical applications.

  7. Fabrication and Performance of Endoscopic Ultrasound Radial Arrays Based on PMN-PT Single Crystal/Epoxy 1-3 Composite

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Cheung, Kwok Fung; Chen, Yan; Lau, Sien Ting; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Luo, Hao Su; Dai, Jiyan; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystal/epoxy 1–3 composite was used as the active material of the endoscopic ultrasonic radial array transducer, because this composite exhibited ultrahigh electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt = 0.81%), very low mechanical quality factor (Qm = 11) and relatively low acoustic impedance (Zt = 12 MRayls). A 6.91 MHz PMN-PT/epoxy 1–3 composite radial array transducer with 64 elements was tested in a pulse-echo response measurement. The −6-dB bandwidth of the composite array transducer was 102%, which was ~30% larger than that of traditional lead zirconate titanate array transducer. The two-way insertion loss was found to be −32.3 dB. The obtained results show that this broadband array transducer is promising for acquiring high-resolution endoscopic ultrasonic images in many clinical applications. PMID:21342833

  8. Mechanical and thermal transitions in morphotropic PZN-pT and PMN-PT single crystals and their implication for sound projectors.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed; McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Robinson, Harold; Ewart, Lynn

    2007-06-01

    Isothermal compression experiments on multidomain [001] oriented and poled ferroelectric rhombohedral PZN-0.07PT and PMN-0.30PT single crystals revealed elastic instabilities corresponding to zero field ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition under mechanical compression. The application of an appropriate dc bias field doubled the stability range of the ferroelectric rhombohedral state under uniaxial compression for both crystals and maintained a linear elastic response. Young's modulus as derived from the quasistatic, zero field stress-strain linear response agreed well with that derived from small signal resonance for the ferroelectric rhombohedral FR state of both PZN-PT and PMN-PT. Elastic compliances s(E)33 as determined from high temperature resonance revealed a monotonically decreasing Young's modulus as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric rhombohedral state with a sudden stiffening near the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric tetragonal (FT) transition. The reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition of morphotropic PZN-PT and PMN-PT single crystals as accessed by mechanical compression is discussed in terms of strain calculations from Devonshire's theory, domain unfolding, and morphotropic phase boundary shift with mechanical stress. The mechanically-induced and thermally-induced ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition trajectories are discussed in terms of the Devonshire theory. Implications of these observations for sound projectors are discussed. A single crystal tonpilz projector fabricated into a 16-element array and a segmented cylinder transducer demonstrated the outstanding capabilities of single crystals to achieve compact, broadband, and high-source level projectors when compared to conventional lead zirconate-titanate PZT8 projectors.

  9. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state-of-art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single-element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed.

  10. Development of a 20-MHz wide-bandwidth PMN-PT single crystal phased-array ultrasound transducer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Man; Chen, Yan; Luo, Haosu; Dai, Jiyan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Chan, Helen Lai-Wa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a 20-MHz 64-element phased-array ultrasound transducer with a one-wavelength pitch is developed using a PMN-30%PT single crystal and double-matching layer scheme. High piezoelectric (d33>1000pC/N) and electromechanical coupling (k33>0.8) properties of the single crystal with an optimized fabrication process involving the photolithography technique have been demonstrated to be suitable for wide-bandwidth (⩾70%) and high-sensitivity (insertion loss ⩽30dB) phased-array transducer application. A -6dBbandwidth of 91% and an insertion loss of 29dBfor the 20-MHz 64-element phased-array transducer were achieved. This result shows that the bandwidth is improved comparing with the investigated high-frequency (⩾20MHz) ultrasound transducers using piezoelectric ceramic and single crystal materials. It shows that this phased-array transducer has potential to improve the resolution of biomedical imaging, theoretically. Based on the hypothesis of resolution improvement, this phased-array transducer is capable for small animal (i.e. mouse and zebrafish) studies.

  11. Single-crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN/PT) as a broadband high power transduction material.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Mark B; Robinson, Harold C; Powers, James M; Baird, P David

    2007-05-01

    Two experimental underwater acoustic projectors, a tonpilz array, and a cylindrical line array, were built with single crystal, lead magnesium niobate/lead titanate, a piezoelectric transduction material possessing a large electromechanical coupling factor (k33 = 0.9). The mechanical quality factor, Q(m), and the effective coupling factor, k(eff), determine the frequency band over which high power can be transmitted; k(eff) cannot be greater than the piezoelectric material value, and so a high material coupling factor is a requisite for broadband operation. Stansfield's bandwidth criteria are used to calculate the optimum Q(m) value, Q(opt) approximately 1.2 (1-k(eff)2 1/2/k(eff). The results for the tonpilz projector exhibited k(eff) = 0.730, Q(m) = 1.17 (very near optimal), and a fractional bandwidth of 0.93. For the cylindrical transducer array, k(eff) = 0.867, Q(m) = 0.91 (larger than the optimum value, 0.7), and the bandwidth was 1.16. Although the measured bandwidths were less than optimal, they were accurately predicted by the theory, despite the highly simplified nature of the Van Dyke equivalent circuit, on which the theory is based.

  12. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  13. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  14. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based transducers for naval sonar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snook, Kevin A.; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Jiang, Xiaoning; Meyer, Richard J., Jr.; Markley, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    Transducers incorporating single crystal piezoelectric Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3) x-1Ti xO 3 (PMN-PT) exhibit significant advantages over ceramic piezoelectrics such as PZT, including both high electromechanical coupling (k 33 > 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 > 2000 pC/N). Conventional <001> orientation gives inherently larger bandwidth and output power than PZT ceramics, however, the anisotropy of the crystal also allows for tailoring of the performance by orienting the crystal along different crystallographic axes. This attribute combined with composition refinements can be used to improve thermal or mechanical stability, which is important in high power, high duty cycle sonar applications. By utilizing the "31" resonance mode, the high power performance of PMN-PT can be improved over traditional "33" mode single crystal transducers, due to an improved aspect ratio. Utilizing novel geometries, effective piezoelectric constants of -600 pC/N to -1200 pC/N have been measured. The phase transition point induced by temperature, pre-stress or field is close to that in the "33" mode, and since the prestress is applied perpendicular to the poling direction in "31" mode elements, they exhibit lower loss and can therefore be driven harder. The high power characteristics of tonpilz transducers can also be affected by the composition of the PMN-PT crystal. TRS modified the composition of PMN-PT to improve the thermal stability of the material, while keeping the loss as low as possible. Three dimensional modeling shows that the useable bandwidth of these novel compositions nearly equals that of conventional PMN-PT. A decrease in the source level of up to 6 dB was calculated, which can be compensated for by the higher drive voltages possible.

  15. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Xingzhao; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-04-11

    The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-0.3PbTiO₃(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-xPbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young's modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm². The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  16. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Xingzhao; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications. PMID:28335195

  17. 80-MHz intravascular ultrasound transducer using PMN-PT free-standing film.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wu, Wei; Chung, Youngsoo; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-11-01

    [Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)](0.63)[PbTiO(3)](0.37) (PMN-PT) free-standing film of comparable piezoelectric properties to bulk material with thickness of 30 μm has been fabricated using a modified precursor coating approach. At 1 kHz, the dielectric permittivity and loss were 4364 and 0.033, respectively. The remnant polarization and coercive field were 28 μC/cm(2) and 18.43 kV/cm. The electromechanical coupling coefficient k(t) was measured to be 0.55, which was close to that of bulk PMN-PT single-crystal material. Based on this film, high-frequency (82 MHz) miniature ultrasonic transducers were fabricated with 65% bandwidth and 23 dB insertion loss. Axial and lateral resolutions were determined to be as high as 35 and 176 μm. In vitro intravascular imaging on healthy rabbit aorta was performed using the thin film transducers. In comparison with a 35-MHz IVUS transducer, the 80-MHz transducer showed superior resolution and contrast with satisfactory penetration depth. The imaging results suggest that PMN-PT free-standing thin film technology is a feasible and efficient way to fabricate very-high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

  18. PMN-PT single crystal thick films on silicon substrate for high-frequency micromachined ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Peng, J; Lau, S T; Chao, C; Dai, J Y; Chan, H L W; Luo, H S; Zhu, B P; Zhou, Q F; Shung, K K

    2008-11-02

    In this work, a novel high-frequency ultrasonic transducer structure is realized by using PMNPT-on-silicon technology and silicon micromachining. To prepare the single crystalline PMNPT-on-silicon wafers, a hybrid processing method involving wafer bonding, mechanical lapping and wet chemical thinning is successfully developed. In the transducer structure, the active element is fixed within the stainless steel needle housing. The measured center frequency and -6 dB bandwidth of the transducer are 35 MHz and 34%, respectively. Owing to the superior electromechanical coupling coefficient (k(t)) and high piezoelectric constant (d(33)) of PMNPT film, the transducer shows a good energy conversion performance with a very low insertion loss down to 8.3 dB at the center frequency.

  19. Photomagnetism and photoluminescence (PL) of (Pb-Fe-e(-)) complex in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) crystals containing beta-PbO nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Bairavarasu, Sundar R; Edwards, Matthew E; Sastry, Medury D; Kochary, Faris; Kommidi, Praveena; Reddy, B Rami; Lianos, Dimitrios; Aggarwal, Manmohan D

    2008-12-15

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)--evidence of photomagnetism under the conditions of in situ green laser illumination (photo-EPR) in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), containing nanoparticles/wires of orthorhombic beta-PbO as identified by Raman spectroscopy. Photo-EPR studies of the sample containing beta-PbO, brownish red in color, have shown intense line at g=2.00, and its yield increased when produced in the presence of 7.5 kG external magnetic field suggesting the formation of magnetic polaron. This was identified as due to interaction between Fe3+, photoinduced Pb3+ and unpaired electron trapped at oxygen vacancies. The photoinduced growth and decay of magnetic polaron has shown a non-exponential behavior. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were conducted with excitation at 308 nm (XeCl laser) and also at 454.5, 488 and 514.5 nm using Ar+ laser. The excitation with 308 nm gave broad PL centered at 500 and 710 nm the latter being quite prominent in beta-PbO containing crystals, along with cooperative luminescence at 350 nm involving two emitting centers. The excitation with Ar+ laser lines, close to the electronic absorption in samples containing beta-PbO gave richer and sharp PL emission in red region from the constituents of the magnetic polaron and also intense anti-Stokes emission on excitation with 514.5 nm radiation. This appears to be due to phototransfer optically stimulated luminescence (PT-OSL) involving electron-hole recombination at photoinduced magnetic polaron site.

  20. High Power Piezoelectric Transformers with Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ural, Seyit O.; Gosain, Rohan; Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Amin, Ahmed; Uchino, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Plate-shaped piezoelectric transformers were designed and manufactured with Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals (PMN-PT). Theoretical analysis was performed using Mason's equivalent circuit model and finite element method (FEM) simulations. In the experiment, transformer performances, especially the power density, were compared among different materials, including lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, undoped PMN-PT, and manganese-doped PMN-PT (Mn-PMN-PT). High power density of 38 W/cm3 was obtained using single crystals, which was 5 times that of hard PZT ceramics. The power level of the single crystal transformer showed a significant dependence on doping, poling direction, and cutting orientation. Results also verified that the high power performance was mainly determined by the electromechanical coupling coefficient and mechanical quality factor of the material.

  1. High-performance energy harvester fabricated with aerosol deposited PMN-PT material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. K.; Wu, W. J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports a high-performance piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) fabricated with xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-(l-x)PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) by aerosol deposition method. The result indicates that PMN-PT based EH owns 1.8 times output power which is higher than traditional PbZrxTi1- xO3 (PZT) based EH. In order to compare the output performance of EH fabricated with PMN- PT compared with PZT, the similar thickness of PMN-PT and PZT thin film is deposited on stainless steel subtracted. The experimental results show that PZT-based EH had a maximum output power of 4.65 μW with 1.11 Vp-p output voltage excited at 94.4 Hz under 0.5g base excitation, while the PMN-PT based device has a maximum output power of 8.42 μW with 1.49 Vp-p output voltage at a vibration frequency of 94.8 Hz and the same base excitation level. The volumetric power density was 82.95 μW/mm3 and 48.05 μW/mm3 for the device based on PMN- PT and PZT materials, respectively. All the results demonstrate that PMN-PT has better output performance than PZT.

  2. Fabrication and properties of radially <001>C textured PMN-PT cylinders for transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poterala, Stephen F.; Meyer, Richard J.; Messing, Gary L.

    2012-07-01

    <001>C Textured PMN-PT ceramics have electromechanical properties (d33 = 850-1050 pm/V, k33 = 0.79-0.83) between those of conventional PZT ceramics and relaxor PMN-PT crystals. In this work, we tailor crystallographic orientation in textured PMN-PT ceramics for transducer designs with non-planar poling surfaces. Specifically, omni-directional cylindrical transducer elements were fabricated using monolithic, radially <001>C textured and poled PMN-PT ceramic. Texture was produced by templated grain growth using NBT-PT templates, which were oriented radially by wrapping green ceramic tapes around a cylindrical mandrel. Finished transducer elements measure ˜5 cm in diameter by ˜2.5 cm in height and demonstrate scalability of textured ceramic fabrication techniques. The fabricated cylinders are ˜50 vol. % textured and show high 31-mode electromechanical properties compared to PZT ceramics (d31 = -259 pm/V, k31 = 0.43, ɛT33 = 3000, and Qm = 350). Frequency bandwidth is related to the square of the hoop mode coupling coefficient kh2, which is ˜60% higher in textured PMN-PT cylinders compared to PZT 5H. Finite element simulations show that this parameter may be further increased by improving texture quality to ≥90 vol. %. Radially textured PMN-PT may thus improve performance in omni-directional cylindrical transducers while avoiding the need for segmented single crystal designs.

  3. Application of PMN-32PT Piezoelectric Crystals for Novel Air-coupled Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazys, Rymantas Jonas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    Due to very high piezoelectric properties of PMN-PT crystals they may significantly improve performance of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. For these purpose vibrations of PMN-PT rectangular plates and strips were investigated. An air-coupled ultrasonic transducer and array consisting of 8 single piezoelectric strips were designed. Operation of the transducer was simulated by the finite element method using ANSYS Mechanical APDL Product Launcher software. Spatial distributions of displacements inside piezoelectric elements and matching strip were obtained. Experimental investigations were carried out by the laser Doppler vibrometer Polytec OFV-5000 and the Bruel&Kjaer microphone 4138 with the measurement amplifier NEXUS WH 3219. It was found that performance of the ultrasonic transducer with PMN-32PT crystals was a few times better than of a PZT based ultrasonic transducer.

  4. Electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistance switching in VO₂/PMN-PT(111) heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Bowen; Gao, Guanyin; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Feng; Tan, Xuelian; Chen, Pingfan; Wang, Lingfei; Wu, Wenbin

    2014-04-09

    The electric-field-modulated resistance switching in VO2 thin films grown on piezoelectric (111)-0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates has been investigated. Large relative change in resistance (10.7%) was observed in VO2/PMN-PT(111) hererostructures at room temperature. For a substrate with a given polarization direction, stable resistive states of VO2 films can be realized even when the applied electric fields are removed from the heterostructures. By sweeping electric fields across the heterostructure appropriately, multiple resistive states can be achieved. These stable resistive states result from the different stable remnant strain states of substrate, which is related to the rearrangements of ferroelectric domain structures in PMN-PT(111) substrate. The resistance switching tuned by electric field in our work may have potential applications for novel electronic devices.

  5. Growth and optimization of piezoelectric single crystal transducers for energy harvesting from acoustic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Romit

    Low power requirements of modern sensors and electronics have led to the examination of the feasibility of several energy harvesting schemes. This thesis describes the fabrication and performance of an acoustic energy harvester with single crystal piezoelectric unimorph. The unimorphs were fabricated from single crystal relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)PMN - xPT grown with x = 0.3 and 0.32 as the starting composition. It is demonstrated that significant power can be harvested using unimorph structures from an acoustic field at resonance. Passive circuit components were used for output circuit with a resistive load in series with a tunable inductor. A tuning capacitor connected in parallel to the device further increased the power output by matching the impedance of the unimorph. The power harvested can be either used directly for running low-power devices or can be stored in a rechargeable battery. A comparison of the performance of PMN-PT and PZT unimorphs at the resonance of the coupled structure under identical excitation conditions was done. For a certain optimized thickness ratio and circuit parameters, the single crystal PMN-PT unimorph generated 30 mW of power while a PZT unimorph generated 7.5 mW at resonance and room temperature. The harvested output power from the single crystal PMN-PT unimorphs depends on several material properties, physical and ambient parameters and an effort has been made to study their effect on the performance. A self-seeding high pressure Bridgman (HPB) technique was used to grow the PMN-PT single crystal ingots in a cost-effective way in our laboratories. Several techniques of material processing were developed to fabricate the PMN-PT single crystal unimorphs from as grown bulk ingots. This growth technique produced good quality single crystals for our experiments, with a k33 = 0.91 for a <001> oriented bar.

  6. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based transducers for naval sonar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snook, Kevin A.; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Jiang, Xiaoning; Meyer, Richard J., Jr.; Markley, Douglas

    2005-05-01

    TRS is developing new transducers based on single crystal piezoelectric materials such as Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)x-1TixO3 (PMN-PT). Single crystal piezoelectrics such as PMN-PT exhibit very high piezoelectric coefficients (d33 ~ 1800 to >2000 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 0.9), respectively, which may be exploited for improving the performance of broad bandwidth and high frequency sonar. Apart from basic performance, much research has been done on reducing the size and increasing the output power of tonpilz transducers for sonar applications. Results are presented from two different studies. "33" mode single crystal tonpilz transducers have reduced stack lengths due to their low elastic stiffness relative to PZTs, however, this produces non-ideal aspect ratios due to large lateral dimensions. Alternative "31" resonance mode tonpilz elements are proposed to improve performance over these "33" designs. d32 values as high as 1600 pC/N have been observed, and since prestress is applied perpendicular to the poling direction, "31" mode Tonpilz elements exhibit lower loss and higher reliability than "33" mode designs. Planar high power tonpilz arrays are the optimum way to obtain the required acoustic pressure and bandwidth for small footprint, high power sensors. An important issue for these sensors is temperature and prestress stability, since fluctuations in tonpilz properties affects power delivery and sensing electronic design. TRS used the approach of modifying the composition of PMN-PT to improve the temperature dependence of properties of the material. Results show up to a 50% decrease in temperature change while losing minimal source level.

  7. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyperactive MEMS.

    PubMed

    Baek, S H; Park, J; Kim, D M; Aksyuk, V A; Das, R R; Bu, S D; Felker, D A; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Bharadwaja, S S N; Bassiri-Gharb, N; Chen, Y B; Sun, H P; Folkman, C M; Jang, H W; Kreft, D J; Streiffer, S K; Ramesh, R; Pan, X Q; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Schlom, D G; Rzchowski, M S; Blick, R H; Eom, C B

    2011-11-18

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO(3) template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e(31,f) = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  8. Piezo-phototronic effect-induced dual-mode light and ultrasound emissions from ZnS:Mn/PMN-PT thin-film structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Guanyin; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan; Wang, Yu; Hao, Jianhua

    2012-04-03

    Electric-field-controllable luminescence of a ZnS:Mn/PMN-PT system is demonstrated. The light-emission of ZnS:Mn is caused by the piezoelectric potential, resulting from the converse piezoelectric effect of the PMN-PT substrate. Simultaneous generation of light and ultrasound waves is observed in this single system, which offers great potential to develop a dual-modal source combing light and ultrasonic waves for various applications.

  9. A piezoelectric single-crystal ultrasonic microactuator for driving optics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang; Ren, Bo; Luo, Haosu

    2011-12-01

    At the millimeter scale, the motions or force out puts generated by conventional piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, photostrictive, or electromagnetic actuators are very limited. Here, we report a piezoelectric ultrasonic microactuator (size: 1.5 × 1.5 × 5 mm, weight: 0.1 g) made of PIN-PMN-PT single crystal. The actuator converts its high-frequency microscopic displacements (nanometer to micrometer scale) into a macro scopic, centimeter-scale linear movement of a slider via frictional force, resulting in a speed up to 50 mm/s and a very high unit volume direct driving force of 26 mN/mm(3) (which is ~100 times higher than a voice coil motor and ~4 times higher than a piezoceramic ultrasonic motor). This work shows the feasibility of using piezoelectric single-crystal-based ultrasonic microactuator for miniature drive of optics in next-generation mobiles and cameras.

  10. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Smith, Edward; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, Dwight; Moore, Jim, Jr.; Patrick, Brian

    2005-05-01

    TRS is developing new actuators based on single crystal piezoelectric materials such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)x-1TixO3 (PMN-PT) which exhibit very high piezoelectric coefficients (d33 = 1800-2200 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 0.9), respectively, for a variety of applications, including active vibration damping, active flow control, high precision positioning, ultrasonic motors, deformable mirrors, and adaptive optics. The d32 cut crystal plate actuators showed d32 ~ -1600 pC/N, inter-digital electroded (IDE) plate actuators showed effective d33 ~ 1100 pC/N. Single crystal stack actuators with stroke of 10 μm-100 μm were developed and tested at both room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with either stack driver or plate driver were developed with stroke 70 μm - > 250 μm. For large stroke cryogenic actuation (> 1mm), a single crystal piezomotor was developed and tested at temperature of 77 K-300K and stroke of > 10mm and step resolution of 20 nm were achieved. In order to demonstrate the significance of developed single crystal actuators, modeling on single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors and helicopter flap control using single crystal actuators were conducted and the modeling results show that more than 20 wavelength wavefront error could be corrected by using the single crystal deformable mirrors and +/- 5.8 ° flap deflection will be obtained for a 36" flap using single crystal stack actuators.

  11. Electric field modification of magnetotransport in Ni thin films on (011) PMN-PT piezosubstrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkach, Alexander; Kehlberger, Andreas; Büttner, Felix; Jakob, Gerhard; Eisebitt, Stefan; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    This study reports the magnetotransport and magnetic properties of 20 nm-thick polycrystalline Ni films deposited by magnetron sputtering on unpoled piezoelectric (011) [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates. The longitudinal magnetoresistance (MR) of the Ni films on (011) PMN-PT, measured at room temperature in the magnetic field range of -0.3 T < μ0H < 0.3 T, is found to depend on the crystallographic direction and polarization state of piezosubstrate. Upon poling the PMN-PT substrate, which results in a transfer of strain to the Ni film, the MR value decreases by factor of 20 for the current along [100] of PMN-PT and slightly increases for the [ 01 1 ¯ ] current direction. Simultaneously, a strong increase (decrease) in the field value, where the MR saturates, is observed for the [ 01 1 ¯ ] ([100]) current direction. The anisotropic magnetoresistance is also strongly affected by the remanent strain induced by the electric field pulses applied to the PMN-PT in the non-linear regime revealing a large (132 mT) magnetic anisotropy field. Applying a critical electric field of 2.4 kV/cm, the anisotropy field value changes back to the original value, opening a path to voltage-tuned magnetic field sensor or storage devices. This strain mediated voltage control of the MR and its dependence on the crystallographic direction is correlated with the results of magnetization reversal measurements.

  12. A two degrees-of-freedom piezoelectric single-crystal micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-12-01

    A two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) ultrasonic micromotor made of piezoelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal square-bar (dimensions 2 × 2 × 9 mm3) was developed. The PIN-PMN-PT square-bar stator can generate standing wave elliptical motions in two orthogonal vertical planes by combining the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes, enabling it to drive a slider in two orthogonal directions. The relatively large driving forces of 0.25 N and motion speed of 35 mm/s were obtained under a voltage of 80 Vpp at its resonance frequency of 87.5 kHz. The proposed micromotor has potential for applications in micro robots, cell manipulators, and digital cameras as a two-DOF actuator.

  13. Electrical switching of the magnetic vortex circulation in artificial multiferroic structure of Co/Cu/PMN-PT(011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Tan, A.; Scholl, A.; Young, A. T.; Yang, M.; Hwang, C.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Arenholz, E.; Li, J.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2017-06-01

    Co films and micron sized disks were grown on top of piezoelectric PMN-PT(011) and Cu/PMN-PT(001) substrates and investigated by the Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect and Photoemission Electron Microscopy. By applying an electric field in the surface normal direction, we find that the strain of the ferroelectric PMN-PT(011) substrate induces an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the Co overlayer. Under specific conditions, the Co magnetic vortex could be switched between clockwise and counter-clockwise circulations. The variations of the Co vortex switching were attributed to the variations of the ferroelectric domains under the Co disks. We speculate that the switching of the magnetic vortex circulation is a dynamical process which may involve pulses of appropriate magnitude and duration of the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy delivered to the magnetic vortex.

  14. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietek, Slawomir; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Feliks; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Barnaś, Józef; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  15. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziętek, Slawomir Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Stobiecki, Feliks; Dijken, Sebastiaan van; Barnaś, Józef

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  16. Role of crystal orientation on electrical tuning of dynamic permeability in strain-mediated multiferroic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2017-06-01

    Multiferroic structures of FeCo/NiFe/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) with three different crystal orientations of PMN-PT(0 1 1), PMN-PT(0 0 1) and PMN-PT(1 1 1) were fabricated by a sputtering deposition system. Their dynamic magnetic properties were characterized under various applied electrical fields. The sample with PMN-PT(0 1 1) orientation shows a large tuning of the permeability spectra while the ones with PMN-PT(0 0 1) and PMN-PT(1 1 1) orientations exhibit a moderate and little change in the permeability spectra, respectively. The result can be explained via the magnetoelectric effect by considering the role of the piezoelectric coefficients being highly dependent on the crystal orientation along which the PMN-PT is poled. This explanation is consistent with the static magnetic characteristics of the samples before and after poling.

  17. High-power characterization of a microcutter actuated by PMN-PT piezocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yang; Sadiq, Muhammad; Cochran, Sandy; Huang, Zhihong

    2015-11-01

    An ultrasonic microcutter is an alternative approach to conventional ultrasonic instruments actuated by sandwich piezoelectric transducers for surgery. This paper reports high-power behavior of a microcutter actuated by the piezocrystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT), defining its practical performance and the feasibility of PMNPT actuation for surgical applications. The microcutter was driven at resonance with constant current amplitudes, either unloaded or loaded by poultry breast tissue, until its behavior achieved a steady state. During this driving process, its electric impedance, resonant frequency, and vibration velocity, along with the temperature increase of the PMN-PT, were recorded in real time. The microcutter produced a maximum vibration velocity >2.8 m/s with an excitation current of 0.11 A(rms). The mechanical loss increased significantly with current amplitude, resulting in a maximum temperature increase approaching 50°C around the interface between the PMN-PT and the blade, where they were bonded together with epoxy. Because of the low phase-transition temperature of PMN-PT, this temperature rise prevented the microcutter from working at higher current amplitudes. Along with the high vibration velocity, it also caused a frequency shift downward by 3 kHz at the same current amplitude. During tests with poultry breast tissue, radiation reactance increased the resonant frequency and the radiation resistance increased the loss of the microcutter. However, the loss did not further increase the temperature of the piezoelectric material. The maximum force and the overall work required to penetrate the microcutter into poultry breast tissue were reduced by 47.1 ± 8% and 53.5 ± 6%, respectively, when the microcutter was actuated at a current of 0.07 A(rms).

  18. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of PMN-PT Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Liu, Xingzhao; Luo, Wenbo; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-12-01

    The effects of surfactant polyacrylate acid (PAA) on shape evolution of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were studied. The results revealed that the polyacrylic acid content had great influence on the morphology of 0.7PMN-0.3PT. With increasing PAA concentration from 0.45 to 0.82 g/ml, the ratio of perovskite phase (PMN-PT nanorod) increased, while the ratio of pyrochlore phase decreased. When the PAA concentration was 0.82 g/ml, pure 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods were obtained. However, when PAA concentration was higher than 0.82 g/ml, the excess of PAA would hindered their [100] orientation growth. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorod was obtained by linear fitting, and the d 33 value was 409 pm/V.

  19. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of PMN-PT Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Liu, Xingzhao; Luo, Wenbo; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-02-01

    The effects of surfactant polyacrylate acid (PAA) on shape evolution of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were studied. The results revealed that the polyacrylic acid content had great influence on the morphology of 0.7PMN-0.3PT. With increasing PAA concentration from 0.45 to 0.82 g/ml, the ratio of perovskite phase (PMN-PT nanorod) increased, while the ratio of pyrochlore phase decreased. When the PAA concentration was 0.82 g/ml, pure 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods were obtained. However, when PAA concentration was higher than 0.82 g/ml, the excess of PAA would hindered their [100] orientation growth. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorod was obtained by linear fitting, and the d 33 value was 409 pm/V.

  20. Effects of oxygen ion irradiation on PMN-PT ferroelectric materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggilla, Padmaja; Batra, A. K.; Powell, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is an important and high performance piezoelectric and pyroelectric relaxor material having wide range of applications in infrared sensor devices. Present work studies the fabrication and dielectric characteristics of PMN-PT in the bulk form. The PMN-PT bulk material was prepared in sol-gel method and subsequently irradiated with heavy ion oxygen. The materials were analyzed and determined that the relaxorferroelectric material indicated changes in its dielectric constant and pyroelectric coefficient after irradiation. Due to the radiation fluent of 1×1016 ions/cm2, the dielectric constant of the material increased uniformly, while its pyroelectric coefficient showed a sharp increased to the value of 5×10-9 μC/cm2 °C with increase in temperature. Its dielectric constants showed increase in values of 527 μC/cm2 °C at 50°C, 635 μC/cm2 °C at 60°C and 748 μC/cm2 °C at 70°C. Properties such as the material impedance, admittance and modulus were investigated for changes in properties which became evident after irradiation.

  1. High performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-07-29

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.

  2. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L. W.; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33∼2000 pC/N, kt∼60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  3. Scaling effects of relaxor-PbTiO(3) crystals and composites for high frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R

    2010-06-15

    The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) and Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric single crystals were investigated as a function of thicknessscale in monolithic and piezoelectricpolymer 1-3 composites. For the case of PMN-PT single crystals, the dielectric (epsilon33Tepsilon0) and electromechanical properties (k(33)) were found to significantly decrease with decreasing thickness (500-40 mum), while minimal thickness dependency was observed for PIN-PMN-PT single crystals. Temperature dependent dielectric behavior of the crystals suggested that the observed thickness dependence in PMN-PT was strongly related to their relatively large domain size (>10-20 mum). As anticipated, 1-3 composite comprised of PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibited superior properties to that of PMN-PT composite at high frequencies (>20 MHz). However, the observed couplings, being on the order of 80%, were disappointedly low when compared to their monolithic counterparts, the result of surface damage introduced during the dicing process, as evidenced by the broadened [002] peaks in the x-ray diffraction pattern.

  4. Switching of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses using a compact PMN-PT modulator.

    PubMed

    Adany, Peter; Price, E Shane; Johnson, Carey K; Zhang, Run; Hui, Rongqing

    2009-03-01

    A voltage-controlled birefringent cell based on ceramic PMN-PT material is used to enable fast intensity modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the 800 nm wavelength window. The birefringent cell based on a PMN-PT compound has comparatively high electro-optic response, allowing for a short interaction length of 3 mm and thus very small size, low attenuation of 0.16 dB, and negligible broadening for 100 fs optical pulses. As an application example, agile wavelength tuning of optical pulses is demonstrated using the soliton self-frequency shift in a photonic crystal fiber. By dynamically controlling the optical power into the fiber, this system switches the wavelength of 100 fs pulses from 900 nm to beyond 1120 nm with less than 5 micros time. In addition, a feedback system stabilizes the wavelength drift against external conditions resulting in high wavelength stability.

  5. Modulation of metal-insulator transitions by field-controlled strain in NdNiO3/SrTiO3/PMN-PT (001) heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seungyang; Oh, Chadol; Eom, Man Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Ryu, Jungho; Son, Junwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2016-01-01

    The band width control through external stress has been demonstrated as a useful knob to modulate metal-insulator transition (MIT) in RNiO3 as a prototype correlated materials. In particular, lattice mismatch strain using different substrates have been widely utilized to investigate the effect of strain on transition temperature so far but the results were inconsistent in the previous literatures. Here, we demonstrate dynamic modulation of MIT based on electric field-controlled pure strain in high-quality NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films utilizing converse-piezoelectric effect of (001)-cut - (PMN-PT) single crystal substrates. Despite the difficulty in the NNO growth on rough PMN-PT substrates, the structural quality of NNO thin films has been significantly improved by inserting SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. Interestingly, the MIT temperature in NNO is downward shifted by ~3.3 K in response of 0.25% in-plane compressive strain, which indicates less effective TMI modulation of field-induced strain than substrate-induced strain. This study provides not only scientific insights on band-width control of correlated materials using pure strain but also potentials for energy-efficient electronic devices. PMID:26916618

  6. Modulation of metal-insulator transitions by field-controlled strain in NdNiO3/SrTiO3/PMN-PT (001) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Seungyang; Oh, Chadol; Eom, Man Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Ryu, Jungho; Son, Junwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2016-02-01

    The band width control through external stress has been demonstrated as a useful knob to modulate metal-insulator transition (MIT) in RNiO3 as a prototype correlated materials. In particular, lattice mismatch strain using different substrates have been widely utilized to investigate the effect of strain on transition temperature so far but the results were inconsistent in the previous literatures. Here, we demonstrate dynamic modulation of MIT based on electric field-controlled pure strain in high-quality NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films utilizing converse-piezoelectric effect of (001)-cut - (PMN-PT) single crystal substrates. Despite the difficulty in the NNO growth on rough PMN-PT substrates, the structural quality of NNO thin films has been significantly improved by inserting SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. Interestingly, the MIT temperature in NNO is downward shifted by ~3.3 K in response of 0.25% in-plane compressive strain, which indicates less effective TMI modulation of field-induced strain than substrate-induced strain. This study provides not only scientific insights on band-width control of correlated materials using pure strain but also potentials for energy-efficient electronic devices.

  7. Modulation of metal-insulator transitions by field-controlled strain in NdNiO3/SrTiO3/PMN-PT (001) heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seungyang; Oh, Chadol; Eom, Man Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Ryu, Jungho; Son, Junwoo; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2016-02-26

    The band width control through external stress has been demonstrated as a useful knob to modulate metal-insulator transition (MIT) in RNiO3 as a prototype correlated materials. In particular, lattice mismatch strain using different substrates have been widely utilized to investigate the effect of strain on transition temperature so far but the results were inconsistent in the previous literatures. Here, we demonstrate dynamic modulation of MIT based on electric field-controlled pure strain in high-quality NdNiO3 (NNO) thin films utilizing converse-piezoelectric effect of (001)-cut Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3)O3-(PbTiO3) (PMN-PT) single crystal substrates. Despite the difficulty in the NNO growth on rough PMN-PT substrates, the structural quality of NNO thin films has been significantly improved by inserting SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. Interestingly, the MIT temperature in NNO is downward shifted by ~3.3 K in response of 0.25% in-plane compressive strain, which indicates less effective TMI modulation of field-induced strain than substrate-induced strain. This study provides not only scientific insights on band-width control of correlated materials using pure strain but also potentials for energy-efficient electronic devices.

  8. Misfit strain phase diagrams of epitaxial PMN-PT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpash, N.; Khassaf, H.; Rossetti, G. A.; Alpay, S. P.

    2015-02-01

    Misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams of three compositions of (001) pseudocubic (1 - x).Pb (Mgl/3Nb2/3)O3 - x.PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) thin films are computed using a phenomenological model. Two (x = 0.30, 0.42) are located near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of bulk PMN-PT at room temperature (RT) and one (x = 0.70) is located far from the MPB. The results show that it is possible to stabilize an adaptive monoclinic phase over a wide range of misfit strains. At RT, the stability region of this phase is much larger for PMN-PT compared to barium strontium titanate and lead zirconate titanate films.

  9. Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.

    PubMed

    Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads.

  10. PMN-PT-PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-06-01

    We have successfully fabricated x(0.65PMN-0.35PT)-(1 - x)PZT (xPMN-PT-(1 - x)PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol-gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of xPMN-PT-(1 - x)PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a -6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB.

  11. A double-mode piezoelectric single-crystal ultrasonic micro-actuator.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang; Ren, Bo; Luo, Haosu

    2010-11-01

    Ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals with higher coercive field (E(C) ~9 kV/cm) and higher ferroelectric-transition temperature (T(R-T) = 108°C) were grown, and correspondingly, a double-mode piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-actuator made of PIN-PMN-PT crystal brick (5 x 1.5 x 1.32 mm) and operated in the first longitudinal and the second bending modes was developed. The ferroelectric, dielectric, electromechanical, and resonance displacement properties of the micro-actuator were characterized for miniature linear piezo-motor applications. The longitudinal displacement of the actuator is ~0.11 μm (with an applied voltage of 5 V), which is comparable to that of a multilayer piezoelectric-ceramic actuator of the same size. This crystal micro-actuator was successfully used to drive a slider moving linearly.

  12. Fine grains ceramics of PIN-PT, PIN-PMN-PT and PMN-PT systems: drift of the dielectric constant under high electric field.

    PubMed

    Pham-Thi, M; Augier, C; Dammak, H; Gaucher, P

    2006-12-22

    Lead-based ferroelectric ceramics with (1-x)Pb(B1 B2)O3-xPbTiO3 formula have emerged as a group of promising materials for various applications like ultrasonic sonars or medical imaging transducers. (1-x)PMN-xPT, (1-x)PIN-xPT and ternary solutions xPIN-yPMN-zPT ceramics are synthesised using the solid state reaction method. Our objective is to achieve higher structural transition temperatures than those of PMN-PT ceramics with as good dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical properties. Ceramics capacitance and loss tangent are measured when the ac field of measurement increases up to E=500 V/mm. Behaviours of these materials under ac field are related to their coercive field and Curie temperature.

  13. A complete set of material properties of single domain 0.26Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-0.46Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R; Cao, Wenwu

    2010-01-04

    Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals have been developed recently, which can increase the operating temperature by at least 20 degrees C compared to PMN-PT crystals. We have measured a complete set of material properties of single domain PIN-PMN-PT crystal, which is urgently needed in theoretical studies and electromechanical device designs using this crystal. Because the rotated values of d33*=1122 pCN and k33*=89% along [001](c) calculated using the single domain data obtained here are in good agreement with the [001](c) poled multidomain PIN-PMN-PT crystals, one may conclude that the physical origin of the ultrahigh piezoelectric properties mainly come from orientation effect.

  14. Silver Doped 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT Composite Films for very High Frequency Ultrasonic Transducer Applications.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Wei, Qiang; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-05-01

    A series of silver doping concentration into the 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT (PMN-PT-PZT) films via the composite sol-gel technique were prepared. The crystallographic properties and microstructures of PMN-PT-PZT films with the silver dopant were investigated. Additionally, the effect of silver doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties was examined. The results show that in general, the dielectric permittivity and remnant polarization increase as the silver doping concentration is increased. The PMN-PT-PZT+ 2.5 mol% Ag film exhibits a dielectric constant of 3,610 at 1 kHz and a remnant polarization of 57.6 µC/cm(2) at room temperature. From this silver doped film, very high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers were fabricated and evaluated. The representative transducer had the center frequency of 225 MHz with a -6 dB bandwidth of 29% (65 MHz) and 62 dB insertion loss. The performance of this transducer is comparable to other composite sol-gel films transducer. The results suggest that this silver-doped PMN-PT-PZT film is a promising candidate as an alternative piezoelectric film for very high frequency transducer applications.

  15. Electric-field tunable spin waves in PMN-PT/NiFe heterostructure: Experiment and micromagnetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziȩtek, Slawomir; Chȩciński, Jakub; Frankowski, Marek; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of voltage-controlled standing spin waves resonance (SSWR) in PMN-PT/NiFe multiferroic heterostructures patterned into microstrips. A spin-diode technique was used to observe ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) mode and SSWR in NiFe strip mechanically coupled with a piezoelectric substrate. Application of an electric field to a PMN-PT creates a strain in permalloy and thus shifts the FMR and SSWR fields due to the magnetostriction effect. The experimental results are compared with micromagnetic simulations and a good agreement between them is found for dynamics of FMR and SSWR with and without electric field. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations enable us to discuss the amplitude and phase spatial distributions of FMR and SSWR modes, which are not directly observable by means of spin diode detection technique.

