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Sample records for pig gastric glands

  1. Effect of hydration on structural and thermodynamic properties of pig gastric and bovine submaxillary gland mucins.

    PubMed

    Znamenskaya, Yana; Sotres, Javier; Engblom, Johan; Arnebrant, Thomas; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2012-04-26

    One of the essential functions of mucous gel is protection of tissues against dehydration. The effect of hydration on the structural and thermodynamic properties of pig gastric mucin (PGM) and bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), sorption, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis of sorption isotherms shows the higher water sorption capacity of PGM compared to BSM at RH levels lower than about 78%. The value of the hydration enthalpy at zero water content at 25 °C for both biopolymers is about -20 kJ/mol. Glass transitions of BSM and PGM occur at RH levels between 60 and 70% for both mucins. AFM indicates the presence of a dumbbell structure as well as a fiber-like structure in PGM samples. The experimental volume of the dry dumbbell molecule obtained by AFM is 3140 ± 340 nm(3). Using DSC data, the amount of nonfreezing water was calculated to be about 0.51 g/g of PGM. The phase diagram of PGM demonstrates two regions of different Tg: dependent and independent of hydration levels. In particular, at mucin concentrations from 0 to 67 wt %, the glass transition occurs at a constant temperature of about -15 °C. At higher concentrations of mucin, Tg is increasing with increasing mucin concentrations.

  2. Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally.

  3. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an “unsupervised” and a “supervised” approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach. PMID:28249050

  4. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an "unsupervised" and a "supervised" approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach.

  5. Identification of lingual glands and ducts ventrally in pigs' tongues.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K

    1989-01-01

    Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778

  6. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding α4GnT, and then demonstrated that αGlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that αGlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for αGlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  7. Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Liebelt, A.G.; Congdon, C.C.; Stewart, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors.

  8. Stimulation of acid formation in permeable gastric glands by valinomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, S.J.; Steiner, L. )

    1988-09-01

    Isolated gastric glands made permeable with digitonin treatment were employed to study the ionic requirements of acid formation. Acid formation was monitored by the accumulation of a novel weak base probe, ({sup 14}C)benzylamine. ATP-dependent acid formation was found to require K{sup +} in a concentration-dependent manner, with an apparent K{sub 0.5} = 7 mM. The anion dependence of acid formation gave a selectivity sequence of Cl = I > Br < NO{sub 3} > SO{sub 4} = isethionate, with isethionate being {approximately}50% as effective as Cl. The dependence of acid formation on (Cl) gave an apparent K{sub 0.5} = 6 mM. Addition of the K{sup +} ionophore, valinomycin, to resting glands (cimetidine pretreatment) resulted in a two- to threefold increase in ATP-dependent acid formation. In contrast, stimulated (forskolin pretreated) glands showed a greater accumulation of benzylamine with ATP but significantly less valinomycin stimulation. The valinomycin stimulation required both K{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} and was inhibited by omeprazole and Sch 28080. The results and interpreted to indicate that major events in the transition from a resting to a stimulated state include changes in both K{sup +} and anion permeability of the secretory membrane of parietal cells.

  9. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding pig gastric mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B S; Bhaskar, K R; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, M; Specian, R D; LaMont, J T

    1995-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies raised to deglycosylated pig gastric mucin were used to screen a cDNA library constructed with pig stomach mucosal mRNA. Immunocytochemistry indicated that the antibody recognizes intracellular and secreted mucin in surface mucous cells of pig gastric epithelium. A total of 70 clones producing proteins immunoreactive to this antibody were identified, two of which (PGM-2A,9B) were fully sequenced from both ends. Clone PGM-9B hybridized to a polydisperse mRNA (3-9 kb) from pig stomach, but not liver, intestine or spleen, nor to mRNA from human, mouse, rabbit or rat stomach. Sequence analysis indicated that PGM-9B encodes 33 tandem repeats of a 16-amino-acid consensus sequence rich in serine (46%) and threonine (17%). Using the restriction enzyme MwoI, which has a single target site in the repeat, it was demonstrated that PGM-9B consists entirely of this tandem repeat. Southern-blot analysis indicated that the repeat region is contained in a 20 kb HindIII-EcoRI fragment, and BamHI digestion suggested that most of the repeats are contained in a 10 kb fragment. In situ hybridization with an antisense probe to PGM-9B showed an intense signal in the entire gastric gland. Clone PGM-2A also contains the same repeat sequence as 9B, but, in addition, has a 64-amino-acid-long non-repeat region at its 5' end. Interestingly the non-repeat region of PGM-2A has five cysteine residues, the arrangement of which is identical with that reported for human intestinal mucin gene MUC2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7755593

  10. Novel insights of the gastric gland organization revealed by chief cell specific expression of moesin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lixin; Hatakeyama, Jason; Zhang, Bing; Makdisi, Joy; Ender, Cody; Forte, John G

    2009-02-01

    ERM (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) proteins play critical roles in epithelial and endothelial cell polarity, among other functions. In gastric glands, ezrin is mainly expressed in acid-secreting parietal cells, but not in mucous neck cells or zymogenic chief cells. In looking for other ERM proteins, moesin was found lining the lumen of much of the gastric gland, but it was not expressed in parietal cells. No significant radixin expression was detected in the gastric glands. Moesin showed an increased gradient of expression from the neck to the base of the glands. In addition, the staining pattern of moesin revealed a branched morphology for the gastric lumen. This pattern of short branches extending from the glandular lumen was confirmed by using antibody against zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) to stain tight junctions. With a mucous neck cell probe (lectin GSII, from Griffonia simplicifolia) and a chief cell marker (pepsinogen C), immunohistochemistry revealed that the mucous neck cells at the top of the glands do not express moesin, but, progressing toward the base, mucous cells showing decreased GSII staining had low or moderate level of moesin expression. The level of moesin expression continued to increase toward the base of the glands and reached a plateau in the base where chief cells and parietal cells abound. The level of pepsinogen expression also increased toward the base. Pepsinogen C was located on cytoplasmic granules and/or more generally distributed in chief cells, whereas moesin was exclusively expressed on the apical membrane. This is a clear demonstration of distinctive cellular expression of two ERM family members in the same tissue. The results provide the first evidence that moesin is involved in the cell biology of chief cells. Novel insights on gastric gland morphology revealed by the moesin and ZO-1 staining provide the basis for a model of cell maturation and migration within the gland.

  11. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach.

  12. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  13. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  14. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OF PAROTID GLANDS IN THE MINIATURE PIG

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junji; Yan, Xing; Gao, Runtao; Mao, Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu; Zhang, Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg2+-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage. PMID:20832188

  15. Effect of Irradiation on Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Parotid Glands in the Miniature Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Junji; Yan Xing; Gao Runtao; Mao Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng Changyu; Zhang Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials: A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg{sup 2+}-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results: Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions: Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.

  16. Mucous Gland Metaplasia in the Esophagus and Gastric Mucosa in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carlos A.; Owston, Michael; Orrego, Abiel; Nilsson, Robert; Löfdahl, Hedwig; Nesi, Gabriella; Dick, Edwards J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chewing of regurgitated food elicits in baboons life-long gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The acid reflux transforms the multilayered squamous cell epithelium of the esophagus into columnar-lined mucosa with mucus-producing accessory glands. The function of this mucous gland metaplasia (MGM), which mimics Barrett’s mucosa with MGM in humans, is to buffer the gastric acid entering the esophagus during regurgitation. In a previous study of entire esophagi, the majority of baboons showed MGM. The gastric mucosa was not investigated. Materials and Methods Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the esophagus, from the lesser gastric curvature and from the greater gastric curvature were collected separately from 50 adult baboons. The presence of MGM was assessed in each one of these locations. Results MGM was demonstrated in 92% (46/50) of blocks from the esophagus, in 98% (49/50) of blocks from the lesser curvature and in 90% (45/50) of those of the greater curvature (fundus). Conclusion The majority of the animals had MGM, not only in the esophagus but also in the proximal gastric mucosa. Rationally, MGM in baboons starts in the distal esophagus and proceeds downwards, towards the proximal stomach. The histogenesis of the MGM in Barrett’s mucosa in humans (that is Barrett’s mucosa type 2) remains elusive. Therefore the baboon might be an important animal model for studying the histogenesis of Barrett’s mucosa with MGM in humans, a recognized pre-cancerous lesion. PMID:21737639

  17. Inhibition of acid formation by epidermal growth factor in the isolated rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed Central

    Dembiński, A; Drozdowicz, D; Gregory, H; Konturek, S J; Warzecha, Z

    1986-01-01

    The effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on basal and stimulated (with histamine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and high concentrations of K+) acid formation have been studied in isolated glands from the rabbit gastric mucosa. The changes in the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine [14C]AP have been used as an indirect measurement of acid production in the glands. Unstimulated gastric glands accumulated [14C]AP indicating the existence of basal acid production in these glands, and EGF caused a small but significant reduction in basal [14C]AP uptake. A similar reduction of basal [14C]AP uptake was observed after exposure to omeprazole but not after ranitidine or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Histamine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and K+ caused a strong and dose-dependent stimulation of acid formation by the glands. EGF, like omeprazole, reduced dose-dependently the [14C]AP accumulation stimulated by both histamine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, while ranitidine and PGE2 reduced histamine- but not dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-stimulated accumulation of [14C]AP. In the absence of other external stimuli, an increased K+ concentration enhanced [14C]AP accumulation to levels similar to those produced by histamine and this effect was not changed by EGF, ranitidine or PGE2 but was inhibited by omeprazole. We conclude that EGF interferes with the final steps of acid production between cyclic nucleotides and proton pump of the parietal cells. PMID:3025433

  18. GLP-1 receptor is expressed in human stomach mucosa: analysis of its cellular association and distribution within gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Broide, Efrat; Bloch, Olga; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2013-09-01

    The stomach is a target organ of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the cellular expression and glandular distribution of its receptor (GLP-1R) in human gastric mucosa are not known. We determined the expression of GLP-1R in different regions of human stomach mucosa and its specific cellular association and distribution within gastric glands. Tissue samples from stomach body and antrum were obtained from 20 patients during routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy. mRNA encoding GLP-1R protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Determination of cell types bearing GLP-1R, their localization, and their frequency in gastric glands in different gastric regions were estimated by immunohistochemical morphological analysis. Levels of GLP-1R mRNA were similar in body and antrum. GLP-1R immunoreactivity was found throughout the gastric mucosa in various types of glandular cells. The highest frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells was found in the neck area of the principal glands in cells morphologically identified as parietal cells. GLP-1R immunostaining was also found on enteroendocrine-like cells in the pyloric glands. This study provides the first description of GLP-1R expression in human gastric glands and its specific cellular association. Our data suggest that GLP-1 may act directly on the gastric mucosa to modulate its complex functions.

  19. Transcriptome profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in postnatal developing pituitary gland of miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Li, Yuli; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Wu, Jiayan; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Yu, Jun; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Tibetan pig and Bama pig are popularly used as animal models for medical researches. However, little genomic information is available for the two breeds, particularly regarding gene expression pattern at the whole-transcriptome level. In this study, we characterized the pituitary transcriptome profile along their postnatal developmental stages within and between the two breeds in order to illustrate the differential dynamics and functions of differentially expressed genes. We obtained a total of ∼300 million 80-bp paired-end reads, detected 15 715 previously annotated genes. Most of the genes (90.33%) were shared between the two breeds with the main functions in metabolic process. Four hormone genes (GH, PRL, LHB, and FSHB) were detected in all samples with extremely high levels of expression. Functional differences between the three developmental stages (infancy, puberty and adulthood) in each breed were dominantly presented by the gene expressions at the first stage. That is, Bama pig was over-represented in the genes involved in the cellular process, while Tibetan pig was over-represented in the genes represented by the reproductive process. The identified SNPs indicated that the divergence between the miniature pig breeds and the large pig (Duroc) were greater than that between the two miniature pig breeds. This study substantially expands our knowledge concerning the genes transcribed in the pig pituitary gland and provides an overview of pituitary transcriptome dynamics throughout the period of postnatal development.

  20. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Postnatal Developing Pituitary Gland of Miniature Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Li, Yuli; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Wu, Jiayan; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Yu, Jun; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Tibetan pig and Bama pig are popularly used as animal models for medical researches. However, little genomic information is available for the two breeds, particularly regarding gene expression pattern at the whole-transcriptome level. In this study, we characterized the pituitary transcriptome profile along their postnatal developmental stages within and between the two breeds in order to illustrate the differential dynamics and functions of differentially expressed genes. We obtained a total of ∼300 million 80-bp paired-end reads, detected 15 715 previously annotated genes. Most of the genes (90.33%) were shared between the two breeds with the main functions in metabolic process. Four hormone genes (GH, PRL, LHB, and FSHB) were detected in all samples with extremely high levels of expression. Functional differences between the three developmental stages (infancy, puberty and adulthood) in each breed were dominantly presented by the gene expressions at the first stage. That is, Bama pig was over-represented in the genes involved in the cellular process, while Tibetan pig was over-represented in the genes represented by the reproductive process. The identified SNPs indicated that the divergence between the miniature pig breeds and the large pig (Duroc) were greater than that between the two miniature pig breeds. This study substantially expands our knowledge concerning the genes transcribed in the pig pituitary gland and provides an overview of pituitary transcriptome dynamics throughout the period of postnatal development. PMID:24282060

  1. Effect of ethanol on acid secretion by isolated gastric glands from rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Reichstein, B.J.; Okamoto, C.; Forte, J.G.

    1986-08-01

    Isolated gastric glands from rabbit, as well as basolateral and microsomal membranes derived therefrom, were used to examine the effect of ethanol on several parameters related to acid secretion. Low concentrations of ethanol, 0.2%-5% (vol/vol), had no effect on basal aminopyrine accumulation by isolated gastric glands but significantly potentiated aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine. In contrast, this dose range of ethanol inhibited aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This dose range of ethanol produced a similar effect on adenylate cyclase activity of basolateral membranes from isolated gastric glands, with potentiation of histamine stimulation and inhibition of forskolin stimulation. Low-dose ethanol was found to produce increased proton permeability of the apical membrane of the parietal cell but had no effect on hydrogen-potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. Ethanol (10%) significantly inhibited all parameters of acid secretion studied. Ethanol has a biphasic effect on acid secretion with potentiation of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity at low doses and inhibition of all parameters of acid secretion at high doses.

  2. Ultrasound findings of diffuse metastasis of gastric signet-ring-cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Morita, Koji; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ota, Shuji; Masugi, Hideo; Chikuta, Ikumi; Mashimo, Yamato; Edo, Naoki; Tokairin, Takuo; Seki, Nobuhiko; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that metastases to the thyroid from extrathyroidal malignancies occur as solitary or multiple nodules, or may involve the whole thyroid gland diffusely. However, diffuse metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old woman with diffuse infiltration of gastric adenocarcinoma (signet-ring-cell carcinoma/poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) cells in the thyroid. The pathological diagnosis was made based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. An 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple lesions with increased uptake, including the bilateral thyroid gland. On thyroid ultrasound examination, diffuse enlargement with internal heterogeneity and hypoechoic reticular lines was observed. On color Doppler imaging, a blood-flow signal was not detected in these hypoechoic lines. These findings were similar to those of diffuse metastases caused by other primary cancers, such as lung cancer, as reported earlier. Therefore, the presence of hypoechoic reticular lines without blood-flow signals is probably common to diffuse thyroid metastasis from any origin and an important diagnostic finding. This is the first report to show detailed ultrasound findings of diffuse gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland using color Doppler.

  3. Cellular localization of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor in pig anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro

    2006-02-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been proposed to have a role in modulating immuno-endocrine functions. Our previous study showed that IL-18 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) colocalized in somatotrophs of the bovine anterior pituitary gland, and the possibility that IL-18 acts on somatotrophs as an autocrine factor. In the present study, we investigated the localization of IL-18 and IL-18R in the pig anterior pituitary gland. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of IL-18 and IL-18R mRNAin the pig anterior pituitary gland. Immunohistochemistry of IL-18 and specific hormones revealed the presence of IL-18 in somatotrophs, mammotrophs, thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs. IL-18R was localized in somatotrophs and thyrotrophs. Furthermore, the somatotrophs immunoreactive for IL-18 did not contain IL-18R. Thus, IL-18R and IL-18 were not colocalized in an identical somatotroph. These findings suggest that the localization of IL-18 in pig somatotrophs is different from that in bovine somatotrophs, although IL-18 closely associates with somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary glands in both species.

  4. Characterisation of sugar residues in glycoconjugates of pig mandibular gland by traditional and lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pedini, V; Scocco, P; Dall'Aglio, C; Ceccarelli, P; Gargiulo, A M

    2000-10-01

    Sugar residues are important components of salivary gland secretion. Traditional histochemical methods and lectin histochemistry were used to characterise glycoconjugates present in the mandibular gland of normal adult pigs. Acinar cells contained abundant quantities of glycoconjugates with the terminal trisaccharide sialic acid - (alpha 2-->3, 6) galactosyl (beta 1-->3) N -acetylgalactosamine. Mandibular acinar cells also contained alpha and beta N -acetylgalactosamine and N -acetylglucosamine residues, whereas the demilunar cells contained glycoconjugates with fucose, mannose and N -acetylglucosamine residues. In the duct system a range of sugar residues were localised throughout the cell cytoplasm or limited to the apical surface. These results provide new knowledge concerning the structure of salivary glycoconjugates in normal adult pig and a basis for future pathological studies.

  5. Phorbol ester stimulates secretory activity while inhibiting receptor-activated aminopyrine uptake by gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Chew, C.S.

    1986-03-05

    Both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent secretagogues stimulate pepsinogen release, respiration and H/sup +/ secretory activity (AP uptake) in rabbit gastric glands. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T), a diacyglycerol analog, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates secretion in many systems. T stimulated respiration and pepsinogen release by glands and increased AP uptake by both glands and purified parietal cells. However, T reduced AP uptake by glands stimulated with carbachol (C) or histamine (H) with an apparent IC/sub 50/ of 1 nM. Preincubation with T for 30 min produced maximum inhibition which was not reversed by removal of T. T accelerated the decline of the transient C peak while the late steady state response to H was most inhibited. H-stimulated AP uptake was also inhibited by 50 ..mu..g/ml 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, a reported PKC activator, but not by the inactive phorbol, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate. In contrast, T potentiated AP uptake by glands stimulated with submaximal doses of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest inhibition by T is a specific effect of PKC activators. The differing effects of T on secretion indicators may result from a dual action of T on receptor and post-receptor intracellular events.

  6. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

    2009-05-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

  7. Endogenous histamine and promethazine-induced gastric ulcers in the guinea pig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djahanguiri, B.; Hemmati, M.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments performed with an inhibitor of diaminoxydase, aminoguanidine and an inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, NSD 1055, showed that the frequency of gastric ulcers induced by promethazine was increased with the first inhibitor and decreased with the second. It is suggested that ulcers induced by promethazine in guinea pigs might be due to histamino-liberator effect of the antihistaminio compound.

  8. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  9. Morphology of deep gland of the third eyelid in pig foetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the deep gland of the third eyelid were carried out on pig foetuses coming from the 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were conducted using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. For the histological examinations, the whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig foetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the deep gland of the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin and Azan method was performed. It was found during the examinations that the process of the formation of the deep gland of the third eyelid starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th day of gestation, the gland cells are evenly distributed in the connective tissue stroma. On the 63rd day of gestation, the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of 6-15 lobules. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible; the efferent ducts are situated in the central part of the lobe. On the 112th day of gestation, the lobes are composed of a high number of lobules composed of two kinds of excretory ducts. The first type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are situated at the base of the cell. The other type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are round and arranged less or more peripherally.