  16. Influence of the polarization anisotropy on the electrocaloric effect in epitaxial PMN-PT thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietschke, M.; Chekhonin, P.; Molin, C.; Gebhardt, S.; Fähler, S.; Nielsch, K.; Schultz, L.; Hühne, R.

    2016-09-01

    Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) compounds, which are typically used for high performance actuator applications due to their outstanding piezoelectric properties, show, in addition, a pronounced electrocaloric (EC) effect. The study of epitaxial films is a useful tool to analyze the correlation between the microstructure and EC properties in order to optimize the performance of these materials. Therefore, the 0.9PMN-0.1PT films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition on (001) as well as (111) oriented SrTiO3 single crystalline substrates using a La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 buffer as the bottom electrode and additional Au top electrodes. The structural properties determined by a high resolution X-ray and electron microscopy techniques indicated an undisturbed epitaxial growth. The anisotropy of the ferroelectric domain structure was investigated by a vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy showing clear differences between the two orientations. A significant reduction of the thermal hysteresis was observed in the T-dependent polarization measurements for (111) oriented PMN-PT films, whereas the indirectly determined EC properties yield a maximum ΔT of around 15 K at 40 °C for a field of about 400 kV/cm for both film orientations.

  17. Micromachined High Frequency PMN-PT/Epoxy 1-3 Composite Ultrasonic Annular Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank; Li, Xiang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and performance of miniature micromachined high frequency PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite ultrasonic annular arrays. The PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composites were made with micromachining techniques. The area of a single crystal pillar was 9 μm × 9 μm. The width of the kerf among pillars was ~ 5 μm and the kerfs were filled with a polymer. The composite thickness was 25 μm. A six-element annular transducer of equal element area of 0.2 mm2 with 16 μm kerf widths between annuli was produced. The aperture size the array transducer is about 1.5 mm in diameter. A novel electrical interconnection strategy for high density array elements was implemented. After the transducer was attached to the electric connection board and packaged, the array transducer was tested in a pulse/echo arrangement, whereby the center frequency, bandwidth, two-way insertion loss (IL), and cross talk between adjacent elements were measured for each annulus. The center frequency was 50 MHz and -6 dB bandwidth was 90%. The average insertion loss was 19.5 dB at 50 MHz and the crosstalk between adjacent elements was about -35 dB. The micromachining techniques described in this paper are promising for the fabrication of other types of high frequency transducers e.g. 1D and 2D arrays. PMID:22119324

  18. Micromachined high frequency PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite ultrasonic annular array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank; Li, Xiang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and performance of miniature micromachined high frequency PMN-PT/epoxy 1-3 composite ultrasonic annular arrays. The PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composites were made with micromachining techniques. The area of a single crystal pillar was 9×9 μm. The width of the kerf among pillars was ∼5 μm and the kerfs were filled with a polymer. The composite thickness was 25 μm. A six-element annular transducer of equal element area of 0.2 mm(2) with 16 μm kerf widths between annuli was produced. The aperture size the array transducer is about 1.5 mm in diameter. A novel electrical interconnection strategy for high density array elements was implemented. After the transducer was attached to the electric connection board and packaged, the array transducer was tested in a pulse/echo arrangement, whereby the center frequency, bandwidth, two-way insertion loss (IL), and cross talk between adjacent elements were measured for each annulus. The center frequency was 50 MHz and -6 dB bandwidth was 90%. The average insertion loss was 19.5 dB at 50 MHz and the crosstalk between adjacent elements was about -35 dB. The micromachining techniques described in this paper are promising for the fabrication of other types of high frequency transducers, e.g. 1D and 2D arrays.

  19. Integration, electrical, and electromechanical properties of PZT and PMN-PT thin films for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuegeler, Carsten; Hoffmann, Marcus; Boettger, Ulrich; Waser, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    Piezoelectric and electrostrictive thin films are potential candidates for actuator functions in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) offering displacements and forces which outperform standard solutions, e.g. in micro mirrors and micro relays. Within this context the paper reports on the preparation and the integration processes of chemical solution deposited (CSD) PZT and PMN-PT thin films in combination with silicon bulk micro machining technique. The operativeness of the processes is demonstrated by the development of an integrated micro actuator for a micro switch application. Furthermore, the work deals also with the characterization of the integrated materials. For fabrication control and electrical characterizations microscopy, SEM, hysteresis- and CV-, and degradation measurements were performed. Laser interferometry and resonance frequency measurements were used to characterize the electromechanical performance of both materials in comparison to the behavior of the developed micro actuator.

  20. Design, production and testing of PMN-PT electrostrictive transducers.

    PubMed

    Coutte, J; Dubus, B; Debus, J C; Granger, C; Jones, D

    2002-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate ceramics (PMN) are promising materials for application in the field of high power transducers. The advantage of PMN materials are the large strains generated under moderate electric field and the low hysteresis. The electrostrictive effect is non-linear, the corresponding physical constants depend on temperature and frequency and a DC electrical bias is required. These difficulties must be considered at the design stage. A finite element model has been developed and validated in the ATILA code for non-linear static and time-domain analyses. These numerical modelings are used to design and test two Langevin-type electrostrictive transducers. The first transducer is made of PMN-PT-La (90-10-1%) ceramics (TRS Ceramics), the second one of ESCI ceramics (Morgan Matroc). For given static mechanical prestresses, resonance frequencies and effective coupling coefficients are measured at different DC electric fields and temperatures.

  1. Strong magnetoelectric and spin phonon coupling in SmFeO3/PMN-PT composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlawat, Anju; Satapathy, S.; Sathe, V. G.; Choudhary, R. J.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated spin phonon coupling in the strain coupled magnetoelectric SmFeO3/0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) composite in the temperature range of 300-650 K by Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The SmFeO3/PMN-PT composite shows sharp rise in magnetic moment across ferroelectric transition temperature (Tc) of PMN-PT. Around this transition temperature (Tc of PMN-PT), the temperature evolution of Raman spectra of the composite also shows anomalies in the phonon frequencies and line width corresponding to the SmFeO3 phase which indicate structural modifications in the SmFeO3 phase around Tc of PMN-PT. The observed structural, magnetic, and phonon anomalies of SmFeO3 around Tc of PMN-PT in SmFeO3/PMN-PT are attributed to spin-phonon coupling providing evidence of strong strain mediated magnetoelectric effects.

  2. Fabrication and performance of a single-crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate cylindrical hydrophone.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremy A; Dunphy, Kevin; Leadbetter, Jeff R; Adamson, Robert B A; Beslin, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    The development of a piezoelectric hydrophone based on lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT)] single-crystal piezoelectric as the hydrophone substrate is reported. Although PMN-PT can possess much higher piezoelectric sensitivity than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectrics, it is highly anisotropic and therefore there is a large gain in sensitivity only when the crystal structure is oriented in a specific direction. Because of this, simply replacing the PZT substrate with a PMN-PT cylinder is not an optimal solution because the crystal orientation does not uniformly align with the circumferential axis of the hydrophone. Therefore, a composite hydrophone that maintains the optimal crystal axis around the hydrophone circumference has been developed. An 11.3 mm diameter composite hydrophone cylinder was fabricated from a single <110> cut PMN-PT rectangular plate. Solid end caps were applied to the cylinder and the sensitivity was directly compared with a solid PZT-5A cylindrical hydrophone of equal dimensions in a hydrophone test tank. The charge sensitivity showed a 9.1 dB improvement over the PZT hydrophone and the voltage sensitivity showed a 3.5 dB improvement. This was in good agreement with the expected theoretical improvements of 10.1 and 4.5 dB, respectively.

  3. Multipeak self-biased magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in four-phase Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongyan; Lu, Caijiang; Bing, Han

    2015-04-01

    This letter develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) structure Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT (MTBP) consisting of a magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer, a elastic Be-bronze plate, and a piezoelectric 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) plate. By using the magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer and the elastic Be-bronze plate, multi-peak self-biased ME responses are obtained in MTBP structure. The experimental results show that the MTBP structure with two layers of Metglas foil has maximum zero-biased ME voltage coefficient (MEVC). As frequency increases from 0.5 to 90 kHz, eleven large peaks of MEVC with magnitudes of 0.75-33 V/(cm Oe) are observed at zero-biased magnetic field. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-peak self-biased ME structure may be useful for multifunctional devices such as multi-frequency energy harvesters or low-frequency ac magnetic field sensors.

  4. Surface-effect enhanced magneto-electric coupling in FePt/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Wang, X. Q.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2017-05-01

    A series of FePt films with different film thickness are deposited on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates. A standard symmetric `Butterfly' shaped Δ M /M -Ed c loops is obtained in 8 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostrucuture via strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling. For the 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure, the loop-like in-plane magnetization (M) -E curve shares a similar shape with the electric polarization of PMN-PT as a function of electric field. The value of MS shows a dramatic change of 30.9% with Edc changing from 0 to 8 kV/cm, this giant magnetoelectric effect in 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure results from the remnant polarization induced charge on FePt/PMN-PT interface via the screening charge effect. The enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures opens a promising avenue for the design of ultralow power magnetoelectric devices and information storage devices.

  5. Magnetic microscopy and simulation of strain-mediated control of magnetization in Ni/PMN-PT nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ian; Chavez, Andres C; Pierce, Daniel T; Unguris, John; Sun, Wei-Yang; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P

    2016-10-01

    Strain-mediated thin film multiferroics comprising piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures enable the electrical manipulation of magnetization with much greater efficiency than other methods; however, the investigation of nanostructures fabricated from these materials is limited. Here we characterize ferromagnetic Ni nanostructures grown on a ferroelectric PMN-PT substrate using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) and micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization of the Ni nanostructures can be controlled with a combination of sample geometry and applied electric field, which strains the ferroelectric substrate and changes the magnetization via magnetoelastic coupling. We evaluate two types of simulations of ferromagnetic nanostructures on strained ferroelectric substrates: conventional micromagnetic simulations including a simple uniaxial strain, and coupled micromagnetic-elastodynamic simulations. Both simulations qualitatively capture the response of the magnetization changes produced by the applied strain, with the coupled solution providing more accurate representation.

  6. Tunable fringe magnetic fields induced by converse magnetoelectric coupling in a FeGa/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitchorov, Trifon; Chen, Yajie; Hu, Bolin; Gillette, Scott M.; Geiler, Anton; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, Vincent G.

    2011-12-01

    The fringe magnetic field, induced by magnetoelectric coupling in a bilayer Fe-Ga/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3_PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) multifunctional composite, was investigated. The induced external field is characterized as having a butterfly hysteresis loop when tuned by an applied electric field. A tuning coefficient of the electrically induced fringe magnetic field is derived from the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive properties of the composite. A measured maximum tuning coefficient, 4.5 Oe/(kV cm-1), is found to agree well with theoretical prediction. This work establishes a foundation in the design of transducers based on the magnetoelectric effect.

  7. Influence of Domain Size on the Scaling Effects in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dabin; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Li, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhuo; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-06-01

    The property degradation observed in thin Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) crystals is believed to relate to large domains and subsequent clamping induced by surface-boundary. In this work, the properties were investigated as function of domain size, using controlled poling. The degraded piezoelectric and dielectric properties of thin PMN-PT were found to increase significantly, by decreasing domain size. Furthermore, the fine domain structure was found to be stable at 3kV/cm after 7.0×10(5) negative-pulse cycles, hence, enabling PMN-PT crystals for high-frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound-transducers.

  8. Angled-focused 45 MHz PMN-PT single element transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sangpil; Williams, Jay; Kang, Bong Jin; Yoon, Changhan; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Jeong, Jong Seob; Lee, Sang Goo; Shung, K. Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-01-01

    A transducer with an angled and focused aperture for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. The acoustic stack for the angled-focused transducer was made of PMN-PT single crystal with one matching layer, one protective coating layer, and a highly damped backing layer. It was then press-focused to a desired focal length and inserted into a thin needle housing with an angled tip. A transducer with an angled and unfocused aperture was also made, following the same fabrication procedure, to compare the performance of the two transducers. The focused and unfocused transducers were tested to measure their center frequencies, bandwidths, and spatial resolutions. Lateral resolution of the angled-focused transducer (AFT) improved more than two times compared to that of the angled-unfocused transducer (AUT). A tissue-mimicking phantom in water and a rabbit aorta tissue sample in rabbit blood were scanned using AFT and AUT. Imaging with AFT offered improved contrast, over imaging with AUT, of the tissue-mimicking phantom and the rabbit aorta tissue sample by 23 dB and 8 dB, respectively. The results show that AFT has strong potential to provide morphological and pathological information of coronary arteries with high resolution and high contrast. PMID:25914443

  9. Angled-focused 45 MHz PMN-PT single element transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangpil; Williams, Jay; Kang, Bong Jin; Yoon, Changhan; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Jeong, Jong Seob; Lee, Sang Goo; Shung, K Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-06-01

    A transducer with an angled and focused aperture for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. The acoustic stack for the angled-focused transducer was made of PMN-PT single crystal with one matching layer, one protective coating layer, and a highly damped backing layer. It was then press-focused to a desired focal length and inserted into a thin needle housing with an angled tip. A transducer with an angled and unfocused aperture was also made, following the same fabrication procedure, to compare the performance of the two transducers. The focused and unfocused transducers were tested to measure their center frequencies, bandwidths, and spatial resolutions. Lateral resolution of the angled-focused transducer (AFT) improved more than two times compared to that of the angled-unfocused transducer (AUT). A tissue-mimicking phantom in water and a rabbit aorta tissue sample in rabbit blood were scanned using AFT and AUT. Imaging with AFT offered improved contrast, over imaging with AUT, of the tissue-mimicking phantom and the rabbit aorta tissue sample by 23 dB and 8 dB, respectively. The results show that AFT has strong potential to provide morphological and pathological information of coronary arteries with high resolution and high contrast.

  10. Energy harvesting wireless piezoelectric resonant force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi

    The piezoelectric energy harvester has become a new powering option for some low-power electronic devices such as MEMS (Micro Electrical Mechanical System) sensors. Piezoelectric materials can collect the ambient vibrations energy and convert it to electrical energy. This thesis is intended to demonstrate the behavior of a piezoelectric energy harvester system at elevated temperature from room temperature up to 82°C, and compares the system's performance using different piezoelectric materials. The systems are structured with a Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal patch bonded to an aluminum cantilever beam, Lead Indium Niobate-Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystal patch bonded to an aluminum cantilever beam and a bimorph cantilever beam which is made of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT). The results of this experimental study show the effects of the temperature on the operation frequency and output power of the piezoelectric energy harvesting system. The harvested electrical energy has been stored in storage circuits including a battery. Then, the stored energy has been used to power up the other part of the system, a wireless resonator force sensor, which uses frequency conversion techniques to convert the sensor's ultrasonic signal to a microwave signal in order to transmit the signal wirelessly.

  11. Electromechanical characterization of [Formula: see text] crystals as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Hackenberger, Wesley; Sherlock, Nevin P; Meyer, Richard J; Shrout, Thomas R

    2009-05-15

    Relaxor based [Formula: see text] ternary single crystals (PIN-PMN-PT) were reported to have broader temperature usage range [Formula: see text] and comparable piezoelectric properties to [Formula: see text] (PMNT) crystals. In this work, the orientation dependent dielectric, piezoelectric and electromechanical properties for PIN-PMN-PT crystals were investigated along [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] directions. The electromechanical couplings [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] poled crystals were found to be 0.91 and 0.91, respectively, with piezoelectric coefficients [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on the order of 925 and -1420 pC/N. Of particular significance was the mechanical quality factor [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] oriented crystals, which was found to be [Formula: see text], much higher than the [Formula: see text] values of [Formula: see text] oriented relaxor-PT crystals [Formula: see text]. The temperature dependence of the piezoelectric properties exhibited good temperature stability up to their ferroelectric phase transition [Formula: see text], indicating [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] oriented PIN-PMN-PT are promising materials for transducer applications, with the latter for high power resonant devices where low loss (high [Formula: see text]) was required.

  12. Air-Coupled Low Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Arrays with PMN-32%PT Piezoelectric Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Kazys, Rymantas J.; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-01-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are being increasingly used for material characterization, non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using guided waves as well as for distance measurements. Application of those techniques is mainly limited by the big losses of ultrasonic signals due to attenuation and mismatch of the acoustic impedances of ultrasonic transducers and air. One of the ways to solve this problem is by application of novel more efficient piezoelectric materials like lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) type crystals. The objective of this research was the development and investigation of low frequency (<50 kHz) wide band air-coupled ultrasonic transducers and arrays with an improved performance using PMN-32%PT crystals. Results of finite element modelling and experimental investigations of the developed transducers and arrays are presented. For improvement of the performance strip-like matching elements made of low acoustic impedance, materials such as polystyrene foams were applied. It allowed to achieve transduction losses for one single element transducer −11.4 dB, what is better than of commercially available air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic fields radiated by the eight element ultrasonic array demonstrated not only a good performance of the array in a pulse mode, but also very good possibilities to electronically focus and steer the ultrasonic beam in space. PMID:28067807

  13. Air-Coupled Low Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Arrays with PMN-32%PT Piezoelectric Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kazys, Rymantas J; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-01-06

    Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are being increasingly used for material characterization, non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using guided waves as well as for distance measurements. Application of those techniques is mainly limited by the big losses of ultrasonic signals due to attenuation and mismatch of the acoustic impedances of ultrasonic transducers and air. One of the ways to solve this problem is by application of novel more efficient piezoelectric materials like lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) type crystals. The objective of this research was the development and investigation of low frequency (<50 kHz) wide band air-coupled ultrasonic transducers and arrays with an improved performance using PMN-32%PT crystals. Results of finite element modelling and experimental investigations of the developed transducers and arrays are presented. For improvement of the performance strip-like matching elements made of low acoustic impedance, materials such as polystyrene foams were applied. It allowed to achieve transduction losses for one single element transducer -11.4 dB, what is better than of commercially available air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic fields radiated by the eight element ultrasonic array demonstrated not only a good performance of the array in a pulse mode, but also very good possibilities to electronically focus and steer the ultrasonic beam in space.

  14. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Sun, Nian X

    2014-01-14

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling.

  15. Strong magnetoelectric and spin phonon coupling in SmFeO{sub 3}/PMN-PT composite

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlawat, Anju E-mail: anju@rrcat.gov.in; Satapathy, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sathe, V. G.; Choudhary, R. J.

    2016-08-22

    We have investigated spin phonon coupling in the strain coupled magnetoelectric SmFeO{sub 3}/0.65Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–0.35PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) composite in the temperature range of 300–650 K by Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The SmFeO{sub 3}/PMN-PT composite shows sharp rise in magnetic moment across ferroelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) of PMN-PT. Around this transition temperature (T{sub c} of PMN-PT), the temperature evolution of Raman spectra of the composite also shows anomalies in the phonon frequencies and line width corresponding to the SmFeO{sub 3} phase which indicate structural modifications in the SmFeO{sub 3} phase around T{sub c} of PMN-PT. The observed structural, magnetic, and phonon anomalies of SmFeO{sub 3} around T{sub c} of PMN-PT in SmFeO{sub 3}/PMN-PT are attributed to spin-phonon coupling providing evidence of strong strain mediated magnetoelectric effects.

  16. High-performance PMN-PT thick films.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Marija; Ursic, Hana; Holc, Janez; Hrovat, Marko; Kuscer, Danjela; Malic, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    This article describes some of our work on ₀.₆₅Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb(₂/₃)O₃-₀.₃₅PbTiO₃ (0.65PMN-0.35PT) thick films printed on alumina substrates. These thick films, with the nominal composition ₀.₆₅Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb(₂/₃)O₃-₀.₃₅PbTiO₃, were produced by screen-printing and firing a paste prepared from an organic vehicle and pre-reacted fine particles of avery chemically homogeneous powder. To improve the adhesion of the 0.65PMN-0.35PT to the platinized alumina substrate,a Pb(Zr₀.₅₃Ti₀.₄₇)O₃ layer was deposited between the electrode and the substrate. The samples were then sintered at 950 °C for 2 h with various amounts of packing powder on the alumina (Al₂O₃) substrates. The sintering procedure was optimized to obtain dense 0.65PMN-0.35PT films. The films were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy as well as measurements of the dielectric and piezoelectric constants.The electrostrictive behavior of the 0.65PMN-0.35PT thick films was investigated using an atomic force microscope(AFM). Finally, substrate-free, large-displacement bending type actuators were prepared and characterized, and the normalized displacement (i.e., the displacement per unit length) of the actuators was determined to be 55 μm/cm at 3.6 kV/cm.

  17. Tip-bias-induced domain evolution in PMN-PT transparent ceramics via piezoresponse force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, K. Y.; Zhao, W.; Zeng, H. R.; Yu, H. Z.; Ruan, W.; Xu, K. Q.; Li, G. R.

    2015-05-01

    Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) was employed to investigate ferroelectric domain structures and their dynamic behavior of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT)] transparent ceramics under an tip-bias-induced electric field. A remarkable effect of fluctuation of PT content on the domain configurations and domain dynamic response in PMN-PT transparent ferroelectric ceramics were found by PFM. Comparing with PMN-10%PT and PMN-20%PT, the reversed polarization of macrodomain area in PMN-35%PT and PMN-25%PT exhibits a relatively higher response behavior and better polarization retention performance under the PFM tip-bias-induced electric field, which correspond to their unique macroscopic electro-optic properties.

  18. Refractive index modulating Raman spectroscopy based on perovskite PMN-PT ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Danzhu; Xu, Tian; Yuan, Li; Tian, Shu; Fang, Jinghuai; Jin, Yonglong; Wang, Chaonan; Ma, Xinxiang; Shi, Jianzhen

    2016-04-01

    A three-layer planar waveguide structure comprising a perovskite (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) ceramic sandwiched by two silver films is designed and called PMPW. Using the high sensitivity of ultrahigh-order modes, theoretical analysis is performed to calculate the effective refractive index (ERI) of the PMPW. A detailed analysis of the Raman spectrum of PMN-PT at 795  cm-1 is performed. A comparison of the numerical analysis and experimental results reveals that the nonlinear change in ERI plays a primary role in the Raman signal variation. Analysis of the Raman spectrum of a sample deposited on PMPW confirms that it is effective for modulating Raman signals.

  19. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyper-active MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Chang-Beom

    2011-03-01

    Smart materials that can sense, manipulate, and position are crucial to the functionality of micro- and nano-machines. Integration of single crystal piezoelectric films on silicon offers the opportunity of high performance piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating all the advantages of large scale integration on silicon substrates with on-board electronic circuits, improving performance and eliminating common failure points associated with heterogeneous integration. We have fabricated oxide heterostructures with the highest piezoelectric coefficients and figure of merit for piezoelectric energy harvesting system ever realized on silicon substrates by synthesizing epitaxial thin films of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3) O3 - PbTi O3 (PMN-PT) on vicinal (001) Si wafers using an epitaxial (001) SrTi O3 template layer. We have also demonstrated fabrication of PMN-PT cantilevers, whose mechanical behavior is consistent with theoretical calculations using the material constants of a bulk PMN-PT single crystal. These epitaxial heterostructures with giant piezoelectricity can be used for MEMS or NEMS devices that function with low drive voltage such as transducers for ultrasound medical imaging, micro-fluidic control and energy harvesting. Beyond electromechanical devices, our approach will open a new avenue to tune and modulate the properties of other multifunctional materials by dynamic strain control. This work was done in collaboration with S. H. Baek, J. Park, D. M. Kim, V. Aksyuk, R. R. Das, S. D. Bu, D. A. Felker, J. Lettieri, V. Vaithyanathan, S. S. N. Bharadwaja, N. Bassiri-Gharb, Y. B. Chen, H. P. Sun, H. W. Jang, D. J. Kreft, S. K. Streiffer, R. Ramesh, X. Q. Pan, S. Trolier-McKinstry, D. G. Schlom, M. S. Rzchowski, R. Blick. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants ECCS-0708759.

  20. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  1. Electric field controlled strain induced reversible switching of magnetization in Galfenol nanomagnets delineated on PMN-PT substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    We report a non-volatile converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical Galfenol (FeGa) nanomagnets of ~300 nm lateral dimensions and ~10nm thickness delineated on a PMN-PT substrate. This effect can be harnessed for energy-efficient non-volatile memory. The nanomagnets are fabricated with e-beam lithography and sputtering. Their major axes are aligned parallel to the direction in which the substrate is poled and they are magnetized in this direction with a magnetic field. An electric field in the opposite direction generates compressive strain in the piezoelectric substrate which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates their magnetization away from the major axes to metastable orientations. There they remain after the field is removed, resulting in non-volatility. Reversing the electric field generates tensile strain which returns the magnetization to the original state. The two states can encode two binary bits which can be written using the correct voltage polarity, resulting in non-toggle behavior. Scaled memory fashioned on this effect can exhibit write energy dissipation of only ~2 aJ. Work is supported by NSF under ECCS-1124714 and CCF-1216614. Sputtering was carried out at NIST Gaithersburg.

  2. Nanodomain structures with hierarchical inhomogeneities in PMN-PT.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Mori, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    The nanometric domain configuration of (1 - x) Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-x)PbTiO(3) [(1 - x)PMN-xPT] single crystals in the monoclinic phase around a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) has been examined thoroughly by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Domain structures with hierarchically inhomogeneous configuration were found in the monoclinic phase near the MPB region around x ~ 0.32, which are characterized as nanoscaled lamella-type domain structures with ~10 nm width inside macroscopic-sized banded domains with 100 to 200 nm width. To elucidate formation processes of the domain structures with hierarchically inhomogeneous configuration, an in situ TEM observation of changes of the domain structures in the temperature window between 298K and 500K was carried out. It is revealed that these nanoscaled lamella-type domain structures with ~10 nm width appear inside the banded domains as a result of the tetragonal structure and are inherent to the monoclinic phase.

  3. Step-down piezoelectric transformer fabricated with (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-xPbTiO3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou; Luo, Haosu

    2010-04-01

    In present work, a ring-type unipoled step-down piezoelectric transformer with the dimensions of Phi16x0.7 mm(3) was designed and fabricated using relaxor ferroelectric single crystal (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). Both the input and output parts of this transformer were poled along the thickness direction, utilizing the radial vibration mode of PMN-PT. The electrical measurement results indicated that under the matching load resistance of 257 Omega, a voltage transformation ratio of 0.44 was obtained at the resonance frequency of 105 kHz. The frequency and load dependences of this transformer were also systematically studied and discussed. With the input voltage increasing, a maximum output power of about 0.9 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 degrees C. This step-down single-crystal transformer show potential applications in compact-size, small-power ac-dc converters.

  4. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A.; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:24418911

  5. Magnetoelectric properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 thin films on (011) PMN-PT piezosubstrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkach, Alexander; Baghaie Yazdi, Mehrdad; Foerster, Michael; Büttner, Felix; Vafaee, Mehran; Fries, Maximilian; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    We determine the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of 33 nm thick Fe3O4 films epitaxially deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering on unpoled (011) [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates. The magnetoresistance (MR), as well as the magnetization reversal, strongly depend on the in-plane crystallographic direction of the epitaxial (011) Fe3O4 film and strain. When the magnetic field is applied along [100], the magnetization loops are slanted and the sign of the longitudinal MR changes from positive to negative around the Verwey transition at 125 K on cooling. Along the [01 1 ¯] direction, the loops are square shaped and the MR is negative above the switching field across the whole temperature range, just increasing in absolute value when cooling from 300 K to 150 K. The value of the MR is found to be strongly affected by poling the PMN-PT substrate, decreasing in the [100] direction and slightly increasing in the [01 1 ¯] direction upon poling, which results in a strained film.

  6. Tunable passband in one-dimensional phononic crystal containing a piezoelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal defect layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuling; Song, Wei; Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-06-01

    Longitudinal acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic crystal containing a 0.2 mol% Fe-doped relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 (PMN-0.38PT) single crystal defect layer is theoretically studied using the transfer matrix method. A passband can be produced in the stopband when the inserted PMN-0.38PT layer with thickness around its half wavelength. The frequency of the passband is closely dependent on the PMN-PT strain coefficient, suggesting that the band structure of phononic crystal is tunable by applying external electric field onto the piezoelectric crystal. Also, we investigated the influence of acoustic impedance of periodic constitutive materials (layers A and B) on the passband, where the bandwidth of the new passband becomes narrower as the acoustic impedance ratio of layer A and B (ZA/ZB) increase. The simulated results provide valuable guidance for designing tunable acoustic filters and switches made of phononic crystal consisting of the piezoelectric defect layer.

  7. Electromechanical properties of Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Lin, Dabin; Luo, Jun; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    The Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were studied as function of phase and orientation. The properties, including the Curie temperature T(C), ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(R∕O-T), coercive field, and piezoelectric∕dielectric responses, were systematically investigated with respect to the composition of PIN-PMN-PT crystals. The Curie temperature T(C) was found to increase from 160 to 220 °C with ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(R-T) and T(O-T) being in the range of 120-105 °C and105-50 °C, respectively. The piezoelectric activity of PIN-PMN-PT crystals was analyzed by Rayleigh approach. The ultrahigh piezoelectric response for domain engineered [001] (1600-2200 pC∕N) and [011] (830-1550 pC∕N) crystals was believed to be mainly from the intrinsic contribution, whereas the enhanced level of piezoelectric and dielectric losses at the compositions around morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) was attributed to the phase boundaries motion.

  8. Giant isothermal entropy change In (111)-oriented PMN-PT thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Mahmoud A.

    2014-11-01

    An isothermal entropy change of 240 nm (111)-oriented PMN-PT 65/35 film near the ferroelectric Curie temperature, relative cooling power (RCP) and change of heat capacity have been investigated. The extracted data characterized giant isothermal entropy change of more than 16 J/kg K in electric field shift ΔE of 455 kV cm-1, which is nearly twice than that found for PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 thin film at 492 kV cm-1 near the Curie point. Furthermore, the RCP ≈ 700 J/kg and change of heat capacity ≈ 233 J/kg K in electric field shift ΔE of 747 kV cm-1.

  9. Design and Characterization of an Ultrasonic Surgical Tool Using d31 PMN-PT Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Sadiq, M.; Cochran, S.; Huang, Z.

    An ultrasonic surgical tool for tissue incision and dissection has been designed and characterized. The surgical tool is based on a simple geometry to which PMN-PT d31 plates are bonded directly. The performance of the surgical tool has been defined numerically with the Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) package and practically with laser vibrometer and impedance spectroscopy. The results show the ability of FEA to accurately predict the behaviors of an ultrasonic device as numerical and practical analysis were found to be in a good agreement. The design of the tool presented has the ability to generate displacement amplitude high enough to carry out soft tissue incision with relatively low driving voltage.

  10. Electron microscopic analysis of surface damaged layer in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Yusuke; Sato, Yukio; Urakami, Ryosuke; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Teranishi, Ryo; Kaneko, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), have superior dielectric and piezoelectric properties suitable for medical ultrasound imaging. Imaging devices with superior performance can be manufactured from thinner PMN-PT single crystals by mechanical dicing and/or polishing. Although it is often a concern that a damaged layer may form during the mechanical dicing and/or thinning process, the microscopic characteristics of the damaged layer have not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, the microstructural characterization of a damaged layer was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that mechanical polishing introduced dislocation near the surface of the crystal. It was also found that the domain structure was affected by the introduction of dislocation.

  11. Electromechanical properties of tetragonal Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) ferroelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The ferroelectric, dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of tetragonal Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were investigated. The single domain piezoelectric coefficients d(33), d(15), and d(31) were found to be 530, 2350, and -200 pCN, respectively, with electromechanical coupling factors k(33), k(15), and k(31) being on the order of 0.84, 0.85, and 0.58. The mechanical quality factor Q for longitudinal mode was found to be >700, with high coercive field (E(c)) being on the order of 10 kVcm. The temperature and dc bias electric-field characteristics of single domain tetragonal PIN-PMN-PT crystals were also investigated. In contrast to [001] oriented domain engineered rhombohedral crystals, tetragonal PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibited broader temperature usage range and higher thermalelectric field stability, with improved coercive field and mechanical quality factor.

  12. Electric field control of magnetic states in isolated and dipole-coupled FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a PMN-PT substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-10-01

    We report observation of a ‘non-volatile’ converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. The nanomagnets are first magnetized with a magnetic field directed along their nominal major axes. Subsequent application of a strong electric field across the piezoelectric substrate generates strain in the substrate, which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates the magnetizations of some of them away from their initial orientations. The rotated magnetizations remain in their new orientations after the field is removed, resulting in ‘non-volatility’. In isolated nanomagnets, the magnetization rotates by \\lt 90^\\circ upon application of the electric field, but in a dipole-coupled pair consisting of one ‘hard’ and one ‘soft’ nanomagnet, which are both initially magnetized in the same direction by the magnetic field, the soft nanomagnet’s magnetization rotates by \\gt 90^\\circ upon application of the electric field because of the dipole influence of the hard nanomagnet. This effect can be utilized for a nanomagnetic NOT logic gate.

  13. Electric field control of magnetic states in isolated and dipole-coupled FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a PMN-PT substrate.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-10-09

    We report observation of a 'non-volatile' converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. The nanomagnets are first magnetized with a magnetic field directed along their nominal major axes. Subsequent application of a strong electric field across the piezoelectric substrate generates strain in the substrate, which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates the magnetizations of some of them away from their initial orientations. The rotated magnetizations remain in their new orientations after the field is removed, resulting in 'non-volatility'. In isolated nanomagnets, the magnetization rotates by <90° upon application of the electric field, but in a dipole-coupled pair consisting of one 'hard' and one 'soft' nanomagnet, which are both initially magnetized in the same direction by the magnetic field, the soft nanomagnet's magnetization rotates by [Formula: see text] upon application of the electric field because of the dipole influence of the hard nanomagnet. This effect can be utilized for a nanomagnetic NOT logic gate.

  14. Implementation of a PMN-PT piezocrystal-based focused array with geodesic faceted structure.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhen; Qiu, Yongqiang; Demore, Christine E M; Cochran, Sandy

    2016-07-01

    The higher performance of relaxor-based piezocrystals compared with piezoceramics is now well established, notably including improved gain-bandwidth product, and these materials have been adopted widely for biomedical ultrasound imaging. However, their use in other applications, for example as a source of focused ultrasound for targeted drug delivery, is hindered in several ways. One of the issues, which we consider here, is in shaping the material into the spherical geometries used widely in focused ultrasound. Unlike isotropic unpoled piezoceramics that can be shaped into a monolithic bowl then poled through the thickness, the anisotropic structure of piezocrystals make it impossible to machine the bulk crystalline material into a bowl without sacrificing performance. Instead, we report a novel faceted array, inspired by the geodesic dome structure in architecture, which utilizes flat piezocrystal material and maximizes fill factor. Aided by 3D printing, a prototype with f#≈ 1.2, containing 96 individually addressable elements was manufactured using 1-3 connectivity PMN-PT piezocrystal-epoxy composite. The fabrication process is presented and the array was connected to a 32-channel controller to shape and steer the beam for preliminary performance demonstration. At an operating frequency of 1MHz, a focusing gain around 30 was achieved and the side lobe intensities were all at levels below -12dB compared to main beam. We conclude that, by taking advantage of contemporary fabrication techniques and driving instrumentation, the geodesic array configuration is suitable for focused ultrasound devices made with piezocrystal.

  15. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism in CoPt/PMN-PT heterostructure for magnetoelectric memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Cao, Q. Q.; Du, Y. W.

    2016-02-01

    We report a power efficient non-volatile magnetoelectric memory in the CoPt/(011)PMN-PT heterostructure. Two reversible and stable electric field induced coercivity states (i.e., high-HC or low-HC) are obtained due to the strain mediated converse magnetoelectric effect. The reading process of the different coercive field information written by electric fields is demonstrated by using a magnetoresistance read head. This result shows good prospects in the application of novel multiferroic devices.

  16. Microscopic evidence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in Co/Pt multilayers/PMN-PT(011) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Zheng, Xiaoli; Cai, Jianwang; Zhao, Yonggang; Liu, Ming

    A promising way to control magnetization(M) via an electric field(E-field) is using magnetoelectric(ME) effect in FM/FE heterostructures. We use magnetic(electric) force microscopy(M(e)FM) to study the strain-mediated E-field modulation of M in (Co/Pt)n with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) or in-plane anisotropy on PMN-PT(011) substrates. MFM were performed on (Co/Pt)n with an DC E-field applied to PMN-PT. In MeFM, we superimpose an AC modulation on a DC one and utilize lock-in technique to detect weak ME effect. For (Co/Pt)n with PMA, MFM images show stripe domains with no obvious changes at varied DC E-fields. However, MeFM shows interesting structures and the image contrast reverses sign at opposite strain slopes of the PMN-PT substrate. For sample with in-plane anisotropy, both MFM and MeFM images show dipole-like domains. Interestingly, the MeFM image contrast reverses sign at opposite strain slopes of the substrate. The sign reversal of MeFM contrast indicates that features revealed by MeFM are intrinsic local ME effect. Our MeFM data are consistent with the ferromagnetic resonance results showing that strain-induced anisotropy change will cause part of M switching to the in-plane direction. Possible scenarios will be discussed.

  17. In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy of barrier-height control at metal/PMN-PT interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, E.; Petraru, A.; Quer, A.; Soni, R.; Kalläne, M.; Pertsev, N. A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Rossnagel, K.

    2016-06-01

    Metal-ferroelectric interfaces form the basis of novel electronic devices. A key effect determining the device functionality is the bias-dependent change of the electronic energy-level alignment at the interface. Here, hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is used to determine the energy-level alignment at two metal-ferroelectric interfaces—Au versus SrRuO3 on the relaxor ferroelectric Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3 )0.72Ti0.28O3 (PMN-PT)—directly in situ as a function of electrical bias. The bias-dependent average shifts of the PMN-PT core levels are found to have two dominant contributions on the 0.1 -1-eV energy scale: one depending on the metal electrode and the remanent electric polarization and the other correlated with electric-field-induced strain. Element-specific deviations from the average shifts are smaller than 0.1 eV and appear to be related to predicted dynamical charge variations in PMN-PT. In addition, the efficiency of ferroelectric polarization switching is shown to be reduced near the coercive field under x-ray irradiation. The results establish HAXPES as a tool for the in operando investigation of metal-ferroelectric interfaces and suggest electric-field-induced modifications of the polarization distribution as a novel way to control the barrier height at such interfaces.

  18. Characterization of Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) ferroelectric crystal with enhanced phase transition temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R

    2008-09-15

    The full set of material constants for relaxor-based ternary single crystals Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) were determined and compared to binary Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMNT) crystals. The Curie temperature for rhombohedral compositions of PIN-PMN-PT was found to be in the range of 160-200 degrees C with ferroelectric rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition on the order of 120-130 degrees C, more than 30 degrees C higher than that found for PMNT. The piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) were in the range of 1100-1500 pCN, with electromechanical coupling factors (k(33)) about 89%-92% comparable to PMNT crystals. The coercive field of the ternary crystal was found to be 5.5 kVcm, double the value of the binary counterparts. The dielectric behavior under varying dc bias exhibited a similar trend as observed in PMNT with a much broader usage temperature range. Together with its enhanced field induced phase transition level, the ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals are promising candidates for high temperature and high drive transducer applications.