  10. Morphology of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid on pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2007-12-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid were conducted in pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out by applying the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation, only the superficial gland with the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the primordia of the glandular epithelium were not found in the examined material. The process of the third eyelid and superficial gland formation starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, the gland surrounding the cartilage of the third eyelid is composed of the high amount of loose connective tissue and gland cells which give rise to excretory segments. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible, the efferent ducts form. On the 112th day, the cartilage of the third eyelid assumes the appearance of the mature hyaline cartilage. The excretory segments are composed of simple cuboid epithelium with a large, round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. Their number increases 2- or even 3-fold at the end of gestation.

  11. Continuous straw provision reduces prevalence of oesophago-gastric ulcer in pigs slaughtered at 170 kg (heavy pigs).

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Rampin, Fabio; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2013-12-01

    Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare.

  12. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs.

  13. Gastric Adenocarcinoma of the Fundic Gland Type Treated by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Daroca, Philip; Sikka, Sanjay; Wu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (GA-FG) is a rare entity that has only recently been described and defined. There is ongoing controversy regarding the malignant potential of this lesion. We report the case of a GA-FG in a 49-year-old Caucasian man who was referred to endoscopy for management of an incidentally found gastric polyp. Endoscopy showed a single polypoid lesion in the gastric fundus which was successfully removed with endoscopic resection. Grossly, the polyp measured 1.1 cm in greatest dimension. Microscopic examination showed irregularly branched neoplastic glands covered with a nonneoplastic foveolar epithelium. The continuity between the neoplastic glands and the fundic glands is clearly identified, indicating the tumor arose from the fundic glands. The tumor cells exhibited occasional oxyntic cytoplasm with enlarged atypical nuclei. The tumor invaded the submucosa with complete disruption of the muscularis mucosae and mild lymphocytic and fibroblastic stromal reaction. No necrosis, mitosis, or lymph-vascular invasion was identified. Although some authors have proposed reclassification of GA-FGs as oxyntic gland polyps/adenomas, in light of several reported cases with submucosal invasion as well as lymphatic invasion, we maintain that this neoplasm is best categorized as an extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma to reflect its invasive potential. PMID:27994902

  14. Sexual dimorphism involving steroidal pheromones and their binding protein in the submaxillary salivary gland of the Göttingen miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D

    1984-02-01

    Submaxillary glands of mature Göttingen miniature pigs were examined for the presence of a sexual dimorphism. Gland weights, serous cell hypertrophy and total protein in the glands were much greater in male than female pigs. High concentrations of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids were present in the glands of males and exceeded 2 mmol/g in some animals; this was primarily due to 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol. The high concentration of 16-androstene steroids in boar glands was correlated with the presence of large amounts of binding protein for these steroids in the glands; smaller amounts of the binding protein were detected in female glands. These findings are similar to those found in domestic pigs, but the degree of sexual dimorphism assessed from these findings is more extreme in the miniature pig.

  15. Contribution of ferrous iron to maintenance of the gastric colonization of Helicobacter pylori in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Shimada, Yukio; Sato, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Keigo; Kikuchi, Isamu; Okazaki, Yoko; Miura, Tomoko; Katsuta, Mitsuo; Iwata, Masayuki

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study showed that the colonization levels of Helicobacter pylori were higher in the stomachs of 5-day-old miniature pigs than in 2-week-old ones. As dietary factors can cause these differences, we compared two diets, i.e., Weanymilk and a similar formula with a higher concentration of Fe(II), Weanylobulin. The colonization levels in the fundic mucosa were significantly higher in 2-week-old pigs fed Weanylobulin than in those fed Weanymilk. Supplementing Weanylobulin with an iron chelator, deferoxamine mesylate, significantly lowered the bacteria counts in the gastric mucosa. Normal diets supplemented with Fe(II) in 2-month-old pigs caused significantly more sites of bacteria in the antrum compared with normal diets alone. In addition, ranitidine, an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion that reduces Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the stomach, decreased the bacteria counts in 10-month-old pigs. These results suggested that Fe(II) maintained the colonization levels of H. pylori in the stomach of the miniature pigs.

  16. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E; Jespersen, Anna; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Margit B; Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Lene J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined effects of the amount of straw offered on occurrence and severity of gastric lesions in pigs kept in pens (18 pigs, 0.7 m(2)/pig) with partly slatted flooring and 10, 500 or 1000 g straw/pig/day from 30 kg live weight. The pigs had ad libitum access to dry feed. Forty-five pigs were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled as 'permanent access'. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P<0.05), suggesting that permanent access to straw may improve animal health, and be considered as one possible strategy to limit gastric ulceration in pigs.

  17. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer: advanced-stage undifferentiated adenocarcinoma located in the pyloric gland area.

    PubMed

    Okano, Akihiro; Kato, Shigeru; Ohana, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer (HpNGC) is extremely low. A 78-year old female without H. pylori infection was diagnosed with type 4 advanced-stage gastric prepylorus cancer. Distal gastrectomy was performed as for HpNGC (cT3N0M0). Histological findings of the resected specimen showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma, which were located in the pyloric gland area, diffusely invaded beyond the serosa without lymph node metastasis (pT4aN0M0). Most cases of undifferentiated-type HpNGC are diagnosed in the early stage and are located in the fundic gland area. We report the first case of advanced-stage undifferentiated HpNGC located in the pyloric gland area.

  18. The association between melatonin production and electrophysiology of the guinea pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    McCance, I; Parkington, H C; Coleman, H A

    1996-09-01

    Melatonin production by isolated pineal glands from guinea pigs was examined under conditions that affect membrane potential or the firing of action potential-like spikes. In glands from superior cervical ganglionectomized animals, depolarization resulting from increasing extracellular potassium concentration to 100 mM did not initiate melatonin production, and it delayed the response to the beta-adrenoceptor agonist orciprenaline. In glands from intact animals melatonin production was initiated by exposure to 100 mM potassium with a time-course similar to the response to orciprenaline. A proportion of this response was propanol resistant, suggesting that the normal control of melatonin production may involve a neurotransmitter in addition to norepinephrine. Exposure to verapamil or nifedipine, or removal of extracellular calcium, previously shown to eliminate action potential-like spikes, did not substantially affect the increase in melatonin production induced by orciprenaline. Phenylephrine, which stimulates spiking, produced only a slight increase in melatonin production. It is concluded that the depolarization and the spiking are not closely related to the stimulation of melatonin production, but may relate principally to the secretion of a substance other than melatonin.

  19. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  20. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland.

  1. Loss of Lrig1 leads to expansion of Brunner glands followed by duodenal adenomas with gastric metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Poulin, Emily J; Franklin, Jeffery L; Coffey, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-ErbB negative regulator and intestinal stem cell marker down-regulated in many malignancies. We previously reported that 14 of 16 Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1(-/-)) mice developed duodenal adenomas, providing the first in vivo evidence that Lrig1 acts as a tumor suppressor. We extended this study to a larger cohort and found that 49 of 54 Lrig1(-/-) mice develop duodenal adenomas beginning at 3 months. Most adenomas were histologically low grade and overlaid expanded Brunner glands. There was morphologic and biochemical blurring of the boundary between the epithelium and Brunner glands with glandular coexpression of ErbB2, which is normally restricted to the epithelium, and the Brunner gland marker Mucin6. Some adenomas were high grade with reduced Brunner glands. At age 4 to 5 weeks, before adenoma formation, we observed enhanced proliferation in Brunner glands and, at 2 months, an increase in the size of the Brunner gland compartment. Elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligands amphiregulin and β-cellulin, as well as Egfr and phosphorylated Egfr, was detected in adenomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. These adenomas expressed the gastric-specific genes gastrokine1 and mucin5ac, indicating gastric metaplasia. Moreover, we found that a subset of human duodenal tumors exhibited features of LRIG1(-/-) adenomas, including loss of LRIG1, gastric metaplasia (MUCIN5AC and MUCIN6), and increased amphiregulin and Egfr activity.

  2. Endoscopic gastric submucosal transplantation of islets (ENDO-STI): technique and initial results in diabetic pigs.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, G J; McGrath, K; Bottino, R; Hara, H; Dons, E M; van der Windt, D J; Ekser, B; Casu, A; Houser, S; Ezzelarab, M; Wagner, R; Trucco, M; Lakkis, F G; Cooper, D K C

    2009-11-01

    The results of transplantation of human donor islets into the portal vein (PV) in patients with diabetes are encouraging. However, there are complications, for example, hemorrhage, thrombosis and an immediate loss of islets through the 'instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction' (IBMIR). The gastric submucosal space (GSMS) offers potential advantages. Islets were isolated from adult pigs. Recipient pigs were made diabetic by streptozotocin. Donor islets were injected into the GSMS through a laparotomy (Group 1A, n = 4) or endoscopically (Group 1B, n = 8) or into the PV through a laparotomy (Group 2, n = 3). The pigs were followed for a maximum of 28 days. Monitoring of C-peptide in Group 1 indicated that there was minimal immediate loss of islets whereas in Group 2 there was considerable loss from IBMIR. In Group 1, there were significant reductions in mean blood glucose and mean exogenous insulin requirement between pretransplantation and 20 days posttransplantation. In Group 2, there was no significant reduction in either parameter. Insulin-positive cells were seen in the GSMS in Group 1, but not in the liver in Group 2. Endoscopic gastric submucosal transplantation of islets (ENDO-STI) offers a minimally invasive and quick approach to islet transplantation, avoids IBMIR and warrants further exploration.

  3. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs(1-3).

    PubMed

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.

  4. Stimulation of electrogenic chloride secretion by prostaglandin E2 in guinea-pig isolated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, K T; Spraggs, C F

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on ion transport were investigated in guinea-pig isolated gastric mucosa. 2. Under resting conditions the mucosa produced a short-circuit current (SCC), the majority of which could be attributed to electrogenic chloride secretion. This interpretation was confirmed by the dependence of the basal SCC on extracellular chloride, and inhibition by the chloride channel blocker, diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. The mucosa also exhibited low rates of acid secretion and of sodium and rubidium absorption. 3. PGE2 stimulated an increase in net chloride secretion which was more than sufficient to account for the concomitant increase in SCC. As with the basal SCC, the SCC response to PGE2 was chloride dependent and inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. PGE2 also significantly increased acid secretion and net rubidium absorption, but these changes were not sufficient to account for SCC. 4. The H+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole, inhibited basal and PGE2-stimulated acid secretion, but did not modify the effects the PGE2 on net chloride secretion, SCC or conductance, suggesting that these effects of PGE2 were not related to changes in gastric acid secretion. 5. Both basal and PGE2-stimulated SCC were dependent on extracellular sodium and inhibited by ouabain, indicating the importance of a sodium gradient and the Na+-K+-ATPase in maintaining the electrogenic properties of the mucosa. 6. These results are consistent with the view that PGE2 stimulates electrogenic chloride secretion in guinea-pig gastric mucosa, and provide an ionic basis for the stimulation of secretion of sodium and chloride by prostaglandins observed in mammalian gastric mucosa in vivo. PMID:2458457

  5. Monochloramine-induced toxicity and dysregulation of intracellular Zn2+ in parietal cells of rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Jonathan E; Dubach, J Matthew; Naik, Haley B; Tai, Kaniza; Blass, Amy L; Soybel, David I

    2010-07-01

    Monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) is a potent, thiol-directed oxidant capable of oxidizing thiol (S-H) residues in a wide variety of proteins. Generated in the stomach by the interaction of bacterial and host products, monochloramine has been shown to dysregulate Ca(2+) homeostasis and disrupt mucosal integrity. In this report, we show that monochloramine also leads to disturbances in intracellular free zinc concentration ([Zn(2+)](i)) in the gastric gland of the rabbit and that the increased Zn(2+) within the cell causes an independent decrease in cell viability. Changes in [Zn(2+)](i) were measured by using the fluorescent reporter FluoZin-3, whereas cell viability was assessed by measuring the conversion of calcein-AM to fluorescent calcein, an assay that is not affected by intracellular oxidation state. Cell death was confirmed using propidium iodide and YO-PRO-1 dye uptake measurements. Our experiments demonstrate that [Zn(2+)](i) is increased in gastric glands exposed to NH(2)Cl and that elevated [Zn(2+)](i) decreases cell viability. Chelation of Zn(2+) with tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine decreases the toxicity of NH(2)Cl, but only when administered concurrently. These findings suggest that the toxic effect of thiol oxidants present during chronic gastritis is partially due to dysregulation of [Zn(2+)](i) early in the process and that zinc chelation can protect, but not rescue, gastric glands exposed to toxic doses of NH(2)Cl.

  6. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)).

  7. Cholinergic facilitation of neurotransmission to the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Lau, W A; Pennefather, J N; Mitchelson, F J

    2000-07-01

    1. Functional experiments have been conducted to assess the effects of acetylcholine and carbachol, and the receptors on which they act to facilitate neurotransmission to the stromal smooth muscle of the prostate gland of the guinea-pig. 2. Acetylcholine and carbachol (0.1 microM - 0.1 mM) enhanced contractions evoked by trains of electrical field stimulation (20 pulses of 0.5 ms at 10 Hz every 50 s with a dial setting of 60 V) of nerve terminals within the guinea-pig isolated prostate. In these concentrations they had negligible effects on prostatic smooth muscle tone. 3. The facilitatory effects of acetylcholine, but not those of carbachol, were further enhanced in the presence of physostigmine (10 microM). 3. The facilitatory effects of carbachol were unaffected by the neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-arginina mide) (0.3 microM, n=3) or suramin (100 microM, n=5). Prazosin (0.1 microM, n=5) and guanethidine (10 microM, n=5) alone and in combination (n=4), reduced responses to field stimulation and produced rightward shifts of the log concentration-response curves to carbachol. 4. The rank orders of potency of subtype-preferring muscarinic receptor antagonists in inhibiting the facilitatory actions of acetylcholine and carbachol were: pirenzepine > HHSiD (hexahydrosiladifenidol) > pF-HHSiD (para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol)>/= 5 himbacine, and pirenzepine > HHSiD > himbacine>/= 5 pF-HHSiD, respectively. These profiles suggest that muscarinic receptors of the M(1)-subtype mediate the facilitatory effects of acetylcholine and carbachol on neurotransmission to the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate.

  8. Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lori R; Huang, Steven Y; Gagea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    A 5.5-mo-old castrated, male Red Duroc pig presented acutely with depression and abdominal pain 9 d after an altercation with another pig. A CT examination indicated right pneumothorax and herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Due to a poor prognosis, the pig was euthanized. A necropsy and gross examination revealed a tear of the diaphragmatic muscle in the region of the esophageal hiatus through which the stomach was displaced into the right side of the thoracic cavity. In addition, the herniated stomach had a rupture of the stomach wall through which the gastric mucosa was everted and exposed into the right thoracic cavity. The right thoracic cavity had acute fibrinous pleuritis, and the right lung was collapsed. CT scans performed every 1 to 2 wk for 2 mo prior to the pig's death did not reveal any abnormalities in the diaphragm. Trauma was considered the most likely cause of the diaphragmatic tear and subsequent herniation and rupture of the stomach. PMID:27780007

  9. A comparative study on the modes of action of TAK-438, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, and lansoprazole in primary cultured rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Jun; Hori, Yasunobu; Nishida, Haruyuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2011-05-01

    TAK-438 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) type antisecretory agent that reversibly inhibits gastric H+, K+-ATPase. Previously, we showed that TAK-438 has superior efficacy compared to lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in the inhibition of acid secretion in vivo. In this study, we investigated the differences in the mode of actions of the two drugs using primary cultured rabbit gastric glands. TAK-438 and lansoprazole inhibited gastric acid formation in acutely isolated gastric glands (IC₅₀) values, 0.30 and 0.76 μM, respectively). In cultured gastric glands that were preincubated with TAK-438, the inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated acid formation was augmented over the incubation period, whereas the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was not affected by time of incubation. Next, we evaluated the durations of the actions of TAK-438 and lansoprazole after gastric glands were incubated with either drug for 2h followed by washout. Even 8h after the drug washout, TAK-438 at higher concentrations inhibited acid formation, but the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole disappeared immediately after washout. Additionally, only a small amount of [¹⁴C] lansoprazole accumulated in resting glands, and this accumulation was enhanced by treatment with 1 μM of forskolin. In contrast, high levels of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 accumulated in both resting and forskolin-treated glands. Furthermore, a 2-h preincubation followed by washout demonstrated a slow clearance of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 from the glands. These findings suggest that TAK-438 exerts a longer and more potent antisecretory effect than lansoprazole as a result of its high accumulation and slow clearance from the gastric glands.

  10. Studies on gastric digestion of protein and carbohydrate, gastric secretion and exocrine pancreatic secretion in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Zebrowska, T; Low, A G; Zebrowska, H

    1983-05-01

    Six pigs, initially of 35 kg mean live weight, were each fitted with a re-entrant cannula. This was formed on either side of a short pouch of duodenum into which the pancreatic duct opened and which contained a simple cannula linked to the centre of the re-entrant cannula. Each pig received two diets: diet A was based on wheat starch, sucrose and casein, while diet B was based on barley and soya-bean meal. The diets were given in equal amounts at 12 h intervals. Digesta and pancreatic juice were collected continuously during three 12 h periods for each pig on each diet. Mean duodenal output: dietary intake values for diets A and B respectively were: digesta 1.80, 2.86; dry matter 1.05, 1.03; nitrogen 1.05, 1.06; trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble N 7.69, 9.10; glucose 0.97, 0.89. For diet A the proportion of TCA-soluble N in total N rose from 13 to 50% during 12 h, while it was approximately 50% throughout 12 h for diet B. Mean total pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1) activities (units/24 h) were 760449 (diet A) and 1 466 571 (diet B). Salivary and gastric secretions were calculated to be approximately 4 and 8 kg/24 h for diets A and B respectively. Mean flows in pancreatic juice (g/24 h) for diets A and B respectively were: juice 1204, 2182; protein 10.94, 12.10; N 1.98, 2.14; ash 9.46, 17.31; sodium 3.88, 6.91; potassium 0.23, 0.54; calcium 0.031, 0.046; phosphorus 0.024, 0.026. Mean total enzyme activities (units x 10(-3)/24 h) for diets A and B respectively were: trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) 138, 114; chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) 84, 84; carboxypeptidase A (EC 3.4.2.1) 5, 4; carboxypeptidase B (EC 3.4.2.2) 15, 17; amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) 1061, 981. It was calculated that the minimum amount of endogenous N from saliva and gastric secretion was 0.3-0.6 g in 24 h. This assumes no absorption of N occurred anterior to the duodenal cannula.

  11. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in α1,2, α1,3, and α1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents.

  12. Improvement of anti-nutritional effect resulting from β-glucanase specific expression in the parotid gland of transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Zeng; Cai, Jin-Shun; Zhao, Shuai; Sun, Yu-Ping; Wang, Jing-Lan; Jiang, Yong; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2017-02-01

    β-Glucan is the predominant anti-nutritional factors in monogastric animal feed. Although β-glucanase supplementation in diet can help to eliminate the adverse effects, enzyme stability is substantially modified during the feed manufacturing process. To determine whether the expression of endogenous β-glucanase gene (GLU) in vivo can improve digestibility of dietary β-glucan and absorption of nutrients, we successfully produced transgenic pigs via nuclear transfer which express the GLU from Paenibacillus polymyxa CP7 in the parotid gland. In three live transgenic founders, β-glucanase activities in the saliva were 3.2, 0.07 and 0.03 U/mL, respectively, and interestingly the enzyme activities increased in the pigs from 178 days old to 789 days old. From the feed the amount of gross energy, crude protein and crude fat absorbed by the transgenic pigs was significantly higher than the non-transgenic pigs. Meanwhile the moisture content of the feces was significantly reduced in transgenic pigs compared with the non-transgenic pigs. Furthermore, in all positive G1 pigs, β-glucanase activity was detectable and the highest enzyme activity reached 3.5 U/mL in saliva. Also, crude protein digestion was significantly higher in G1 transgenic pigs than in control pigs. Taken together, our data showed that the transgenic β-glucanase exerted its biological catalytic function in vivo in the saliva, and the improved performance of the transgenic pigs could be accurately passed on to the offspring, indicating a promising alternative approach to improving nutrient availability was established to improve utilization of livestock feed through transgenic animals.