  19. Polarization Fatigue in Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Li, Fei; Meyer, Richard J.; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Electric fatigue tests have been conducted on pure and manganese modified Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals along different crystallographic directions. Polarization degradation was observed to suddenly occur above 50–100 bipolar cycles in <110> oriented samples, while <001> oriented samples exhibited almost fatigue free characteristics. The fatigue behavior was investigated as a function of orientation, magnitude of the electric field and manganese dopant. It was found that <001> oriented PIN-PMN-PT crystals were fatigue free, due to its small domain size, being on the order of 1µm. The <110> direction exhibited a strong electrical fatigue behavior due to mechanical degradation. Micro/macro cracks were developed in fatigued <110> oriented single crystals. Fatigue and cracks were the results of strong anisotropic piezoelectric stress and non-180° domain switching, which completely locked the non-180° domains. Furthermore, manganese modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals were found to show improved fatigue behavior due to its enhanced coercive field. PMID:20652090

  20. Polarization Fatigue in Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Li, Fei; Meyer, Richard J; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Electric fatigue tests have been conducted on pure and manganese modified Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals along different crystallographic directions. Polarization degradation was observed to suddenly occur above 50-100 bipolar cycles in <110> oriented samples, while <001> oriented samples exhibited almost fatigue free characteristics. The fatigue behavior was investigated as a function of orientation, magnitude of the electric field and manganese dopant. It was found that <001> oriented PIN-PMN-PT crystals were fatigue free, due to its small domain size, being on the order of 1µm. The <110> direction exhibited a strong electrical fatigue behavior due to mechanical degradation. Micro/macro cracks were developed in fatigued <110> oriented single crystals. Fatigue and cracks were the results of strong anisotropic piezoelectric stress and non-180° domain switching, which completely locked the non-180° domains. Furthermore, manganese modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals were found to show improved fatigue behavior due to its enhanced coercive field.

  1. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  2. Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K.; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films. PMID:23798771

  3. Enhanced piezoelectric performance of composite sol-gel thick films evaluated using piezoresponse force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanming; Lam, Kwok Ho; Kirk Shung, K; Li, Jiangyu; Zhou, Qifa

    2013-05-14

    Conventional composite sol-gel method has been modified to enhance the piezoelectric performance of ceramic thick films. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) thick films were fabricated using the modified sol-gel method for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this work, piezoresponse force microscopy was employed to evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics of PZT and PMN-PT composite sol-gel thick films. The images of the piezoelectric response and the strain-electric field hysteresis loop behavior were measured. The effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33,eff) of the films was determined from the measured loop data. It was found that the effective local piezoelectric coefficient of both PZT and PMN-PT composite films is comparable to that of their bulk ceramics. The promising results suggest that the modified composite sol-gel method is a promising way to prepare the high-quality, crack-free ceramic thick films.

  4. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  5. The development of piezoelectric crystal gyroscopes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-Yu; Qing, Rong-Kang

    The operation principles and basic characteristics of a newly-developed vibrating-beam piezoelectric crystal angular rate gyroscope are discussed along with the gyroscope applications. Several applications of piezoelectric gyroscopes are described, including its use as a telemetering sensor, attidude measuring device in automobiles, in geological exploraton drilling, and as a sensing element in ship and aircraft control systems. Specifications are presented for several gyroscopes, including those for two piezoelectric angular rate gyros with different applications (telemetering and control), a typical piezoelectric angular displacement gyro, and a piezoelectric inclinometer.

  6. Bio-inspired bending actuator for controlling conical nose shape using piezoelectric patches.

    PubMed

    Na, Tae-Won; Jung, Jin-Young; Oh, Ii-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a bio-inspired bending actuator was designed and fabricated using piezoelectric patches and cantilever-shaped beam for controlling nose shape. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the bending actuator. PZT and single crystal PMN-PT actuators were used to generate translational strain and shear stress. The piezoelectric patches were attached on the clamped cantilever beam to convert their translational strains to bending motion of the beam. First, finite element analysis was performed to identify and to make an accurate estimate of the feasibility on the bending actuation by applying various voltages and frequencies. Based on the results of the FEM analysis, the experiments were also performed. Static voltages and dynamic voltages with various frequencies were applied to the bending actuators with PZTs and PMN-PTs, and the rotation angles of the nose connected to the top of bending actuators were measured, respectively. As the results, the bending actuator using PMN-PT patches showed better performances in all cases. With the increases of signal frequency and input voltage, the rotation angle also found to be increased. Especially at the frequency of 5 Hz and input voltage of 600 V, the nose generated the maximum rotation angle of 3.15 degree.

  7. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-07-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications.

  8. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-01-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications. PMID:27417902

  9. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-07-15

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications.

  10. Giant electric field control of magnetism and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Wang, X.; Xie, L.; Hu, Z.; Lin, H.; Zhou, Z.; Nan, T.; Yang, X.; Howe, B. M.; Jones, J. G.; Brown, G. J.; Sun, N. X.

    2016-06-01

    It has been challenging to achieve combined strong magnetoelectric coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures. Electric field induced large effective field of 175 Oe and narrow FMR linewidth of 40 Oe were observed in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT heterostructures with substrate clamping effect minimized through removing the Si substrate. As a comparison, FeCoSiB/PMN-PT heterostructures with FeCoSiB film directly deposited on PMN-PT showed a comparable voltage induced effective magnetic field but a significantly larger FMR linewidth of 283 Oe. These multiferroic heterostructures exhibiting combined giant magnetoelectric coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth offer great opportunities for integrated voltage tunable RF magnetic devices.

  11. Effect of poling on dielectric anomalies at phase transitions for lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate crystals in the morphotropic phase boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Payne, David A.; Han, Pengdi

    2006-03-01

    Dielectric measurements are reported as a function of temperature for phase transformations in the lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate system (PMN-PT). Data are given for single crystal specimens in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region. Transition temperatures were determined from dielectric loss data. The characteristics for both poled and unpoled crystals are compared. Values of dielectric constant were found to increase after poling at room temperature, and an anomaly was induced at the lower-temperature transition. Details are reported for these properties depending upon composition within the MPB region. At room temperature, the poled crystals had high values for dielectric constant (e.g., 5000-15 000), piezoelectric coefficient (e.g., 1000-4000 pC/N), and electromechanical coupling factor (e.g., >0.9). The temperature dependence of dielectric properties is treated in terms of competing phases at transformations, with a change from continuous to discontinuous behavior with increasing PT content towards the MPB. The effect of poling on the induction of the tetragonal (T) phase, with a lowering of the low temperature to tetragonal (LT-->T) phase transformation temperature, is discussed. Piezoelectric crystals with the highest depoling temperature were farthest away from the MPB in the MPB region. This information should be useful for the application of PMN-PT piezoelectric crystals.

  12. (100)-Textured KNN-based thick film with enhanced piezoelectric property for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Benpeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Teng; Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Yongxiang; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Using tape-casting technology, 35 μm free-standing (100)-textured Li doped KNN (KNLN) thick film was prepared by employing NaNbO3 (NN) as template. It exhibited similar piezoelectric behavior to lead containing materials: a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ∼150 pm/V and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt) of 0.44. Based on this thick film, a 52 MHz side-looking miniature transducer with a bandwidth of 61.5% at −6 dB was built for Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In comparison with 40 MHz PMN-PT single crystal transducer, the rabbit aorta image had better resolution and higher noise-to-signal ratio, indicating that lead-free (100)-textured KNLN thick film may be suitable for IVUS (>50 MHz) imaging. PMID:25991874

  13. (100)-Textured KNN-based thick film with enhanced piezoelectric property for intravascular ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Benpeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Teng; Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Yongxiang; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-04-27

    Using tape-casting technology, 35 μm free-standing (100)-textured Li doped KNN (KNLN) thick film was prepared by employing NaNbO3 (NN) as template. It exhibited similar piezoelectric behavior to lead containing materials: a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ∼150 pm/V and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt ) of 0.44. Based on this thick film, a 52 MHz side-looking miniature transducer with a bandwidth of 61.5% at -6 dB was built for Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In comparison with 40 MHz PMN-PT single crystal transducer, the rabbit aorta image had better resolution and higher noise-to-signal ratio, indicating that lead-free (100)-textured KNLN thick film may be suitable for IVUS (>50 MHz) imaging.

  14. (100)-Textured KNN-based thick film with enhanced piezoelectric property for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Teng; Yang, Xiaofei; Li, Yongxiang; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-04-01

    Using tape-casting technology, 35 μm free-standing (100)-textured Li doped KNN (KNLN) thick film was prepared by employing NaNbO3 (NN) as template. It exhibited similar piezoelectric behavior to lead containing materials: a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ˜150 pm/V and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt) of 0.44. Based on this thick film, a 52 MHz side-looking miniature transducer with a bandwidth of 61.5% at -6 dB was built for Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In comparison with 40 MHz PMN-PT single crystal transducer, the rabbit aorta image had better resolution and higher noise-to-signal ratio, indicating that lead-free (100)-textured KNLN thick film may be suitable for IVUS (>50 MHz) imaging.

  15. The memory effect of magnetoelectric coupling in FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhao, Shishun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Yang, Xi; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling effect has provided a power efficient approach in controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. However, one remaining issue of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric magnetoelectric bilayer composite is that the induced effective anisotropy disappears with the removal of the electric field. The introducing of the shape memory alloys may prevent such problem by taking the advantage of its shape memory effect. Additionally, the shape memory alloy can also “store” the magnetoelectric coupling before heat release, which introduces more functionality to the system. In this paper, we study a FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure, which can be operating in different states with electric field and temperature manipulation. Such phenomenon is promising for tunable multiferroic devices with multi-functionalities.

  16. The memory effect of magnetoelectric coupling in FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhao, Shishun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X; Yang, Xi; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-05

    Magnetoelectric coupling effect has provided a power efficient approach in controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. However, one remaining issue of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric magnetoelectric bilayer composite is that the induced effective anisotropy disappears with the removal of the electric field. The introducing of the shape memory alloys may prevent such problem by taking the advantage of its shape memory effect. Additionally, the shape memory alloy can also "store" the magnetoelectric coupling before heat release, which introduces more functionality to the system. In this paper, we study a FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure, which can be operating in different states with electric field and temperature manipulation. Such phenomenon is promising for tunable multiferroic devices with multi-functionalities.

  17. The memory effect of magnetoelectric coupling in FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhao, Shishun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Yang, Xi; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling effect has provided a power efficient approach in controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. However, one remaining issue of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric magnetoelectric bilayer composite is that the induced effective anisotropy disappears with the removal of the electric field. The introducing of the shape memory alloys may prevent such problem by taking the advantage of its shape memory effect. Additionally, the shape memory alloy can also “store” the magnetoelectric coupling before heat release, which introduces more functionality to the system. In this paper, we study a FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure, which can be operating in different states with electric field and temperature manipulation. Such phenomenon is promising for tunable multiferroic devices with multi-functionalities. PMID:26847469

  18. Fundamental understanding of wave generation and reception using d(36) type piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wensong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-03-01

    A new piezoelectric wafer made from a PMN-PT single crystal with dominant piezoelectric coefficient d36 is proposed to generate and detect guided waves on isotropic plates. The in-plane shear coupled with electric field arising from the piezoelectric coefficient is not usually present for conventional piezoelectric wafers, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The direct piezoelectric effect of coefficient d36 indicates that under external in-plane shear stress the charge is induced on a face perpendicular to the poled z-direction. On thin plates, this type of piezoelectric wafer will generate shear horizontal (SH) waves in two orthogonal wave propagation directions as well as two Lamb wave modes in other wave propagation directions. Finite element analyses are employed to explore the wave disturbance in terms of time-varying displacements excited by the d36 wafer in different directions of wave propagation to understand all the guided wave modes accurately. Experiments are conducted to examine the voltage responses received by this type of wafer, and also investigate results of tuning frequency and effects of d31 piezoelectric coefficient, which is intentionally ignored in the finite element analysis. All results demonstrate the main features and utility of proposed d36 piezoelectric wafer for guided wave generation and detection in structural health monitoring.

  19. Localization of Oscillations on Dislocations in Piezoelectric Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestrin, S. G.; Schukina, E. V.

    2014-05-01

    Longitudinal oscillations localized on dislocations are shown to exist in C4v piezoelectric crystals. Dispersion equations are constructed for axially symmetric and localized screw waves. Frequency regions separating their frequencies from the spectrum of volume oscillations are identified.

  20. Numerical and experimental simulation of linear shear piezoelectric phased arrays for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Hui; Lynch, Jerome P.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Li, Hui

    2017-04-01

    A novel d36-type piezoelectric wafer fabricated from lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is explored for the generation of in-plane horizontal shear waves in plate structures. The study focuses on the development of a linear phased array (PA) of PMN-PT wafers to improve the damage detection capabilities of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. An attractive property of in-plane horizontal shear waves is that they are nondispersive yet sensitive to damage. This study characterizes the directionality of body waves (Lamb and horizontal shear) created by a single PMN-PT wafer bonded to the surface of a metallic plate structure. Second, a linear PA is designed from PMN-PT wafers to steer and focus Lamb and horizontal shear waves in a plate structure. Numerical studies are conducted to explore the capabilities of a PMN-PT-based PA to detect damage in aluminum plates. Numerical simulations are conducted using the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) implemented on a parallelized graphical processing unit (GPU) for high-speed execution. Numerical studies are further validated using experimental tests conducted with a linear PA. The study confirms the ability of an PMN-PT phased array to accurately detect and localize damage in aluminum plates.

  1. Activating piezoelectric crystal surface by silanization for microgravimetric immunobiosensor application.

    PubMed

    Suri, C R; Mishra, G C

    1996-01-01

    The development of a microgravimetric immunobiosensor using a piezoelectric quartz crystal as a detector requires a stable and reproducible immobilization method for ligand binding. The method of silanization using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) has been widely used for activating the carrier surface. In the present study, APTES deposition on a piezoelectric crystal surface was studied under various solvent conditions. A fluorescence method, using fluorescence isothiocyanate as a dye, was demonstrated for the quantification of amino groups on the silanized piezoelectric crystal surface. The optimum binding conditions of APTES deposition on a piezoelectric crystal surface were incorporated for the covalent immobilization of protein on the crystal surface in developing a stable and sensitive microgravimetric immunobiosensor. Determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was performed using APTES modified piezoelectric crystals coated with protein G. The resonant frequency shift, resulting from the formation of protein G-IgG complex on the crystal surface, correlated with the concentration of IgG in the range 10 ng/ml to 0.1 mg/ml. The APTES modified, protein G coated crystal were found to be quite stable and did not show a significant loss of sensitivity even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C in a desiccator.

  2. Modulation of the properties of thin ferromagnetic films with an externally applied electric field in ferromagnetic/piezoelectric/ferromagnetic hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Zeibekis, M.; Zhang, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    In many cases, technological advances are based on artificial low-dimensional structures of heterogeneous constituents, thus called hybrids, that when come together they provide stand-alone entities that exhibit entirely different properties. Such hybrids are nowadays intensively studied since they are attractive for both basic research and oncoming practical applications. Here, we studied hybrids constituted of piezoelectric (PE) and ferromagnetic (FM) components in the form FM/PE/FM, ultimately aiming to provide means for the controlled modulation of the properties of the FM electrodes, originating from the strain imposed to them by the PE mediator when an electric field is applied. The PE component is in single crystal form, 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), while the FM outer layers are Cobalt (Co) in thin film form. Detailed magnetization measurements performed under variation of the electric field applied to PMN-PT demonstrated the efficient modulation of the properties of the Co electrodes at low temperature (coercive field modulation up to 27% and saturation magnetization absolute modulation up to 4% at T = 10 K for electric field not exceeding 6 kV/cm). The modulation degree faints upon increase of the temperature, evidencing that the thermal energy eventually dominates all other relevant energy scales. Candidate mechanisms are discussed for the explanation of these experimental observations. The results presented here demonstrate that commercially available materials can result in quantitatively noticeable effects. Thus, such elemental Co/PMN-PT/Co units can be used as a solid basis for the development of devices.

  3. Novel Micro-Laboratory on Piezoelectric Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsunori; Kondoh, Jun

    2009-07-01

    With the continuing development of biotechnology and nanotechnology, a miniaturized and integrated device that is capable of controlling and measuring a small droplet has become desirable. Therefore, we fabricated an integrated device by adopting surface acoustic wave (SAW) streaming to control a droplet and an interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensor to measure the impedance of the droplet. The integrated device is called a “micro-laboratory”. In this work, a micro-laboratory was realized by fabricating an interdigital transducer (IDT) for generating SAWs and an IDE for measuring a droplet on a single piezoelectric crystal. In the experiment, water and glycerol were mixed by SAWs and water/glycerol mixtures were measured by the IDE sensor. From the result, we found that the mixtures were uniformly mixed by the SAWs. Moreover, as a new application, we fabricated a novel micro-laboratory using an isotropic material/matching layer/128YX-LiNbO3 structure (three-layer structure). By using the three-layer structure, a disposable and low-cost SAW device was realized.

  4. Lift-off PMN-PT Thick Film for High Frequency Ultrasonic Biomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Benpeng; Han, Jiangxue; Shi, Jing; Shung, K Krik; Wei, Q; Huang, Yuhong; Kosec, M; Zhou, Qifa

    2010-10-01

    Piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) (PMN-35PT) thick film with a thickness of approximately 12 µm has been deposited on the platinum buffered Si substrate via a sol-gel composite method. The separation of the film from the substrate was achieved using a wet chemical method. The lifted-off PMN-35PT thick film exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. At 1 kHz, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were 3,326 and 0.037, respectively, while the remnant polarization was 30.0 µC/cm(2). A high frequency single element acoustic transducer fabricated with this film showed a bandwidth at -6 dB of 63.6% at 110 MHz.

  5. Epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co thin films on PMN-PT substrates for multicaloric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, B. Niemann, R.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.; Diestel, A.; Hühne, R.

    2015-08-07

    Multicaloric stacks consisting of a magnetocaloric film on a piezoelectric substrate promise improved caloric properties as the transition temperature can be controlled by both magnetic and electric fields. We present epitaxially grown magnetocaloric Ni-Mn-Ga-Co thin films on ferroelectric Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.72}Ti{sub 0.28}O{sub 3} substrates. Structure and microstructure of two samples, being in the austenitic and martensitic state at room temperature, are investigated by X-ray diffraction in two- and four-circle geometry and by atomic force microscopy. In addition, high temperature magnetometry was performed on the latter sample. The combination of these methods allows separating the influence of epitaxial growth and martensitic transformation. A preferential alignment of twin boundaries is observed already in the as-deposited state, which indicates the presence of prestress, without applying an electric field to the substrate. A temperature-magnetic field phase diagram is presented, which demonstrates the inverse magnetocaloric effect of the epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co film.

  6. Epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co thin films on PMN-PT substrates for multicaloric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, B.; Niemann, R.; Diestel, A.; Hühne, R.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Multicaloric stacks consisting of a magnetocaloric film on a piezoelectric substrate promise improved caloric properties as the transition temperature can be controlled by both magnetic and electric fields. We present epitaxially grown magnetocaloric Ni-Mn-Ga-Co thin films on ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.72Ti0.28O3 substrates. Structure and microstructure of two samples, being in the austenitic and martensitic state at room temperature, are investigated by X-ray diffraction in two- and four-circle geometry and by atomic force microscopy. In addition, high temperature magnetometry was performed on the latter sample. The combination of these methods allows separating the influence of epitaxial growth and martensitic transformation. A preferential alignment of twin boundaries is observed already in the as-deposited state, which indicates the presence of prestress, without applying an electric field to the substrate. A temperature-magnetic field phase diagram is presented, which demonstrates the inverse magnetocaloric effect of the epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga-Co film.

  7. Room-temperature magneto-dielectric response in multiferroic ZnFe2O4/PMN-PT bilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, T.; Kulkarni, A. R.; Venkataramani, N.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-dielectric response in multiferroic ZnFe2O4/PMN-PT bilayer thin films prepared on a glass substrate using RF magnetron sputtering has been investigated in this work. PMN-PT thin films (i.e. PMN-PT/LCMO/Pt/Ti/glass) deposited on glass were used as a substrate for deposition of ZnFe2O4 thin films. ZnFe2O4 thin films were annealed ex situ at different temperatures. Structural, magnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric and magneto-dielectric studies were carried out on these multiferroic bilayer thin films. Structural studies revealed the presence of each layer in its respective single phase. Magnetic and ferroelectric studies revealed the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behaviors of these bilayers. To quantify the magnetoelectric coupling, the dielectric constant of the bilayer was measured at room temperature as a function of frequency with and without the applied magnetic field. The magneto-dielectric response MD(%) was calculated by finding the relative change in dielectric constant at 1 kHz as a percentage. The observed MD response was correlated with magnetization of the ferrite layer. An MD response of 2.60% was found for a bilayer film annealed at 350 °C. At this particular annealing temperature, the ZnFe2O4 layer also has the highest saturation magnetization of 1900 G.

  8. Single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers for ultrasound NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Snook, Kevin; Walker, Thomas; Portune, Andrew; Haber, Richard; Geng, Xuecang; Welter, John; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2008-03-01

    Single crystal piezoelectric composite transducers including 75 MHz PC-MUT (piezoelectric composite micromachined ultrasound transducers), diced 10 MHz and 15 MHz 1-3 composite transducers were successfully demonstrated with broad bandwidth and high sensitivity. In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of composite transducers are reported. C-scan experiments for SiC ceramic samples were performed using these composite transducers as well as some commercial NDE transducers. The results suggest that significant improvements in resolution and penetration depth can be achieved in C-scan NDE imaging using single crystal composite broadband transducers.

  9. Ultrahigh energy density harvested from domain-engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystals under high strain rate loading.

    PubMed

    Shkuratov, Sergey I; Baird, Jason; Antipov, Vladimir G; Talantsev, Evgueni F; Chase, Jay B; Hackenberger, Wesley; Luo, Jun; Jo, Hwan R; Lynch, Christopher S

    2017-04-25

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals have triggered revolution in electromechanical systems due to their superior piezoelectric properties. Here the results are reported on experimental studies of energy harvested from (1-y-x)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(y)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(x)PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals under high strain rate loading. Precise control of ferroelectric properties through composition, size and crystallographic orientation of domains made it possible to identify single crystals that release up to three times more electric charge density than that produced by PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT 52/48) and PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 (PZT 95/5) ferroelectric ceramics under identical loading conditions. The obtained results indicate that PIN-PMN-PT crystals became completely depolarized under 3.9 GPa compression. It was found that the energy density generated in the crystals during depolarization in the high voltage mode is four times higher than that for PZT 52/48 and 95/5. The obtained results promise new single crystal applications in ultrahigh-power transducers that are capable of producing hundreds kilovolt pulses and gigawatt-peak power microwave radiation.

  10. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x−T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPBx boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems. PMID:28793707

  11. Thermal effects on the frequency response of piezoelectric crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, T.R.; Jones, M.T.; Plassmann, P.E. ); Tang, M.S.H. )

    1992-06-10

    In this paper we describe a solution strategy to determine the natural frequencies of piezoelectric crystals subject to moderate changes in temperature and a variety of boundary constraints. The finite element equations governing piezoelectricity are derived based upon a Galerkin formulation of the problem. Suitable assumptions are made to linearize the steady-state (static) problem leading to an iteration scheme that can be used to refine the solution and include non-linear geometric effects caused by deformation. The eigenvalue problem is cast in this perturbed state to allow more accurate prediction of resonant frequencies.

  12. Shear-Mode-Based Cantilever Driving Low-Frequency Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhou; Ren, Bo; Gai, Linlin; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Energy harvesting from external mechanical excitation has become a hot interest area, and relaxor piezoelectric single crystal ( 1 - x )Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 (PMN- x PT or PMN-PT) has attracted continuous attention due to the well-known ultrahigh shear-mode electromechanical response. To exploit the low-frequency application of excellent shear-mode performance of the PMN-PT single crystal, we proposed a Shear-mode-based CANtilever Driving Low-frequency Energy harvester. The device is composed of two symmetrically assembled sandwich structures and a cantilever, in which sandwich structures can be driven by the cantilever. An analytical method was used to illustrate the high output mechanism, and a finite-element method model of the device was also established to optimize the generated electric energy in this device. The electrical properties of the device under different excitation frequencies and load resistances were studied systematically. The maximum voltage and power density at resonance frequency (43.8 Hz) were measured to be 60.8 V and 10.8 mW/cm(3) under a proof mass of 13.5 g, respectively. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the considerable potential of the resonance-excited shear-mode energy harvester applied to wireless sensors and low-power portable electronics.

  13. Flextensional Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators for Membrane Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Large aperture and light weight space telescopes requires adaptive optics with deformable mirrors capable of large amplitude aberration corrections at a broad temperature range for space applications including NASA missions such as SAFIR, TPF, Con-X, etc. The single crystal piezoelectric actuators produced at TRS offer large stroke, low hysteresis, and an excellent cryogenic strain response. Specifically, the recently developed low profile, low voltage flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with dimensions of 18 x 5 x 1 mm showed stroke larger than 95 microns under 300 V. Furthermore, flextensional actuator retained approx. 40-50% of its room temperature strain at liquid Nitrogen environment. In this paper, ATILA FEM design of flextensional actuators, actuator fabrication, and characterization results will be presented for the future work on membrane deformable mirror.

  14. Methyltrimethoxysilane-insulated piezoelectric microcantilevers for direct, all-electrical biodetection in buffered aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2006-12-01

    We have examined coating (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)0.63-(PbTiO3)0.37 (PMN-PT)/tin piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMSs) with a thin methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) by a simple solution method to electrically insulate the PEMS for biodetection in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions. The PMN-PT/tin PEMSs were constructed using PMN-PT freestanding films that exhibited an electric-field-enhanced giant piezoelectric coefficient. The insulation procedure involved spin coatings of MTMS followed by cross-linking in water, which yielded a coating layer of about 10nm in thickness on the tin side of the PEMS. We showed that the MTMS-insulated PMN-PT/tin PEMSs were capable of electrical self-excitation and self-sensing with a stable resonance spectrum exhibiting a quality factor of Q =50 when submerged in 0.1M PBS solution. Direct, all-electrical, in situ detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at various concentrations was demonstrated at a flow rate of 0.5ml/min. A MTMS-insulated PMN-PT/tin PEMS 725μm long consisting of a 22-μm-thick PMN-PT layer and a 6-μm-thick tin layer exhibited a mass detection sensitivity Δm /Δf=-3±2×10-12g/Hz and a concentration sensitivity of better than 100cells/ml in less than 1ml of liquid.

  15. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

  16. Voltage Control of Metal-insulator Transition and Non-volatile Ferroelastic Switching of Resistance in VOx/PMN-PT Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or ‘Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices. PMID:25088796

  17. Voltage control of metal-insulator transition and non-volatile ferroelastic switching of resistance in VOx/PMN-PT heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X

    2014-08-04

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or 'Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  18. Voltage Control of Metal-insulator Transition and Non-volatile Ferroelastic Switching of Resistance in VOx/PMN-PT Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-08-01

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or `Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  19. Surface acoustic-wave piezoelectric crystal aerosol mass microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, W. D.; Chuan, R. L.

    1989-07-01

    The development of a particulate mass-sensing instrument based on a quartz-crystal microbalance and enhanced with the new surface acoustic-wave (SAW) technology is reported. Mass sensitivity comparisons of a 158-MHz SAW piezoelectric microbalance and a conventional 10-MHz quartz-crystal microbalance show that the SAW crystal is 266 times more sensitive, in good agreement with the theoretical value of 250. The frequency stability of a single SAW resonator is 6 parts in 10 to the 8th over 1 min. The response to temperature changes is found to be very linear over the range +30 to -30 C. A strong response to 15 ppm SO2 has been demonstrated on a chemically coated SAW crystal.

  20. High-Temperature Properties of Piezoelectric Langatate Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Klemenz, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Langasite type crystals belong to non-polar point group of 32 and do not show any phase transformations up to the melting temperature. Langatate (La3Ga(5.5)Ta(0.5)O14) demonstrates piezoelectric activity better than quartz and possesses attractive properties for high temperature sensors, resonators and filter applications. High-quality and colorless langatate crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. The electromechanical and electrical properties of langatate crystals in different crystallographic directions were characterized at elevated temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient along x-axis was 7 pC/N as measured by a Berlincourt meter for a plate geometry with an aspect ratio of 10:1. The dielectric constant did not exhibit any significant temperature dependence (K33 approx. 21 at 30 C and K33 approx. 23 at 600 C). Loss tangent at 100 kHz remained <0.003 up to 300 C and <0.65 at 600 C. The dielectric properties along the y-axis were similar and its temperature dependence was analogous to the x-axis. Electromechanically, the inactive z-axis exhibited no resonance with K33 approx. 84 at room temperature, decreasing down to approx. 49 at 600 C. Resistivity of these crystals along x-axis decreased from approx. 6x10(exp 11) omega-cm at room temperature, to approx. 1.6x10(exp 6) omega-cm at 600 C.

  1. Piezoelectric Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 crystal: crystal growth, piezoelectric and acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Plotitcyna, Olga; Erko, Alexei; Zizak, Ivo; Vadilonga, Simone; Irzhak, Dmitry; Emelin, Evgenii; Buzanov, Oleg; Leitenberger, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (CNGS), a five-component crystal of lanthanum-gallium silicate group, was grown by the Czochralski method. The parameters of the elementary unit cell of the crystal were measured by powder diffraction. The independent piezoelectric strain coefficients d{}_{11} and d_{14} were determined by the triple-axis X-ray diffraction in the Bragg and Laue geometries. Excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction at BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The velocity of SAW propagation and power flow angles in the Y-, X- and yxl/{+}36°-cuts of the CNGS crystal were determined from the analysis of the diffraction spectra. The CNGS crystal was found practically isotropic by its acoustic properties.

  2. Growth and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Veber, Philippe; Benabdallah, Feres; Liu, Hairui; Buse, Gabriel; Josse, Michael; Maglione, Mario

    2015-11-24

    Lead-free piezoelectric materials attract more and more attention owing to the environmental toxicity of lead-containing materials. In this work, we review our first attempts of single crystal grown by the top-seeded solution growth method of BaTiO₃ substituted with zirconium and calcium (BCTZ) and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO₃ substituted with lithium, tantalum, and antimony (KNLSTN). The growth methodology is optimized in order to reach the best compositions where enhanced properties are expected. Chemical analysis and electrical characterizations are presented for both kinds of crystals. The compositionally-dependent electrical performance is investigated for a better understanding of the relationship between the composition and electrical properties. A cross-over from relaxor to ferroelectric state in BCTZ solid solution is evidenced similar to the one reported in ceramics. In KNLSTN single crystals, we observed a substantial evolution of the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition under minute composition changes.

  3. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.65[PbTiO3]0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  4. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-28

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.65}[PbTiO{sub 3}]{sub 0.35} (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  5. Electric-Field-Induced Amplitude Tuning of Ferromagnetic Resonance Peak in Nano-granular Film FeCoB-SiO2/PMN-PT Composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Mei; Zhou, Peiheng; Liu, Yunfeng; Wang, Xin; Xie, Jianliang

    2016-12-01

    One of the challenges in the design of microwave absorbers lies in tunable amplitude of dynamic permeability. In this work, we demonstrate that electric-field-induced magnetoelastic anisotropy in nano-granular film FeCoB-SiO2/PMN-PT (011) composites can be used to tune the amplitude of ferromagnetic resonance peak at room temperature. The FeCoB magnetic particles are separated from each other by SiO2 insulating matrix and present slightly different in-plane anisotropy fields. As a result, multi-resonances appear in the imaginary permeability (μ″) curve and mixed together to form a broadband absorption peak. The amplitude of the resonance peak could be modulated by external electric field from 118 to 266.

  6. Electric-Field-Induced Amplitude Tuning of Ferromagnetic Resonance Peak in Nano-granular Film FeCoB-SiO2/PMN-PT Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mei; Zhou, Peiheng; Liu, Yunfeng; Wang, Xin; Xie, Jianliang

    2016-11-01

    One of the challenges in the design of microwave absorbers lies in tunable amplitude of dynamic permeability. In this work, we demonstrate that electric-field-induced magnetoelastic anisotropy in nano-granular film FeCoB-SiO2/PMN-PT (011) composites can be used to tune the amplitude of ferromagnetic resonance peak at room temperature. The FeCoB magnetic particles are separated from each other by SiO2 insulating matrix and present slightly different in-plane anisotropy fields. As a result, multi-resonances appear in the imaginary permeability ( μ″) curve and mixed together to form a broadband absorption peak. The amplitude of the resonance peak could be modulated by external electric field from 118 to 266.

  7. Compositional dependence of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric thin films by combinatorial sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Fumiya; Tsujiura, Yuichi; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the compositional dependence of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) polycrystalline thin films by combinatorial sputtering. We prepared compositional gradient (1 - x)PMN-xPT polycrystalline thin films with preferential orientation along the <001> direction in the composition range of x = 0-0.62. We determined that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition of PMN-PT polycrystalline thin film existed at around x = 0.35, from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The maximum value of relative dielectric constants (ɛr = 1498) was obtained at approximately x = 0.23. On the other hand, the piezoelectric coefficients (|e31,f| = 14.1 C/m2) peaked at the determined MPB composition of x = 0.35. From the results of the compositional dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics, the FOM (e_{31,\\text{f}}^{2}/\\varepsilon _{0}\\varepsilon _{\\text{r}}) of the PMN-PT (x = 0.35) thin film reached 21 GPa, which is much higher than that of the other polycrystalline piezoelectric thin films. These results suggest that PMN-PT (x = 0.35) thin film is a promising material for high-efficiency piezoelectric MEMS energy harvesters.

  8. Performance of tonpilz transducers with segmented piezoelectric stacks using materials with high electromechanical coupling coefficient.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen C; Meyer, Richard J; Markley, Douglas C

    2014-01-01

    Tonpilz acoustic transducers for use underwater often include a stack of piezoelectric material pieces polarized along the length of the stack and having alternating polarity. The pieces are interspersed with electrodes, bonded together, and electrically connected in parallel. The stack is normally much shorter than a quarter wavelength at the fundamental resonance frequency so that the mechanical behavior of the transducer is not affected by the segmentation. When the transducer bandwidth is less than a half octave, as has conventionally been the case, for example, with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, stack segmentation has no significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the device in its normal operating band near the fundamental resonance. However, when a high coupling coefficient material such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is used to achieve a wider bandwidth with the tonpilz, the performance difference between a segmented stack and a similar piezoelectric section with electrodes only at the two ends can be significant. This paper investigates the effects of stack segmentation on the performance of wideband underwater tonpilz acoustic transducers. Included is a discussion of a particular tonpilz transducer design using single crystal piezoelectric material with high coupling coefficient compared with a similar design using more traditional PZT ceramics.

  9. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery

  10. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-08-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-x Ti x O3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe "PureWave". The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery

  11. Critical Property in Relaxor-PbTiO3 Single Crystals --- Shear Piezoelectric Response

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    The shear piezoelectric behavior in relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) single crystals is investigated in regard to crystal phase. High levels of shear piezoelectric activity, d15 or d24 >2000 pC N−1, has been observed for single domain rhombohedral (R), orthorhombic (O) and tetragonal (T) relaxor-PT crystals. The high piezoelectric response is attributed to a flattening of the Gibbs free energy at compositions proximate to the morphotropic phase boundaries, where the polarization rotation is easy with applying perpendicular electric field. The shear piezoelectric behavior of pervoskite ferroelectric crystals was discussed with respect to ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions and dc bias field using phenomenological approach. The relationship between single domain shear piezoelectric response and piezoelectric activities in domain engineered configurations were given in this paper. From an application viewpoint, the temperature and ac field drive stability for shear piezoelectric responses are investigated. A temperature independent shear piezoelectric response (d24, in the range of −50°C to O-T phase transition temperature) is thermodynamically expected and experimentally confirmed in orthorhombic relaxor-PT crystals; relatively high ac field drive stability (5 kV cm−1) is obtained in manganese modified relaxor-PT crystals. For all thickness shear vibration modes, the mechanical quality factor Qs are less than 50, corresponding to the facilitated polarization rotation. PMID:21960942

  12. The Use of Phononic Crystals to Design Piezoelectric Power Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Silvia; Aragón, José Luis; Iglesias, Elvira; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the lateral resonances around the working resonance band of ultrasonic piezoelectric sandwich transducers can be stopped by a periodic array of circular holes drilled along the main propagation direction (a phononic crystal). In this work, the performance of different transducer designs made with this procedure is tested using laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models (FEM). It is shown that in terms of mechanical vibration amplitude and acoustic efficiency, the best design for physiotherapy applications is when both, the piezoceramic and an aluminum capsule are phononic structures. The procedure described here can be applied to the design of power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy transducers and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required. PMID:28362315

  13. Detection of sulfur dioxide using a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, O.M.

    1997-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide was detected and determined in air by a piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor coated with 4-aminoantipyrine/1-hydroxyetil-2-heptadecenyl imidazol (amine 220) solution (1:1 v/v in chloroform). The analytical response curve is linear over the concentration range from 0.70 to 5.0 ppm of SO{sub 2}. Good linearities (r = 0.9990, 0.9995 and 0.9968) and sensitivities (18.0, 33.4 and 50.7 Hz/ppm) were found, respectively for exposure times of 30, 60 and 90 seconds. The sensor can be used for more than six months without loss in sensitivity and presented good reversibility and reproducibility. Among some possible interferents tested, only nitrogen dioxide and moisture caused major frequency changes.

  14. Unified model for the electromechanical coupling factor of orthorhombic piezoelectric rectangular bar with arbitrary aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouffaud, R.; Levassort, F.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.

    2017-02-01

    Piezoelectric Single Crystals (PSC) are increasingly used in the manufacture of ultrasonic transducers and in particular for linear arrays or single element transducers. Among these PSCs, according to their microstructure and poled direction, some exhibit a mm2 symmetry. The analytical expression of the electromechanical coupling coefficient for a vibration mode along the poling direction for piezoelectric rectangular bar resonator is established. It is based on the mode coupling theory and fundamental energy ratio definition of electromechanical coupling coefficients. This unified formula for mm2 symmetry class material is obtained as a function of an aspect ratio (G) where the two extreme cases correspond to a thin plate (with a vibration mode characterized by the thickness coupling factor, kt) and a thin bar (characterized by k33'). To optimize the k33' value related to the thin bar design, a rotation of the crystallogaphic axis in the plane orthogonal to the poling direction is done to choose the highest value for PIN-PMN-PT single crystal. Finally, finite element calculations are performed to deduce resonance frequencies and coupling coefficients in a large range of G value to confirm developed analytical relations.

  15. Magnetic microscopy and simulation of strain-mediated control of magnetization in PMN-PT/Ni nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Ian; Chavez, Andres C.; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Sun, Wei-Yang; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P.

    2016-10-01

    Strain-mediated thin film multiferroics comprising piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures enable the electrical manipulation of magnetization with much greater efficiency than other methods; however, the investigation of nanostructures fabricated from these materials is limited. Here we characterize ferromagnetic Ni nanostructures grown on a ferroelectric [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68[PbTiO3]0.32 substrate using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) and micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization of the Ni nanostructures can be controlled with a combination of sample geometry and applied electric field, which strains the ferroelectric substrate and changes the magnetization via magnetoelastic coupling. We evaluate two types of simulations of ferromagnetic nanostructures on strained ferroelectric substrates: conventional micromagnetic simulations including a simple uniaxial strain, and coupled micromagnetic-elastodynamic simulations. Both simulations qualitatively capture the response of the magnetization changes produced by the applied strain, with the coupled solution providing more accurate representation.