  13. Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea)

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Catherine A.; Decker, Sarah E.; Silva, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 μeq·h−1·g−1 and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 μeq·h−1·g−1. GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 μeq·h−1·g−1 and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue. PMID:24553297

  14. Prostaglandin protection of human isolated gastric glands against indomethacin and ethanol injury. Evidence for direct cellular action of prostaglandin.

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, A; Brzozowski, T; Sarfeh, I J; Krause, W J; Ulich, T R; Gergely, H; Hollander, D

    1988-01-01

    Isolated human gastric glands from surgical specimens were preincubated in an oxygenated medium with placebo or 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) and incubated at 37 degrees C in either medium alone, medium containing 4.43 mM indomethacin or medium containing 8% ethanol. We assessed the viability of gland cells with fast green exclusion, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the medium, and ultrastructural damage by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both indomethacin and ethanol significantly reduced the viability of placebo-pretreated glands, increased LDH release into the medium, and produced prominent ultrastructural damage. DmPGE2 significantly reduced both indomethacin and ethanol-induced injury, increased the number of viable cells, reduced LDH release, and diminished the extent of ultrastructural damage. These studies indicate that PG protection of gastric mucosal cells has a direct cellular action that is not limited to replacement of depleted endogenous PGs. PG protection in our experiments did not depend on PG's previously described systemic actions, such as protection of the microvessels, preservation of the mucosal blood flow, or stimulation of bicarbonate and mucus secretion. Images PMID:3350966

  15. Characteristics of the K+-competitive H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor AZD0865 in isolated rat gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, P; Andersson, K; Socrates, T; Sidani, S; Kosiek, O; Geibel, J P

    2006-11-01

    The gastric H+,K+-ATPase of the parietal cell is responsible for acid secretion in the stomach and is the main target in the pharmacological treatment of acid-related diseases. Omeprazole and other benzimidazole drugs, although having delayed efficacy if taken orally, have high success rates in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Potassium competitive acid blockers (P-CAB) compete with K+ for binding to the H+,K+-ATPase and thereby they inhibit acid secretion. In this study, the in vitro properties of AZD0865, a reversible H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, are described. We used a digital-imaging system and the pH sensitive dye BCECF to observe proton efflux from hand-dissected rat gastric glands. Glands were stimulated with histamine (100 microM) and exposed to a bicarbonate- and Na+-free perfusate to induce an acid load. H+,K+-ATPase inhibition was determined by calculating pHi recovery (dpH/dT) in the presence of omeprazole (10-200 microM) or AZD0865 (0.01-100 microM). The efficacies of both drugs were compared. Our data show that acid secretion is inhibited by both the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the P-CAB AZD0865. Complete inhibition of acid secretion by AZD0865 had a rapid onset of activation, was reversible, and occurred at a 100-fold lower dose than omeprazole (1 microM AZD0865 vs. 100 microM omeprazole). This study demonstrates that AZD0865 is a potent, fast-acting inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, effective at lower concentrations than drugs of the benzimidazole class. Therefore, these data strongly suggest that AZD0865 has great potential as a fast-acting, low-dose inhibitor of acid secretion.

  16. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.

  17. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  18. Characterization of cholecystokinin receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, T.; Sakamoto, C.; Nagao, M.; Nishisaki, H.; Konda, Y.; Nakano, O.; Matsuda, K.; Wada, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kasuga, M. )

    1991-02-14

    The binding of cholecystokinin (CCK) to its receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes were characterized by the use of {sup 125}I-CCK-octapeptide (CCK8). At 30{degrees}C optimal binding was obtained at acidic pH in the presence of Mg2+, while Na+ reduced the binding. In contrast to reports on pancreatic and brain CCK receptors, scatchard analysis of CCK binding to chief cell membranes revealed two classes of binding sites. Whereas, in the presence of a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S, only a low affinity site of CCK binding was observed. Chief cell receptors recognized CCK analogs, with an order of potency of: CCK8 greater than gastrin-I greater than CCK4. Although all CCK receptor antagonists tested (dibutyryl cyclic GMP, L-364718 and CR1409) inhibited labeled CCK binding to chief cell membranes, the relative potencies of these antagonists in terms of inhibiting labeled CCK binding were different from those observed in either pancreatic membranes or brain membranes. The results indicate, therefore, that on gastric chief cell membranes there exist specific CCK receptors, which are coupled to G protein. Furthermore, chief cell CCK receptors may be distinct from pancreatic or brain type CCK receptors.

  19. Unique Cellular Lineage Composition of the First Gland of the Mouse Gastric Corpus.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Andrew; Petersen, Christine P; Choi, Eunyoung; Engevik, Amy C; Goldenring, James R

    2017-01-01

    The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin. Prominent numbers of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) positive tuft cells were present in the first gland. The first gland contained Lgr5-expressing putative progenitor cells, and a large proportion of the cells were positive for Sox2. The cells of the first gland stained strongly for MUC4 and EpCAM, but both were absent in the normal corpus mucosa. The present studies indicate that the first gland in the corpus represents a unique anatomic entity. The presence of a concentration of progenitor cells and sensory tuft cells in this gland suggests that it may represent a source of reserve reparative cells for adapting to severe mucosal damage.

  20. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2016-02-01

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals.

  1. Sialylated glycans and mucins in the lacrimal gland and eyelid of man and pig. Potential receptors for pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Svend; Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Vorum, Henrik

    2011-12-20

    The conjunctiva of the eyelid is coated by secretion products from the lacrimal and eyelid glands, and by mucins produced by conjunctival goblet cells, which together form a glycoprotein-rich layer that lubricates and protects the surface of the eye. However, these ocular carbohydrates may also act as adhesives for viruses and bacteria and thereby facilitate their colonization. This paper provides histochemical demonstration of the in situ localization of such carbohydrate receptors in the form of sialylated glycans and mucins in the lacrimal and eyelid glands and conjunctiva from both humans and pigs. The pig is included in this study because viruses of swine origin may be capable of transmission to humans. We found that the human and pig ocular surfaces contain receptors for bacteria and viruses in the form of mucins (both membrane bound and secreted) and carbohydrates terminating in Sialylα2-6Gal epitopes and to a lesser degree in Sialylα2-3Gal. The glycosylation of the human soft palate could indicate a mucinous route for the spread of microorganisms from the eye via the nasolacrimal duct to the nasopharynx and thus to the upper part of the respiratory tract.

  2. Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland (chief cell-predominant type): A review of endoscopic and clinicopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Masaki; Matsuda, Mitsuru; Yano, Masaaki; Hara, Yasumasa; Arihara, Fumitaka; Horita, Yosuke; Matsuda, Koichiro; Sakai, Akito; Noda, Yatsugi

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland (chief cell-predominant type, GA-FG-CCP) is a rare variant of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and has been proposed to be a novel disease entity. GA-FG-CCP originates from the gastric mucosa of the fundic gland region without chronic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia. The majority of GA-FG-CCPs exhibit either a submucosal tumor-like superficial elevated shape or a flat shape on macroscopic examination. Narrow-band imaging with endoscopic magnification may reveal a regular or an irregular microvascular pattern, depending on the degree of tumor exposure to the mucosal surface. Pathological analysis of GA-FG-CCPs is characterized by a high frequency of submucosal invasion, rare occurrences of lymphatic and venous invasion, and low-grade malignancy. Detection of diffuse positivity for pepsinogen-I by immunohistochemistry is specific for GA-FG-CCP. Careful endoscopic examination and detailed pathological evaluation are essential for early and accurate diagnosis of GA-FG-CCP. Nearly all GA-FG-CCPs are treated by endoscopic resection due to their small tumor size and low risk of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:28082804

  3. Identification of specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, nipples, small intestine, and skin of pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Min, G; Sherwood, O D

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that relaxin promotes growth and softening of the cervix and development of the mammary glands in the pregnant pig. An important aspect of understanding relaxin's mechanism of action in these tissues is to identify the specific cell type(s) that contains relaxin receptors, that is, to identify those cells that initiate relaxin's effects. The objective of the present study was to identify relaxin-binding cells in tissues known to respond to relaxin (cervix and mammary gland) as well as in tissues suspected of being responsive to relaxin (nipple, small intestine, and skin) in the pregnant pig. To accomplish that objective we developed an in vitro modification of an immunohistochemical technique recently developed for identification of relaxin-binding cells. Two groups of pregnant gilts were used: intact control (group C) and ovariectomized progesterone-treated (group OP). Group OP was ovariectomized on Day 40 of gestation (Day 40) and treated with progesterone (50 mg/2 ml corn oil i.m., twice daily) until Day 110 to maintain pregnancy. On Day 110, tissues from both groups were removed, cut into cubes (2-3 cm3), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and cryosectioned (8 microns). Specific cell types that bind relaxin were identified by sequential application of a biotinylated relaxin probe, antibiotin immunoglobulin G conjugated to 1 nm colloidal gold, and silver for signal amplification. The study demonstrates for the first time that relaxin binds with specificity to 1) blood vessels (cervix, mammary glands, nipples, small intestine); 2) smooth muscles in small intestine (circular, longitudinal, muscularis mucosa); and 3) skin from sites other than the mammary nipples (back, ear, thigh, leg). In addition, consistent with previous findings in the rat, prominent labeling was observed in epithelial cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples; in smooth muscle cells in the cervix and mammary nipples; and in the skin of the nipples. There were no

  4. Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, S P; Bolton, T B

    2004-01-01

    After enzymatic dispersion of the muscle of the guinea-pig gastric fundus, single elongated cells were observed which differed from archetypal smooth muscle cells due to their knurled, tuberose or otherwise irregular surface morphology. These, but not archetypal smooth muscle cells, consistently displayed spontaneous localized (i.e. non-propagating) intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) release events. Such calcium events were novel in their magnitude and kinetic profiles. They included short transient events, plateau events and events which coalesced spatially or temporally (compound events). Quantitative analysis of the events with an automatic detection programme showed that their spatio-temporal characteristics (full width and full duration at half-maximum amplitude) were approximately exponentially distributed. Their amplitude distribution suggested the presence of two release modes. Carbachol application caused an initial cell-wide calcium transient followed by an increase in localized calcium release events. Pharmacological analysis suggested that localized calcium release was largely dependent on external calcium entry acting on both inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release stored calcium. Nominally calcium-free external solution immediately and reversibly abolished all localized calcium release without blocking the initial transient calcium release response to carbachol. This was inhibited by 2-APB (100 μm), ryanodine (10 or 50 μm) or U-73122 (1 μm). 2-APB (100 μm), xestospongin C (XeC, 10 μm) or U-73122 (1 μm) blocked both spontaneous localized calcium release and localized release stimulated by 10 μm carbachol. Ryanodine (50 μm) also inhibited spontaneous release, but enhanced localized release in response to carbachol. This study represents the first characterization of localized calcium release events in cells from the gastric fundus. PMID:14608011

  5. Muscarinic activity modulated by C-type natriuretic peptide in gastric smooth muscles of guinea-pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Xing, De-gang; Huang, Xu; Li, Chun-hui; Li, Xiang-lan; Piao, Lian-hua; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Kim, Yong-chul; Xu, Wen-xie

    2007-10-04

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) generation system like nitric oxide (NO) and play an inhibitory regulation in gastrointestinal motility but the effect of NPs on muscarinic activity is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on muscarinic control of gastric motility and its ion channel mechanism. The spontaneous contraction of gastric smooth muscle strip was recorded by using physiograph in guinea-pig. Membrane currents and potential were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. CNP significantly inhibited muscarinic M receptor agonist carbachol (Cch)-induced contractions of gastric smooth muscle strips and dramatically hyperpolarized Cch-induced depolarization of membrane potential in gastric single smooth muscle cell. Muscarinic currents induced by both Cch and GTPgammaS, a G-protein agonist were significantly suppressed by CNP. 8-Br-cGMP mimicked the effect of CNP on Cch-induced muscarinic currents, and the peak holding current was decreased from -200.66+/-54.35 pA of control to -67.35+/-24.82 pA. LY83583, a guanylate cyclase nonspecific inhibitor, significantly weakened the inhibitory effect of CNP on muscarinic current while zaprinast, a cGMP sensitive phosphoesterase inhibitor, potentiated the inhibitory effect of CNP on muscarinic current. cGMP production was dramatically enhanced by CNP and this effect was suppressed by LY83583 in gastric smooth muscle. These results suggest that CNP modulates muscarinic activity via CNP-NPR-particulate guanylate cyclase (pGC)-cGMP pathway in guinea-pig.

  6. Simultaneous detection of gastric acid and histamine release to unravel the regulation of acid secretion from the guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Bitziou, Eleni; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2012-08-01

    Gastric acid secretion is regulated by three primary components that activate the parietal cell: histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine (ACh). Although much is known about these regulatory components individually, little is known on the interplay of these multiple activators and the degree of regulation they pose on the gastric acid secretion mechanism. We utilized a novel dual-sensing approach, where an iridium oxide sensor was used to monitor pH and a boron-doped diamond electrode was used for the detection of histamine from in vitro guinea pig stomach mucosal sections. Under basal conditions, gastrin was shown to be the main regulatory component of the total acid secretion and directly activated the parietal cell rather than by mediating gastric acid secretion through the release of histamine from the enterochromaffin-like cell, although both pathways were active. Under stimulated conditions with ACh, the gastrin and histamine components of the total acid secretion were not altered compared with levels observed under basal conditions, suggestive that ACh had no direct effect on the enterochromaffin-like cell and G cell. These data identify a new unique approach to investigate the regulation pathways active during acid secretion and the degree that they are utilized to drive total gastric acid secretion. The findings of this study will enhance our understanding on how these signaling mechanisms vary under pathophysiology or therapeutic management.

  7. Influence of bilirubin and other antioxidants on nitrergic relaxation in the pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Colpaert, E E; Lefebvre, R A

    2000-03-01

    1. The influence of several antioxidants (bilirubin, urate, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the manganese SOD mimic EUK-8) on nitrergic relaxations induced by either exogenous nitric oxide (NO; 10(-5) M) or electrical field stimulation (4 Hz; 10 s and 3 min) was studied in the pig gastric fundus. 2. Ascorbate (5x10(-4) M), alpha-tocopherol (4x10(-4) M), SOD (300 - 1000 u ml(-1)) and EUK-8 (3x10(-4) M) did not influence the relaxations to exogenous NO. In the presence of GSH (5x10(-4) M), the short-lasting relaxation to NO became biphasic, potentiated and prolonged. Urate (4x10(-4) M) and bilirubin (2x10(-4) M) also potentiated the relaxant effect of NO. None of the antioxidants influenced the electrically evoked relaxations. 3. 6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583; 10(-5) M) had no influence on nitrergic nerve stimulation but nearly abolished the relaxant response to exogenous NO. Urate and GSH completely prevented this inhibitory effect, while it was partially reversed by SOD and bilirubin. Ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and EUK-8 were without effect. 4. Hydroquinone (10(-4) M) did not affect the electrically induced nitrergic relaxations, but markedly reduced NO-induced relaxations. The inhibition of exogenous NO by hydroquinone was completely prevented by urate and GSH. SOD and ascorbate afforded partial protection, while bilirubin, EUK-8 and alpha-tocopherol were ineffective. 5. Hydroxocobalamin (10(-4) M) inhibited relaxations to NO by 50%, but not the electrically induced responses. Full protection versus this inhibitory effect was obtained with urate, GSH and alpha-tocopherol. 6. These results strengthen the hypothesis that several endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic, might play a role in the nitrergic neurotransmission process.

  8. Effects of nitric oxide on slow waves and spontaneous contraction of guinea pig gastric antral circular muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewan; La, Junho; Lee, Janghern; Yang, Ilsuk

    2003-08-01

    We examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-NO) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), on slow waves and contractile activity in the circular muscle of guinea pig gastric antrum. In the presence of atropine and guanethidine, electrical field stimulation (EFS) reduced the amplitude of phasic contraction. The effect of EFS was significantly inhibited by both the NO synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cys-NO and SIN-1 mimicked the effect of EFS on phasic contraction and reduced the amplitude of slow waves in a concentration-dependent manner, with no effect on frequency and resting membrane potential. Phasic contraction was more sensitive to NO donors than slow waves. The inhibitory effects of NO donors were antagonized by ODQ and mimicked by a membrane permeable cGMP analogue 8-bromo-cGMP. Several K(+) channel blockers such as apamin, iberiotoxin, and glibenclamide had no effect on the inhibitory action of SIN-1. These results suggest that NO inhibits the phasic contraction and slow waves through cGMP-dependent mechanisms in guinea pig gastric antrum. The effect of NO is unlikely to be mediated by the activation of Ca(2+)-activated or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

  9. Loss of gastric gland mucin-specific O-glycan is associated with progression of differentiated-type adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Shiratsu, Kazuo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin secreted from the lower portion of the gastric mucosa contains unique O-linked oligosaccharides having terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (αGlcNAc) residues largely attached to a MUC6 scaffold. Previously, we generated A4gnt-deficient mice, which totally lack αGlcNAc, and showed that αGlcNAc functions as a tumor suppressor for gastric cancer. Here, to determine the clinicopathological significance of αGlcNAc in gastric carcinomas, we examined immunohistochemical expression of αGlcNAc and mucin phenotypic markers including MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2, and CD10 in 214 gastric adenocarcinomas and compared those expression patterns with clinicopathological parameters and cancer-specific survival. The αGlcNAc loss was evaluated in MUC6-positive gastric carcinoma. Thirty-three (61.1%) of 54 differentiated-type gastric adenocarcinomas exhibiting MUC6 in cancer cells lacked αGlcNAc expression. Loss of αGlcNAc was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, stage, and venous invasion by differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Loss of αGlcNAc was also significantly associated with poorer patient prognosis in MUC6-positive differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. By contrast, no significant correlation between αGlcNAc loss and any clinicopathologic variable was observed in undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Expression of MUC6 was also significantly correlated with several clinicopathological variables in differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. However, unlike the case with αGlcNAc, its expression showed no correlation with cancer-specific survival in patients. In undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma, we observed no significant correlation between mucin phenotypic marker expression, including MUC6, and any clinicopathologic variable. These results together indicate that loss of αGlcNAc in MUC6-positive cancer cells is associated with progression and poor prognosis in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, types of gastric adenocarcinoma.

  10. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs.