  16. Growth and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Veber, Philippe; Benabdallah, Feres; Liu, Hairui; Buse, Gabriel; Josse, Michael; Maglione, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric materials attract more and more attention owing to the environmental toxicity of lead-containing materials. In this work, we review our first attempts of single crystal grown by the top-seeded solution growth method of BaTiO3 substituted with zirconium and calcium (BCTZ) and (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 substituted with lithium, tantalum, and antimony (KNLSTN). The growth methodology is optimized in order to reach the best compositions where enhanced properties are expected. Chemical analysis and electrical characterizations are presented for both kinds of crystals. The compositionally-dependent electrical performance is investigated for a better understanding of the relationship between the composition and electrical properties. A cross-over from relaxor to ferroelectric state in BCTZ solid solution is evidenced similar to the one reported in ceramics. In KNLSTN single crystals, we observed a substantial evolution of the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition under minute composition changes. PMID:28793690

  17. Aspects of symmetry of Electromechanical Coupling Factors in Piezoelectric Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamkovskaya, A.; Maksimova, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the method for the calculation of anisotropic piezoelectric properties of single crystals and the graphical display of the results in 3 D. Crystallographic preferred orientations were determined for piezoelectric modules and electromechanical coupling factor, which measures the ability of a material to interconvert electrical and mechanical energy.

  18. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) single crystal phased-array transducer.

    PubMed

    Lau, S T; Li, H; Wong, K S; Zhou, Q F; Zhou, D; Li, Y C; Luo, H S; Shung, K K; Dai, J Y

    2009-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the -6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double lambda8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A -6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of -46.5 dB were achieved.

  19. Mass sensitivity of thickness-twist modes in a rectangular piezoelectric plate of hexagonal crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashi; Chen, Ziguang; Hu, Yuantai

    2007-04-01

    Mass sensitivity of thickness-twist vibration modes in a rectangular plate piezoelectric resonator of 6 mm crystals are obtained from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. The boundary conditions at the finite-plate boundaries all have been taken into consideration. The solutions obtained are exact, which is relatively few for piezoelectric problems over finite domains. The results are fundamental and useful to the understanding and design of piezoelectric resonators and acoustic wave sensors made of polarized ceramics, ZnO and AlN.

  20. A Model for the Formation of Piezoelectric Single-Crystal Nanorings and Nanobows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    The piezoelectric materials generate electricity or electric polarity in dielectric crystals when subjected to an applied voltage. The nanorings and nanobows are presented that can be used in nanoscale applications such as sensors, transducers, and electromechanical coupling devices.

  1. A Model for the Formation of Piezoelectric Single-Crystal Nanorings and Nanobows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    The piezoelectric materials generate electricity or electric polarity in dielectric crystals when subjected to an applied voltage. The nanorings and nanobows are presented that can be used in nanoscale applications such as sensors, transducers, and electromechanical coupling devices.

  2. Depoling and fatigue behavior of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal at megahertz frequencies under bipolar electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaojiang; Li, Shiyang; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-05-01

    Bipolar electric field induced degradation in [001]c poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-0.29PT) single crystals was investigated at megahertz frequencies. The electromechanical coupling factor kt, dielectric constant ɛr, dielectric loss D, and piezoelectric constant d33 were measured as a function of amplitude, frequency, and number of cycles of the applied electric field. Our results showed that samples degrade rapidly when the field amplitude is larger than a critical value due to the onset of domain switching. We define this critical value as the effective coercive field Ec at high frequencies, which increases drastically with frequency. We also demonstrate an effective counter-depoling method by using a dc bias, which could help the design of high field driven devices based on PMN-PT single crystals and operated at megahertz frequencies.

  3. Electric-Field Modulation of Interface Magnetic Anisotropy and Spin Reorientation Transition in (Co/Pt)3/PMN-PT Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Ba, You; Chen, Aitian; He, Wei; Wang, Wenbo; Zheng, Xiaoli; Zou, Lvkuan; Zhang, Yijun; Yang, Qu; Yan, Lingjia; Feng, Ce; Zhang, Qinghua; Cai, Jianwang; Wu, Weida; Liu, Ming; Gu, Lin; Cheng, Zhaohua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Qiu, Ziqiang; Wu, Yizheng; Li, Jia; Zhao, Yonggang

    2017-03-29

    We report electric-field control of magnetism of (Co/Pt)3 multilayers involving perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with different Co-layer thicknesses grown on Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) FE substrates. For the first time, electric-field control of the interface magnetic anisotropy, which results in the spin reorientation transition, was demonstrated. The electric-field-induced changes of the bulk and interface magnetic anisotropies can be understood by considering the strain-induced change of magnetoelastic energy and weakening of Pt 5d-Co 3d hybridization, respectively. We also demonstrate the role of competition between the applied magnetic field and the electric field in determining the magnetization of the sample with the coexistence phase. Our results demonstrate electric-field control of magnetism by harnessing the strain-mediated coupling in multiferroic heterostructures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and are helpful for electric-field modulations of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and Rashba effect at interfaces to engineer new functionalities.

  4. Non-volatile ferroelastic switching of the Verwey transition and resistivity of epitaxial Fe3O4/PMN-PT (011).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Hoffman, Jason; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinxing; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of electronics based on correlated materials or 'Mottronics' is the ability to switch between distinct collective states with a control voltage. Small changes in structure and charge density near a transition can tip the balance between competing phases, leading to dramatic changes in electronic and magnetic properties. In this work, we demonstrate that an electric field induced two-step ferroelastic switching pathway in (011) oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates can be used to tune the Verwey metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Fe3O4 films in a stable and reversible manner. We also observe robust non-volatile resistance switching in Fe3O4 up to room temperature, driven by ferroelastic strain. These results provides a framework for realizing non-volatile and reversible tuning of order parameters coupled to lattice-strain in epitaxial oxide heterostructures over a broad range of temperatures, with potential device applications.

  5. Temperature dependences of piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants of L-alanine crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylczyński, Z.; Sterczyńska, A.; Wiesner, M.

    2011-09-01

    Temperature changes in the components of piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric tensors were studied in L-alanine crystals in the range 100-300 K. A jumpwise increase in the c55 component of the elastic stiffness accompanied by maxima in damping of all face-shear modes observed at 199 K in L-alanine crystal were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH3+ vibrations occurring through electron-phonon coupling. All components of the piezoelectric tensor show small anomalies in this temperature range. The components of the electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that L-alanine is a weak piezoelectric.

  6. Temperature dependences of piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants of L-alanine crystal.

    PubMed

    Tylczyński, Z; Sterczyńska, A; Wiesner, M

    2011-09-07

    Temperature changes in the components of piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric tensors were studied in L-alanine crystals in the range 100-300 K. A jumpwise increase in the c(55) component of the elastic stiffness accompanied by maxima in damping of all face-shear modes observed at 199 K in L-alanine crystal were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH(3)(+) vibrations occurring through electron-phonon coupling. All components of the piezoelectric tensor show small anomalies in this temperature range. The components of the electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that L-alanine is a weak piezoelectric.

  7. Strain-mediated electric-field control of exchange bias in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S. Z.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Yan, W.; Reeve, R.; Zhang, X. H.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The electric-field (E-field) controlled exchange bias (EB) in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3 (BFO)/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure has been investigated under different tensile strain states. The in-plane tensile strain of the BFO film is changed from +0.52% to +0.43% as a result of external E-field applied to the PMN-PT substrate. An obvious change of EB by the control of non-volatile strain has been observed. A magnetization reversal driven by E-field has been observed in the absence of magnetic field. Our results indicate that a reversible non-volatile E-field control of a ferromagnetic layer through strain modulated multiferroic BFO could be achieved at room temperature. PMID:25752272

  8. Strain-mediated electric-field control of exchange bias in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. Z.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Yan, W.; Reeve, R.; Zhang, X. H.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The electric-field (E-field) controlled exchange bias (EB) in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3 (BFO)/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure has been investigated under different tensile strain states. The in-plane tensile strain of the BFO film is changed from +0.52% to +0.43% as a result of external E-field applied to the PMN-PT substrate. An obvious change of EB by the control of non-volatile strain has been observed. A magnetization reversal driven by E-field has been observed in the absence of magnetic field. Our results indicate that a reversible non-volatile E-field control of a ferromagnetic layer through strain modulated multiferroic BFO could be achieved at room temperature.

  9. Strain-mediated electric-field control of exchange bias in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Wu, S Z; Miao, J; Xu, X G; Yan, W; Reeve, R; Zhang, X H; Jiang, Y

    2015-03-10

    The electric-field (E-field) controlled exchange bias (EB) in a Co90Fe10/BiFeO3 (BFO)/SrRuO3/PMN-PT heterostructure has been investigated under different tensile strain states. The in-plane tensile strain of the BFO film is changed from +0.52% to +0.43% as a result of external E-field applied to the PMN-PT substrate. An obvious change of EB by the control of non-volatile strain has been observed. A magnetization reversal driven by E-field has been observed in the absence of magnetic field. Our results indicate that a reversible non-volatile E-field control of a ferromagnetic layer through strain modulated multiferroic BFO could be achieved at room temperature.

  10. Giant Electric Field Control of Magnetism and Narrow Ferromagnetic Resonance Linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN PT Multiferroic Heterostructures (Open Access Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    1 Giant electric field control of magnetism and narrow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth in FeCoSiB/Si/SiO2/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures...c) 1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA 2Materials and Manufacturing...coupling and narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures. Electric field induced large effective field of 175Oe

  11. Shaped crystal growth of langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals and their physical properties.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Futami, Yoshisuke; Sato, Masato; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have grown shape-controlled langasite-type crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Columnar shaped La(3)Ta(0.5)Ga(5.5)O(14) (LTG), Ca(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CNGS), Ca(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CTGS), Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS), and Sr(3)Ta- Ga(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die at the bottom. All grown crystals showed high transparency except for the peripheral area and diameter of approximately 3 mm. The chemical phases at the central parts of the grown crystals were identified as a single phase of langasite-type structure and their lattice parameters were almost the same as those of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method; however, some impurity phases were observed in the peripheral area. In X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals indicated equivalent crystallinity to the crystal grown by the Cz method. The piezoelectric constant d(11) of the CNGS crystal was 3.98 pC/N; this value is well correlated with those of previous reports.

  12. Multiferroic heterostructures of Fe3O4/PMN-PT prepared by atomic layer deposition for enhanced interfacial magnetoelectric couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Le; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Wang, Chenying; Lin, Qijing; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, multiferroic heterostructures have been prepared by in situ growing oxide magnetic films on ferroelectric single crystal substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Strong interfacial mechanical coupling between the magnetic and ferroelectric phases has been created, arising from the formation of chemical bonds at the interface due to the nature of layer-by-layer self-limiting growth mechanism of the ALD technique. An enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling has been achieved, which allows an electric field to robustly switch magnetic anisotropy up to 780 Oe. In addition, electrical impulse non-volatile tuning of magnetism has also been realized through partially coupled ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain switching. The ALD growth of magnetic oxide films onto ferroelectric substrates provides an effective platform for the preparation of multiferroic heterostructures at low temperatures with an improved ME coupling, demonstrating a great potential for applications in 3D spintronics, microelectronics and data storages.

  13. Ferroelastic strain control of multiple nonvolatile resistance tuning in SrRuO3/PMN-PT(111) multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Ni, Hao; Qi, Yaping; Huang, Weiyi; Zeng, Jiali; Gao, Ju

    2017-05-01

    The electric-field-tunable resistance switching in elastically coupled SrRuO3 thin films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric-crystal substrates has been investigated. During the ferroelectric poling process, the resistance evolution tracks the electric-field-induced in-plane strain of the film efficiently, revealing strain but not the electrostatic charge-mediated coupling mechanism. Using 109° and 71° ferroelastic domain switching of the substrate, multiple reversible and nonvolatile resistance states can be achieved at room temperature, which is closely related to the relative proportion of in-plane polarization vectors and induced distinct in-plane strain states after domain switching. Our findings provide an approach to elucidate electrically driven domain switching dynamics and design energy efficient, high-density spintronic memory devices.

  14. Lattice reorientation in tetragonal PMN-PT thin film induced by focused ion beam preparation for transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneulin, Thibaud; Maeng, Wanjoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Hÿtch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Focused ion beam sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can induce relaxation mechanisms in epitaxial thin films. Here, we describe a relaxation mechanism that can occur in materials having a tetragonal structure. We investigated the lattice structure of a 600 nm thick 0.4 [ Pb ( Mg 1 / 3 Nb 2 / 3 ) O 3 ] - 0.6 [ PbTiO 3 ] layer grown by epitaxy on (110) GdScO3 substrate using geometrical phase analysis applied to high resolution TEM images. The lattice mismatch at the interface is expected to favor the formation of c-domains. However, it was measured that the out-of-plane lattice parameter can decrease abruptly along the growth direction and the transition depends on the thickness of the TEM lamella. Different observations indicate that the crystal flipped by 90° following the preparation of the sample, so that the c-axis is oriented in the thinning direction. Such a mechanism can easily lead to misinterpretations and might happen in other materials with a similar structure.

  15. Piezoelectric crystals generate NMR-like signals for rapid spectrometer troubleshooting.

    PubMed

    Emery, Samuel B; Conradi, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Use of frequency-control quartz crystals for the generation of NMR-like signals via the piezoelectric effect is discussed. Such crystals are inexpensive and cover a wide range of RF frequencies. The crystal is connected to the spectrometer through a 30dB attenuator. Excitation by single, short RF pulses results in time domain signals similar to NMR FIDs. We show that the crystal should be shunted by a low resistance for largest Q (longest T2). By using odd higher overtones, the crystals were made to resonate at the high operating frequencies typical of modern spectrometers, here up to 630MHz. The performance of precision manufactured crystals is particularly better at high frequencies, compared to mass production crystals. The abundant and stable signal provided by the piezoelectric crystals yields a simple method for troubleshooting and testing NMR spectrometers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Piezoelectric properties of polymers containing bent-shape liquid crystal molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diorio, N.; Varga, M.; Carif, A.; Puskas, J. E.; Fodor-Csorba, K.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, J. T.; Jakli, A.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, bent-core liquid crystal elastomers have shown to exhibit large values of flexoelectricity as many as 3 orders of magnitude larger than liquid crystal elastomers containing rod-shaped molecules. These unusual high responses are attributed to have piezoelectric origin. Motivated by this, in this study, two bent-core liquid crystals were used to make various types of materials; low molecular weight bent-core nematic fluid, side chain bent-core liquid crystal polymer, low molecular liquid crystal dispersed in a polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomer, and side-chain bent-core elastomers. Liquid crystal elastomers combine elasticity and flexibility inherent to rubbers and the optical and electrical properties of liquid crystals, and are promising materials for applications such as electro-optics, flexible electronics and actuator technologies for biomedical applications. Most conventional liquid crystal elastomers have rod-shaped liquid crystal molecules chemically attached to a crosslinked polymer network. Converse piezoelectric responses were measured by a Mirau interferometer and the direct piezoelectric signals were studied by home-made device where the stress is provided by an audio speaker. The results will be analyzed in terms of ferroelectric clusters of the materials in the nematic phase and will be compared with other piezoelectric materials. Supported by Grants NSF-DMR -0964765 and NSF-DMR -0804878.

  17. Magnetic field-induced ferroelectric domain structure evolution and magnetoelectric coupling for [110]-oriented PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Jing, W. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced polarization rotation and magnetoelectric coupling effects are studied for [110]-oriented (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3/Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2(PMN-xPT/Terfenol-D) multiferroic composites. Two compositions of the [110]-oriented relaxor ferroelectric single crystals, PMN-28PT and PMN-33PT, are used. In [110]-oriented PMN-28PT, domains of rhombohedral (R) and monoclinic (MB) phases coexist prior to the magnetic loadings. Upon the applied magnetic loadings, phase transition from monoclinic MB to R phase occurs. In [110]-oriented PMN-33PT, domains are initially of mixed orthorhombic (O) and MB phases, and the phase transition from O to MB phase takes place upon the external magnetic loading. Compared to PMN-28PT, the PMN-33PT single crystal exhibits much finer domain boundary structure prior to the magnetic loadings. Upon the magnetic loadings, more domain variants are induced via the phase transition in PMN-33PT than that in PMN-28PT single crystal. The finer domain band structure and more domain variants contribute to stronger piezoelectric activity. As a result, the composite of PMN-33PT/Terfenol-D manifests a stronger ME coupling than PMN-28PT/Terfenol-D composite.

  18. Hydrothermal crystal growth, piezoelectricity, and triboluminescence of KNaNbOF{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kelvin B.; Edwards, Bryce W.; Frazer, Laszlo; Lenferink, Erik J.; Stanev, Teodor K.; Stern, Nathaniel P.; Nino, Juan C.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2016-04-15

    Single crystals of the noncentrosymmetric KNaNbOF{sub 5} polymorph were grown for piezoelectric and triboluminescent measurements. Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d{sub 33} value of ±6.3 pCN{sup −1} and an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 0.1565 in the frequency range 1960–2080 kHz. Crystals of KNaNbOF{sub 5} were found to exhibit a strong triboluminscence effect visible to the naked eye as blue sparks when crystals are crushed. This triboluminescence effect is uncommon in that it is likely independent from both the piezoelectric effect and atmospheric electrical discharge. Instead, triboluminescence may originate from crystal defects or be related to an electroluminescence effect. - Graphical abstract: An optical emission visible to the naked eye as blue sparks is observed when KNaNbOF{sub 5} single crystals are fractured. - Highlights: • Single crystals of KNaNbOF{sub 5} were grown under hydrothermal conditions. • Piezoelectric and triboluminescent properties were characterized. • Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d{sub 33} value of ±pCN{sup −1}. • KNaNbOF{sub 5} exhibits strong triboluminscence visible to the naked eye as blue sparks.

  19. Piezoelectric and electrostrictive sensors and actuators for adaptive structures and smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.

    Developments in composite materials for piezoelectric sensors are briefly reviewed, and new systems using bias field control of the piezoelectric response in relaxor ferroelectric compositions in the PMN:PT and in the PLZT family materials are discussed. For actuator applications, multilayer actuator materials are evaluated, and possibilities for ultrahigh-strain materials are explored. Attention is also given to the composite systems incorporating both a sensor and a responder in the same material together with active solid state electronics. It is shown that a piezoelectric sensor/actuator system mimics an ultrasoft material for weak AC stress, maintaining the load-bearing capability of a stiff ceramic.

  20. Hydrothermal crystal growth, piezoelectricity, and triboluminescence of KNaNbOF5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kelvin B.; Edwards, Bryce W.; Frazer, Laszlo; Lenferink, Erik J.; Stanev, Teodor K.; Stern, Nathaniel P.; Nino, Juan C.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of the noncentrosymmetric KNaNbOF5 polymorph were grown for piezoelectric and triboluminescent measurements. Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d33 value of ±6.3 pCN-1 and an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 0.1565 in the frequency range 1960-2080 kHz. Crystals of KNaNbOF5 were found to exhibit a strong triboluminscence effect visible to the naked eye as blue sparks when crystals are crushed. This triboluminescence effect is uncommon in that it is likely independent from both the piezoelectric effect and atmospheric electrical discharge. Instead, triboluminescence may originate from crystal defects or be related to an electroluminescence effect.

  1. Design, construction and testing of a system for detection of toxic gases based on piezoelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Leyva, J A; de Cisneros, J L; de Barreda, D G; Becerra, A J

    1994-01-01

    A system for static operation of toxic gas sensors based on piezoelectric crystals was constructed as a preliminary step in the development of this type of sensor. The sensing part of the setup consists of a twin oscillating circuit assembled from commercially available electronic parts mounted on a motherboard. The oscillating circuits can accommodate two piezoelectric crystals, of which one or both can be coated with different materials, or a single one, as required. The sensing assembly (crystals plus oscillating circuits) is placed in a customized test chamber that allows one to control and reproduce its internal environment. Once assembled and fine-tuned, the proposed setup was used to test a commercially available piezoelectric crystal for sensing formaldehyde in order to expand available information on this type of sensor.

  2. Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qingfeng; Song, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Ducharme, Stephen; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-04-13

    Single-crystal perovskite solar cells with a lateral structure yield an efficiency enhancement 44-fold that of polycrystalline thin films, due to the much longer carrier diffusion length. A piezoelectric effect observed in perovskite single-crystal and the strain-generated grain-boundaries enable ion migration to form a p-i-n structure.

  3. Measurement of piezoelectric constants of lanthanum-gallium tantalate crystal by X-ray diffraction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Blagov, A. E.; Marchenkov, N. V. Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-01-15

    A method for measuring piezoelectric constants of crystals of intermediate systems by X-ray quasi-multiple-wave diffraction is proposed and implemented. This technique makes it possible to determine the piezoelectric coefficient by measuring variations in the lattice parameter under an external electric field. This method has been approved, its potential is evaluated, and a comparison with high-resolution X-ray diffraction data is performed.

  4. Fundamental Analysis of Piezocatalysis Process on the Surfaces of Strained Piezoelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Matthew B.; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H2 production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO3, PbTiO3, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects. PMID:23831736

  5. Fundamental analysis of piezocatalysis process on the surfaces of strained piezoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Starr, Matthew B; Wang, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the strain state of a piezoelectric electrode has been found to impact the electrochemical activity taking place between the piezoelectric material and its solution environment. This effect, dubbed piezocatalysis, is prominent in piezoelectric materials because the strain state and electronic state of these materials are strongly coupled. Herein we develop a general theoretical analysis of the piezocatalysis process utilizing well-established piezoelectric, semiconductor, molecular orbital and electrochemistry frameworks. The analysis shows good agreement with experimental results, reproducing the time-dependent voltage drop and H₂ production behaviors of an oscillating piezoelectric Pb(Mg₁/₃Nb₂/₃)O₃-32PbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) cantilever in deionized water environment. This study provides general guidance for future experiments utilizing different piezoelectric materials, such as ZnO, BaTiO₃, PbTiO₃, and PMN-PT. Our analysis indicates a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient and a low electrical conductivity are desired for enabling high electrochemical activity; whereas electrical permittivity must be optimized to balance piezoelectric and capacitive effects.

  6. A conductance sensor for dissolved sulphur dioxide using a series piezoelectric crystal device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Lu, C; Chen, K; Nie, L; Yao, S

    1996-08-01

    A new piezoelectric crystal impedance sensor for the determination of sulphur dioxide in aqueous solution is presented. It is realized using a series piezoelectric crystal device which is constructed by connecting an AT-cut piezoelectric crystal to a probe in series. The probe is filled with an internal electrolyte solution that is separated from sample solutions by a gas-permeable membrane. The present sensor exhibits a favourable frequency response to 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-3) M sulphur dioxide. The detection limit is 1 x 10(-8) M. The effects of the sensor preparation are considered. Dynamic range, reproducibility, response time and selectivity of the sensor are also discussed. The proposed sensor has been used successfully for lamp sulphur determinations in petroleum samples.

  7. Modelling, fabrication, and characterization for improved piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Almuatasim Ali

    The ambitious goal of this dissertation is to contribute its share to the scientific researchers and academic community by demonstrate a versatile study on energy harvesting via smart materials. Smart materials are amongst the current production modes which generate clean and green energy. The advantages of smart materials include ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric ceramics and composites in materials science and technology of the 21 st century are inconceivable. Their most current applications include conventional sensors, actuators, batteries replacement, and switch. Further, Piezoelectricity is the accumulation of electrical charges as a result of applying mechanical stress on certain type of materials such as crystals, DNA, and protein, where pyro-electricity is the accumulation of electrical charges from ambient environment from temperature gauges or fluctuations. In an incessant effort to increase the performance of smart materials devices researchers in both academic and industrial communities in field of green energy have suggested many techniques and procedures to increase the power generation capability and enhance the bandwidth of thermal and vibration energy harvesters. In this study, the EulerBernoulli beam Theory, lumped parameter model (LPM), and chain matrix method were applied on various design and structure shape of smart materials to find the output electrical parameters. The modeling and simulation investigations are accomplished using MATLAB program and COMSOL Multiphysics software. A low-cost fabrication technique, of polyvinyl-dine difluoride (PVDF) with different amount of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT), and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) are introduced in this study as well. Later, the (Paint/ PZT) fabricated nanocomposites was tested for dielectric constants over a wide frequency range at different temperatures. It was observed that the composites with higher concentrations

  8. Optimal selection of piezoelectric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure and temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Fei-Yue; Li, Li

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the perturbation method is used to study the velocity shift of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by surface pressure and temperature variations of piezoelectric substrates. Effects of pressures and temperatures on elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of piezoelectric substrates are fully considered as well as the initial stresses and boundary conditions. First, frequency pressure/temperature coefficients are introduced to reflect the relationship between the SAW resonant frequency and the pressure/temperature of the piezoelectric substrates. Second, delay pressure/temperature coefficients are introduced to reflect the relationship among the SAW delay time/phase and SAW delay line-based sensors' pressure and temperature. An objective function for performance evaluation of piezoelectric substrates is then defined in terms of their effective SAW coupling coefficients, power flow angles (PFA), acoustic propagation losses, and pressure and temperature coefficients. Finally, optimal selections of piezo-electric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure, temperature, and pressure/temperature sensors are derived by calculating the corresponding objective function values among the range of X-cut, Y-cut, Z-cut, and rotated Y-cut quartz, lithium niobate, and lithium tantalate crystals in different propagation directions.

  9. Tunable phononic crystals based on piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity.

    PubMed

    Croënne, Charles; Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Dubus, Bertrand; Granger, Christian; Haumesser, Lionel; Levassort, Franck; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Lordereau, Albert; Pham Thi, Mai; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Phononic crystals made of piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that they present Bragg band gaps that depend on the periodic electrical boundary conditions. These structures have improved properties compared to phononic crystals composed of bulk piezoelectric elements, especially the existence of larger band gaps and the fact that they do not require severe constraints on their aspect ratios. Experimental results present an overall agreement with the theoretical predictions and clearly show that the pass bands and stop bands of the device under study are easily tunable by only changing the electrical boundary conditions applied on each piezocomposite layer.

  10. Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Wu, Tsung-Tsong

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the existence of Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu piezoelectric surface acoustic waves in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal (zinc oxide, ZnO, and cadmium-sulfide, CdS) using the plane wave expansion method. In the configuration of ZnO (100)/CdS(100) phononic crystal, the calculated results show that this type of surface waves has higher acoustic wave velocities, high electromechanical coupling coefficients, and larger band gap width than those of the Rayleigh surface waves and pseudosurface waves. In addition, we find that the folded modes of the Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu surface waves have higher coupling coefficients.

  11. High-temperature piezoelectric crystals ReCa4O(BO3)3: a review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fapeng; Hou, Shuai; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Shujun

    2014-08-01

    High-temperature sensors are desirable for structural health monitoring and/or nondestructive evaluation of next-generation turbines, more efficient jet engines, and the furnace components of electrical power plants. Of all the investigated high-temperature piezoelectric materials, rare-earth calcium oxyborate crystals ReCa4O(BO3)3 (ReCOB, Re: rare-earth) exhibit attractive advantages for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing. In this paper, the electroelastic properties of different ReCOB piezoelectric crystals are investigated. The crosstalk between various vibration modes are discussed, from which the optimized crystal cuts are achieved. Furthermore, temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity, dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of ReCOB crystals are studied. Finally, the thermal properties, including thermal expansion, specific heat, and thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures are studied and compared with commercially available high-temperature piezoelectric crystals.

  12. The First-Principle Calculation of La-doping Effect on Piezoelectricity in Tetragonal KNN Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaoli; Zhu, Jiliang; Yuan, Daqing; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Mingsong; Zhu, Xiaohong; Fan, Ping; Zuo, Yi; Zheng, Yongnan; Zhu, Shengyun

    2012-05-01

    The La-dopping effect on the piezoelectricity in the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) crystal with a tetragonal phase is investigated for the first time using the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. The full potentiallinearized augumented plane wave plus local orbitals (APW-LO) method and the supercell method are used in the calculation for the KNN crystal with and without the La doping. The results show that the piezoelectricity originates from the strong hybridization between the Nb atom and the O atom, and the substitution of the K or Na atom by the La impurity atom introduces the anisotropic relaxation and enhances the piezoelectricity at first and then restrains the hybridization of the Nb-O atoms when the La doping content further increases.

  13. Measurement of SO2 in air using coated piezoelectric crystal detectors.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, K H; Webber, L M; Guilbault, G G

    1975-01-01

    Use of hydrophobic membrane filters is shown to effectively reduce the interfering moisture level in the detection of SO2 in air at the parts per billion range. Quadrol is used as a sensitive coating on piezoelectric crystal detectors in a flow system.

  14. Growth and characterization of piezoelectric Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 crystals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anhua; Xu, Jiayue; Zhou, Juan; Lu, Baoliang; Wu, Xianjun; Li, Xinhua; Qian, Guoxing

    2006-12-22

    Langasite (La3Ga5SiO14, LGS) and its isomorphs, have attracted much attention for their potential for surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) applications. Among these homologous compounds, Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 (SGG) attracted our attention due to its superior piezoelectric properties and lower growth temperature. In this work, SGG single crystal has been grown successfully by the vertical Bridgman method with crucible-sealing technique. SGG wafers of 2 in. have been fabricated. The basic physical properties of SGG crystals were measured. The results demonstrate that piezoelectric and mechanical properties of SGG crystals are better than that of LGS crystal and it is expected to be a potential substrate material for SAW and BAW applications.

  15. The new piezoelectric single crystal obtained by the Ge doping in the α-quartz structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclau, M.; Grozescu, A.; Bucur, R.; Poienar, M.; Vlazan, P.; Grozescu, I.; Miclau, N.; Muscutariu, I.

    2009-03-01

    The most interesting properties of the quartz-like crystals are its piezoelectric properties, which are strongly influenced by the intrinsic structural distortions of the material and the crystal growth conditions. Thus, physical properties such as coupling coefficient, the α<->β transition can be directly related to structural distortions in terms of the bridging angle. We propose a new way to increase the structural distortion, using Ge to dope the SiO2 structure with respect to α-quartz structure type. Growth of α -SixGe1-xO2 crystal was realized hydrothermally using a temperature gradient method. Single crystals were investigated by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results open the possibility to tune the piezoelectric properties of these materials by varying the chemical composition.

  16. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  17. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50-80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  18. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials. PMID:27991504

  19. Pyroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of beta-BaB2O4 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, R.; Bhalla, A. S.

    1989-12-01

    Results are presented on measurements of dielectric and pyroelectric properties of single-crystal beta-BaB2O4 in the temperature range between 50 and -190 C, and of piezoelectric properties at room temperature. The piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients of this material were found to be rather low, indicating that beta-BaB2O4 is not suitable for piezoelectric transducer applications. On the other hand, the calculated pyroelectric figure of merit p/K was found to remain constant (compared to the p/K of many ferroelectric materials, in which p/K value decreases with the decrease in temperature), making the beta-BaB2O4 an attractive candidate for some device applications.

  20. Demonstrating Energy Conversion with Piezoelectric Crystals and a Paddle Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakbamrung, Prissana; Putson, Chatchai; Muensit, Nantakan

    2014-02-01

    A simple energy conversion system—particularly, the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy by using shaker flashlights—has recently been presented. This system uses hand generators, consisting of a magnet in a tube with a coil wrapped around it, and acts as an ac source when the magnet passes back and forth through the coil. Additionally, this system includes an LED, a capacitor, a switch, and a full-wave bridge rectifier. We were inspired by this work to design a simpler demonstrator made for teaching energy conversion concepts to science students using piezoelectric material.

  1. Complete set of material constants of Pb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbTiO(3)single crystal with morphotropic phase boundary composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-10-01

    Using combined resonance and ultrasonic methods, a full set of material constants has been measured for morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition xPb(In(12)Nb(12))O(3)-(1-x-y)Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-yPbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals poled along [001](c). Compared with the MPB composition (1-x)Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) single crystals, the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals have smaller anisotropy, higher Curie temperature (T(c) approximately 197 degrees C), and higher rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition temperature (T(R-T) approximately 96 degrees C). The electromechanical properties obtained here are the best found so far for this ternary system with d(33) approximately 2742 pCN, d(31) approximately -1337 pCN, k(33) approximately 95%, and k(31) approximately 65%.

  2. Large piezoelectricity in electric-field modified single crystals of SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanbabaee, B.; Mehner, E.; Richter, C.; Hanzig, J.; Zschornak, M.; Pietsch, U.; Stöcker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Meyer, D. C.; Gorfman, S.

    2016-11-01

    Defect engineering is an effective and powerful tool to control the existing material properties and produce completely new ones, which are symmetry-forbidden in a defect-free crystal. For example, the application of a static electric field to a single crystal of SrTiO3 forms a strained near-surface layer through the migration of oxygen vacancies out of the area beneath the positively charged electrode. While it was previously shown that this near-surface phase holds pyroelectric properties, which are symmetry-forbidden in centrosymmetric bulk SrTiO3, this paper reports that the same phase is strongly piezoelectric. We demonstrate the piezoelectricity of this phase through stroboscopic time-resolved X-ray diffraction under alternating electric field and show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 ranges between 60 and 100 pC/N. The possible atomistic origins of the piezoelectric activity are discussed as a coupling between the electrostrictive effect and spontaneous polarization of this near-surface phase.

  3. Surface charge induced enhanced crystallization on the piezoelectric sodium potassium niobate substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Yamada, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-11-01

    The present work demonstrates the influence of negatively charged surface on piezoelectric Li-modified sodium potassium niobate substrate in inducing the crystallization of KCl, NaCl and Na2SO4 ionic crystals from their respective aqueous solutions. The crystallization ability and morphology of the grown crystal were examined on unpoled, poled and poled as well heat-treated substrate surfaces. It has been observed that the crystallization process can be controlled by varying the surface charge density through the heat treatment of polarized substrate at different temperatures. Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurement suggested that the charge affecting the crystal growth and morphology is likely to be generated in the space charge region.

  4. Nonlinear Elastic Behavior of Piezoelectric Trigonal Crystals: Measurements on Quartz and Lithium-Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, Paul Jerry

    The ultrasonic harmonic generation technique previously used to measure third-order elastic (TOE) constants of crystals of cubic symmetry has been extended to measurement of crystals of trigonal symmetry. The theory for nonpiezoelectric trigonal crystals of J. Philip {Technical Report No. 22, Office of Naval Research, Contract No. N00014 -81-K-0229 (to be published in 1983)} has been combined with the piezoelectric theory of McMahon {J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 1007 (1968)} to determine the effective TOE constants in a piezoelectric solid, and correction has been made in McMahon's expression. Measurements in weakly piezoelectric quartz have produced values of C(,111) and C(,333) which agree within experimental uncertainty with values of R. N. Thurston, H. J. McSkimin and P. Andreatch, Jr. {J. Appl. Phys. 37, 267 (1966)} and R. Stern and R. T. Smith {J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 44, 640 (1968)} after corrections have been made for the effect of diffraction on the data. Measurements in strongly piezoelectric LiNbO(,3) have resulted in values which agree reasonably well with those of J. Philip and M. A. Breazeale {Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 2 (1982) } but disagree with those of C. Y. Nakagawa, K. Yamanouchi and K. Shibayama {J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3969 (1973) }. There is indication of some sample dependence of the values of both the second-order elastic constants as well as the third-order elastic constants of LiNbO(,3) samples currently available. In the course of measurement of the TOE constants a negative nonlinearity parameter was observed for the Piezoelectric {100} direction in quartz. This peculiarity is impossible for thermodynamic reasons in fluids, but has been observed once previously in fused silica {J. Bains and M. A. Breazeale, J. Acoust, Soc. Am. 57, 745 (1975)}. The nonlinearity parameter appears to be positive for the piezoelectric {001 } direction in LiNbO(,3). The data presented are for the "piezoelectrically stiffened" TOE constants; however, there are

  5. High frequency ultrasonic dispersion of single crystal PMN-28%PT with engineered domain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2002-03-01

    The ultrasonic spectroscopy was performed on single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg_1/3Nb_2/3)O_3-0.28PbTiO3 [PMN-28%PT] with engineered domain structures in the frequency range of 50-110 MHz.The sample (H. C. Materials Corporation, Urbana, IL) has the dimensions of 18x13x2.35 mm with [100]/[010]/[001] orientations in the cubic reference frame and is poled along the dimension of 2.35 mm. The frequency dispersions of ultrasonic phase velocity and attenuation for the longitudinal wave propagating along the poling direction were obtained from the spectra analysis of the through ultrasonic signals. For comparison, the ultrasonic spectroscopy were also performed on PZT-4 ceramic and a z-cut LiNbO3 single crystal. It is found that the frequency dispersion of ultrasonic phase velocity and attenuation of the multi-domain PMN-28%PT single crystal is comparable with that of single crystal LiNbO3 and is much smaller than that of PZT-4 ceramic. The measured velocity dispersion is also compared with the one derived from the Kramers-Kronig relationship based on the measured frequency-dependent attenuation. The agreement is fairly good. Our results indicate that the new multi-domain PMN-PT single crystals have great potential for high frequency applications due to its low dispersion and extremely large piezoelectric effect.

  6. Fabrication of graphene field-effect transistor on top of ferroelectric single-crystal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Yourack; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Kim, Joong-Gyu; Yun, Yoojoo; Park, Jeongmin; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Jung Ho; Jin, Youngjo; Shin, Yong Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-03-01

    In the analysis of Graphene field-effect transistor, the substrate material which has the direct contact with Graphene layer plays an important in the device performance. In this presentation, we have tested PMN-PT(i.e.(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) substrate as a gate dielectric of Graphene field-effect transistor. Unlike the case of previously used substrates such as silicon oxide or hexagonal Boron-Nitride(h-BN), the PMN-PT substrate can induce giant amount of surface charge that is directly injected to the attached Graphene layer due to its ferroelectric property. And the hysteresis of polarization versus electric field of PMN-PT can cause the device to show the ferroelectric nonvolatile memory operation. We had successfully fabricated Graphene field-effect transistor using the mechanically exfoliated Graphene layer transferred on the PMN-PT(001) substrate. Unlike the case of mechanical exfoliation on the surface of silicon-oxide or the Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), the weak adhesion properties between graphene and PMNPT required the pretreatment on PMMA before the exfoliation process. The device performance is analyzed in terms of the effect of ferro- and piezo-electric effect of PMNPT substrate.

  7. Growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Harsh; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new semiorganic single crystal of LSO grown by slow evaporation technique. • Morphological studies of the LSO crystal deduced by BFDH law. • In the UV–vis spectrum wide transparent region and large band gap were found. • SHG is equal to KDP crystal and d{sub 33} was found to be equal to 6pC/N. • Grown crystal belongs to softer category. - Abstract: New semiorganic crystal of lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate (LSO) for nonlinear application was synthesized by controlled slow evaporation method. The growth rate of various planes of the grown crystal was estimated by morphological study. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to triclinic lattice with space group P1. High transparency (∼95%) with large band gap (4.57 eV) was analyzed by UV–vis studies. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify various functional groups present in the LSO crystal. SHG efficiency was found to be equal to the KDP crystal. Thermal stability (up to 117.54 °C) and melting point (242 °C) of the crystal were studied by TG-DTA. In dielectric measurements, the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. Hardness studies confirmed soft nature of crystals. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 6pC/N along [0 0 1].

  8. Advances in the development of piezoelectric quartz-crystal oscillators, hydrogen masers, and superconducting frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, Joseph J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent research advances made in the development of radiation-hardened piezoelectric quartz oscillators, hydrogen masers, and superconducting oscillators, with emphasis placed on the principles involved in the operation of these oscillators and the factors affecting the operation. Particular attention is given to the radiation-susceptibility studies of quartz-crystal resonators, the hydrogen-maser relaxation process and noise sources, and low-phase-noise superconducting oscillators. Diagrams of these devices and performance graphs are included.

  9. Large piezoelectric properties in KNN-based lead-free single crystals grown by a seed-free solid-state crystal growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Faqiang; Yang, Qunbao; Liu, Zhifu; Li, Yongxiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Qiming

    2016-05-01

    We report lead-free single crystals with a nominal formula of (K0.45Na0.55)0.96Li0.04NbO3 grown using a simple low-cost seed-free solid-state crystal growth method (SFSSCG). The crystals thus prepared can reach maximum dimensions of 6 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm and exhibit a large piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 689 pC/N. Moreover, the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 * , obtained under a unipolar electric field of 30 kV/cm, can reach 967 pm/V. The large piezoelectric response plus the high Curie temperature (TC) of 432 °C indicate that SFSSCG is an effective approach to synthesize high-performance lead-free piezoelectric single crystals.