  11. Propagation of slow waves in the guinea-pig gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Hirst, G David S; Garcia-Londoño, A Pilar; Edwards, Frank R

    2006-02-15

    Intracellular recordings were made from the circular layer of the intact muscular wall of the guinea-pig gastric antrum in preparations where much of the corpus remained attached. When two electrodes were positioned parallel to and near to the greater curvature, slow waves were first detected at the oral site and subsequently at the anal site: the oro-anal conduction velocity was found to be 2.5 mm s(-1). When one electrode was positioned near the greater curvature and the other at a circumferential location, slow waves were first detected near the greater curvature and subsequently at the circumferential site: the circumferential conduction velocity was 13.9 mm s(-1). When recordings were made from preparations in which the circular muscle layer had been removed, the oro-anal and the circumferential conduction velocities were both about 3.5 mm s(-1). When slow waves were recorded from preparations in which much of the myenteric network of antral interstitial cells (ICC(MY)) had been dissected away, slow waves were first detected near the region of intact ICC(MY) and subsequently at a circumferential location: the circumferential conduction velocity of slow waves in regions devoid of ICC(MY) was 14.7 mm s(-1). When the electrical properties of isolated single bundles of circular muscle were determined, their length constants were about 3 mm and their time constant about 230 ms, giving an asymptotic electrotonic propagation velocity of 25 mm s(-1). Oro-anal electrical coupling between adjacent bundles of circular muscle was found to vary widely: some bundles were well connected to neighbouring bundles whereas others were not. Together the observations suggest that the slow oro-anal progression of slow waves results from a slow conduction velocity of pacemaker potentials in the myenteric network of interstitial cells. The rapid circumferential conduction of slow waves results from the electrical properties of the circular muscle layer which allow intramuscular ICC

  12. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  13. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland.

  14. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs.

  15. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  16. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P< 0·05): the half gastric emptying time of DM was 137 v. 172 min ( ± 7·4 min pooled standard error) for the diets with and without actinidin, respectively. The presence of dietary actinidin in the stomach chyme increased the digestion of beef muscle protein (P< 0·05) and, more specifically, those proteins with a high molecular weight (>34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  17. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using /sup 3/H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined.

  18. Identification of gastric H,K-ATPase in an early vertebrate, the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Smolka, A J; Lacy, E R; Luciano, L; Reale, E

    1994-10-01

    Virtually all vertebrates acidify their gastric contents to a pH between 0.8 and 2.0. In mammals, acid secretion is mediated by a K-stimulated proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), which establishes a million-fold gradient of protons across the apical membrane of the gastric parietal cell. The earliest phylogenetic appearance of gastric acid secretion is in cartilaginous fish, and we sought to verify in this class (Chondrichthyes) the presence and distribution of H,K-ATPase in gastric epithelial cells. An antibody against a synthetic peptide based on the C-terminus of pig H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit was localized in the gastric glands of the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina. The C-terminal antibody stained all cells with tubulovesicles and the apical membrane domain of mucous neck cells. In proximal stomach, gastric glands showed the strongest immunoreactivity in cells close to the isthmus; in the distal stomach, strongest immunoreactivity was found in cells at the base of the glands. Oxyntic cells were more intensely immunoreactive than oxynticopeptic cells. This antibody labeled a single band of M(r) 100,600 on immunoblots of D. sabina gastric microsomes. These results show the earliest phylogenetic occurrence of a gastric ATPase in putative acid-secreting cells and suggest that this enzyme shares structural features with mammalian H,K-ATPase.

  19. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing—which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts—the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism. PMID:27409639

  20. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P < 0.05) in pigs fed NF-BD and NF-BD + phytase. The decreases were 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, substantial amounts of InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated to 17% of InsP₆-P intake). The accumulation of lower inositol phosphates in gastric digesta was very small for all treatments and at all times because of a rapid and almost complete degradation. In conclusion, phytase addition to the nonfermented diet increased the degradation of gastric InsP₆. However, considerable amounts of intact InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for Ins

  1. A novel porcine gene, MAPKAPK3, is differentially expressed in the pituitary gland from mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Liu

    2010-10-01

    The mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences of gene expression in the pituitary gland from mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs. One novel gene differentially expressed was identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and its cDNA complete sequence was then obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 384 amino acids has high homology with the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPKAPK3) of eight species--cattle (96%), horse (96%), rhesus monkey (93%), rabbit (77%), human (98%), chimpanzee (98%), mouse (94%) and rat (91%)--so that it can be defined as swine MAPKAPK3 gene. This gene was finally assigned GENE ID: 100233192. Computer assisted analysis revealed that the genomic DNA of open reading frame of the swine MAPKAPK3 gene consists of ten exons and nine introns. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the swine MAPKAPK3 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MAPKAPK3 of cattle. The tissue expression analysis indicated that the MAPKAPK3 mRNA expression levels of large-type Diannan small-ear pigs are ubiquitously increased in various tissues compared to the mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs. Our experiment suggested that the swine MAPKAPK3 gene might play an important role in the growth and development differences between mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs.

  2. Endoscopic biopsy of islet transplants in the gastric submucosal space provides evidence of islet graft rejection in diabetic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Fujita, Minoru; Bottino, Rita; Piganelli, Jon D.; McGrath, Kevin; Li, Jiang; Lee, Whayoung; Iwase, Hayato; Wijkstrom, Martin; Bertera, Suzanne; Long, Cassandra; Landsittel, Douglas; Haruma, Ken; Cooper, David K.C.; Hara, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transplantation of islets into the gastric submucosal space (GSMS) has several advantages (e.g., avoidance of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory response [IBMIR], ability to biopsy). The aim of this study was to determine whether endoscopic biopsy of islet allografts transplanted into the GSMS in diabetic pigs can provide histopathological and immunohistochemical information that correlates with the clinical course (e.g.,, blood glucose level, insulin requirement). Islet allografts (Group1: 10,000 kIEq /kg [n = 4]; Group2: 15,000 kIEq /kg [n = 2]) were transplanted into the GSMS of diabetic pigs under immunosuppression. In Group2, the anti-oxidant, BMX-001 was applied during preservation, isolation, and culture of the islets, and at the time of transplantation. Endoscopic biopsies of the islet grafts were obtained one or 2 weeks after transplantation, and histopathological features were compared with the clinical course (e.g., blood glucose, insulin requirement). In Group1, in the absence of anti-oxidant therapy, most of the islets became fragmented, and there was no reduction in exogenous insulin requirement. In Group2, with an increased number of transplanted islets in the presence of BMX-001, more healthy insulin-positive islet masses were obtained at biopsy and necropsy (4 weeks), and these correlated with reductions in both blood glucose level and insulin requirement. In all cases, inflammatory cell infiltrates were present. After islet transplantation into the GSMS, endoscopic biopsy can provide information on graft rejection, which would be an immense advantage in clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26857703

  3. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (P<0.05 in all cases). The increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001) and an elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (P<0.01), the other indices reflecting HF severity. There was a positive relationship between the increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all P<0.05). The association with noradrenaline remained significant also when adjusted for LVEF and plasma BNP, suggesting a significant contribution of adrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of the antioxidant enzymes biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 in human and pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic antioxidant capacities of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are increasingly recognized since both heme degradation products can exert beneficial cytoprotective effects due to their scavenging of oxygen free radicals and interaction with antioxidant vitamins. Several studies have been published on the localization of the carbon monoxide producing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which concomitantly generates biliverdin; histochemical data on the distribution of biliverdin reductase (BVR), converting biliverdin to bilirubin, are still very scarce in large mammals including humans. The present study revealed by means of immunohistochemistry the presence of BVR and HO-2 in mucosal epithelial cells and in the endothelium of intramural vessels of both human and porcine gastric fundus. In addition, co-labeling with the specific neural marker protein-gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated that both BVR and HO-2 were present in all intrinsic nerve cell bodies of both submucous and myenteric plexuses, while double labeling with c-Kit antibody confirmed their presence in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results substantiate the hypothesis that BVR, through the production of the potent antioxidant bilirubin, might be an essential component of normal physiologic gastrointestinal defense in man and pig.

  5. Effects of rapeseed-press cake glucosinolates and iodine on the performance, the thyroid gland and the liver vitamin A status of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Tischendorf, F; Leiterer, M; Hartung, H; Bargholz, J

    2001-01-01

    Rapeseed press cake (per kg DM 181 g EE, 341 g CP and 23.3 mmol glucosinolates) was tested in a long-term experiment with a total of sixty pigs (live weight range 24 to 104 kg). The 3 x 2 factorial design consisted of three rapeseed press cake levels (no rapeseed press cake--control, 75 g or 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet) each with two iodine dosages (125 or 250 micrograms supplementary iodine per kg diet). Reduced feed intake and depressed weight gain were found in groups receiving 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet, which correspond to 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. At an inclusion level of 75 g rapeseed-press cake per kg diet no differences in feed intake and growth intensity were recorded in comparison to the rape feed free control. The rapeseed-press cake diet increased the weight of thyroid gland and liver and decreased the serum thyroxine (T4) concentration. Higher iodine dosage increased the serum T4 concentration of pigs receiving 75 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet (= 1.6 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet) to the level of the control group and retarded the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Intake of rapeseed products lowered the iodine content of the thyroid gland, however, there was no significant difference between groups given 1.6 and 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. The vitamin A content of the whole liver and the vitamin A serum concentration were not influenced by the diets tested. However, rapeseed press cake and the glucosinolates, respectively, decreased the vitamin A concentration per gram liver due to the organ enlargement and the resulting dilution effect.

  6. Isolated guinea pig gastric chief cells express tumour necrosis factor receptors coupled with the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, S; Santucci, L; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Amorosi, A; Mancini, A; Roberti, R; Morelli, A

    1996-01-01

    The tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis. Both conditions are characterised by high plasma pepsinogen concentrations, which are thought to reflect an increased rate of enzyme release by the pepsinogen secreting (chief) cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cell dysfunction are unknown. This study investigates whether chief cells express TNF receptors and, if so, whether their activation results in cell death. Immunohistochemical studies conducted with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two TNF receptor associated proteins of 55 kDa (TNF-R1) and 75 kDa (TNF-R2) showed that TNF binding sites were expressed in approximately 100% gastric chief cells. Western blot analysis of whole chief cell lysates probed with the TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 mAbs gave two distinct bands of 55 and 75 kDa in the immunoprecipitate. Incubating chief cells with TNF caused concentration and time dependent cell death, which was prevented by pretreating the cells with anti-TNF receptor mAbs. Exposing the cells to TNF reduced sphingomyelin content by 25%. Sphingomyelinase (10(-6) to 10(-2) IU/ml) mimicked the effect of TNF in that it provoked a concentration and time dependent reduction in chief cell viability and increased pepsinogen release. In conclusion, gastric chief cells express two TNF receptors partially linked to the sphingomyelin pathway. TNF induced chief cell dysfunction might be responsible for the high plasma pepsinogen concentrations seen in patients with NSAID gastropathy or H pylori induced gastritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801194

  7. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P < 0.05), and the intragastric pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet.