  10. Tl10Hg3Cl16: Single crystal growth, electronic structure and piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Piasecki, M.; Kityk, I. V.; Luzhnyi, I.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Fochuk, P. M.; Levkovets, S. I.; Karpets, M. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystal of the ternary halide Tl10Hg3Cl16 was grown using Bridgman-Stockbarger method. For the Tl10Hg3Cl16 crystal, we have measured X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces and additionally investigated photoinduced piezoelectricity. Our data indicate that the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface is very sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, Ar+ ion-bombardment with energy of 3.0 keV over 5 min at an ion current density of 14 μA/cm2 causes significant changes of the elemental stoichiometry of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 surface resulting in an abrupt decrease of the mercury content in the top surface layers of the studied single crystal. As a result of the treatment, the mercury content becomes nil in the top surface layers. In addition, the present XPS measurements allow for concluding about very low hygroscopicity of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface. The property is extremely important for the crystal handling in optoelectronic or nano-electronic devices working at ambient conditions. The photoinduced piezoelectricity has been explored for Tl10Hg3Cl16 depending on nitrogen (λ=371 nm) laser power density and temperature.

  11. High-performance tonpilz transducers utilizing d32-cut piezoelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Jiang, Xiaoning; Meyer, Richard J.; Geng, Xuecang

    2003-08-01

    High frequency sonar is becoming ever more important to the Navy through expanded use of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV). Proposed missions for many UUV's involve shallow water operation where broad bandwidth is required making these applications ideal candidates to use single crystal piezoelectrics. In addition, many UUV sonar systems have commercial uses including oceanographic research, oil and mineral prospecting, salvage, and undersea equipment inspection and maintenance. The properties of single crystal piezoelectrics were exploited for broad bandwidth, high frequency sonar. Crystal sonar investigations based on Tonpilz transducers utilizing the '33' resonance mode have shown limitations on bandwidth due to less than ideal resonator aspect ratio. This is a result of the crystals' low elastic stiffness, which leads to short resonators with large lateral dimensions. To address this issue an alternative design was proposed utilizing the '32' resonance mode with the resonating length oriented along a special crystallographic cut. 'Crystals with this orientation are known to have high properties; d32 values as high as 1600 pC/N have been observed. Since prestress for such a design is applied perpendicular to the poling direction, '32' mode Tonpilz elements exhibit lower loss and higher reliability than '33' mode designs. The feasibility of such '32' mode Tonpilz resonators will be presented as determined through property measurements and finite element analysis. The targeted application for this work is broadband (>100%), high frequency (45 kHz) synthetic aperture arrays for unmanned underwater vehicles.

  12. Dielectric and electromechanical properties of rare earth calcium oxyborate piezoelectric crystals at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fapeng; Zhang, Shujun; Zhao, Xian; Yuan, Duorong; Qin, Lifeng; Wang, Qing-Ming; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-04-01

    The electrical resistivity, dielectric, and electromechanical properties of ReCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (ReCOB; Re = Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, and La) piezoelectric crystals were investigated as a function of temperature up to 1000 °C. Of the studied crystals, ErCOB and YCOB were found to possess extremely high resistivity (p): p > 3 × 10(7) ω.cm at 1000 °C. The property variation in ReCOB crystals is discussed with respect to their disordered structure. The highest electromechanical coupling factor κ(26) and piezoelectric coefficient d(26) at 1000°C, were achieved in PrCOB crystals, with values being on the order of 24.7% and 13.1 pC/N, respectively. The high thermal stability of the electromechanical properties, with variation less than 25%, together with the low dielectric loss (<46%) and high mechanical quality factor (>1500) at elevated temperatures of 1000 °C, make ErCOB, YCOB, and GdCOB crystals promising for ultrahigh temperature electromechanical applications. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Flexo- and piezo-electric polarization of smectic layers in ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyński, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Dardas, D.; Nowicka, K.; Bielejewska, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report on how flexoelectric and piezoelectric polarization components can be determined by a method based on simultaneous studies of dielectric and electrooptic properties of the chiral smectic liquid crystal in the regime of weak electric fields. As a rule, the measurements of spontaneous polarization are performed using switching experiments. The polarization measured in this way is not complete—it contains the piezoelectric component only. However, the knowledge of the entire local polarization of a single smectic layer is of great importance—it is necessary for correct determination of some material parameters, for instance elastic constants. Our experiments performed in a helical smectic mixture demonstrated that flexoelectric contribution to the local spontaneous polarization is significant in both ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases. In the antiferroelectric phase, the flexoelectric polarization is less due to higher helical pitch.

  14. Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Joseph; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 μm long and 850-485 μm wide constructed from 8 μm thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody-coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label-free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label-free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100 virions (nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions (nucleocapsids)/100μl, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label-free, in-situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation. PMID:20863681

  15. Label free detection of white spot syndrome virus using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate piezoelectric microcantilever sensors.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Joseph A; Shih, Wei-Heng; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lo, Grace Chu-Fang; Shih, Wan Y

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated rapid, label free detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the first longitudinal extension resonance peak of five lead-magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) 1050-700 μm long and 850-485 μm wide constructed from 8 μm thick PMN-PT freestanding films. The PMN-PT PEMS were encapsulated with a 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation layer and further coated with anti-VP28 and anti-VP664 antibodies to target the WSSV virions and nucleocapsids, respectively. By inserting the antibody coated PEMS in a flowing virion or nucleocapsid suspension, label free detection of the virions and nucleocapsids were respectively achieved by monitoring the PEMS resonance frequency shift. We showed that positive label free detection of both the virion and the nucleocapsid could be achieved at a concentration of 100virions(nucleocapsids)/ml or 10 virions(nucleocapsids)/100 μl, comparable to the detection sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in contrast to PCR, PEMS detection was label free, in situ and rapid (less than 30 min), potentially requiring minimal or no sample preparation.

  16. Structural, optical and dielectric studies of novel non-linear Bisglycine Lithium Nitrate piezoelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2014-11-01

    The novel non-linear semiorganic Bisglycine Lithium Nitrate (BGLiN) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The structural analysis revealed that it belongs to non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic structure. The presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal was confirmed by FTIR and Raman analysis. Surface morphology of the grown crystal was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The optical studies show that crystal has good transmittance (more than 80%) in the entire visible region and a wide band gap (5.17 eV). The optical constants such as extinction coefficient (K), the reflectance (R) and refractive index (n) as a function of photon energy were calculated from the optical measurements. With the help of these optical constants the electric susceptibility (χc) and both the real (εr) and imaginary (εi) parts of the dielectric constants were also calculated which are required to develop optoelectronic devices. In photoluminescence studies, a broad emission band centered at 404 nm was found in addition to a small band at 352 nm. A broad transition (from 29 to 33 °C) was observed with low dielectric constant value. A high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of 14 pC/N was measured at room temperature which implies its usefulness for various sensor applications. The second harmonic generation efficiency of crystal was found to be 1.5 times to that of KDP. From thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, thermal stability and melting point (246 °C) were investigated. The dielectric behavior, optical characterization, piezoelectric behavior and the non-linear optical properties of the Bisglycine Lithium Nitrate single crystals were reported for the first time which established the usefulness of these crystals for various piezo- and opto-electronics applications.

  17. Enhanced optical, thermal and piezoelectric behavior in dye doped potassium acid phthalate (KAP) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Dye inclusion crystals have attracted researchers in the context of crystal growth for applications in solid state lasers. Pure and 0.1 mol% amaranth doped KAP single crystals, were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystals are up to the dimension of 12×10×3 mm3. Attempt is made to improve the growth rate, optical, piezoelectric and photoconductive properties of pure KAP single crystal with addition of amaranth dye as a dopant. Various characterization studies were made for both pure and dye doped KAP. Thermal stability of the crystals is tested from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). There is only one endothermic peak indicating decomposition point. Higher optical transparency for dye doped KAP crystal was identified from the UV-vis spectrum. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with amaranth dye. The positive photoconductive nature is observed from both pure and amaranth doped KAP.

  18. Ultra-wideband surface acoustic wave resonator employing Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Jiansong; Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Omori, Tatsuya; Ahn, Changjun; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analysis showed that high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator with an extremely large electromechanical coupling factor K2 could be realized on Y cut X propagating Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (YX-PIN-PMN-PT) substrate. A one-port SAW resonator was designed, fabricated, and characterized on Cu-grating/YX-PIN-PMN-PT substrate structure. The experimental results demonstrate that very large K2 of 57.3% is realizable. Such an extremely large K2 makes PIN-PMN-PT single crystal great potential for realizing wideband SAW filters and tunable SAW filters. The influence of inhomogeneity and instability of the domain structure on the fabricated resonators has been discussed thoroughly for further improvement of the devices.

  19. Multi-scale effects of poling on structure-property relationships in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp

    Ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O 3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals are the most promising candidates for the next generation of ultrasonic devices. These materials have superior properties (d33= 3000 PC/N, d31= -1800 pC/N, d15= 5000 pC/N, k33 >0.90) when compared with conventional PZT ceramics. The outstanding properties of ferroelectric piezoelectrics depend in large part on the domain reorientation process known as poling. In this thesis, the multi-scale effects of poling on structure-property relationships are investigated, as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature, for compositions in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region. Thermal softening and expansion coefficients were determined by dilatometry, and a unique direction was discovered along one of the crystallographic equivalent <001> directions, even for unpoled melt-grown crystals. Values of dielectric constant (K33) tripled along the unique direction for compositions near the MPB, compared with the other orthogonal directions. Poling along <001> doubled K33 at room temperature (from K33≈2000 to ≈5000) for compositions near the critical point, and increased over ten-fold (from K33≈1200 to ≈14000) for compositions near the MPB. Room temperature poling also affected the domain structure, and the phase transformation characteristics. Onsets in non-linearity for thermal strain and Curie-Weiss behavior were found to correlate with the Burns temperature. Diffuse dielectric phase anomalies for compositions close to the critical point were attributed to a convergence of three phases rather than classic relaxor behavior. In addition, hyper-Raman measurements revealed softening of a new composition-independent non-polar mode at the Burns temperature. A never-before-seen superlattice in the MPB region was revealed by XRD in the transmission mode. Poling increased the average significance of the superlattice, signifying a structural contribution to the super-structure. The effects of

  20. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Namkyoung; Kim, Geunwoo; Lee, Yun-Hee; Baek, Kwang-Sae; Kim, Ki-Bok

    2015-11-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the electrical and piezoelectric properties of a PMN-PT [(Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3)] single crystal such as permittivity, electrical impedance and piezoelectric constant d33 has been investigated at 1 kHz. The changes of d33 and permittivity depending on the dose of neutron irradiation for all samples of PMN-PT single crystal were found. In all samples, the permittivity, and piezoelectric constant d33 decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Changes of XRD patterns depending on the dose of neutron irradiation for all samples were found. From the results of XRDs for analyzing the formation of the PMN-PT single crystals in single phase, the neutron irradiation will affect the crystallinity of PMN-PT single crystals.

  1. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    SciTech Connect

    Priya, Shashank; Viehland, Dwight

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  2. Specific features of photoconductivity and photoinduced piezoelectricity in AgGaGe3Se8 doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kityk, I. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Rakus, P.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Fedorchuk, A. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, complex photoconductivity and photo-induced piezoelectricity studies were performed for the AgGaGe3Se8 single crystals doped by In, Sn and Cu with content 5% in weighting units. The principal role of the intrinsic cationic and anionic defects is demonstrated. The photoconductivity and optical absorption spectra show substantial changes of effective energy gap and steepness of absorption edge. The role of optical transitions between the localized states in the presence of Sn, Cu, In impurities is explored. Piezoelectric studies under external laser illumination have shown significant role of dopants on the piezoelectric constants values and their anisotropy. Clear photo-induced jumps were discovered. The discussion is performed within the framework of crystallochemistry analysis and quantum chemical evaluations. Possibility of production of optically operated piezoelectric triggers is proposed.

  3. Semiconductor/Piezoelectrics Hybrid Heterostructures with Highly Effective Gate-Tunable Electrotransport and Magnetic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhao, Wei-Yao; Wang, Jing; Gao, Guan-Yin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Min; Cao, Shi-Xun; Li, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2016-10-12

    We report the epitaxial growth of oxygen deficient titanium dioxide thin films on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals and realized highly effective in situ electrostatic manipulation of electrotransport and magnetism of TiO2-δ films via gate voltages. Upon the polarization switching in the PMN-PT, the carrier density of the TiO2-δ film could be reversibly modified, resulting in a large nonvolatile resistivity modulation by ∼51% at T = 300 K, approximately 4-12 times larger than that of other transition-metal oxide film/PMN-PT structures. By taking advantage of in situ manipulation of the carrier density via gate voltages, we found that competition between the trap of electrons by the Ti(3+)-VO pairs and that by the positive polarization charges at the interface results in a significant resistivity relaxation upon the polarization switching, and revealed that magnetization is inversely correlated with the carrier density of the TiO2-δ film. Such hybrid structures combining materials with dissimilar functionalities may have potential applications in multifunctional devices which can take advantage of the useful and unique properties of both materials.

  4. Calcium aluminate silicate Ca2Al2SiO7 single crystal applicable to piezoelectric sensors at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Hagiwara, Manabu; Noguchi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2013-06-01

    Ca2Al2SiO7 (CAS) bulk single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Material constants of the crystal were determined over the driving temperature range of a typical combustion pressure sensor. The electrical resistivity at 800 °C was found to be of the order of 108 Ωcm. We constructed a measurement system for the direct piezoelectric effect at high temperature, and characterized the crystals in a simulated engine cylinder combustion environment. Output charge signal against applied stress was detected at 700 °C. These observations suggest that CAS crystals are superior candidate materials for high temperature for stress sensing.

  5. Characterizing full matrix constants of piezoelectric single crystals with strong anisotropy using two samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liguo; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-10-01

    Although the self-consistency of the full matrix material constants of a piezoelectric sample obtained by the resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy technique can be guaranteed because all constants come from the same sample, it is a great challenge to determine the constants of a piezoelectric sample with strong anisotropy because it might not be possible to identify enough resonance modes from the resonance spectrum. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a strategy to use two samples of similar geometries to increase the number of easy identifiable modes. Unlike the IEEE resonance methods, sample-to-sample variation here is negligible because the two samples have almost the same dimensions, cut from the same specimen and poled under the same conditions. Using this method, we have measured the full matrix constants of a [011]c poled 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystal, which has 17 independent constants. The self-consistency of the obtained results is checked by comparing the calculated elastic stiffness constants c33 D , c44 D , and c55 D with those directly measured ones using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method.

  6. Piezoelectric d36 in-plane shear-mode of lead-free BZT-BCT single crystals for torsion actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berik, P.; Chang, W.-Y.; Jiang, X.

    2017-01-01

    We report the study of piezoelectric direct torsion actuation mechanism using lead-free piezoelectric d36 in-plane shear-mode BZT-BCT single crystals. The generated angle of twist of the piezoelectric torsion actuator was obtained from the transverse deflection measurement using a laser vibrometer. The bi-morph torsional actuator, consisting of two lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT in-plane shear-mode single crystals with a giant piezoelectric d36 shear strain coefficient of 1590 pC/N, provided a rate of twist of 34.12 mm/m under a quasi-static 15 V drive. The experimental benchmark was further modelled and verified by the ANSYS software using three dimensional (3D) piezoelectric finite elements. The experimental results revealed that lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT d36-mode single crystal is a superior candidate for piezoelectric torsion actuation. This lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT d36-mode torsion actuator can be effectively applied in torsional deformation control by taking into account the environmental considerations.

  7. Vibration energy harvester with sustainable power based on a single-crystal piezoelectric cantilever array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Kwon, Jong-Kee; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2012-08-01

    We designed and fabricated a bimorph cantilever array for sustainable power with an integrated Cu proof mass to obtain additional power and current. We fabricated a cantilever system using single-crystal piezoelectric material and compared the calculations for single and arrayed cantilevers to those obtained experimentally. The vibration energy harvester had resonant frequencies of 60.4 and 63.2 Hz for short and open circuits, respectively. The damping ratio and quality factor of the cantilever device were 0.012 and 41.66, respectively. The resonant frequency at maximum average power was 60.8 Hz. The current and highest average power of the harvester array were found to be 0.728 mA and 1.61 mW, respectively. The sustainable maximum power was obtained after slightly shifting the short-circuit frequency. In order to improve the current and power using an array of cantilevers, we also performed energy conversion experiments.

  8. Acoustic phonon transmission spectra in piezoelectric AlN/GaN Fibonacci phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Chesman, C.; Freire, V. N.

    2007-08-01

    We study the acoustic-phonon transmission spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from the III-V nitride materials AlN and GaN. The phonon dynamics is described by a coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations within the static field approximation model, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon transmission coefficients. Numerical results, for the normal incidence case, show a strike self-similar pattern for both hexagonal (class 6 mm) and cubic symmetries crystalizations of the nitrides.

  9. Piezoelectric performances of undoped ( K , Na ) NbO3 ceramics and crystals for transducers applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bah, Micka; Giovannelli, Fabien; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Retoux, Richard; Feuillard, Guy; Le Clézio, Emmanuel; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to take control on the grain size and densification of undoped K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN), from micrometer to millimeter grain sizes. For this purpose, ceramics are prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and conventional sintering. Their piezoelectric properties are comparatively studied. After full structural and microstructural characterizations, high electromechanical properties (kt = 45 %, kp = 30 %, Z = 20 MRay) for conventional sintering and (kt = 45 %, kp = 48 %, Z = 30 MRay) for SPS sintering are obtained. Otherwise, millimeter grains are produced by the floating zone method used for crystal growth, and their electromechanical properties are determined and compared to their homologous ceramics. Moreover, using the characteristics of the three materials, simulated electroacoustic responses of single-element transducers are compared. The results show that KNN is suitable for transducer applications.

  10. Identification of combustible material with piezoelectric crystal sensor array using pattern-recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    He, X W; Xing, W L; Fang, Y H

    1997-11-01

    A promising way of increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors is to treat the signals from a number of different gas sensors with pattern recognition (PR) method. A gas sensor array with seven piezoelectric crystals each coated with a different partially selective coating material was constructed to identify four kinds of combustible materials which generate smoke containing different components. The signals from the sensors were analyzed with both conventional multivariate analysis, stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), and artificial neural networks (ANN) models. The results show that the predictions were even better with ANN models. In our experiment, we have reported a new method for training data selection, 'training set stepwise expending method' to solve the problem that the network can not converge at the beginning of the training. We also discussed how the parameters of neural networks, learning rate eta, momentum term alpha and few bad training data affect the performance of neural networks.

  11. Electrochemical and surface characterisation of carbon-film-coated piezoelectric quartz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Edilson M.; Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Soares, David M.; Brett, Christopher M. A.

    2009-06-01

    The electrochemical properties of carbon films, of thickness between 200 and 500 nm, sputter-coated on gold- and platinum-coated 6 MHz piezoelectric quartz crystal oscillators, as new electrode materials have been investigated. Comparative studies under the same experimental conditions were performed on bulk electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out in 0.1 M KCl electrolyte solution, and kinetic parameters of the model redox systems Fe(CN) 63-/4- and [Ru(NH 3) 6] 3+/2+ as well as the electroactive area of the electrodes were obtained. Atomic force microscopy was used in order to examine the surface morphology of the films, and the properties of the carbon films and the electrode-solution interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of the preparation and development of nanometer thick carbon film modified quartz crystals. Such modified crystals should open up new opportunities for the investigation of electrode processes at carbon electrodes and for the application of electrochemical sensing associated with the EQCM.

  12. Perfectly matched layer stability in 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulation of electroacoustic wave propagation in piezoelectric crystals with different symmetry class.

    PubMed

    Nova, Omar; Peña, Néstor; Ney, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Perfectly matched layer stability in 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulations is demonstrated for two piezoelectric crystals: barium sodium niobate and bismuth germanate. Stability is achieved by adapting the discretization grid to meet a central-difference scheme. Stability is demonstrated by showing that the total energy of the piezoelectric system remains constant in the steady state.

  13. High-order face-shear modes of relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for piezoelectric motor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Chen, Zhijiang; Zhang, Shujun; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-06-01

    The face-shear vibration modes of [011] poled Zt ± 45° cut relaxor-PT crystals and their applications for linear piezoelectric motors were investigated. Unlike piezoelectric ceramics, the rotated crystal was found to exhibit asymmetric face-shear deformations, and its two high-order face-shear modes degraded into two non-isomorphic modes. As an application example, a standing wave ultrasonic linear motor (10 × 10 × 2 mm3) operating in high-order face-shear vibration modes was developed. The motor exhibits a large driving force (1.5 N) under a low driving voltage (22 Vpp). These findings could provide guidance for design of crystal resonance devices.

  14. Effect of Rochelle salt on growth, optical, photoluminescence, photoconductive and piezoelectric properties of the triglycine sulphate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Rao, G. Babu; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Triglycine sulphate (TGS) is well-known ferroelectric crystal, finding many applications in IR detectors and laser devices. Triglycine sulphate crystal was grown by conventional method using water as a solvent. The 1 mol% of semiorganic piezoelectric material Rochelle salt (RS) is added into the pure TGS to enhance its optical, photoluminescence and piezoelectric properties. The crystallinity of the grown crystals was examined by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Optical transmittance shows that the RS doped TGS possesses higher transparency compared to pure TGS. High intense luminescence at 442 nm for the RS doped TGS single crystal is observed from the photoluminescence study. The negative photoconductivity nature is observed for both pure and RS doped TGS and it was studied under different conditions such as dark, light and also under different temperatures such as at Curie temperature, above and below Curie temperature. Low dislocation density for RS doped TGS crystal is observed from chemical etching analysis. The piezoelectric d33 co-efficient is also increased as a result of RS doping in TGS.

  15. Effective electromechanical moduli of ferroelectric ceramics with fiber textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. C.; Liu, J.; Li, J. Y.

    2005-06-01

    In this letter, we report the predictions on the effective piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors of ferroelectric ceramics BaTiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) with various fiber textures, including [001], [011], and [111], using a two-scale micromechanical model that accounts for microstructural phenomena at both domain and grain levels. It was observed that for BaTiO3 the [011] texture is optimal with highest d31 and d33, while for PMN-PT [001] texture is optimal despite the fact that [011]-oriented single-crystalline PMN-PT has higher d32 than that of [001]-oriented PMN-PT single crystal. In fact, [011]-textured PMN-PT ceramics have much smaller piezoelectric coefficients d32 and d33 than does [011]-oriented PMN-PT single crystal. It is also noted that [001]-textured BaTiO3 and PMN-PT ceramics have even higher electromechanical coupling factor k31 than that of [001]-oriented single crystals.

  16. Growth, structural, optical, piezoelectric and etching analysis of L-lysine p-nitrophenolate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandar, A.; Lakshmanan, A.; Sakthy Priya, S.; Surendran, P.; Rameshkumar, P.

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear optical single crystals of L-lysine p-nitrophenolate monohydrate (LLPNP) were grown in aqueous solution by the slow evaporation solution technique (SEST). The grown crystals were subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis, (PXRD) and it was found that the title compound was crystallized in the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of P212121. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups present in the crystal were analyzed using the FTIR spectrum with a wavenumber range between 450 cm‑1 and 4000 cm‑1. The microhardness analysis of the sample revealed that the crystal belongs to the soft material category. Piezoelectric analysis was performed to measure the value of the piezoelectric (d33) coefficient. Blue light emission of the material was confirmed using the photoluminescence spectrum. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was analyzed using a melting point apparatus and it was found that the LLPNP is stable upto 175∘C. Etching analysis was performed at various durations, in order to identify the surface properties of the LLPNP crystal.

  17. Bulk crystal growth, optical, mechanical and ferroelectric properties of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric Lithium nitrate monohydrate oxalate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-01

    New semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals of Lithium nitrate oxalate monohydrate (LNO) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicated that LNO crystal belongs to the triclinic system with space group P1. Various functional groups present in the material were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-vis study showed the high transparency of crystals with a wide band gap 5.01 eV. Various Optical constants i.e. Urbach energy (Eu), extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity, electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. A sharp emission peak was found at 438 nm in photoluminescence measurement, which revealed suitability of crystal for fabricating violet lasers. In dielectric studies, a peak has been observed at 33 °C which is due to ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. Piezoelectric charge coefficients (d33 = 9.2 pC/N and g33) have been calculated, which make it a suitable for piezoelectric devices applications. In ferroelectric studies, a saturated loop was found in which the values of coercive field and remnant polarization were found to be 2.18 kV/cm and 0.39 μC/cm2, respectively. Thermal behavior was studied by TGA and DSC studies. The relative SHG efficiency of LNO was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP crystal. In microhardness study, Meyer's index value was found to be 1.78 which revealed its soft nature. These optical, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, mechanical and non-linear optical properties of grown crystal establish the usefulness of this material for optoelectronics, non-volatile memory and piezoelectric devices applications.

  18. Note: Accurate determination of thickness of multiple layers of thin film deposited on a piezoelectric quartz crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajid, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Modern day piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances for thin film deposition control are based on Z-match equation, which is mathematically valid for deposition of a single material on a given quartz crystal. When multiple layers are deposited, thickness and deposition rate errors accumulate due to mismatch of acoustic impedance of different materials. Here we present a novel method, based on the acoustic transfer matrix formalism, for accurate determination of thickness of an arbitrary number of layers of dissimilar materials deposited on a quartz crystal. Laboratory data show excellent accuracy of the method compared to conventional Z-match equation.

  19. Note: Accurate determination of thickness of multiple layers of thin film deposited on a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    PubMed

    Wajid, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Modern day piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances for thin film deposition control are based on Z-match equation, which is mathematically valid for deposition of a single material on a given quartz crystal. When multiple layers are deposited, thickness and deposition rate errors accumulate due to mismatch of acoustic impedance of different materials. Here we present a novel method, based on the acoustic transfer matrix formalism, for accurate determination of thickness of an arbitrary number of layers of dissimilar materials deposited on a quartz crystal. Laboratory data show excellent accuracy of the method compared to conventional Z-match equation.

  20. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  1. Piezoelectric-Crystal-Resonator High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Generation and Synchro-Resonance Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.; Woods, R. Clive; Li, Fangyu

    2006-01-01

    Here we show the generation of high-frequency-gravitational-waves (HFGWs) utilizing piezoelectric elements such as the ubiquitous Film-Bulk-Acoustic-Resonators (FBARs), found in cell phones, as energized by inexpensive magnetrons, found in microwave ovens, generating GWs having a frequency of about 4.9GHz and their detection by means of new synchro-resonance techniques developed in China. In the 1960s Weber suggested piezoelectric crystals for gravitational-wave (GW) generation. Since then researchers have proposed specific designs. The major obstacle has been the cost of procuring, installing, and energizing a sufficient number of such resonators to generate sufficiently powerful GWs to allow for detection. Recent mass-production techniques, spurred on by the production of cell phones, have driven the cost of resonators down. The new Chinese detector for detecting the 4.9×109Hz HFGW is a coupling-system of fractal membranes-beam-splitters and a narrow, 6.1 cm-radius, pulsed-Gaussian-laser or continuous-Gaussian detection beam passing through a static 15T-magnetic field. The detector is sensitive to GW amplitudes of ~10-30 to be generated with signal-to-noise ratios greater than one. It is concluded that a cost-effective HFGW generation and detection apparatus can now be fabricated and operated in the laboratory. If the two groups or clusters of magnetrons and FBARs were space borne and at lunar distance (e.g., at the Moon and at the lunar L3 libration point) and the quadrupole formalism approximately holds for GW radiators (the FBAR clusters) many GW wavelengths apart, then the HFGW power would be about 420 W and the flux about 2×105 Wm-2 (or more than one hundred times greater than the solar radiation flux at the Earth) focused at the focal spot, or remote-HFGW-emitter, anywhere in the Earth's environs - on or below the Earth's surface.

  2. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Li, Yang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lead-free K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} single crystals were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. • The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of as-grown crystals were systematically investigated. • The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N. • The coercive fields of P–E hysteresis loops are quite small, about or less than 1 kV/mm. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals with the composition of K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (abbreviated as KLTN, x = 0.51, 0.60, 0.69, 0.78) were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. Their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in as-grown crystals have been systematically investigated. The phase transitions and Curie temperatures were determined from dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors in thickness mode, length-extensional mode and longitudinal mode were obtained. The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N are comparable to the lead-based PZT composition. The polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops show saturated shapes. In short, lead-free niobium-rich KLTN system possesses comparable properties to those in important lead-based piezoelectric material nowadays.

  3. Piezoelectric crystal microbalance measurements of enthalpy of sublimation of C2-C9 dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirri, F.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zampetti, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present here a novel experimental set-up that is able to measure the enthalpy of sublimation of a given compound by means of piezoelectric crystal microbalances (PCMs). The PCM sensors have already been used for space measurements, such as for the detection of organic and non-organic volatile species and refractory materials in planetary environments. In Earth atmospherics applications, PCMs can be also used to obtain some physical-chemical processes concerning the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in atmospheric environments. The experimental set-up has been developed and tested on dicarboxylic acids. In this work, a temperature-controlled effusion cell was used to sublimate VOC, creating a molecular flux that was collimated onto a cold PCM. The VOC recondensed onto the PCM quartz crystal, allowing the determination of the deposition rate. From the measurements of deposition rates, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of adipic acid, i.e. ΔHsub : 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ mol-1, succinic acid, i.e. 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ mol-1, oxalic acid, i.e. 62.5 ± 3.1 kJ mol-1, and azelaic acid, i.e. 124.2 ± 1.2 kJ mol-1. The results obtained show an accuracy of 1 % for succinic, adipic, and azelaic acid and within 5 % for oxalic acid and are in very good agreement with previous works (within 6 % for adipic, succinic, and oxalic acid and within 11 % or larger for azelaic acid).

  4. Piezoelectric crystal microbalance measurements of enthalpy of sublimation of C2-C9 dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirri, F.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zampetti, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present here a novel experimental setup able to measure the enthalpy of sublimation of a given compound by means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM). This experiment was performed in the TG-Lab facility in IAPS-INAF, dedicated to the development of TGA sensors for space measurements, such as detection of organic and non-organic volatile species and refractory materials in planetary environments. In order to study physical-chemical processes concerning the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) present in atmospheric environments, the setup has been tested on Dicarboxylic acids. Acids with low molecular weight are among the components of organic fraction of particulate matter in the atmosphere, coming from different sources (biogenic and anthropogenic). Considering their relative abundance, it is useful to consider Dicarboxylic acid as "markers" to define the biogenic or anthropogenic origin of the aerosol, thus obtaining some information of the emission sources. In this work, a temperature controlled effusion cell was used to sublimate VOC, creating a molecular flux that was collimated onto a cold PCM. The VOC re-condensed onto the PCM quartz crystal allowing the determination of the deposition rate. From the measurements of deposition rates, it was possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. Δ Hsub: 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ mol-1, Succinic acid, i.e. 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ mol-1, Oxalic acid, i.e. 62.5 ± 3.1 kJ mol-1 and Azelaic acid, i.e. 124.2 ± 1.2 kJ mol-1 (weight average values). The results obtained are in very good agreement with literature within 10 % for the Adipic, Succinic and Oxalic acid.

  5. Enantioselective piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for d-methamphetamine based on a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Leveriza F; Ebarvia, Benilda S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2010-08-01

    A piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed for enantioselective and quantitative analysis of d-(+)-methamphetamine (d(+)-MA). The sensor was produced by bulk polymerization and the resulting MIP was then coated on the gold electrode of an AT-cut quartz crystal. Conditions such as volume of polymer coating, curing time, type of PQC, baseline solvent, pH, and buffer type were found to affect the sensor response and were therefore optimized. The PQC-MIP gave a stable response to different concentrations of d(+)-MA standard solutions (response time = 10 to 100 s) with good repeatability (RSD = 0.03 to 3.09%; n = 3), good reproducibility (RSD = 3.55%; n = 5), and good reversibility (RSD = 0.36%; n = 3). The linear range of the sensor covered five orders of magnitude of analyte concentration, ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-1) microg mL(-1), and the limit of detection was calculated as 11.9 pg d(+)-MA mL(-1) . The sensor had a highly enantioselective response to d(+)-MA compared with its response to l(-)-MA, racemic MA, and phentermine. The developed sensor was validated by applying it to human urine samples from drug-free individuals spiked with standard d(+)-MA and from a confirmed MA user. Use of the standard addition method (SAM) and samples spiked with d(+)-MA at levels ranging from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-2) microg mL(-1) showed recovery was good (95.3 to 110.9%).

  6. Biomimetic piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with chloramphenicol-imprinted polymer sensing layer.

    PubMed

    Ebarvia, Benilda S; Ubando, Isaiah E; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of banned antibiotic like chloramphenicol is significant for customer protection and safety. The presence of residual antibiotics in foods and food products of animal origin could pose as health hazards and affect food quality for global acceptance. In this study, the potential of a chloramphenicol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coupled with a piezoelectric quartz crystal was explored. The MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization at 60 °C. Methacrylic acid was used as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as crosslinker, and chloramphenicol as the template. Template removal on the resulting polymer was done by extraction using methanol-acetic acid. Characterization of the MIP and NIP were conducted by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These further supported the imprinting and rebinding process of chloramphenicol to the polymer matrix. The chloramphenicol sensor was devised by spin-coating onto one side of the 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal the MIP suspension in polyvinylchloride-tetrahydrofuran (6:2:1 w/w/v) solution. Optimization of sensor response was performed by varying the type of cross-linker, amount of MIP sensing layer, curing time, and pH. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity of about 73 Hz/log (conc., µg mL(-1)) and good repeatability (rsd<10%). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.9901) between frequency shift and chloramphenicol concentration in the range of 1×10(-6) up to 1×10(-1) µg/mL was obtained. The sensor response was highly selective to chloramphenicol than with other compounds of similar chemical structures. Acceptable percent recovery was obtained for real sample analysis using the sensor. The proposed sensor could be a promising low cost and highly sensitive approach for residual chloramphenicol quantification in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromechanical properties of high coupling single crystals under large electric drive and uniaxial compression.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed

    2005-10-01

    This work investigates the 33-mode electromechanical response of relaxor-ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystals when driven with large fields approximately 0.4 MV/m under a combined direct current (DC) field and mechanical bias similar to those used in the design of sound projectors. It demonstrates that the remarkable small signal length extensional coupling (k33 > 0.90) and other electromechanical properties of morphotropic PMN-PT single crystals prevail under large drive. The observed k33 roll-off at 42 MPa compressive stress is analyzed in terms of the recent structural data and the high-order Devonshire theory of possible ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition trajectories.

  8. The growth and thermal, electrical properties characterization of Ba2TiSi2O8 piezoelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuoliang; Jiang, Bohan; Zheng, Yanqing; Tu, Xiaoniu; Xiong, Kainan; Gao, Pan; Shi, Erwei

    2016-10-01

    Ba2TiSi2O8 (BTS) crystals were successfully grown by the Czochralski method. The raw material ratio was optimized according to the effective segregation coefficient keff of different components in the BTS crystal. The thermal properties of the BTS crystal were systematically studied at elevated temperature, including thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. The variations of the thermal expansion coefficients α 33 and α 11 in the temperature range of 25-185 °C were small, whereas those in the temperature range of 185-1000 °C were 17.14×10-6/°C and 4.73×10-6/°C, respectively. A strong anisotropic characteristic in the thermal expansion ratio is associated with the lamellar structure of the BTS crystal. The thermal conductivity increased slowly as the temperature rises. The piezoelectric strain constant d33 of the BTS crystal was determined to be 4.5 pC/N at room temperature using a quasi-static d33 meter. The electrical resistivity of the BTS crystal was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C, the resistivity ρr of the BTS Z-cut sample was 2.06×109 Ω cm at 800 °C, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (langasite-type crystal) X-cut sample (7.15×106 Ω cm) at the same temperature. Thermal and electrical properties have shown that BTS crystal is a potential alternative material for the high temperature piezoelectric sensors.

  9. Quantitative analysis of magnetization reversal in Ni thin films on unpoled and poled (0 1 1) [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 piezoelectric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkach, Alexander; Kehlberger, Andreas; Büttner, Felix; Jakob, Gerhard; Eisebitt, Stefan; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    The field angle dependence of the magnetization reversal in 20 nm thick polycrystalline Ni films grown on piezoelectric (0 1 1) [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates is analysed quantitatively to study the magnetic anisotropy induced in the film by poling the piezosubstrate. While the PMN-PT is in the unpoled state, the magnetization reversal is almost isotropic as expected from the polycrystalline nature of the film and corresponding to an orientation ratio (OR) of 1.2. The orientation ratio is obtained by fitting the angular dependence of normalized remanent magnetization to an adapted Stoner-Wohlfarth relation. Upon poling the piezosubstrate, a strong uniaxial anisotropy, whose hard axis is oriented along the [1 0 0] direction of the PMN-PT, is induced, yielding an OR of 3.1. The angular dependence of the coercivity for the poled state is found to consist of a strong increase for increasing field angles away from the easy axis direction and of a sharp decrease for angles close to the hard direction. It is best described by a two-phase model, implying that the magnetization reversal is determined by both, coherent rotation of the magnetic moments, according to the Stoner-Wohlfarth model, and the gradual displacement of the domain walls in obedience to the Kondorsky model.

  10. Crystal structure and piezoelectric and magnetic properties of Bi1- x Sm x FeO3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinsky, D. V.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Zheludkevich, A. L.; Ignatenko, O. V.; Silibin, M. V.; Sikolenko, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The crystal structure and piezoelectric and magnetic properties have been studied in Bi1‒ x Sm x FeO3 solid solutions with the compositions near the morphotropic boundary between rhombohedral and orthorhombic (Rh-Orh) phases. The coexistence areas of rhombohedral and antipolar orthorhombic phases, as well as the evolution of structural phases at the interface, have been established. A maximum piezoelectric signal is found for the two-phase composition with the dominating rhombohedral phase, and an increase in the piezoresponse is caused by the decreasing structural stability of the sample. The evolution of magnetic properties in Bi1- x Sm x FeO3 compounds has been elucidated depending on the substitutional ion concentration. The orthorhombic phase composites are the weak ferromagnetics with the residual magnetization of ~0.2 emu/g.

  11. Measuring Enthalpy of Sublimation of Volatiles by Means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances.

    PubMed

    Dirri, Fabrizio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano

    2016-09-15

    Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment. In particular the enthalpy of sublimation of some dicarboxylic acids has been measured. The importance of dicarboxylic acids in planetology and astrobiology is due to the fact that they have been detected in carbonaceous chondritic material (e.g. Murchinson), among the most pristine material present in our Solar System. In this work, a sample of acid was heated in an effusion cell up to its sublimation. For a set of temperatures (from 30 °C to 75 °C), the deposition rate on the PCM surface has been measured. From these measurements, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. ΔH = 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol and Succinic acid, i.e. ΔH = 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ/mol. This technique has so demonstrated to be a good choice to recognise a single compound or a mixture (with an analysis upstream) even if some improvements concerning the thermal stabilization of the system will be implemented in order to enhance the results' accuracy. The experiment has been performed in support of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) project, which is included in the scientific payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission study.

  12. Measuring Enthalpy of Sublimation of Volatiles by Means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirri, Fabrizio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment. In particular the enthalpy of sublimation of some dicarboxylic acids has been measured. The importance of dicarboxylic acids in planetology and astrobiology is due to the fact that they have been detected in carbonaceous chondritic material (e.g. Murchinson), among the most pristine material present in our Solar System. In this work, a sample of acid was heated in an effusion cell up to its sublimation. For a set of temperatures (from 30 °C to 75 °C), the deposition rate on the PCM surface has been measured. From these measurements, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. ΔH = 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol and Succinic acid, i.e. ΔH = 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ/mol. This technique has so demonstrated to be a good choice to recognise a single compound or a mixture (with an analysis upstream) even if some improvements concerning the thermal stabilization of the system will be implemented in order to enhance the results' accuracy. The experiment has been performed in support of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) project, which is included in the scientific payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission study.

  13. Quantitative detection of Amino Acid, Organic Acid and Sugar using an Electrode-separated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Toshiaki; Yamamura, Satoshi; Arikawa, Yukihiko

    An electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal (electrode-separated PQC) is constructed with no electrode attached to either side of the quartz plate, but electrodes are separately inserted in the electrolyte solution on both sides of the quartz plate, and are connected to an oscillator. The frequency shifts due to the solution properties and the mass change on the quartz plate is just the same as for a normal piezoelectric quartz crystal (normal PQC) having two electrodes. The electrode-separated PQC will be more useful than the normal PQC because it can be made smaller, higher frequency, and then cheaper. Amino acid, organic acid and sugar are important substances in the alcoholic beverage made by fermentation, such as sake. The Amino acids were determined using electrode-separated PQC coated with chitosan in copper (II) solution. Formation of complex with chitosan on the quartz plate, Cu(II) and amino acid in the sample solution induced the frequency shift of PQC. On the other hand, using non-coated electrode-separated PQC, concentration of organic acid and sugar in the liquid were determined, because the frequency of the crystal filled with the liquid containing organic acid and sugar was shifted with the viscosity and conductivity, respectively.

  14. High-temperature piezoelectric single crystal ReCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) for sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Fei, Yiting; Frantz, Eric; Snyder, David W; Chai, Bruce H T; Shrout, Thomas R

    2008-12-01

    Large-size and high-quality ReCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (ReCOB, Re = rare earth) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski pulling method. In this work, the electrical properties were investigated at room temperature and elevated temperature for YCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (YCOB). The dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric strain coefficient, and electromechanical coupling were found to be on the order of 11, 6.5 pC/N, and 12.5%, respectively, with a high piezoelectric voltage coefficient around 0.067 Vm/N. The electrical resistivity of YCOB was found to be 2 x 10(8) Ohm.m at 800 degrees C, with Q values of 4,500 at 950 degrees C. The frequency/temperature coefficient of YCOB was found to be -75 to -85ppm/K in the temperature range of 30 to 950 degrees C, depending on the crystal orientations. Together with their temperature-independent properties, ReCOB crystals are promising candidates for sensing applications at elevated temperatures.

  15. (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3:Mn lead-free single crystal with high piezoelectric properties

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Limei; Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Rui; Wang, Junjun; Sang, Shijing; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    Lead-free single crystal, (K, Na, Li)(Nb, Ta)O3:Mn, was successfully grown using top-seeded solution growth method. Complete matrix of dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic constants for [001]C poled single crystal was determined. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 measured by the resonance method was 545 pC/N, which is almost three times that of its ceramic counterpart. The values measured by the Berlincourt meter ( d33∗=630pC/N) and strain-field curve ( d33∗∗=870pm/V) were even higher. The differences were assumed to relate with the different extrinsic contributions of domain wall vibration and domain wall translation during the measurements by different approaches, where the intrinsic contribution (on the order of 539 pm/V) was supposed to be the same. The crystal has ultrahigh electromechanical coupling factor (k33 ~ 95%) and high ultrasound velocity, which make it promising for high frequency medical transducer applications. PMID:27594704

  16. Investigations on nucleation, HRXRD, optical, piezoelectric, polarizability and Z-scan analysis of L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthy Priya, S.; Alexandar, A.; Surendran, P.; Lakshmanan, A.; Rameshkumar, P.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2017-04-01

    An efficient organic nonlinear optical single crystal of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) has been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) and slow cooling technique (SCT). The crystalline perfection of the crystal was examined using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) analysis. Photoluminescence study confirmed the optical properties and defects level in the crystal lattice. Electromechanical behaviour was observed using piezoelectric co-efficient (d33) analysis. The photoconductivity analysis confirmed the negative photoconducting nature of the material. The dielectric constant and loss were measured as a function of frequency with varying temperature and vice-versa. The laser damage threshold (LDT) measurement was carried out using Nd:YAG Laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm (Focal length is 35 cm) and the obtained results showed that LDT value of the crystal is high compared to KDP crystal. The high laser damage threshold of the grown crystal makes it a potential candidate for second and higher order nonlinear optical device application. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of LAMD crystal is determined by open-aperture and closed-aperture studies using Z-scan technique. The third order linear and nonlinear optical parameters such as the nonlinear refractive index (n2), two photon absorption coefficient (β), Real part (Reχ3) and imaginary part (Imχ3) of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility are calculated.

  17. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with functionally graded interlayers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li

    2016-08-01

    The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps.

  18. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Vânia F.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella. PMID:22438717

  19. Contribution to the large and stable electric field induced strain for textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jiangtao; Zhao, Kunyu; Ruan, Wei; Ruan, Xuezheng; Zheng, Liaoying; Li, Guorong

    2016-08-01

    Textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 (PMN-PT) ceramics were prepared by the templated grain growth method with 3% plate-like BaTiO3 as templates. The degree of grain orientation was about 81% by calculating from the XRD pattern. Temperature dependence of electric field induced strain was measured for both untextured and textured PMN-PT ceramics. The results show that the electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics is much larger and more stable than that for untextured PMN-PT ceramics in a wide temperature range. The contribution from the piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect to the strain was analyzed, and it was found that textured PMN-PT ceramics exhibited electrostrictive coefficient Q33 as high as 5.19 × 10-2 m4 C-2 and it was comparable to that of PMN-PT single crystals. The electrostrictive effect contributed the main part of the enhancement of electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics.

  20. Micromachining techniques in developing high-frequency piezoelectric composite ultrasonic array transducers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank T; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-12-01

    Several micromachining techniques for the fabrication of high-frequency piezoelectric composite ultrasonic array transducers are described in this paper. A variety of different techniques are used in patterning the active piezoelectric material, attaching backing material to the transducer, and assembling an electronic interconnection board for transmission and reception from the array. To establish the feasibility of the process flow, a hybrid test ultrasound array transducer consisting of a 2-D array having an 8 × 8 element pattern and a 5-element annular array was designed, fabricated, and assessed. The arrays are designed for a center frequency of ~60 MHz. The 2-D array elements are 105 × 105 μm in size with 5-μm kerfs between elements. The annular array surrounds the square 2-D array and provides the option of transmitting from the annular array and receiving with the 2-D array. Each annular array element has an area of 0.71 mm(2) with a 16-μm kerf between elements. The active piezoelectric material is (1 - x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT)/epoxy 1-3 composite with a PMN-PT pillar lateral dimension of 8 μm and an average gap width of ~4 μm, which was produced by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) dry etching techniques. A novel electric interconnection strategy for high-density, small-size array elements was proposed. After assembly, the array transducer was tested and characterized. The capacitance, pulse-echo responses, and crosstalk were measured for each array element. The desired center frequency of ~60 MHz was achieved and the -6-dB bandwidth of the received signal was ~50%. At the center frequency, the crosstalk between adjacent 2-D array elements was about -33 dB. The techniques described herein can be used to build larger arrays containing smaller elements.

  1. Controllable piezoelectricity of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 film via in situ misfit strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeon Jun; Guo, Er-Jia; Kwak, Jeong Hun; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Dörr, Kathrin; Lee, Jun Hee; Young Jo, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The tetragonality (c/a) of a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) thin film on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/ 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates was controlled by applying an electric field on the PMN-PT substrate. The piezoelectric response of the PZT thin film under various biaxial strains was observed using time-resolved micro X-ray diffraction. The longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) was reduced from 29.5 to 14.9 pm/V when the c/a ratio of the PZT film slightly changed from 1.051 to 1.056. Our results demonstrate that the tetragonality of the PZT thin film plays a critical role in determining d33, and in situ strain engineering using electromechanical substrate is useful in excluding the extrinsic effect resulting from the variation in the film thickness or the interface between substrate.

  2. Controllable piezoelectricity of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 film via in situ misfit strain

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Hyeon Jun; Guo, Er-Jia; Martin Luther Univ. of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle; ...

    2017-01-18

    In this paper, the tetragonality (c/a) of a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) thin film on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates was controlled by applying an electric field on the PMN-PT substrate. The piezoelectric response of the PZT thin film under various biaxial strains was observed using time-resolved micro X-ray diffraction. The longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) was reduced from 29.5 to 14.9 pm/V when the c/a ratio of the PZT film slightly changed from 1.051 to 1.056. Finally, our results demonstrate that the tetragonality of the PZT thin film plays a critical role in determining d33, and in situ strain engineering using electromechanical substrate ismore » useful in excluding the extrinsic effect resulting from the variation in the film thickness or the interface between substrate.« less

  3. Piezoelectric domains in the AlGaN hexagonal microrods: Effect of crystal orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivadasan, A. K.; Mangamma, G.; Bera, Santanu; Kamruddin, M.; Dhara, Sandip

    2016-05-01

    Presently, the piezoelectric materials are finding tremendous applications in the micro-mechanical actuators, sensors, and self-powered devices. In this context, the studies pertaining to piezoelectric properties of materials in the different size ranges are very important for the scientific community. The III-nitrides are exceptionally important, not only for optoelectronic but also for their piezoelectric applications. In the present study, we synthesized AlGaN via self-catalytic vapor-solid mechanism by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique on AlN base layer over intrinsic Si(100) substrate. The growth process is substantiated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Raman and photoluminescence studies reveal the formation of AlGaN microrods in the wurtzite phase and ensure the high optical quality of the crystalline material. The single crystalline, direct wide band gap and hexagonally shaped AlGaN microrods are studied for understanding the behavior of the crystallites under the application of constant external electric field using the piezoresponse force microscopy. The present study is mainly focused on understanding the behavior of induced polarization for the determination of piezoelectric coefficient of AlGaN microrod along the c-axis and imaging of piezoelectric domains in the sample originating because of the angular inclination of AlGaN microrods with respect to its AlN base layers.

  4. Piezoelectric domains in the AlGaN hexagonal microrods: Effect of crystal orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Sivadasan, A. K. E-mail: gm@igcar.gov.in Dhara, Sandip E-mail: gm@igcar.gov.in; Mangamma, G. E-mail: gm@igcar.gov.in Kamruddin, M.; Bera, Santanu

    2016-05-07

    Presently, the piezoelectric materials are finding tremendous applications in the micro-mechanical actuators, sensors, and self-powered devices. In this context, the studies pertaining to piezoelectric properties of materials in the different size ranges are very important for the scientific community. The III-nitrides are exceptionally important, not only for optoelectronic but also for their piezoelectric applications. In the present study, we synthesized AlGaN via self-catalytic vapor-solid mechanism by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique on AlN base layer over intrinsic Si(100) substrate. The growth process is substantiated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Raman and photoluminescence studies reveal the formation of AlGaN microrods in the wurtzite phase and ensure the high optical quality of the crystalline material. The single crystalline, direct wide band gap and hexagonally shaped AlGaN microrods are studied for understanding the behavior of the crystallites under the application of constant external electric field using the piezoresponse force microscopy. The present study is mainly focused on understanding the behavior of induced polarization for the determination of piezoelectric coefficient of AlGaN microrod along the c-axis and imaging of piezoelectric domains in the sample originating because of the angular inclination of AlGaN microrods with respect to its AlN base layers.

  5. Accurate Characterization And Modeling of Piezoelectric And Electrostrictive Ceramics And Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Binu

    2008-07-01

    The continuing need for large actuation and a continually increasing variety of applications has seen the use of piezoelectric materials under a growing range of conditions. These include large applied AC fields, DC bias fields, applied stresses as well as a wider range of frequencies and temperatures. Under these conditions the behaviour of the materials becomes non-linear and is not described well by the small signal parameters supplied by material manufacturers. It is therefore necessary to know and understand the behaviour of piezoelectric materials under these conditions. This presentation reviews the work that has been carried out at the Laboratory for Ferroelectric Materials in the Royal Military College of Canada where we have been studying the non-linear properties of piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials by observing their strain, dielectric and elastic behaviour under the various conditions mentioned above.

  6. Feasibility assessment of piezoelectric crystals as chemical warfare agent sensors. Final report, 1 August 1983-31 August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, P.P.; Stanford, T.B.; Nordstrom, R.J.; Burgener, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of a vibrating piezoelectric crystal as a CW agent detector was assessed by applying CW agent-sensitive coatings to the crystal and testing the detector with 0.3 mg/cum of GB (Sarin). Eight different coating materials were selected, based on previous data with G-agent simulants. No responses were observed to 0.3 mg/cum. GB, but three costings (XAD-4/Cu(2=)-diamine, polyethylenemaleate, and succinyl choline chloride) gave responses of -59 Hz, -22 Hz, and =11 Hz, respectively, to 10 mg/cm.of DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Circuit optimization and the use of an operating frequency higher than 9 MHz is recommended to enhance sensitivity. Far-term recommendations are to apply the same coatings to a high-frequency (e.g., 300 MHz) surface acoustic-wave device and test again with CW agents.

  7. Pulsed-Laser Crystallization of Ferroelectric/Piezoelectric Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekhar, Adarsh

    Integration of ferroelectric/piezoelectric thin films, such as those of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), with temperature sensitive substrates (complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS), or polymers) would benefit from growth at substrate temperatures below 400°C. However, high temperatures are usually required for obtaining good quality PZT films via conventional routes like rapid thermal processing (>550°C). Those conditions are not compatible either with polymer substrates or completed CMOS circuits and dictate exploration of alternative methods to realize integration with such substrates. In part of this work, factors influencing KrF excimer laser induced crystallization of amorphous sputtered Pb(Zr0.30Ti0.70)O3 thin films at substrate temperatures < 215°C were investigated. (111) Pt/Si substrates were utilized to understand the process window. Laser energy densities studied were in the range 35 - 85 mJ/cm2. The Pb content in the films was varied via the Ar gas pressure (in the range 5 mTorr - 9 mTorr) during sputtering of amorphous films. It was seen that a higher Pb content in the asdeposited films aided nucleation of the perovskite phase. Ozone-containing ambients (10% O3/90% O2) during the annealing promoted the formation of the metastable Pb-rich pyrochlore/fluorite phase, while annealing in pure oxygen produced the perovskite phase at relatively lower annealing laser energy densities. Heterogeneous nucleation from the substrate is favored on utilizing a layer-by-layer growth and crystallization process. Films were also grown on polymers using this method. Ferroelectric switching was demonstrated, but extensive process optimization would be needed to reduce leakage and porosity. Real time laser annealing during growth allows for scaling of the layer-by-layer growth process. A pulsed laser deposition system with in situ laser annealing was thus designed, built, and utilized to grow Pb(Zr 0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films on a laser crystallized Pb(Zr0.20Ti0

  8. Growth and characterization of the La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 piezoelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Renqin; Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Shi, Zibin; Sun, Dunlu; Wang, Jiyang

    2017-01-01

    A new piezoelectric single crystal La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 (LGFS) was grown by the Czochralski method firstly. Its structural parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinement to the X-ray diffraction. The effective segregation coefficient k eff of Fe in the LGFS was determined to be 0.6. The cost of LGFS is reduced due to the doping of cheap Fe. The crystal density was measured to be 5.7 g cm-3 by the buoyancy method. The defect structure of LGFS crystal was investigated by the chemical etching with 85% H2SO4 etchant. Dislocation etching pit patterns of LGFS crystal are consistent with the corresponding atomic arrangement schematics. Compared with LGS, LGN, LGT, and LGAS crystal, the LGFS crystal exhibits outstanding dielectric and piezoelectric properties, and ɛ 11, ɛ 33, d 11, and d 14 are 20.86, 51.99, 6.5 pC/N, and -5.10 pC/N, respectively. Therefore, LGFS may be a new potential piezoelectric crystal with high performance and low expense.

  9. Growth and piezoelectric properties of Ca3Nb(Al0.5Ga0.5)3Si2O14 crystals with langasite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Kainan; Zheng, Yanqing; Tu, Xiaoniu; Jiang, Bohan; Cao, Shuoliang; Shi, Erwei

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric crystals Ca3Nb(Al0.5Ga0.5)3Si2O14 (CNAGS) with langasite structure have been successfully grown by Czochralski method. In this work, the crystal structure, quality, chemical composition, piezoelectric properties, electric resistivity and optical properties of the as-grown crystals were characterized. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve of CNAGS was found to be 23″. The chemical compositions of CNAGS crystals are very close to that of initial compositions. At room temperature, the piezoelectric coefficients d11 and d14 of CNAGS crystals are 4.12 pC/N and -5.03 pC/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficients k12 and k26 are also determined as 11.6% and 18.3%, respectively. The electric resistivity of as-growth crystal was found to be on the order of 2×108 Ω cm at 500 °C and 1×106 Ω cm at 800 °C. And the transmittances of CNAGS crystals were found to be over 80% in the wavelength range of 700-2700 nm.

  10. Effects of Al substitution for Ca3Ta(Ga1-xAlx)3Si2O14 piezoelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Kudo, Tetsuo; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Medvedev, Andrey; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-06-01

    Ca3Ta(Ga1-xAlx)3Si2O14 [CTGAS] material is a piezoelectric material belonging to the Langasite-type group (space group: P321).and the CTGAS single crystals (x=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) with a diameter of 1 in. were grown by a Czochralski [Cz] method using an Ir crucible under Ar+2%O2. The CTGAS single crystals without any cracks could be grown using a CTGAS seed crystal in the x range of 0≤x≤0.75. Cell parameters, a and c, decrease while the a/c ratio increased with the Al concentration. Piezoelectric constant d11 and electromechanical coupling factor k12 for the X-cut specimens of the CTGAS single crystals were increased by the Al substitution.

  11. Effect of cobalt and DL-malic acid on the growth rate, crystalline perfection, optical, mechanical, dielectric, piezoelectric properties and SHG efficiency of ADP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.; Kumar, Binay; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2010-05-01

    Effects of the additions of cobalt (II) acetate hexahydrate and DL-malic acid on the growth and various properties of ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate single crystals grown by slow evaporation method have been studied. The grown crystals were subjected to UV-vis, microhardness, dielectric, piezoelectric, high resolution X-ray diffraction and SHG studies. UV spectra show good transparency in the entire visible region which is an essential requirement for a nonlinear optical crystal. Vickers hardness study carried out on (1 0 0) face at room temperature shows increased hardness of the crystals added with DL-malic acid compared to the pure and cobalt (II) acetate hexahydrate added crystals. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured for the grown crystals for different frequencies and temperatures. It reveals that the DL-malic acid added ADP crystals have low dielectric loss. Crystalline perfection of the grown crystals was analyzed using HRXRD. Good piezoelectric behaviour was observed for all the crystals. Preliminary measurements indicate that the second harmonic generation efficiency of the DL-malic acid doped crystals is greater than pure and cobalt (II) acetate hexahydrate added ADP.

  12. Piezoelectric crystal impedance analysis for investigating the modification processes of protein, cross-linker, and DNA on gold surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Anhong; Xie, Qingji; Li, Ping; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2000-05-01

    The processes of surface modification on gold-coated piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor have been in situ investigated by using the impedance analysis technique. The changes of equivalent circuit parameters were used to interpret the different behaviors of successively modifying protein, cross-linker, and DNA onto a gold electrode surface. It was found that the frequency changes due to protein adsorption might be described as a sum of two exponential functions, compared with a first-order kinetic function exhibited in subsequent binding of cross-linker to protein. The kinetic parameters were fitted to these two cases. It was also shown that the DNA molecules binding to cross-linker gave rise to the changes of the density-viscosity and the dielectric constant, both being linearly related to DNA concentration in the liquid when below 6.0 μg m -1.

  13. The anisotropy of the basic characteristics of Lamb waves in a (001)-Bi12SiO20 piezoelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimkin, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    The orientation dependences of the phase velocity, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, and the angle between the wave normal and the energy flux vector are numerically calculated for zeroand first-order Lamb waves propagating in the (001) basal plane of a Bi12SiO20 cubic piezoelectric crystal. It is shown that the anisotropies of these modes are different and depend on the plate thickness h and the wavelength λ. For h/λ < 1, the mode anisotropy can exceed the anisotropy of the corresponding characteristics of surface acoustic waves propagating in the same plane; for h/λ > 1, it approximately coincides with the SAW anisotropy for all the characteristics.

  14. Enhanced optical, dielectric and piezoelectric behavior in dye doped zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Sonia; Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Kumar, Binay

    2014-01-01

    Pure and 0.1 mol% amaranth dye doped zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. Orthorhombic structures with changed morphology were observed. Various functional groups present were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-Vis spectra shows wide transmittance and increased optical band gap from 4.54 to 4.59 eV, with lower extinction coefficient in doped case. In photoluminescence measurement, an intense peak at 416 nm was observed for doped ZTS. Dielectric constant value increases from 3.28 to 9.40 at 1 kHz with doping. Piezoelectric coefficient d33 is also enhanced from 0.24 to 3 pC/N.

  15. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pedesseau, L. E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Even, J. E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O.; Modreanu, M.; Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O.

    2015-12-01

    New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.

  16. Temperature-induced and electric-field-induced phase transitions in rhombohedral Pb(In 1 /2Nb1 /2) O3-Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 ternary single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaojin; Wang, Zhiguang; Ge, Wenwei; Luo, Chengtao; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu

    2014-10-01

    Temperature and electric field effects on rhombohedral (R ) ternary Pb(In 1 /2Nb1 /2) O3-Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric single crystals were comprehensively studied by x-ray diffraction. We have focused on how the individual phase transitions as well as the phase transition sequences depend on thermal and electrical history. Electric field-temperature phase diagrams have been constructed under [001] field-cooling and field-heating conditions. As happens to the R phase of binary PMN-PT crystals [H. Cao, J. F. Li, D. Viehland, and G. Y. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184110 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.184110], the R phase of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state is replaced by a monoclinic A (M A) phase in the field-cooled (FC) diagram. In particular, reciprocal-space mesh scans demonstrated that the M A phase was stable for crystals poled along the [001] crystallographic direction rather than the initial R phase of the ZFC state. Furthermore, an E -field-induced phase transformational sequence of R →M A→ tetragonal (T ) was observed at constant temperature, revealing a gradual increase in the c lattice parameter. These findings demonstrate that the ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit common phase transition features with binary PMN-PT and Pb(Zn 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) ones for compositions in the low PT side of the morphotropic phase boundary.

  17. Growth of high performance piezoelectric crystal Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 using PbO flux.

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Xu, Jiayue; Shi, Minli; Wu, Xianjun; Tong, Jian

    2007-05-01

    Novel piezoelectric crystal (1-x)Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PZNT) has attracted much attention due to its high piezoelectric properties and potential applications in medical ultrasonic devices, sonar transducers, solid state actuators. However, the applications of PZNT crystals are limited by the lack of a simple and reproducible growth technique. In this work, large size PZNT crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman method using 50 mol% PbO as a flux. The growth conditions were optimized as mole ratio of raw materials and flux=1:1, soaking temperature 1150-1200 degrees C, soaking time 10 h, the lowering rate of the crucible 0.5 mm/h and the temperature gradient near solid-liquid interface about 50 degrees C/mm. The maximum size of as-grown PZNT crystal was about 60 mm in length. The crystal was oriented and its piezoelectric constant d(33) and coupling coefficient k(33) were measured over 2000pC/N and 0.92, respectively.

  18. Influence of TEM specimen preparation on chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Srot, Vesna; Gec, Medeja; van Aken, Peter A; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Ceh, Miran

    2014-07-01

    The influences of different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation techniques on the chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals was studied. Ion-milled samples where no cooling with liquid nitrogen (L-N2) was applied show permanently changed composition also deep inside the bulk material. When the PMN-PT samples were cooled to L-N2 temperature during the ion-milling process and in addition lower accelerating voltages were used, the chemical composition was altered only in the thinnest parts close to the specimen edge. Samples prepared using only tripod polishing technique show compositional irregularities close to the specimen edge. For the preparation of lead-containing samples, such as PMN-PT single crystals, a combination of tripod polishing and short Ar-ion-milling at low accelerating voltages while cooling the samples to liquid nitrogen temperature proved to be the most suitable to obtain artefact-free electron-transparent TEM lamellae.

  19. A Comparison of the Underwater Acoustic Performance of Single Crystal vs. Piezoelectric Ceramic based Cymbal Projectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Class V flextensional transducer . The original design, as seen in Fig. 1, was conceived at and patented by Penn State University [1,2]. The...A. Dogan, K. Uchino, and R.E. Newnham, “ Composite piezoelectric transducer with truncated conical endcaps ‘cymbal’,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason...25k) ampl (BX1 at 25k) [2] R.E. Newnham and A. Dogan, “Metal- electroactive ceramic composite transducer ,” U.S. Patent No. 5, 729,077, issued March 17

  20. A generalized energy model for the behavior of single-crystal magneto-electric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Akhras, George; Flatau, Alison B.

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores a unified energy-based approach to model the non-linear behavior of both magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials. While the energy-approach developed by Armstrong has been shown to capture the magnetostrictive behavior of materials such as Terfenol-D1 and Iron-Gallium2 along different crystallographic directions, extending this approach to piezoelectric materials presents a considerable challenge. Some piezo-electric materials such as PMN-PT and BaTiO 3 may undergo phase changes under applied electric fields and stress in addition to polarization switching. A modeling approach is developed in this paper to capture these effects. Finally, it is shown that the constitutive behavior for the piezo-electric/magnetostrictive layers, coupled by a simple blocked-force approach, is likely to model the behavior of magneto-electric composites.

  1. Measuring and Altering Ferroelectric Domain Structures in Lead Perovskite Single-Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, John Chamberlain

    Relaxor ferroelectric single-crystal materials PMN-PT and PZN-PT are currently of interest to the scientific community due to their enhanced properties and possible role as next-generation piezoelectric transducers in applications such as sonar and medical ultrasound. One key phenomenon affecting both the properties and the mechanical integrity of these materials is the ferroelectric domain structure within the material. In this work we examine the morphology and behavior of domain structures in PMN-29%PT. In order to do this we first present details of the construction and testing of a working piezo-response force microscope (PFM), and then use the PFM to verify a new domain observation technique called "relief polishing". Relief polishing is shown to reveal surface domains in the same manner as acid etching, preserving domain details as small as 0.5mum. Using these two techniques, we then determine that cutting and polishing strongly affect the surface and subsurface ferroelectric domain structures in PMN-29%PT. Specifically, we show that saw cutting can create characteristic striated domain structures as deep as 130mum within a sample, while straight polishing creates a characteristic domain structure known as the "fingerprint" pattern to a depth proportional to the size of the polishing grit, on the order of 0--12mum for grits as large as 15mum. We hypothesize that most samples contain these "skin effect" domain structures. In consequence, it is suggested that researchers presenting experimental results on domain structures should report the physical treatment history of the samples along with the experimental data.

  2. Modeling the effect of crystal and crucible rotation on the interface shape in Czochralski growth of piezoelectric langatate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, C.; Nehari, A.; Lasloudji, I.; Lebbou, K.; Dumortier, M.; Cabane, H.; Duffar, T.

    2017-10-01

    Single La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT) crystals have been grown by using the Czochralski technique with inductive heating. Some ingots exhibit imperfections such as cracks, dislocations and striations. Numerical modeling is applied to investigate the factors affecting the shape of the crystal-melt interface during the crystallization of ingots having 3 cm in diameter. It was found that the conical shape of the interface depends essentially on the internal radiative exchanges in the semi-transparent LGT crystal. Numerical results are compared to experimental visualization of the growth interface, showing a good agreement. The effect of the forced convection produced by the crystal and crucible rotation is numerically investigated at various rotation rates. Increasing the crystal rotation rate up to 50 rpm has a significant flattening effect on the interface shape. Applying only crucible rotation enhances the downward flow underneath the crystal, leading to an increased interface curvature. Counter rotation between the crystal and the crucible results in a distorted shape of the interface.

  3. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies

  4. Blocking force of a piezoelectric stack actuator made of single crystal layers (PMN-29PT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, K. S.; Phan, H. V.; Lee, H. Y.; Kim, Yongdae; Park, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated and characterized a stack actuator made of forty layers of 1 mm thick PMN-29PT with a cross-sectional area of 10 × 10 mm2. From the measurement of actuation displacement, we confirmed that the piezoelectric strain constant in the direction of thickness of the material is 2000 pm V-1, as suggested by the manufacturer. The blocking forces of the actuator are measured to be 230 N, 369 N, and 478 N for 100 V, 200 V, and 300 V, respectively. The measured blocking forces showed large discrepancies from the estimated blocking forces calculated using linear models, especially for a high voltage application. An empirical equation acquired by fitting the measured blocking forces indicates that the blocking force has a nonlinear relationship with the applied voltage. The measured hysteresis showed a slight nonlinear voltage-stroke relationship and small energy loss.

  5. Shape-controlled crystal growth of Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 and Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 piezoelectric crystals by the micro-pulling-down method.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yuui; Sato, Masato; Futami, Yoshisuke; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-09-01

    We grew column-shaped Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS) and Sr(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. 3-mm-diameter SNGS and STGS crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die. According to X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals had crystallinity equivalent to that of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. The crystals were single-phase materials with langasite-type crystal structure. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were almost consistent with those of crystals grown by the Cz method.

  6. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Raghavendra Rao, K.; Sanath Kumar, R.; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-05-01

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d31, elastic coefficient (S11) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k31) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  7. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran Sanath Kumar, R.; Elizabeth, Suja; Raghavendra Rao, K.; Bhat, H. L.

    2016-05-06

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 31}, elastic coefficient (S{sub 11}) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k{sub 31}) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  8. Acoustic Microsensors III. Direct Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Employing a Piezoelectric Crystal Immunosensor with a Flexible Carboxylated Dextran Matrix as the Biochemical Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    of the hydrogel matrix are: • an increased immobilization capacity as compared to monolayer based coat- ings: the dextran layer is about 100 nm...employing a piezoelectric crystal immunosensor with a flexible carboxylated dextran matrix as the biochemical interface Lange Kleiweg 137 P.O. Box 45... dextran matrix as the biochemical in- terface Auteur(s) J.L.N. Harteveld Datum maart 1998 Opdrachtnr. : A93KL448 Rapportnr. : PML 1997-A58

  9. Electromechanical coupling factors of single-domain 0.67Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.33 PbTiO{sub 3} single-crystal thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wasa, K.; Ito, S.; Nakamura, K.; Matsunaga, T.; Kanno, I.; Suzuki, T.; Okino, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Seo, S.H.; Noh, D.Y.

    2006-03-20

    Thin films of single c-domain/single-crystal (1-x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-xPbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) with x congruent with 0.33 near a morphotropic boundary composition were heteroepitaxially grown on (110)SRO/(001)Pt/(001)MgO substrates. The heteroepitaxial growth was achieved by rf-magnetron sputtering at the substrate temperature of 600 deg. C. After the sputtering deposition, the substrates were rapidly cooled from 600 deg. C to room temperature by atmospheric air gas at a cooling rate of 100 deg. C/min. The rapid cooling process enhanced the heteroepitaxial growth of the single c-domain/single crystal PMN-PT thin films. Their electromechanical coupling factor k{sub t} measured by a resonance spectrum method was 45% at resonant frequency of 1.3 GHz with phase velocity of 5500 to 6000 m/s for the film thickness of 2.3 {mu}m. The d{sub 33} and d{sub 31} were 194 pC/N and -104 pC/N, respectively. The observed k{sub t}, d{sub 33}, and d{sub 31} were almost the same to the bulk single-crystal values. The present PMN-PT thin films are applicable for a fabrication of GHz planar bulk acoustic wave transducers.

  10. Theoretical analysis of the crystal structure, band-gap energy, polarization, and piezoelectric properties of ZnO-BeO solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L.; Alpay, S. P.

    2011-07-01

    The electrical properties, the spontaneous polarization, and the piezoelectric response of ZnO can be tailored by alloying ZnO with BeO for applications such as electrodes in flat panel displays and solar cells, blue and ultraviolet (UV) light emitting devices, and highly sensitive UV detectors. We present here the results of a study that employs density-functional theory to analyze the crystal structure, the band structure, spontaneous polarization, and piezoelectric properties of Zn1-xBexO solid solutions. Our findings indicate that Zn1-xBexO alloys may have a different crystal structure than the end components ZnO and BeO that crystallize in the prototypical wurtzite structure (P63mc). It is shown that orthorhombic lattices with Pmn21, Pna21, or P21 structures may have lower formation energies than the wurtzite lattice at a given Be composition. The band-gap energies of Zn1-xBexO in the wurtzite and the orthorhombic structures are nearly identical and the bowing of the band-gap energy increases with increasing Be concentration. The spontaneous polarization of Zn1-xBexO in the orthorhombic lattice is markedly larger compared to the wurtzite structure while the piezoelectric polarization in the wurtzite and orthorhombic structures varies linearly with the Be concentration.

  11. Origin of giant piezoelectric effect in lead-free K1−xNaxTa1−yNbyO3 single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hao; Meng, Xiangda; Hu, Chengpeng; Tan, Peng; Cao, Xilong; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    A series of high-quality, large-sized (maximum size of 16 × 16 × 32 mm3) K1−xNaxTa1−yNbyO3 (x = 0.61, 0.64, and 0.70 and corresponding y = 0.58, 0.60, and 0.63) single crystals were grown using the top-seed solution growth method. The segregation of the crystals, which allowed for precise control of the individual components of the crystals during growth, was investigated. The obtained crystals exhibited excellent properties without being annealed, including a low dielectric loss (0.006), a saturated hysteresis loop, a giant piezoelectric coefficient d33 (d33 = 416 pC/N, determined by the resonance method and d33* = 480 pC/N, measured using a piezo-d33 meter), and a large electromechanical coupling factor, k33 (k33 = 83.6%), which was comparable to that of lead zirconate titanate. The reason the piezoelectric coefficient d33 of K0.39Na0.61Ta0.42Nb0.58O3 was larger than those of the other two crystals grown was elucidated through first-principles calculations. The obtained results indicated that K1−xNaxTa1−yNbyO3 crystals can be used as a high-quality, lead-free piezoelectric material. PMID:27160075

  12. Origin of giant piezoelectric effect in lead-free K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hao; Meng, Xiangda; Hu, Chengpeng; Tan, Peng; Cao, Xilong; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-05-10

    A series of high-quality, large-sized (maximum size of 16 × 16 × 32 mm(3)) K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 (x = 0.61, 0.64, and 0.70 and corresponding y = 0.58, 0.60, and 0.63) single crystals were grown using the top-seed solution growth method. The segregation of the crystals, which allowed for precise control of the individual components of the crystals during growth, was investigated. The obtained crystals exhibited excellent properties without being annealed, including a low dielectric loss (0.006), a saturated hysteresis loop, a giant piezoelectric coefficient d33 (d33 = 416 pC/N, determined by the resonance method and d33(*) = 480 pC/N, measured using a piezo-d33 meter), and a large electromechanical coupling factor, k33 (k33 = 83.6%), which was comparable to that of lead zirconate titanate. The reason the piezoelectric coefficient d33 of K0.39Na0.61Ta0.42Nb0.58O3 was larger than those of the other two crystals grown was elucidated through first-principles calculations. The obtained results indicated that K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 crystals can be used as a high-quality, lead-free piezoelectric material.

  13. Origin of giant piezoelectric effect in lead-free K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hao; Meng, Xiangda; Hu, Chengpeng; Tan, Peng; Cao, Xilong; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-05-01

    A series of high-quality, large-sized (maximum size of 16 × 16 × 32 mm3) K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 (x = 0.61, 0.64, and 0.70 and corresponding y = 0.58, 0.60, and 0.63) single crystals were grown using the top-seed solution growth method. The segregation of the crystals, which allowed for precise control of the individual components of the crystals during growth, was investigated. The obtained crystals exhibited excellent properties without being annealed, including a low dielectric loss (0.006), a saturated hysteresis loop, a giant piezoelectric coefficient d33 (d33 = 416 pC/N, determined by the resonance method and d33* = 480 pC/N, measured using a piezo-d33 meter), and a large electromechanical coupling factor, k33 (k33 = 83.6%), which was comparable to that of lead zirconate titanate. The reason the piezoelectric coefficient d33 of K0.39Na0.61Ta0.42Nb0.58O3 was larger than those of the other two crystals grown was elucidated through first-principles calculations. The obtained results indicated that K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 crystals can be used as a high-quality, lead-free piezoelectric material.

  14. Growth mechanism, dielectric, elastic and thermal properties of zinc cadmium thiocyanate crystal as a potential piezoelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yadong; Liu, Xitao; Wang, Xinqiang; Gao, Zeliang; Yin, Xin; Yuan, Kangkang; Xu, Chonghe; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhu, Luyi; Xu, Dong

    2017-10-01

    Bulk single crystals of zinc cadmium thiocyanate, ZnCd(SCN)4 (ZCTC) with dimensions of 51 × 15 × 12 and 28 × 13 × 12 mm3 have been obtained. Growth habits were investigated, two-dimensional nucleation growth mechanism and crystal twinning defect were observed from the as-grown crystals. The thermal diffusivities were measured, and then thermal conductivities were calculated with values decreasing from 1.3683 to 0.8739 Wṡm-1ṡK-1 and 0.8496 to 0.5356 Wṡm-1ṡK-1 as the temperature increasing from 303 to 423 K, along the a- and c-directions, respectively. The relative dielectric constants and elastic compliance constants at room temperature were determined. Meanwhile, first-principles calculation was used to calculate elastic constants.

  15. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen Kumar, Ch

    2015-12-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  16. In vitro study of a multi-layer piezoelectric crystal attic hearing implant.

    PubMed

    Mills, R P; Wang, Z G; Abel, E W

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a prototype middle-ear hearing implant which uses a multilayer piezoelectric actuator. In this series of experiments the actuator was attached to the medial wall of the attic so that it makes contact with the body of the incus. Initial in vitro evaluation has been carried out using a laser vibrometer (Polytec CLV) to measure stapes velocity. Stapes displacement is calculated by mathematical integration. The device used in this way is particularly effective at transmitting high frequency sound to the stapes. When switched off the actuator impairs the transmission of sound to the ossicular chain at low frequencies, but this effect is only 7 dB at most. The stapes displacements resulting from the action of the implant have a linear relationship with the voltages used to drive the system. The high capacitance of the present actuator means that its power requirements are higher than that of other comparable devices. An optimal method of coupling the device to the incus has yet to be identified.

  17. Nonlinear elastic properties of the piezoelectric crystal: GaPO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Zarembowitch, A.; Palmier, D.; Polian, A.; Grimsditch, M.

    1996-12-31

    These properties were investigated at high pressure/ordinary temperature and low temperature/ordinary pressure. Pressure dependence of the elastic constants (nonlinear behavior) shows that the GaPO{sub 4} crystal undergoes a structural phase transition around 14 GPa. This is tentatively correlated with a potential instability observed at low temperature (50 K).

  18. Piezoelectric enhancement of giant magnetoresistance in spin-valves with different magnetic anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, Syed; Zhang, S.; Yu, Tian; Zhao, Y. G.; Han, X. F.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in spin-valves under applied magnetic field is well established. We present piezoelectric control of the GMR ratio at room temperature for standard multilayered spin-valve structure fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric substrate. Four samples namely, S1, S2, S3, and S4 were, respectively, fabricated such that the magnetic easy axis makes an initial angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60° with magnetic field applied during measurement. For S1, the GMR ratio decreases under electric field whereas it increases for the samples making progressively larger initial magnetization angles with the external field. We suggest that for S1, magnetic alignment between the two magnetic layers decreases due to the rotation of bottom free layer magnetization resulting in the decrease of antiparallel resistance as well as the GMR ratio under applied electric field whereas for the other samples, the antiparallel resistance increases due to improvement in antiparallel alignment between the two magnetic layers causing increase in the GMR ratio at room temperature. Our results establish new way to control and even enhance the magnetoresistance via converse piezoelectric effect in spin-valves with different magnetic anisotropies.

  19. Planar modes free piezoelectric resonators using a phononic crystal with holes.

    PubMed

    Aragón, J L; Quintero-Torres, R; Domínguez-Juárez, J L; Iglesias, E; Ronda, S; Montero de Espinosa, F

    2016-09-01

    By using the principles behind phononic crystals, a periodic array of circular holes made along the polarization thickness direction of piezoceramic resonators are used to stop the planar resonances around the thickness mode band. In this way, a piezoceramic resonator adequate for operation in the thickness mode with an in phase vibration surface is obtained, independently of its lateral shape. Laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models are used to corroborate the performances of different resonators made with this procedure. This method can be useful in power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required.

  20. Relaxor-based solid solutions for piezoelectric and electrostrictive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberta, Edward F.

    This thesis explores the dielectric, piezoelectric, and electrostrictive properties of a number of relaxor ferroelectric-based solid solution systems. The components of these solid solution systems have a variety of characteristics ranging from normal- to relaxor- to anti-ferroelectric. Some of the relaxor end-members investigated were Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 [PIN], Pb(In1/2Ta1/2)O3 [PIT], Pb(Sc 1/2Nb1/2)O3 [PSN], Pb(Ni1/3Nb 2/3)O3 [PNN], Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O 3 [PMN], and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 [PZN]. Several of these systems have Curie temperatures [Tc] that are among the highest known for MPB compositions. Some examples are PIN-0.38PT with a Tc of 319°C, PIT-0.38PT with a Tc of 248°C, and PSN 0.42PT with a Tc of 254°C. While these are slightly lower that those of typically found in PZT, the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric properties was found to be minimal. The electromechanical coupling coefficients were largely unchanged upon heating to as high as 150°C. This is approximately equal to the Tc of PMN-PT and PZN-PT and significantly exceeds the generally accepted maximum operating temperature for these materials. Many of the materials studied were found to have very large electromechanical coupling factors and produce extraordinarily high field-induced strains. Both PSN-0.42PT and PNN-0.15PZ-0.34PT were found to produce strain levels of ˜0.30% under unipolar drive with limited hysteresis. Peak-to-peak strain levels of as much as 0.60% were possible under bipolar drive conditions. Both of these MPB compositions had very large piezoelectric properties, with the slightly larger values of d33 = 810pC/N, kp = 0.69, kt = 0.56, and k33 = 0.80 occurring in PNN-PZ-PT. Each of the MPB compositions studied has features that can be exploited for specific applications. The combination of high Tc and coercive field found in both PIN-PT and Bi(Ni1/2T1/2)O3 -PT should allow these materials to be used at high drive levels and/or at high temperatures. The high strain, low hysteresis

  1. X-ray topography of piezoelectric La(3)Ta(14)Ga(5.5)O(14) crystal grown by Czochralski Method.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Y; Mizuki, J; Takeda, H; Shiosaki, T

    2008-05-01

    We performed synchrotron X-ray topography on a La(3)Ta0(0.5)Ga (5.5)O(14) (LTG) crystal grown by the Czochralski method. Since a synchrotron X-ray source can provide high-energy X-rays, one can detect bulk structures by X-ray topography. LTG is one of the most attractive piezoelectric crystals along with La(3)Ga(5)SiO(14) (LGS) because of its excellent acoustic properties (temperature compensation of acoustic losses). Since LTG single crystals can be grown from a stoichiometric melt, it was expected that single crystals with better quality than the LGS crystal, which cannot be grown from a stoichiometric system but only from a congruent melt, can be obtained. However, 60 keV X-ray topography revealed that the LTG crystal quality was not as high as the LGS crystal quality. The crystal quality of the central region was lower than that of the surrounding region.

  2. Novel phage amplified multichannel series piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xianwen; He, Fengjiao; Xiang, Meiyu; Lian, Yan; Yi, Songlin

    2012-01-17

    The key factors that control the spread and mortality rate of tuberculosis (TB) are rapid detection and diagnosis. However, the current detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) cannot meet the recommended requirements for clinical diagnosis in turnaround time. In this paper, the feature of phage D29 that infects M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) was combined with the sensitivity of multichannel series piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor (MSPQC) to detect M. tuberculosis. The phage D29 played a role of inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. M. tuberculosis is used to protect phage D29 from being killed by ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) and carries phage D29 into the detection medium containing M. smegmatis. The action of M. smegmatis indicated the existence state of phage D29 in the detection medium. The growth curve of M. smegmatis obtained by MSPQC indicated the state of the growth of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, M. tuberculosis in the sample could be rapidly detected by evaluating the extent of inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis compared with the normal growth of M. smegmatis. The detection of M. tuberculosis was transformed into the detection of M. smegmatis, which is more rapid and sensitive than that of M. tuberculosis. For 10(2) cfu/mL of M. tuberculosis in clinical sample, the turnaround time was less than 30 h. Although statistical analysis showed that no significant difference existed between the results of the proposed method here and the BACTEC960 MGIT method in clinical M. tuberculosis detection, the phage amplified MSPQC (PA MSPQC) method presented here was faster and more economical.

  3. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huaping E-mail: hpwu@zjut.edu.cn; Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun; Chai, Guozhong; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-15

    The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110) orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111) orientation in BaTiO{sub 3} films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature T{sub C} of (110)-oriented BaTiO{sub 3} films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110)- and (111)-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  4. Micromachining Techniques in Developing High-Frequency Piezoelectric Composite Ultrasonic Array Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank T.; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Several micromachining techniques for the fabrication of high-frequency piezoelectric composite ultrasonic array transducers are described in this paper. A variety of different techniques are used in patterning the active piezoelectric material, attaching backing material to the transducer, and assembling an electronic interconnection board for transmission and reception from the array. To establish the feasibility of the process flow, a hybrid test ultrasound array transducer consisting of a 2-D array having an 8 × 8 element pattern and a 5-element annular array was designed, fabricated, and assessed. The arrays are designed for a center frequency of ~60 MHz. The 2-D array elements are 105 × 105 μm in size with 5-μm kerfs between elements. The annular array surrounds the square 2-D array and provides the option of transmitting from the annular array and receiving with the 2-D array. Each annular array element has an area of 0.71 mm2 with a 16-μm kerf between elements. The active piezoelectric material is (1 − x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3−xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT)/epoxy 1–3 composite with a PMN-PT pillar lateral dimension of 8 μm and an average gap width of ~4 μm, which was produced by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) dry etching techniques. A novel electric interconnection strategy for high-density, small-size array elements was proposed. After assembly, the array transducer was tested and characterized. The capacitance, pulse–echo responses, and crosstalk were measured for each array element. The desired center frequency of ~60 MHz was achieved and the −6-dB bandwidth of the received signal was ~50%. At the center frequency, the crosstalk between adjacent 2-D array elements was about −33 dB. The techniques described herein can be used to build larger arrays containing smaller elements. PMID:24297027

  5. Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-07

    Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

  6. Full solution, for crystal class 3m, of the Holland-EerNisse complex material-constant theory of lossy piezoelectrics for harmonic time dependence.

    PubMed

    Piquette, Jean C; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A

    2007-06-01

    A complex material-constant theory of lossy piezoelectrics is fully solved for crystal class 3m for harmonic time dependence of the fields and stresses. A new demonstration that the theory's eigen coupling factor equation applies to the lossy alternating current (AC) case also is given. The solution presented for crystal class 3m provides a complete orthonormal set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues for the eigen coupling factor problem, and it also provides a complete orthonormal set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues for the eigen loss tangent problem, for this crystal class. It is shown that two positive coupling factors are sufficient to express an arbitrary 3m crystal state. Despite the complex nature of the material constants, the Holland-EerNisse theory produces fully real expressions for the coupling factors. The loss tangent eigenvalues also are fully real and positive. The loss eigenstates are important because driving a crystal in a loss eigenstate tends to minimize the impact of material losses. Given also is a set of loss inequalities for crystal class 3m. The loss inequalities of crystal class 6mm are recovered from these when d22 and s(E)14 both vanish.

  7. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  8. Optical absorption, piezoelectric effect and second harmonic generation studies of single crystal AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronchuk, G. L.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Rudysh, M. Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P. A.; Piasecki, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 × 10-4 eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V ( d 11), 31.5 pm/V ( d 22) and 35.5 pm/V ( d 33). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients.

  9. Vibrational spectra and elastic piezoelectric and polarization properties of the {alpha}-SrB{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zinenko, V. I. Pavlovskii, M. S.; Zaitzev, A. I.; Krylov, A. S.; Shinkorenko, A. S.

    2012-09-15

    The crystal lattice vibrational frequencies in the center of the Brillouin zone have been determined with the Raman spectroscopy method. The lattice vibrational frequencies, the phonon density of states, elastic and piezoelectric moduli, Born dynamic charges, and high-frequency dielectric constant have been calculated using the density functional method. All calculated quantities have been compared to the experimental data. A model of a nonpolar paraelectric phase for this compound, as well as a mechanism of the formation of domain in it, has been proposed. The polarization in the experimentally observed polar phase has been calculated.

  10. Thickness Dependent Properties of Relaxor-PbTiO(3) Ferroelectrics for Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Li, Fei; Shrout, Thomas R

    2010-09-23

    The electrical properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) based polycrystalline ceramics and single crystals were investigated as a function of scale ranging from 500 microns to 30 microns. Fine-grained PMN-PT ceramics exhibited comparable dielectric and piezoelectric properties to their coarse-grained counterpart in the low frequency range (<10 MHz), but offered greater mechanical strength and improved property stability with decreasing thickness, corresponding to higher operating frequencies (>40 MHz). For PMN-PT single crystals, however, the dielectric and electromechanical properties degraded with decreasing thickness, while ternary Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) exhibited minimal size dependent behavior. The origin of property degradation of PMN-PT crystals was further studied by investigating the dielectric permittivity at high temperatures, and domain observations using optical polarized light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the thickness dependent properties of relaxor-PT ferroelectrics are closely related to the domain size with respect to the associated macroscopic scale of the samples.

  11. Piezoelectric valve

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  12. Crystal Growth and Electrical Properties of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Material (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Yasuharu; Harada, Kouichi; Yamashita, Yohachi

    2001-09-01

    Single crystals of lead-free piezoelectric material x(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-yBaTiO3 (NBBT 100x/100y) have been successfully grown by the flux method and the Bridgman method. Using the flux method, crystals having an edge length of 2-8 mm were obtained using Bi2O3 flux with cooling from 1350°C to 800°C at a rate of 3.5°C/h. Using the Bridgman method, comparatively good crystal of 15 mm diameter and 50 mm length was obtained using Bi2O3 flux with the Pt crucible driven down through the heat zone at a speed of 1.0 mm/h. The resulting crystals showed single-phase perovskite structure. Inductively charged plasma (ICP) chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the pulverized powder of these crystals is NBBT 97/3, which is slightly different from the charged composition of NBBT 94/6. One of the single crystals grown by the Bridgman method showed a dielectric constant of 1230 at room temperature and a dielectric constant peak at 313°C.

  13. Excitation and reception of pure shear horizontal waves by using face-shear d24 mode piezoelectric wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Huan, Qiang; Li, Faxin

    2016-11-01

    The fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) wave in plate-like structures is of great importance in non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) as it is non-dispersive, while excitation or reception of SH0 waves using piezoelectrics is always a challenge. In this work, we firstly demonstrate via finite element simulations that face-shear piezoelectrics is superior to thickness-shear piezoelectrics in driving SH waves. Next, by using a newly defined face-shear d24 PZT wafer as an actuator and face-shear d36 PMN-PT wafers as sensors, pure SH0 wave was successfully excited in an aluminum plate from 130 to 180 kHz. Then, it was shown that the face-shear d24 PZT wafer could receive the SH0 wave only and filter the Lamb waves over a wide frequency range (120-230 kHz). The directionality of the excited SH0 wave was also investigated using face-shear d24 PZT wafers as both actuators and sensors. Results show that pure SH0 wave can be excited symmetrically along two orthogonal directions (0° and 90°) and the amplitude of the excited SH0 wave can keep over 90% of the maximum amplitude when the deviate angle is within 30°. This work could greatly promote the applications of SH0 wave in NDT and SHM.

  14. Immobilization of bovine serum albumin as a sensitive biosensor for the detection of trace lead ion in solution by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Wei, Wanzhi; Liu, Xiaoying; Kong, Bo; Wu, Ling; Gong, Shuguo

    2007-01-01

    A biosensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA) for the detection of lead (Pb(2+)) ion was developed and characterized. BSA was immobilized onto a colloidal Au-modified piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) as a biosensor for the detection of Pb(2+) ion by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance (PQCI). Calibration curves for the quantification of Pb(2+) ion showed excellent linearity throughout the concentration range from 1.0 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-9)mol/L. The interaction between the Pb(2+) ions and the sensor chip is influenced significantly by the pH of the reaction buffer, and the optimal pH for the experiment was 5.4. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-9)mol/L for Pb(2+) was obtained. Kinetic parameters of the Pb(2+)-BSA interactions were also determined by using this chip. The sensor chip could be regenerated for use by dipping in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for approximately 2h, and the chip was used to detect Pb(2+) ion for eight times without obvious signal attenuation.

  15. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  16. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  17. Growth of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals by seeded polycrystal conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotch, Adam Matthew

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals of Pb(Mg1/3Nb 2/3)O3-PbTiO3 [PMN-PT] have been produced via the Seeded Polycrystal Conversion [SPC] technique. Polycrystalline precursors of PMN-PT are converted to single crystals by inducing the boundary of a seed crystal to migrate through a polycrystalline matrix. The quality of PMN-PT single crystals grown by SPC is directly influenced by the microstructure of the polycrystalline precursor. The goal of this work was to examine the factors that controlled the final microstructure of the matrix and grown single crystals and to characterize their effects on properties. Sintering in oxygen was necessary to obtain fully dense matrix microstructures, which, in turn, produced pore-free single crystals. The primary role of oxygen was to remove insoluble gases before densification began, then to reduce the internal pressure by diffusing out and allowing the pores to close from pressures derived from their own curvatures. The presence of a PbO liquid phase assisted this process by enhancing the densification rate in the early stages of sintering. In contrast, fully-dense, hot-pressed samples of PMN-35PT with excess PbO underwent a de-densification process during the annealing treatments which was attributed to pore formation from internally evolved gases. Transparent single crystals with maximum strain values of 0.72% at 46 kV/cm, d33 ˜2180 pC/N, and a room temperature dielectric constant of ˜5300 were obtained for poled <001> oriented crystals of PMN-30mol.%PT. The dielectric behavior of {001} oriented single crystals was found to be highly dependent on the initial orientation of the seed crystal. For example, {111} seeded crystals grown in oxygen yielded Kmax values of ˜33000, while {001} seeded crystals grown in oxygen had Kmax values of ˜25000. In addition, the Tmax values were 3 to 5°C higher for crystals grown from {001} seeds, compared to {111} seeds.

  18. The internal-strain tensor of crystals for nuclear-relaxed elastic and piezoelectric constants: on the full exploitation of its symmetry features.

    PubMed

    Erba, Alessandro

    2016-05-18

    Symmetry features of the internal-strain tensor of crystals (whose components are mixed second-energy derivatives with respect to atomic displacements and lattice strains) are formally presented, which originate from translational-invariance, atomic equivalences, and atomic invariances. A general computational scheme is devised, and implemented into the public Crystal program, for the quantum-mechanical evaluation of the internal-strain tensor of crystals belonging to any space-group, which takes full-advantage of the exploitation of these symmetry-features. The gain in computing time due to the full symmetry exploitation is documented to be rather significant not just for high-symmetry crystalline systems such as cubic, hexagonal or trigonal, but also for low-symmetry ones such as monoclinic and orthorhombic. The internal-strain tensor is used for the evaluation of the nuclear relaxation term of the fourth-rank elastic and third-rank piezoelectric tensors of crystals, where, apart from a reduction of the computing time, the exploitation of symmetry is documented to remarkably increase the numerical precision of computed coefficients.

  19. High-temperature piezoelectric sensing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2013-12-20

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  20. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  1. Application of single-crystalline PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT in high-performance pyroelectric detectors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Ji, Yadong; Neumann, Norbert; Lee, Sang-Goo; Luo, Hasou; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2012-09-01

    The suitability for use in pyroelectric detectors of single-crystalline doped and undoped lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate was tested and compared with high-quality Mn-doped lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and standard lithium tantalate. Pyroelectric and dielectric measurements confirmed an increased processing and operating temperature range because of the higher phase transitions of lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. Pyroelectric coefficients of 705 to 770 μC/m(2)K were obtained with doped and undoped lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, which are about 70% to 80% of the pyroelectric coefficient of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate but 4 times higher than standard lithium tantalate. Manganese doping has been proved as a solution to decrease the dielectric loss of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and it also works well for lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. An outstanding specific detectivity D* of about 1.1 · 10(9) cm·Hz(1/2)/W was achieved at a frequency of 2 Hz for Mn-doped lead magnesium niobate-based detectors.

  2. Potential and piezoelectric response imaging of 180^o domain of atomically ordered clean surfaces of BaTiO3 single crystals in UHV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yukio; Kaku, S.; Matsumoto, D.; Cheong, S. W.

    2009-03-01

    We report the electrostatic and piezoelectric properties of the clean, free surface of BaTiO3 single crystal in ultra high vacuum (UHV) The topographic imaging by AFM confirmed that the surface is atomically wellordered exhibiting clear one-lattice-height atomic steps. The amplitude and the phase image of piezoelectric response microscopy (PFM) identified 180^o domains. The electrostatic potential mapping by Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) of these domains revealed that the shapes of the domains agreed exactly with the PFM images, which confirms the correctness of the standard 180^o domain theory and disagrees with closure domains. However, the potential difference of upward and downward domain is approx. 0.1V, which is 100 times smaller than the value estimated by the standard theory. Similar measurements with changing temperature across Curie temperature show that this result cannot be explained by the compensation of the spontaneous polarization by contamination or oxygen deficiency or ionic conduction). The present results suggest that an intrinsic electrostatic shielding mechanism exists for 180^o domains, which is consistent with the reports of surface electron/hole layers [1]. [4pt] [1] Watanabe et al. PRL86332(2001);Ferroelectr.367, 23(2008) We acknowledge JSPS No.19340084.

  3. Probing the electrical impedance of thin films on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), making use of frequency shifts and piezoelectric stiffening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, Astrid; Böttcher, Andreas; Langhoff, Arne; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2016-11-01

    Using a temperature-responsive polymer film as an example, it was shown that a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can probe a sample's electrical properties in addition to its thickness and softness. The film's electrical impedance was accessed by alternating between the driving voltage being applied to the front electrode and the back electrode. The opposing electrode was grounded in both cases. In the first configuration, the electrical properties of the sample do have an influence on the resonance frequency because of piezoelectric stiffening. In the second, they do not. Using this scheme, it was monitored how the electrical impedance of a film composed of a mixture of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and polyvinylalcohol changes when the film swells and deswells.

  4. Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey, using headspace-solid-phase microextraction coupled with a polyoxometalate-coated piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Marta I S; Gamelas, José A F; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey provide an indication of overheating under inappropriate storage conditions or aging. Conventional methods for determining HMF are cumbersome and require expensive equipment or hazardous reagents. Hence the aim of this study was to propose a new analytical tool for HMF determination in honey, using a low cost acoustic wave sensor. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of honey samples were extracted, using the solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and HMF was quantified, using a piezoelectric quartz crystal with gold electrodes coated with a layer of decamolybdodivanado phosphoric acid, sensitive to HMF. The reliability of the proposed method was confirmed after comparing the results of HMF quantification with those obtained by the conventional spectrophotometric White method, and no statistical differences were found (α=0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Binding studies of L-tryptophan to human serum albumin with nanogold-structured sensor by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Long, Yumei; Yao, Shouzhuo; Chen, Jinhua

    2011-12-01

    Nanogold-modified sensor was constructed and applied to study the binding of L-tryptophan to human serum albumin (HSA) in situ by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance (PQCI) analysis. It was interesting that the as-prepared nanogold modified sensor was more sensitive and biocompatible than bare gold electrode. The frequency changes due to protein adsorption on the nanogold-modified sensor might be described as a sum of two exponential functions and detailed explanation was given. Additionally, the kinetics of the binding process was also investigated. The binding constant (K) and the number of binding site (n) for the binding process without competitor are fitted to be 1.07 x 10(4) (mol l(-1))(-1) s(-1) and 1.13, respectively, and 2.24 x 10(3) (mol l-(1))(-1) s(-1) and 1.18, respectively for the binding process with competitor.

  6. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Reduction of electro-optic half-wave voltage of 0.93Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.07PbTiO3 single crystal through large piezoelectric strain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    The influence of converse piezoelectric effect on the electro-optic coefficient of single domain relaxor-based 0.93Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.07PbTiO3 (PZN-0.07PT) has been quantified under ambient conditions. It was found that the large piezoelectric constants d31 and d33 have significant influence to the half-wave voltage of electro-optic modulators. For single domain PZN-0.07PT crystal, Vπ13T is reduced by a factor of 8 and Vπ13L can be decreased by more than an order of magnitude due to the large piezoelectric effect. Compared to commonly used electro-optic crystal LiNbO3 and BaTiO3, PZN-xPT single crystal is much superior for optic phase modulation applications because they have much higher linear electro-optic coefficients and much lower half-wave voltage when piezoelectric strain influence is considered. PMID:21308004

  8. Peculiar temperature aging effects on the piezoelectric constant of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal near the morphotropic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guisheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Danfeng; Duan, Ziqing; Feng, Chude; Chen, Kai

    2005-01-01

    After temperature aging, peculiar changes of the piezoelectric response of 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 crystals appeared. The piezoelectric constant d33 of the (001)-cut crystals with TRT˜35°C abruptly rose more than 1000pC/N in some regions after heat treatment at 65°C for 12h. For the (001)-cut crystals with TRT˜74°C, in spite of a fall of 40-100pC/N after heat treatment at 65°C for 12h, the values of d33 rose 50-100pC/N unexpectedly after the subsequent heat treatment at 85°C for 4h. The structure adjustment caused by the internal stress relaxation during heat treatment at T >TRT accounted for the enhancement of d33.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy represents an insightful characterization tool in electronics, which comprehensively suits the technological needs for locally and quantitatively assessing crystal structures, domain textures, crystallographic misalignments, and residual stresses in piezoelectric materials and related devices. Recent improvements in data processing and instrumental screening of large sampling areas have provided Raman spectroscopic evaluations with rejuvenating effectiveness and presently give spin to increasingly wider and more sophisticated experimental explorations. However, the physics underlying the Raman effect represents an issue of deep complexity and its applicative development to non-cubic crystallographic structures can yet be considered in its infancy. This review paper revisits some applicative aspects of the physics governing Raman emission from crystalline matter, exploring the possibility of disentangling the convoluted dependences of the Raman spectrum on crystal orientation and mechanical stress. Attention is paid to the technologically important class of piezoelectric materials, for which working algorithms are explicitly worked out in order to quantitatively extract both structural and mechanical information from polarized Raman spectra. Systematic characterizations of piezoelectric materials and devices are successively presented as applications of the developed equations. The Raman response of complex crystal structures, described here according to a unified formalism, is interpreted as a means for assessing both crystallographic textures and stress-related issues in the three-dimensional space (thus preserving their vectorial and tensorial nature, respectively). Statistical descriptions of domain textures based on orientation distribution functions are also developed in order to provide a link between intrinsic single-crystal data and data collected on polycrystalline (partly textured) structures. This paper aims at providing rigorous

  10. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  11. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  12. Excitation of fundamental shear horizontal wave by using face-shear (d36) piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hongchen; Dong, Shuxiang; Li, Faxin

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) wave in plate-like structures is extremely useful for non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) as it is non-dispersive. However, currently, the SH0 wave is usually excited by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) whose energy conversion efficiency is fairly low. The face-shear ( d 36 ) mode piezoelectrics is more promising for SH0 wave excitation, but this mode cannot appear in conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Recently, by modifying the symmetry of poled PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics via ferroelastic domain engineering, we realized the face-shear d 36 mode in both soft and hard PZT ceramics. In this work, we further improved the face-shear properties of PZT-4 and PZT-5H ceramics via lateral compression under elevated temperature. It was found that when bonded on a 1 mm-thick aluminum plate, the d 36 type PZT-4 exhibited better face-shear performance than PZT-5H. We then successfully excite SH0 wave in the aluminum plate using a face-shear PZT-4 square patch and receive the wave using a face-shear 0.72[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-0.28[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT) patch. The frequency response and directionality of the excited SH0 wave were also investigated. The SH0 wave can be dominated over the Lamb waves (S0 and A0 waves) from 160 kHz to 280 kHz. The wave amplitude reaches its maxima along the two main directions (0° and 90°). The amplitude can keep over 80% of the maxima when the deviate angle is less than 30°, while it vanishes quickly at the 45° direction. The excited SH0 wave using piezoelectric ceramics could be very promising in the fields of NDT and SHM.

  13. Wideband Single-Crystal Transducer for Bone Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Yu; Snook, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    excitation signal to the transducer and amplifying the signal received from the transducer. The excitation signal may be either a wide-bandwidth signal to excite the transducer across its entire operational spectrum, or a narrow-bandwidth signal optimized for a particular measurement technique. The transducer face is applied to the skin covering the bone to be characterized, and may be operated in through-transmission mode using two transducers, or in pulse-echo mode. The transducer is a unique combination of material, design, and fabrication technique. It is based on single-crystal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric material. As compared to the commonly used piezoceramics, this piezocrystal has superior piezoelectric and elastic properties, which results in devices with superior bandwidth, source level, and power requirements. This design necessitates a single resonant frequency. However, by operating in a transverse length-extensional mode, with the electric field applied orthogonally to the extensional direction, resonators of different sizes can share common electrodes, resulting in a multiply-resonant structure. With carefully sized resonators, and the superior bandwidth of piezocrystal, the resonances can be made to overlap to form a smooth, wide-bandwidth characteristic.

  14. Ferroelectric Single-Crystal Gated Graphene/Hexagonal-BN/Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Yourack; Yun, Yoojoo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-11-24

    The effect of a ferroelectric polarization field on the charge transport in a two-dimensional (2D) material was examined using a graphene monolayer on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) field-effect transistor (FET) fabricated using a ferroelectric single-crystal substrate, (1-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT). In this configuration, the intrinsic properties of graphene were preserved with the use of an hBN flake, and the influence of the polarization field from PMN-PT could be distinguished. During a wide-range gate-voltage (VG) sweep, a sharp inversion of the spontaneous polarization affected the graphene channel conductance asymmetrically as well as an antihysteretic behavior. Additionally, a transition from antihysteresis to normal ferroelectric hysteresis occurred, depending on the V(G) sweep range relative to the ferroelectric coercive field. We developed a model to interpret the complex coupling among antihysteresis, current saturation, and sudden conductance variation in relation with the ferroelectric switching and the polarization-assisted charge trapping, which can be generalized to explain the combination of 2D structured materials with ferroelectrics.

  15. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Tuna; Cebe, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Uniaxially oriented, piezoelectric silk films were prepared by a two-step method that involved: (1) air drying aqueous, regenerated silk fibroin solutions into films, and (2) drawing the silk films to a desired draw ratio. The utility of two different drawing techniques, zone drawing and water immersion drawing were investigated for processing the silk for piezoelectric studies. Silk films zone drawn to a ratio of λ= 2.7 displayed relatively high dynamic shear piezoelectric coefficients of d14 = −1.5 pC/N, corresponding to over two orders of magnitude increase in d14 due to film drawing. A strong correlation was observed between the increase in the silk II, β-sheet content with increasing draw ratio measured by FTIR spectroscopy (Cβ∝ e2.5 λ), the concomitant increasing degree of orientation of β-sheet crystals detected via WAXD (FWHM = 0.22° for λ= 2.7), and the improvement in silk piezoelectricity (d14∝ e2.4 λ). Water immersion drawing led to a predominantly silk I structure with a low degree of orientation (FWHM = 75°) and a much weaker piezoelectric response compared to zone drawing. Similarly, increasing the β-sheet crystallinity without inducing crystal alignment, e.g. by methanol treatment, did not result in a significant enhancement of silk piezoelectricity. Overall, a combination of a high degree of silk II, β-sheet crystallinity and crystalline orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity will provide important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein. PMID:23335872

  16. Piezoelectric Measurement Of Bulk Modulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Barry L.

    1992-01-01

    In method of measuring bulk modulus of elasticity of elastomeric material, piezoelectric crystals of various sizes and energized by alternating voltage embedded in material. Concept demonstrated in test cell in which piezoelectric crystal mounted either unconstrained or between two rubber pads and connected as actuator in loud-speaker. The 1-in. diameter crystal excited with 24 Vac at 60 Hz. When crystal was unconstrained, it drew current of 0.8 mA. When crystal was constrained between rubber pads, current fell to 0.65 mA. Low current, minimal heating, and absence of arcing makes technique suitable for measurement of bulk moduli of elasticity of flammable or explosive rubbery materials.

  17. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-05-13

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V(-1). We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  18. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  19. Crystal Growth of Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx)3Si2O14 Piezoelectric Single Crystals with Various Al Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Yuui; Kudo, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuji; Medvedev, Andrey; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx)3Si2O14 (CNGAS) single crystals with various Al concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (µ-PD) method and their crystal structures, chemical compositions, crystallinities were investigated. CNGAS crystals with x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 indicated a single phase of langasite-type structure without any secondary phases. In contrast, the crystals with x = 0.8 and 1 included some secondary phases in addition to the langasite-type phase. Lattice parameters, a- and c-axes lengths, of the langasite-type phase systematically decreased with an increase of Al concentration. The results of chemical composition analysis revealed that the actual Al concentrations in as-grown crystals were almost consistent with the nominal compositions. In addition, there was no large segregation of each cation along the growth direction. PMID:28793525

  20. Piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance study of the Pb2+-induced precipitation of bovine serum albumin and its dissolution with EDTA in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu; Cai, Yan; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2002-07-01

    The piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance technique (QCI) was employed to monitor in situ the Pb2+-induced precipitation of BSA onto a gold electrode and the precipitate dissolution with EDTA in an aqueous solution. The critical precipitation concentration of Pb2+, at which the resonant frequency decreased significantly, was estimated to be 4.78 x 10(-4) mol/L. The saturated adherence of the precipitate on the electrode was observed when the concentration of Pb2+ was greater than 7.53 x 10(-2) mol/L. The frequency response was mainly caused by the mass effect of the precipitate adherence to the electrode, rather than the changes in the physico-chemical properties of the contacting liquid. An excess addition of Na2EDTA after the Pb2+-BSA dissolution led to new precipitation, probably due to the formation of an EDTA precipitate in this medium (pH approximately 3). The pH effect on the response of the resonant frequency was analyzed by using the sum of two exponential functions. A larger frequency response occurred at a pH greater than pI. These findings have been reasonably explained. Also, a decrease in the concentration of the background electrolyte increased the frequency response.

  1. Piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conragan, J.; Muller, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Transducer consists of a hybrid thin film and a piezoelectric transistor that acts as a stress-sensitive device with built-in gain. It provides a stress/strain transducer that incorporates a signal amplification stage and sensor in a single package.

  2. Crystal structure and phase transition behavior in (K1-xNax)NbO3-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic over a wide range of temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, H.; Matsuoka, T.; Kozuka, H.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K.; Ida, T.

    2016-12-01

    The phase transition temperature in a (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) phase of a KNN-based composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with a KTiNbO5 system ((K1-xNax)0.86Ca0.04Li0.02Nb0.85O3-δ-K0.85Ti0.85Nb1.15O5-BaZrO3-Co3O4-Fe2O3-ZnO) is lower than that in an undoped KNN ceramic by approximately 200 °C. We have studied the structural changes around the phase transition by using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The crystal system of the main KNN phase is assigned to tetragonal as a stable structure at room temperature and does not change to orthorhombic on lowering the temperature all at once. The crystal structure changes from tetragonal to orthorhombic through the successive transition state. The curve of the phase transition temperature from x = 0.33 to 0.75 has a V shape and reaches its lowest value of approximately 0 °C in the vicinity of x = 0.56. From selected-area electron diffraction patterns of the KNN phase, weak superlattice spots owing to the tilt-ordered NbO6 octahedra are observed for x ≥ 0.56. This tilt-ordered NbO6 octahedral phase is formed at the nanometer-scale (nanodomains) in the tetragonal and orthorhombic KNN matrices, regardless of the phase transition. The minimum x to generate the nanodomains is substantially equal to the Na fraction at which the starting temperature of the successive phase transition shifts to the lowest.

  3. Acoustoelectric effects in reflection of leaky-wave-radiated bulk acoustic waves from piezoelectric crystal-conductive liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Rimeika, Romualdas; Čiplys, Daumantas; Jonkus, Vytautas; Shur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The leaky surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating along X-axis of Y-cut lithium tantalate crystal strongly radiates energy in the form of an obliquely propagating narrow bulk acoustic wave (BAW) beam. The reflection of this beam from the crystal-liquid interface has been investigated. The test liquids were solutions of potassium nitrate in distilled water and of lithium chloride in isopropyl alcohol with the conductivity varied by changing the solution concentration. The strong dependences of the reflected wave amplitude and phase on the liquid conductivity were observed and explained by the acoustoelectric interaction in the wave reflection region. The novel configuration of an acoustic sensor for liquid media featuring important advantages of separate measuring and sensing surfaces and rigid structure has been proposed. The application of leaky-SAW radiated bulk waves for identification of different brands of mineral water has been demonstrated.

  4. Synchrotron White Beam X-Ray Topography Characterization of LGX and SXGS Bulk Single Crystals, Thin Films and Piezoelectric Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-27

    perceived. First, high Ga2O3 content among 23 the raw materials makes the crystal cost much higher than quartz, LiNbO3 and LiTaO3. Second, more...of the ternary component system ( e.g. La2O3 - Ga2O3 - SiO2); b. small but finite evaporation of Ga2O3 from the melt 4. This non-stoichiometry in

  5. Glory of piezoelectric perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the history of piezoelectric perovskites and forecasts future development trends, including Uchino’s discoveries such as the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 electrostrictor, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 single crystal, (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O3 photostriction, and Pb(Zr, Ti)O3–Terfenol magnetoelectric composites. We discuss five key trends in the development of piezomaterials: performance to reliability, hard to soft, macro to nano, homo to hetero, and single to multi-functional. PMID:27877827

  6. Complete set of material constants of 0.95(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric single crystal and the delineation of extrinsic contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Limei; Yi, Xiujie; Zhang, Shantao; Jiang, Wenhua; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-09-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric single crystal 0.95(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT)-0.05BaTiO3 was grown by top-seeded solution growth method, which has rhombohedral symmetry with composition near morphotropic phase boundary. Full set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for [001]c poled domain-engineered single crystal was determined. Excellent electromechanical properties and low dielectric loss (d33 = 360 pC/N, d31 = -113 pC/N, d15 = 162 pC/N, k33 = 0.720, kt = 0.540, and tan δ = 1.1%) make it a good candidate to replace lead-based piezoelectric materials. The depolarization temperature (Td = 135 °C) is the highest among all NBT-based materials and its electromechanical coupling properties are very stable below Td. Extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric properties were investigated by Rayleigh analysis.

  7. DNA hybridization detection with 100 zM sensitivity using piezoelectric plate sensors with an improved noise-reduction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2014-06-07

    We have examined real-time, in situ hybridization detection of target DNA (tDNA) in a buffer solution and in urine using 8 μm-thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) about 1.1-1.2 mm long and 0.45 mm wide with improved 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) insulation and a new multiple-parabola (>50) resonance peak position fitting algorithm. With probe DNA (pDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first width extension mode (WEM) resonance frequency shift we detected tDNA in real time at concentration as low as 1 × 10(-19) M in urine (100 zM) with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 13 without DNA isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30 min. The present multiple-parabola fitting algorithm increased the detection of SNR by about 10 times compared to those obtained using the raw data and by about 5 times compared to those obtained using single parabola fitting. The detection was validated by in situ follow-up detection and subsequent visualization of fluorescent reporter microspheres (FRMs) coated with reporter DNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe pDNA.

  8. Piezoelectric loudspeaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Curtis Randall (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A piezoelectric loudspeaker suitable for midrange frequencies uses a dome shaped piezoelectric actuator to drive a speaker membrane directly. The dome shaped actuator is made from a reduced and internally biased oxygen wafer, and generates excursion of the apex of the dome in the order of 0.02 - 0.05 inches when a rated drive voltage of 350 V rms is applied between the convex and the concave surfaces of the dome shaped actuator. The load capacity exceeds 10 lbs. The edge of the rim of the dome shaped actuator must be free to rock when the dome height varies to ensure low distortion in the loudspeaker. This is achieved by mounting the rim of the dome shaped actuator on a support surface by prestress only. An exceptionally simple design uses a planar speaker membrane with the center part of one side pressed against the rim of a dome shaped actuator by prestress from a stretched latex surround member.

  9. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  10. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  11. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  12. Temperature and electric field-induced phase transitions in (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir, Ghulam; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2017-03-01

    Field-induced phase transitions in [111]- and [110]-oriented relaxor ferroelectric (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition range were examined through temperature-dependent complex capacitance measurements. Two first-order phase transitions from paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal and then to ferroelectric rhombohedral phases were observed in the unpoled crystal. Additional weak dielectric anomalies were observed at a temperature of 40 °C (in both crystals) and 90 °C (in [110] crystals) in the poled samples. These weak anomalies disappeared when cooling the crystal from higher temperature but within the ferroelectric tetragonal phase. The new anomalies were attributed to the formation of field-induced metastable phases, which were unstable with temperature modulation.

  13. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P. Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M.; Shimamura, K.

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  14. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P.; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Shimamura, K.; Maglione, M.

    2014-04-01

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba0.850Ca0.150)(Ti0.900Zr0.100)O3 ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO2-ZrO2 solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba0.857Ca0.143)(Ti0.928Zr0.072)O3 to (Ba0.953Ca0.047)(Ti0.427Zr0.573)O3. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba0.838Ca0.162)(Ti0.854Zr0.146)O3 composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d31 and k31 of 93 pC.N-1 and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K).

  15. Peculiar temperature aging effects on the piezoelectric constant of Pb(Mg{sub 1sol3}Nb{sub 2sol3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} single crystal near the morphotropic phase boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Guisheng; Wang Xiaofeng; Yang Danfeng; Duan Ziqing; Feng Chude; Chen Kai

    2005-01-17

    After temperature aging, peculiar changes of the piezoelectric response of 0.67 Pb(Mg{sub 1sol3}Nb{sub 2sol3})O{sub 3-}0.33 PbTiO{sub 3} crystals appeared. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} of the (001)-cut crystals with T{sub RT}{approx}35 deg. C abruptly rose more than 1000 pC/N in some regions after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h. For the (001)-cut crystals with T{sub RT}{approx}74 deg. C, in spite of a fall of 40-100 pC/N after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h, the values of d{sub 33} rose 50-100 pC/N unexpectedly after the subsequent heat treatment at 85 deg. C for 4 h. The structure adjustment caused by the internal stress relaxation during heat treatment at T>T{sub RT} accounted for the enhancement of d{sub 33}.

  16. Digital Refractometry of Piezoelectric Crystalline Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Research and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-87-0727-1 III DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA CD Dr. Edward Collett...1L 1 DA313485 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr...GROUP SUB-GROUP Lasers; quartz; dielectrics; permittivity; refractometry 9 U-1optics; millimeter waves; microwaves; crystals. ,𔄃. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  17. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  18. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  19. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices. PMID:24170960

  20. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-09-21

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  1. Derivation of Piezoelectric Losses from Admittance Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ural, Seyit O.; Rajapurkar, Aditya; Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Amin, Ahmed; Uchino, Kenji

    2009-04-01

    High power density piezoelectrics are required to miniaturize devices such as ultrasonic motors, transformers, and sound projectors. The power density is limited by the heat generation in piezoelectrics, therefore, clarification of the loss mechanisms is necessary. This paper provides a methodology to determine the electromechanical losses, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric loss factors in piezoelectrics by means of a detailed analysis of the admittance/impedance spectra. This method was applied to determine the piezoelectric losses for lead zirconate titanate ceramics and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals. The analytical solution provides a new method for obtaining the piezoelectric loss factor, which is usually neglected in practice by transducer designers. Finite element simulation demonstrated the importance of piezoelectric losses to yield a more accurate fitting to the experimental data. A phenomenological model based on two phase-shifts and the Devonshire theory of a polarizable-deformable insulator is developed to interpret the experimentally observed magnitudes of the mechanical quality factor at resonance and anti-resonance.

  2. Thermal model for piezoelectric transducers (L).

    PubMed

    Butler, John L; Butler, Alexander L; Butler, Stephen C

    2012-10-01

    A lumped parameter equivalent circuit basis for calculating and allocating heat power sources in a transducer is presented along with experimental results. The simple model allows heat power calculations at resonance based on readily attainable parameters for transducers with uniform fields. Measured and finite element analysis of steady state thermal results are compared for the monopole mode of the single crystal driven modal transducer projector. The model serves as a physical and computational aid in the evaluation of piezoelectric transducer heating and may be used for evaluating highly coupled single crystal as well as ceramic piezoelectric transducers.

  3. Digital Refractometry of Piezoelectric Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Digital Refractometry , Included in the report is a description of the program, classical methods for measuring the refractive index, the foundations of...Digital Refractometry for isotropic and anisotropic materials and the laboratory configuration for Digital Refractometry . In the final section of the

  4. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaschek, J.

    1994-12-31

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are a new type of actuator. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. They also provide a high holding torque even if no power is applied. Compared to electromagnetic actuators the torque per volume ratio of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors can be higher by an order of magnitude. Recently various types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been developed for industrial applications. This paper describes several types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors.

  5. Quartz-crystal-oscillator hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measuring device, which eliminates complex and expensive optical components by electronically sensing dewpoint of water vapor in gas, employs piezoelectric crystal oscillator, supportive circuitry, temperature regulators, and readout.

  6. Quartz-crystal-oscillator hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measuring device, which eliminates complex and expensive optical components by electronically sensing dewpoint of water vapor in gas, employs piezoelectric crystal oscillator, supportive circuitry, temperature regulators, and readout.

  7. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  8. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  9. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  10. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  11. Simple Piezoelectric Probe for Detection and Measurement of SO2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechette, Michael W.; Fasching, James L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a new system for the detection and measurement of sulfur dioxide using a coated piezoelectric crystal. The device is rugged, portable, inexpensive, and should lend itself easily to automation. (JR)

  12. Simple Piezoelectric Probe for Detection and Measurement of SO2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechette, Michael W.; Fasching, James L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a new system for the detection and measurement of sulfur dioxide using a coated piezoelectric crystal. The device is rugged, portable, inexpensive, and should lend itself easily to automation. (JR)

  13. Elevated silver, barium and strontium in antlers, vegetation and soils sourced from CWD cluster areas: do Ag/Ba/Sr piezoelectric crystals represent the transmissible pathogenic agent in TSEs?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High levels of Silver (Ag), Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr) and low levels of copper (Cu) have been measured in the antlers, soils and pastures of the deer that are thriving in the chronic wasting disease (CWD) cluster zones in North America in relation to the areas where CWD and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have not been reported. The elevations of Ag, Ba and Sr were thought to originate from both natural geochemical and artificial pollutant sources--stemming from the common practise of aerial spraying with 'cloud seeding' Ag or Ba crystal nuclei for rain making in these drought prone areas of North America, the atmospheric spraying with Ba based aerosols for enhancing/refracting radar and radio signal communications as well as the spreading of waste Ba drilling mud from the local oil/gas well industry across pastureland. These metals have subsequently bioconcentrated up the foodchain and into the mammals who are dependent upon the local Cu deficient ecosystems. A dual eco-prerequisite theory is proposed on the aetiology of TSEs which is based upon an Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn replacement binding at the vacant Cu/Zn domains on the cellular prion protein (PrP)/sulphated proteoglycan molecules which impairs the capacities of the brain to protect itself against incoming shockbursts of sound and light energy. Ag/Ba/Sr chelation of free sulphur within the biosystem inhibits the viable synthesis of the sulphur dependent proteoglycans, which results in the overall collapse of the Cu mediated conduction of electric signals along the PrP-proteoglycan signalling pathways; ultimately disrupting GABA type inhibitory currents at the synapses/end plates of the auditory/circadian regulated circuitry, as well as disrupting proteoglycan co-regulation of the growth factor signalling systems which maintain the structural integrity of the nervous system. The resulting Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn based compounds seed piezoelectric crystals which incorporate PrP and ferritin into

  14. Piezoelectric characteristics of PZT thin films on polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Do, Younh-Ho; Oh, Seung-Min; Rahayu, Rheza; Kim, Yiyein; Kang, Chong-Yun; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2012-02-01

    The goal of piezoelectric energy harvesting is to improve the power efficiency of devices. One of the approaches for the improvement of power efficiency is to apply the large strain on the piezoelectric materials and then many scientists approached using thin films or nano-structured piezoelectric materials to obtain flexibility. However, the conventional thin film processes available for the fabrication of piezoelectric materials as PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) are not compatible with flexible electronics because they require high processing temperatures (>700^oC) to obtain piezoelectricity. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is attractive heat process for the low-temperature crystallization, because of its material selectivity and short heating time. In this study, the amorphous PZT thin films were deposited on polymer substrate by rf-sputtering. To crystallize the amorphous films, the ELA was carried out with various conditions as function of the applied laser energy density, the number of pulse, and the repetition rate. To evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics, piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and electrometer are used. As a result, we obtained the crystallized PZT thin film on flexible substrate and obtained flexible piezoelectric energy harvester.

  15. Small non-polar complexes exhibiting significant piezoelectric properties: Solvothermal synthesis and crystal structures of MO5V(tren)·H2O (M=Mo and W; tren=tris(2-aminoethyl)amine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Näther, C.; Bismayer, U.; Bensch, W.

    2012-11-01

    The two isostructural complexes MO5V(tren)·H2O (M=Mo (1) and W (2)) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions at pH≈12 crystallizing in the non-centrosymmetric space group P212121. The structures are constructed by a distorted tetrahedral [MO4]2- anion bound via one shared oxygen atom to a severely distorted [VIVN4O]2+ complex completing the octahedral coordination around the V centre. The two O atoms in the VN4O2 octahedron are in cis position. The two compounds represent rare examples where the [MO4]2- anion is acting as a ligand. Both compounds exhibit a piezoelectric effect which is more pronounced for M=Mo. The samples are further characterized with IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and thermal analysis.

  16. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  17. Piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Ahner, N.; Gottschlich, D.; Narang, S.; Roberts, D.; Sharma, S.; Ventura, S.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of using piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration to reduce membrane fouling and enhance the flux through ultrafiltration membranes. A preliminary economic evaluation, accounting for the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver and the extent of permeate flow rate enhancement, has also shown that piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration is cost effective and economically competitive in comparison with traditional separation processes. Piezoelectric transducers, such as a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc or a piezoelectric horn, driven by moderate power, significantly enhance the permeate flux on fouled membranes, presumably because they promote local turbulence. Several experiments were conducted on polysulfone and regenerated cellulose UF membranes fouled during filtration of model feed solutions. Solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) and of high-molecular weight dextran were used as models. The authors found that they could significantly increase the permeate flux by periodically driving the piezoelectric transducer, horn or PZT disc, by application of moderate power over short periods of time, from 20 to 90 seconds. Enhancements as high as a factor of 8 were recorded within a few seconds, and enhanced permeate fluxes were maintained over a prolonged period (up to 3 hours). The prolonged flux enhancement makes it feasible to drive the piezoelectric transducer intermittently, thereby reducing the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver. As piezoelectric drivers of sonically assisted ultrafiltration, PZT disc transducers are preferred over the piezoelectric horn because of their small size and ease of adaptability to ultrafiltration test cells. The horn transmits sonic energy to the UF membrane through a titanium element driven by a separate piezoelectric transducer, but a piezoelectric ceramic disc transmits energy directly to the UF membrane.

  18. Performance of Transducers with Segmented Piezoelectric Stacks using Materials with High Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-03

    transducers , particularly tonpilz transducer elements. Included is discussion of transducer designs using single crystal piezoelectric material with... tonpilz transducer elements. Included is discussion of transducer designs using single crystal piezoelectric material with high coupling coefficient...Conclusions 14 References 16 Appendix 18 v This page intentionally left blank. vi List of Figures Figure 1 The tonpilz transducer element used in this

  19. Electrical properties of Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} ceramics modified with WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Ni; Dong Xianlin; Sun Dazhi; Xiang Pinghua; Du Hui

    2004-02-02

    Ferroelectrics 0.67Pb (Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.33PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) + x mol% WO{sub 3} (x=0.1, 0.5, 1, 2) were prepared by columbite precursor method. Electrical properties of WO{sub 3}-modified ferroelectrics were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify crystal structure, and pyrochlore phase were observed in 0.67Pb (Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.33PbTiO{sub 3}+2 mol% WO{sub 3}. Dielectric peak temperature decreased with WO{sub 3} doping, indicating that W{sup 6+} incorporated into PMN-PT lattice. Lattice constant, pyrochlore phase and grain size contribute to the variation of K{sub max}. Both piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) and electromechanical coupling factors (k{sub p}) were enhanced by doping 0.1 mol% WO{sub 3}, which results from the introduction of 'soft' characteristics into PMN-PT, while further WO{sub 3} addition was detrimental. We consider that the two factors, introduction of 'soft' characteristics and the formation of pyrochlore phase, appear to act together to cause the variation of piezoelectric properties of 0.67PMN-0.33PT ceramics doping with WO{sub 3}.

  20. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  1. A piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  2. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  3. Innovations in piezoelectric materials for ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrout, Thomas R.; Park, Seung Eek E.; Lopath, Patrick D.; Meyer, Richard J., Jr.; Ritter, Timothy A.; Shung, K. Kirk

    1998-05-01

    Piezoelectric material lie at the heart of ultrasonic transducers. Recent advances in materials development include submicron piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) which lead to improvements in feature size, i.e. aspect ratio, element width, etc., for linear arrays and high frequency transducers. In contrast to fine grain ceramics, single crystal materials based on Relaxor-PT ferroelectrics offer electromechanical coupling coefficients > 90 percent with a range of dielectric permittivity allowing flexibility in transducer engineering in regard to electrical impedance matching. Using KLM modeling, very high bandwidth performance > 120 percent is projected. Specific examples of high frequency 1-3 composites and 1D linear array transducers fabricated from new piezoelectric materials, including sol-gel derived PZT fibers, are presented.

  4. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  5. A piezoelectric immunosensor for the detection of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Attili, B S; Suleiman, A A

    1995-01-01

    A piezoelectric crystal immunosensor has been developed for the detection and determination of cortisol. Cortisol antibody was layered onto the gold electrodes of a 10 MHz piezoelectric crystal which was pre-coated with either protein A or gluteraldehyde. Crystals pre-coated with protein A showed the best results with respect to stability and sensitivity. The sensor was successfully used for the determination of cortisol in standard solutions from 36-3628 micrograms/L (part per billion). The advantages of the proposed sensor include simplicity, short analysis time, cost effectiveness and selectivity. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cortisol assay in clinical testing and in drug monitoring.

  6. Multifunctional devices combining shape-memory alloy and piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We succeeded in the deposition of piezoelectric thin film on a titanium substrate and on nickel-titanium alloy (shapememory alloy) by employing the hydrothermal synthesis method for the direct deposition of PZT thin film, which is a piezoelectric material, on a titanium substrate. The formed film is quite thin (tens of micrometers), and the density is low (theoretical density of ~70%). As the thin piezoelectric film is formed by the layering of many crystals, it is capable of responding to large deformations (up to 5%), which would have been inconceivable with the existing piezoelectric materials without any structural damages. The hydrothermal synthesis method was used in this research study to form films of PZT piezoelectric films on the surfaces of nickel-titanium shape-memory alloy wires to fabricate and evaluate a new multifunctional device that features a combination of four effects, namely, the shape-memory effect, super-elasticity effect, piezoelectric effect, and pyroelectric effect. The fabricated fiber was subjected to a tensile test in the super-elastic state, and the amount of deformation thereof was read from the piezoelectric effect to show the functioning of both the super-elastic effect and the piezoelectric effect.

  7. Czochralski growth of 2 in. Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 single crystals for piezoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery I.; Kitahara, Masanori; Kudo, Tetsuo; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Medvedev, Andrey; Kochurikhin, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Growth of 2-in. diameter Al-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 crystals by Czochralski method is reported. The crystals were grown from the melt of Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition and had langasite structure. No inclusions of secondary phases were detected in these crystals. The Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 mixed crystals produced using non-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 seeds were defective. They had cracks and/or poly-crystalline structure. However, those grown on the seed of approximately Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition were defect-free. Phase diagram of the Ca3TaGa3Si2O14-Ca3TaAl3Si2O14 pseudo-binary system and segregation phenomenon are discussed in some details. Homogeneity of the crystals was evaluated by measuring 2D-mapping of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities for Y-cut Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 substrate. Although some inhomogeneities were observed due to slight variations in chemical composition, the crystal had acceptable homogeneity for applications in acoustic wave devices exhibiting the LSAW velocity variation within ±0.048%.

  8. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects of a crystalline polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.; Kundu, Malay

    1990-01-01

    Polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) is a crystalline polymer to both piezoelectric and pyroelectric nature. Piezoelectricity produces electrical signals when mechanically deformed, and pyroelectricity is the electrical polarization induced by thermal absorption in crystals. To demonstrate the piezoelectric effect PVDF is subjected to impact loads which produce electrical charges proportional to mechanical stresses. A heat source was used to demonstrate the pyroelectric nature of PVDF. The rise in temperature due to absorbed energy by the polymer produces electrical output. The qualitative test results obtained are graphically reproduced.

  9. Analysis of the electrically forced vibrations of piezoelectric mesa resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui-Jing; Nie, Guo-Quan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Yang, Jia-Shi

    2013-08-01

    We study the electrically forced thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of stepped thickness piezoelectric plate mesa resonators made of polarized ceramics or 6-mm class crystals. A theoretical analysis based on the theory of piezoelectricity is performed, and an analytical solution is obtained using the trigonometric series. The electrical admittance, resonant frequencies, and mode shapes are calculated, and strong energy trapping of the modes is observed. Their dependence on the geometric parameters of the resonator is also examined.

  10. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  11. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Antonio

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  12. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor); Vipperman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cole, Daniel G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm implemented in digital or analog form is used in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier to compensate for the feedthrough capacitance of piezoelectric sensoriactuator. The mechanical response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator is resolved from the electrical response by adaptively altering the gain imposed on the electrical circuit used for compensation. For wideband, stochastic input disturbances, the feedthrough capacitance of the sensoriactuator can be identified on-line, providing a means of implementing direct-rate-feedback control in analog hardware. The device is capable of on-line system health monitoring since a quasi-stable dynamic capacitance is indicative of sustained health of the piezoelectric element.

  13. Investigation of the nanodomain structure formation by piezoelectric force microscopy and Raman confocal microscopy in LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya.; Zelenovskiy, P. S.; Nebogatikov, M. S.; Alikin, D. O.; Sarmanova, M. F.; Ievlev, A. V.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Kuznetsov, D. K.

    2011-09-01

    Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and Raman confocal microscopy have been used for studying the nanodomain structures in congruent LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} crystals. The high-resolution nanodomain images at the surface were observed via PFM. Raman confocal microscopy has been used for the visualization of the nanodomain structures in the bulk via layer-by-layer scanning at various depths. It has been shown experimentally that the nanodomain images obtained at different depths correspond to domain images at the polar surface obtained at different moments: the deeper the nanodomain, the earlier the moment. Such a correlation was applied for the reconstruction of the evolution of the domain structures with charged domain walls. The studied domain structures were obtained in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions realized in LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} via pulse laser irradiation and the electric field poling of LiNbO{sub 3}, with the surface layer modified by ion implantation. The revealed main stages of the domain structure evolution allow the authors to demonstrate that all geometrically different nanodomain structures observed in LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} appeared as a result of discrete switching.

  14. Pressure-induced phase transitions of piezoelectric single crystals from the langasite family: La3Nb0.5Ga5.5O14 and La3Ta0.5Ga5.5O14.

    PubMed

    Pavlovska, A; Werner, S; Maximov, B; Mill, B

    2002-12-01

    The hydrostatic compression of piezoelectric single crystals of La(3)Nb(0.5)Ga(5.5)O(14) (LNG) and La(3)Ta(0.5)Ga(5.5)O(14) (LTG) was studied at pressures of up to 23 GPa in diamond-anvil high-pressure cells using single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The reflection-intensity data for LNG and LTG were collected at pressures of up to 22.8 GPa and 16.7 GPa, respectively. Both compounds show anisotropic behaviour under pressure, which is caused by differences in bonding parallel to the a and c directions. The compression of strongly rigid structures leads to increasing internal strains and results, at pressures of 12.4 (3) GPa for LNG and 11.7 (3) GPa for LTG, in a transition to lower symmetry. The compressibilities along the c axis are almost the same for LNG and LTG through the whole investigated pressure range. In contrast, the pressure dependencies of the a axis of these materials are similar only for the initial phase, and the axial compressibilities for the high-pressure polymorphs of LNG and LTG are significantly different to each other. The volume compressibilities of trigonal LNG and LTG (space group P321) are about 0.007 GPa(-1); respective bulk moduli are 145 (3) GPa and 144 (2) GPa. The monoclinic high-pressure phases (space group A2) of LNG and LTG show differing compressions, which can be explained by the substitution of Ta(5+) for Nb(5+). Thus, the bulk moduli for the high-pressure polymorphs of LNG and LTG are B(0) = 93 (2) GPa and B(0) = 128 (12) GPa, respectively. The volume compressibilities of the high-pressure phases at 0.011 GPa(-1) for LNG and 0.008 GPa(-1) for LTG are higher than the initial phases, this effect being more pronounced in the case of LNG.

  15. Piezoelectric and piezooptic effects in porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinikman-Pinhasi, Shirly; Ribak, Erez N.

    2006-03-01

    Although silicon is a simple cubic crystal, it can be induced to have a piezoelectric response, by making pores in it and thus spoiling its symmetry. By etching a silicon wafer into porous material, we found that it responds to voltage applied to it, as well as to light. A porous shallow layer on the surface of the wafer induced bimorph bending roughly proportional to the voltage squared. Illuminating the porous patch caused a similar bending.

  16. Piezoelectric micromotors for microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Anita M.; Tavrow, Lee S.; Bart, Stephen F.; Brooks, Rodney A.; Ehrlich, Daniel J.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Cross, L. E.

    1992-03-01

    The authors have begun research into piezoelectric ultrasonic motors using ferroelectric thin films. The authors have fabricated the stator components of these millimeter diameter motors on silicon wafers. Ultrasonic motors consist of two pieces: a stator and a rotor. The stator includes a piezoelectric film in which bending is induced in the form of a traveling wave. A small glass lens placed upon the stator becomes the spinning rotor. Piezoelectric micromotors overcome the problems currently associated with electrostatic micromotors such as low torque, friction, and the need for high voltage excitation. More importantly, they may offer a much simpler mechanism for coupling power out. Using thin films of lead zirconate titanate on silicon nitride membranes, various types of actuator structures can be fabricated. By combining new robot control systems with piezoelectric motors and micromechanics, the authors propose creating micromechanical systems that are small, cheap and completely autonomous.

  17. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  18. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  19. Piezoelectrically Enhanced Photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Robert A.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, Lloyd Douglas; Strittmatter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Doping of photocathodes with materials that have large piezoelectric coefficients has been proposed as an alternative means of increasing the desired photoemission of electrons. Treating cathode materials to increase emission of electrons is called "activation" in the art. It has been common practice to activate photocathodes by depositing thin layers of suitable metals (usually, cesium). Because cesium is unstable in air, fabrication of cesiated photocathodes and devices that contain them must be performed in sealed tubes under vacuum. It is difficult and costly to perform fabrication processes in enclosed, evacuated spaces. The proposed piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes would have electron-emission properties similar to those of cesiated photocathodes but would be stable in air, and therefore could be fabricated more easily and at lower cost. Candidate photocathodes include nitrides of elements in column III of the periodic table . especially compounds of the general formula Al(x)Ga(1.x)N (where 0< or = x < or =.1). These compounds have high piezoelectric coefficients and are suitable for obtaining response to ultraviolet light. Fabrication of a photocathode according to the proposal would include inducement of strain in cathode layers during growth of the layers on a substrate. The strain would be induced by exploiting structural mismatches among the various constituent materials of the cathode. Because of the piezoelectric effect in this material, the strain would give rise to strong electric fields that, in turn, would give rise to a high concentration of charge near the surface. Examples of devices in which piezoelectrically enhanced photocathodes could be used include microchannel plates, electron- bombarded charge-coupled devices, image tubes, and night-vision goggles. Piezoelectrically enhanced photocathode materials could also be used in making highly efficient monolithic photodetectors. Highly efficient and stable piezoelectrically enhanced

  20. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  1. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-06-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  2. Effect of pre-deposition RF plasma etching on wafer surface morphology and crystal orientation of piezoelectric AlN thin films.

    PubMed

    Felmetsger, V; Mikhov, M; Laptev, P

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we describe the design and operation of a planarized capacitively coupled RF plasma module and investigate the effects of non-reactive RF plasma etching on Si (100) wafer surface morphology and crystal orientation of Al bottom electrodes and subsequently deposited AlN films. To ensure formation of highly (111) textured Al electrode, a thin 25-nm AlN seed layer was grown before the Al deposition. The seed layer's orientation efficiency improved with increasing the RF power from 70 to 300 W and resulted in narrowing the Al (111) rocking curves. AFM and XRD data have shown that crystal orientations of both the electrode and reactively sputtered AlN film are considerably improved when the substrate micro roughness is reduced from an ordinary level of a few nanometers to atomic level corresponding to root mean square roughness as low as about 0.2 to 0.3 nm. The most perfectly crystallized film stacks of 100-nm Al and 500-nm AlN were obtained in this work using etching in Ar plasma optimized to create an atomically smooth, epi-ready Si surface morphology that enables superior AlN seed layer nucleation conditions. X-ray rocking curves around the Al (111) and AlN (0002) diffraction peaks exhibited extremely low FWHM values of 0.68° and 1.05°, respectively.

  3. Electrical field modification of dynamic magnetic properties in FeCo films grown onto [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) piezoelectric substrates with Ru underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2015-06-01

    A detailed investigation of electrical tuning of dynamic magnetization of the FeCo magnetic thin film grown onto a PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate was carried out based on the measurement of the zero-field permeability spectra under the application of a voltage across the thickness of the substrate. The resonance frequency can be tuned from 2.95 GHz to 5.9 GHz upon the application of a voltage on the sample in unpoled state. After poling, the resonance frequency of the sample can be tuned in the range from 4.75 GHz to 5.9 GHz. In addition, it was found that after poling the peak of the permeability spectra is broadened compared to before poling, which can be tentatively attributed to the magnetic anisotropy dispersion arising from the presence of the stress-induced anisotropy. The result is also discussed in conjunction with the angular measurement of the static hysteresis loops of the sample before and after poling.

  4. Hierarchical domain structure of lead-free piezoelectric (Na{sub 1/2} Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(K{sub 1/2} Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chengtao Wang, Yaojin; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Delaire, Olivier; Li, Xiaobin; Luo, Haosu

    2016-05-07

    We report a unique hierarchical domain structure in single crystals of (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xat. %(K{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} for x = 5 and 8 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A high density of polar nano-domains with a lamellar morphology was found, which were self-assembled into a quadrant-like configuration, which then assembled into conventional ferroelectric macro-domains. Studies by high resolution TEM revealed that the polar lamellar regions contained a coexistence of in-phase and anti-phase oxygen octahedral tilt regions of a few nanometers in size. Domain frustration over multiple length scales may play an important role in the stabilization of the hierarchy, and in reducing the piezoelectric response of this Pb-free piezoelectric solid solution.

  5. Introduction to Piezoelectric Actuators and Transducers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    triclinic crystal system with point group 32 and has a phase transition at 537°C to its β-form which is not piezoelectric. Quartz has a cut with a zero... structure . With increasing Zr content, x, the tetragonal distortion decreases and at x > 0.52 the structure changes from the tetragonal 4mm phase to another...by different companies. The end member of PZT, lead titanate has a large crystal distortion. PbTiO3 has a tetragonal structure at room

  6. An organic-inorganic perovskite ferroelectric with large piezoelectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yu-Meng; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Dewei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Qionghua; Niu, Xianghong; Wang, Jinlan; Li, Peng-Fei; Fu, Da-Wei; Wang, Zheming; Gao, Song; Yang, Kunlun; Liu, Jun-Ming; Li, Jiangyu; Yan, Yanfa; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2017-07-01

    Molecular piezoelectrics are highly desirable for their easy and environment-friendly processing, light weight, low processing temperature, and mechanical flexibility. However, although 136 years have passed since the discovery in 1880 of the piezoelectric effect, molecular piezoelectrics with a piezoelectric coefficient d33 comparable with piezoceramics such as barium titanate (BTO; ~190 picocoulombs per newton) have not been found. We show that trimethylchloromethyl ammonium trichloromanganese(II), an organic-inorganic perovskite ferroelectric crystal processed from aqueous solution, has a large d33 of 185 picocoulombs per newton and a high phase-transition temperature of 406 kelvin (K) (16 K above that of BTO). This makes it a competitive candidate for medical, micromechanical, and biomechanical applications.

  7. Preparation and piezoelectric properties of potassium sodium niobate glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Xuan-Ming; Li, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Tao; Lv, Jing-Wen

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of a piezoelectric glass ceramic material from potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5NbO3; KNN) using a novel melting method. The effects of the subsequent heat-treatment on the optical, thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of the material are carefully examined, and its crystal structure and surface morphology are characterized respectively by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This new material has a much higher piezoelectric coefficient (163 pC·N-1) than traditional piezoelectric ceramics (131 pC·N-1). On this basis therefore, a strategy for the future study and development of lead-free KNN-based piezoelectric glass ceramics is proposed.

  8. Pressure and electric field effects on piezoelectric responses of KNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Linyun; Li, Y. L.; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long-Qing

    2012-09-01

    The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of a KNbO3 single crystal under applied hydrostatic pressure and positive bias electric field are investigated using phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire thermodynamic theory. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure effect on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties is similar to temperature, suggesting a common underlying mechanism for the piezoelectric anisotropy and its enhancement. The stable phase diagram of KNbO3 as a function of temperature and positive bias electric field is constructed. The maximum piezoelectric coefficient d33o* varying with temperature and electric field is calculated.

  9. Pressure and electric field effects on piezoelectric responses of KNbO3

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Linyun; Li, Yulan; Xue, Fei; Chen , L.Q.

    2012-09-18

    The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of a KNbO3 single crystal under applied hydrostatic pressure and positive bias electric field are investigated using phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) thermodynamic theory. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure effect on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties is similar to temperature, suggesting a common underlying mechanism for the piezoelectric anisotropy and its enhancement. The stable phase diagram of KNbO3 as a function of temperature and positive bias electric field is constructed. The maximum piezoelectric coefficient d33o* varying with temperature and electric field is calculated.

  10. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  11. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  12. Needs and Opportunities in Crystal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroczkowski, Stanley

    1980-01-01

    Presents a survey of the scientific basis for single crystals production, discussing some of the theoretical and experimental advances in the area. Future prospects for semiconductors, magnetic lasers, nonlinear optics, piezoelectrics, and other crystals are surveyed. (Author/CS)

  13. Needs and Opportunities in Crystal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroczkowski, Stanley

    1980-01-01

    Presents a survey of the scientific basis for single crystals production, discussing some of the theoretical and experimental advances in the area. Future prospects for semiconductors, magnetic lasers, nonlinear optics, piezoelectrics, and other crystals are surveyed. (Author/CS)

  14. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering as a screening tool for the optimization of piezoelectric polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen

    2011-09-01

    The use of piezoelectric polymers has been proposed and investigated in different Space-related environments, for example, as ultra-light mirrors in space telescopes or as piezoelectric actuators. Even though some piezoelectric polymers have been shown to be as efficient as the more traditional piezoelectric crystals, no systematic exploration of the different molecular motives available for piezoelectricity has been performed, partly due to experimentally challenging conditions: new structures must be generated in enough quantity to be able to produce thin films, and with measurable piezoelectric response. Consequently, few structure-property relationships have been derived for the piezoelectric performance of polymer based materials. We show how, under certain conditions, the characterization of the second-order nonlinear molecular response through the Hyper-Rayleigh scattering technique, can be used as a screening technique for the optimization of the piezoelectric response of poled-doped materials. In contrast to the piezoelectric characterization, a Hyper-Rayleigh experiment can be performed with minimal amounts of chromophores ({mg) in solution, and is relatively quick. Therefore, we propose to use the Hyper-Rayleigh scattering technique as a screening tool for the search of optimized piezoelectric polymers.

  15. Piezoelectric Motors and Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, K.

    Piezoelectric ceramics forms a new field between electronic and structural ceramics [1-4]. Application fields are classified into three categories: positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. From the market research result for 80 Japanese component industries in 1992, tiny motors in the range of 5-8 mm are required in large numbers for office and portable equipment; the conventional electromagnetic (EM) motors are rather difficult to produce in this size with sufficient energy efficiency, while Silicon MEMS actuators are too small to be used in practice. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the millimeter motor area. The manufacturing precision of optical instruments such as lasers and cameras, and the positioning accuracy for fabricating semiconductor chips are of the order of 0.1μm which is much smaller than the backlash of the EM motors. Vibration suppression in space structures and military vehicles also require compact but mighty piezoelectric actuators.

  16. Piezoelectric micromotors for microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Anita M.; Tavrow, Lee S.; Bart, Stephen F.; Brooks, Rodney A.

    1991-02-01

    Mobile robots are able to carry more and more intelligence (and in smaller packages) onboard everyday. Now we would like to match the brawn of our robots to the same scale as the brain. Towards this end, we have fabricated some small, a few millimeters in diameter, piezoelectric motors using ferroelectric thin films. These motors consist of two pieces: a stator and a rotor. The stationary stator includes a piezoelectric film in which we induce bending in the form of a traveling wave. Anything which sits atop the stator is propelled by the wave. A small glass lens placed upon the stator becomes the spinning rotor. Piezoelectric micromotors overcome the problems currently associated with electrostatic micromotors such as low torque, friction, and the need for high voltage excitation.

  17. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  18. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  19. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  20. Piezoelectric allostery of protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Jun; Sato, Takato; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    Allostery is indispensable for a protein to work, where a locally applied stimulus is transmitted to a distant part of the molecule. While the allostery due to chemical stimuli such as ligand binding has long been studied, the growing interest in mechanobiology prompts the study of the mechanically stimulated allostery, the physical mechanism of which has not been established. By molecular dynamics simulation of a motor protein myosin, we found that a locally applied mechanical stimulus induces electrostatic potential change at distant regions, just like the piezoelectricity. This novel allosteric mechanism, "piezoelectric allostery", should be of particularly high value for mechanosensor/transducer proteins.

  1. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaochun; Qiu, Zhen; Jiang, Tingyi; Sadiq, Muhammad R.; Huang, Zhihong; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0–60 MPa, temperature 20–200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I) binary, PMN-PT; (II) ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III) doped ternary, Mn:PIN-PMN-PT

  2. Observation of piezoelectricity in free-standing monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Ming; Xiong, Shaomin; Wong, Zi Jing; Ye, Ziliang; Ye, Yu; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Piezoelectricity allows precise and robust conversion between electricity and mechanical force, and arises from the broken inversion symmetry in the atomic structure. Reducing the dimensionality of bulk materials has been suggested to enhance piezoelectricity. However, when the thickness of a material approaches a single molecular layer, the large surface energy can cause piezoelectric structures to be thermodynamically unstable. Transition-metal dichalcogenides can retain their atomic structures down to the single-layer limit without lattice reconstruction, even under ambient conditions. Recent calculations have predicted the existence of piezoelectricity in these two-dimensional crystals due to their broken inversion symmetry. Here, we report experimental evidence of piezoelectricity in a free-standing single layer of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and a measured piezoelectric coefficient of e11 = 2.9 × 10-10 C m-1. The measurement of the intrinsic piezoelectricity in such free-standing crystals is free from substrate effects such as doping and parasitic charges. We observed a finite and zero piezoelectric response in MoS2 in odd and even number of layers, respectively, in sharp contrast to bulk piezoelectric materials. This oscillation is due to the breaking and recovery of the inversion symmetry of the two-dimensional crystal. Through the angular dependence of electromechanical coupling, we determined the two-dimensional crystal orientation. The piezoelectricity discovered in this single molecular membrane promises new applications in low-power logic switches for computing and ultrasensitive biological sensors scaled down to a single atomic unit cell.

  3. Resonance reflection of acoustic waves in piezoelectric bi-crystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Darinskii, Alexander N; Weihnacht, Manfred

    2005-05-01

    The paper studies the bulk wave reflection from internal interfaces in piezoelectric media. The interfaces of two types have been considered. Infinitesimally thin metallic layer inserted into homogeneous piezoelectric crystal of arbitrary symmetry. Rigidly bonded crystals whose piezoelectric coefficients differ by sign but the other material constants are identical. Analytic expressions for the coefficients of mode conversion have been derived. An analysis has been carried out of specific singularities arising when the angle of incidence is such that the resonance excitation of leaky interface acoustic waves occurs. The conditions for the resonance total reflection have been established. The computations performed for lithium niobate (LiNbO3) illustrate general conclusions.

  4. A lead-free flexible structure for piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Byung Woo; Yun, Byung Kil; Jung, Jong Hoon; Lee, Minbaek

    2014-06-01

    Here, we demonstrate a fully-flexible piezoelectric hybrid structure composed of sodium niobate nanocubes and polyvinylidene fluoride. Hydrothermally-grown sodium niobate nanocubes show an orthorhombic crystal structure with Pmc21 symmetry, and polyvinylidene fluoride is electrically poled for the β-phase, each of those represents piezoelectricity. Hybrid devices were electrically tested in two different modes by applying forces parallel to the in-plane and the out-of-plane directions of the piezoelectric layer. Our device shows an output voltage, current, and power density of 2.9 V, 68 nA, and 4.4 μWcm-3, respectively, at a pushing force of 5 kgf and a frequency of 1 Hz. The output power generation also shows a linear relation with the applied force over a wide range of 1-5 kgf. This implies our flexible hybrid piezoelectric structure can be adapted to various mechanical environments. Our unique structure should open up various application areas of piezoelectric materials such as touch sensors, flexible energy harvesters and eco-friendly piezoelectric actuators.

  5. Piezoelectric actuator renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    This paper resumes the content of the invited talk of the author, read at the occasion of the International Workshop on Relaxor Ferroelectrics, IWRF 14, held on October 12-16, 2014 in Stirin, Czech Republic. It reviews the recent advances in materials, designing concepts, and new applications of piezoelectric actuators, as well as the future perspectives of this area.

  6. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  7. Origin of piezoelectricity in monolayer halogenated graphane piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye Jung; Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad; Son, Jong Yeog; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    Periodic patterning with adatoms or defect is one of the methods for opening the band gap of graphene. In particular, under certain configurations controlled by the order of hydrogen and halogen atoms attached on graphene, inversion symmetry of graphene can be broken to give piezoelectricity as well as pyroelectricity. Using first-principles calculations, we examine the structural stability and electronic properties of four polar conformations of halogenated graphane (C2HX)n to understand the origin of piezoelectricity in this two-dimensional system. The formation energies and piezoelectric coefficients manifest that the four conformations of (C2HF)n are energetically stable with considerable piezoelectricity. We find that the electronic contribution of the proper piezoelectricity in (C2HF)n is mainly related to the change of the electron distribution around F atoms. By substituting flourine with chlorine, we confirm that the piezoelectricity enhances at the expense of stability degradation.

  8. Polar nanoregions and dielectric properties in high-strain lead-free 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3} piezoelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cheng-Sao; Chen, Pin-Yi; Tu, Chi-Shun

    2014-01-07

    A structural coexistence of rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases has been revealed in the (001){sub c}-cut lead-free 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}–0.07BaTiO{sub 3} (BNB7T) piezoelectric crystals, which grown by the self-flux method, in the lower temperatures by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping, and transmission electron microscopy. The dielectric permittivity exhibits a thermal hysteresis in the region of 120–260 °C, implying a first-order-like phase transition from R+T to T. The real part (ε′) of dielectric permittivity begins to deviates from the Curie-Weiss equation, ε′ = C/(T − T{sub o}), from the Burns temperature T{sub B} = 460 °C, below which the polar nanoregions (or nanoclusters) develop and attenuate dielectric responses. The polar nanoregions of 5–10 nm were revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The normal piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} exhibits a rapid increase at E = 15–20 kV/cm and reaches a maximum of d{sub 33} ∼450 pC/N. The high piezoelectric response and E-field induced strain in BNB7T single crystals can be attributed to structural phase transitions under an E-field application.

  9. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K V; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-07

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic M_{A} structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic M_{B}, rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  10. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K. V.; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-01

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic MA structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic MB , rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  11. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  12. Temperature dependence of dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of [001]c poled Mn-doped 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to simulate the performance of electromechanical devices at elevated temperatures, full tensor properties of piezoelectric materials at high temperatures are needed. Such data are extremely difficult to get for relaxor-based single crystals because their properties are determined by domain structures, which are strongly geometry dependent. We report here the temperature dependence of full tensor material constants of [001]c poled Mn-doped 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single crystals from 25 °C to 55 °C, which were determined by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Because only one sample was used, high degree of self-consistency was achieved for the tensor constants at all measured temperatures. PMID:26957649

  13. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm3. This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  14. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  15. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  16. Structure, frequency dependent dielectric properties and domain configuration of PMN-PFN-PT single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nengneng; Li, Qiang; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Xia, Zhiguo; Chu, Xiangcheng

    2014-09-01

    Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PFN-PT) single crystal was grown successfully from high temperature solution by slow cooling method. Structure, frequency dependent dielectric properties and domain configuration of [0 0 1]-oriented single crystal have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-grown single crystal had a pure perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry at room temperature. The temperature dependent dielectric permittivity showed only one dielectric anomaly, indicating the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. According to the modified Curie-Weiss relationship, as-grown PMN-PFN-PT single crystal was in an intermediate state between normal and relaxor ferroelectrics. Dielectric permittivity and loss of [0 0 1]-oriented PMN-PFN-PT single crystal at room temperature decreased sharply with increasing frequency, which were different from those of PMN-PT65/35 single crystal. Domain configuration of [0 0 1]-oriented PMN-PFN-PT single crystal was observed for the first time by using a polarized light microscopy (PLM). The extinction of 90° domains at P/A:0° revealed a tetragonal structure. Domains along (0 0 1) face exhibited a straight stripe-like morphology with domain size on the scale of 10 μm in average, combining with some much smaller domains about 3-5 μm in width at the intersection of domain blocks which helps to minimize its total energy.

  17. Improved Piezoelectric Loudspeakers And Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Curtis Randall; Jalink, Antony; Hellbaum, Richard F.; Rohrbach, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Loudspeakers and related acoustic transducers of improved type feature both light weight and energy efficiency of piezoelectric transducers and mechanical coupling efficiency. Active component of transducer made from wafer of "rainbow" piezoelectric material, ceramic piezoelectric material chemically reduced on one face. Chemical treatment forms wafer into dishlike shallow section of sphere. Both faces then coated with electrically conductive surface layers serving as electrodes. Applications include high-fidelity loudspeakers, and underwater echo ranging devices.

  18. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  19. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  20. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.