  8. Nitric oxide inhibits smooth muscle responses evoked by cholinergic nerve stimulation in the guinea pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, S; Suzuki, H

    2001-12-01

    In circular smooth muscle tissues of the guinea pig gastric fundus, transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) evoked an atropine-sensitive cholinergic excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) and, after inhibiting the e.j.p. with atropine, an apamin-sensitive nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.). The amplitude of e.j.p.s was similar when the frequency of TNS was low (<0.5 Hz), but it decreased successively (depression phenomenon) when the frequency was high (>1 Hz). The depression phenomenon was attenuated after inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), but was not altered by inhibiting the i.j.p. with apamin. The e.j.p.s were increased in amplitude by the inhibition of cholinesterase activity, but they were decreased by NO produced from SNP with no alteration of their depression phenomenon. Isometric twitch contractions were depressed during high-frequency TNS. NOLA caused an increase in the amplitude of twitch contractions and the attenuation of their depression that changed the transient contraction produced by high-frequency TNS (1 Hz) to a tetanic one. SNP reduced the amplitude of twitch contractions, with no alteration of the depression phenomena. Contractions produced by low concentrations of acetylcholine, but not by high concentrations, were attenuated by SNP, with no alteration of the membrane depolarization. The results suggest that NO produced during TNS has inhibitory actions on cholinergic transmission; the depression of e.j.p.s is mainly prejunctional events, and the depression of mechanical responses is mainly postjunctional events.

  9. Folding of pig gastric mucin non-glycosylated domains: a discrete molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Barz, Bogdan; Turner, Bradley S; Bansil, Rama; Urbanc, Brigita

    2012-09-01

    Mucin glycoproteins consist of tandem-repeating glycosylated regions flanked by non-repetitive protein domains with little glycosylation. These non-repetitive domains are involved in polymerization of mucin and play an important role in the pH-dependent gelation of gastric mucin, which is essential for protecting the stomach from autodigestion. We examine folding of the non-repetitive sequence of PGM-2X (242 amino acids) and the von Willebrand factor vWF-C1 domain (67 amino acids) at neutral and low pH using discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) in an implicit solvent combined with a four-bead peptide model. Using the same implicit solvent parameters, folding of both domains is simulated at neutral and low pH. In contrast to vWF-C1, PGM-2X folding is strongly affected by pH as indicated by changes in the contact order, radius of gyration, free-energy landscape, and the secondary structure. Whereas the free-energy landscape of vWF-C1 shows a single minimum at both neutral and low pH, the free-energy landscape of PGM-2X is characterized by multiple minima that are more numerous and shallower at low pH. Detailed structural analysis shows that PGM-2X partially unfolds at low pH. This partial unfolding is facilitated by the C-terminal region GLU236-PRO242, which loses contact with the rest of the domain due to effective "mean-field" repulsion among highly positively charged N- and C-terminal regions. Consequently, at low pH, hydrophobic amino acids are more exposed to the solvent. In vWF-C1, low pH induces some structural changes, including an increased exposure of CYS at position 67, but these changes are small compared to those found in PGM-2X. For PGM-2X, the DMD-derived average β-strand propensity increases from 0.26 ± 0.01 at neutral pH to 0.38 ± 0.01 at low pH. For vWF-C1, the DMD-derived average β-strand propensity is 0.32 ± 0.02 at neutral pH and 0.35 ± 0.02 at low pH. The DMD-derived structural information provides insight into pH-induced changes in the

  10. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  11. Distribution of vitamin C is tissue specific with early saturation of the brain and adrenal glands following differential oral dose regimens in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hasselholt, Stine; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-05-28

    Vitamin C (VitC) deficiency is surprisingly common in humans even in developed parts of the world. The micronutrient has several established functions in the brain; however, the consequences of its deficiency are not well characterised. To elucidate the effects of VitC deficiency on the brain, increased knowledge about the distribution of VitC to the brain and within different brain regions after varying dietary concentrations is needed. In the present study, guinea pigs (like humans lacking the ability to synthesise VitC) were randomly divided into six groups (n 10) that received different concentrations of VitC ranging from 100 to 1500 mg/kg feed for 8 weeks, after which VitC concentrations in biological fluids and tissues were measured using HPLC. The distribution of VitC was found to be dynamic and dependent on dietary availability. Brain saturation was region specific, occurred at low dietary doses, and the dose-concentration relationship could be approximated with a three-parameter Hill equation. The correlation between plasma and brain concentrations of VitC was moderate compared with other organs, and during non-scorbutic VitC deficiency, the brain was able to maintain concentrations from about one-quarter to half of sufficient levels depending on the region, whereas concentrations in other tissues decreased to one-sixth or less. The adrenal glands have similar characteristics to the brain. The observed distribution kinetics with a low dietary dose needed for saturation and exceptional retention ability suggest that the brain and adrenal glands are high priority tissues with regard to the distribution of VitC.

  12. Gastric stability and oral bioavailability of colistin sulfate in pigs challenged or not with Escherichia coli O149: F4 (K88).

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Bergeron, Nadia; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Fairbrother, John Morris; Letellier, Ann

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro gastric stability of colistin sulfate (CS) and its antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and to study the impact of ETEC O149: F4 (K88) infection in pigs on CS intestinal absorption. The stability profile of CS was evaluated in a simulated gastric fluid (SGF). Antimicrobial activity of CS and its degradation products were examined in a 96-well polystyrene microplate model. The effect of experimental infection with ETEC O149: F4 on CS intestinal absorption was determined by quantification of CS systemic concentration using a validated LC-MS/MS method. A rapid degradation of CS accompanied by an increase in CS antimicrobial activity by comparison with non-degraded CS (P<0.0001) was observed in SGF. Additionally, CS levels were not quantifiable in systemic circulation using a highly sensitive method and concurrent oral challenge did not affect CS absorption in an induction model of subclinical post-weaning diarrhea (PWD).

  13. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  14. A stereological evaluation of secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide-containing mucosal cells of the perinatal small intestine of the pig.

    PubMed

    Van Ginneken, C; Weyns, A

    2004-10-01

    Stereological methods were used to quantify secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-immunoreactivity (GIP-IR) in paraffin sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of fetal and neonatal piglets. In addition, sections were processed for GLP-1-immunohistochemistry. The volume density of the tunica mucosa increased after birth, giving rise to a decreased volume density of the tela submucosa and tunica muscularis. Generally known region-specific morphological distinctions were reflected in differing volume densities of the various layers. The highest volume density of GIP-IR epithelial cells was observed in the jejunum of the neonate. In contrast, the volume density of secretin-IR epithelial cells was highest in the duodenum of both fetal and neonatal piglets. The volume occupied by GIP-IR and secretin-IR epithelial cells increased in the jejunum after birth. Additionally, ileal secretin-IR epithelial cells were more numerous in the neonatal piglet. In conclusion, the quantitative and qualitative presence of GIP-IR and secretin-IR epithelial cells agree with earlier reports of their presence and co-localization between GIP-IR and GLP-1-IR, in the pig small intestine. Furthermore, the differences suggest that age- and region-related functional demands are temporally and probably causally related with the morphological diversification of the intestine and its endocrine cells.

  15. Studies on the intracellular segregation of polyribosome-associated messenger ribonucleic acid species in the lactating guinea-pig mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, R K; Boulton, A P; Harrison, O S; Parker, D; Campbell, P N

    1979-01-01

    (pre-alpha-lactalbumin) is removed. 8. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms involved in the intracellular segregation of mRNA species in the lactating guinea-pig mammary gland. Images PLATE 1 Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:518553

  16. The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and DβH. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of DβH-positive fibres as well as in a small population of DβH-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of DβH-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion.

  17. Ca2+ phase waves: a basis for cellular pacemaking and long-range synchronicity in the guinea-pig gastric pylorus

    PubMed Central

    van Helden, Dirk F; Imtiaz, Mohammad S

    2003-01-01

    Ca2+ imaging and multiple microelectrode recording procedures were used to investigate a slow wave-like electrical rhythmicity in single bundle strips from the circular muscle layer of the guinea-pig gastric pylorus. The ‘slow waves’ (SWs) consisted of a pacemaker and regenerative component, with both potentials composed of more elementary events variously termed spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs) or unitary potentials. STDs and SW pacemaker and regenerative potentials exhibited associated local and distributed Ca2+ transients, respectively. Ca2+ transients were often larger in cellular regions that exhibited higher basal Ca2+ indicator-associated fluorescence, typical of regions likely to contain intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCIM). The emergence of rhythmicity arose through entrainment of STDs resulting in pacemaker Ca2+ transients and potentials, events that exhibited considerable spatial synchronicity. Application of ACh to strips exhibiting weak rhythmicity caused marked enhancement of SW synchronicity. SWs and underlying Ca2+ increases exhibited very high ‘apparent conduction velocities’ (‘CVs’) orders of magnitude greater than for sequentially conducting Ca2+ waves. Central interruption of either intercellular connectivity or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated store Ca2+ release in strips caused SWs at the two ends to run independently of each other, consistent with a coupled oscillator-based mechanism. Central inhibition of stores required much wider regions of blockade than inhibition of connectivity indicating that stores were voltage-coupled. Simulations, made using a conventional store array model but now including depolarization coupled to IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release, predicted the experimental findings. The linkage between membrane voltage and Ca2+ release provides a means for stores to interact as strongly coupled oscillators, resulting in the emergence of Ca2+ phase waves and associated pacemaker

  18. Effect of Soyabean Isoflavones Exposure on Onset of Puberty, Serum Hormone Concentration and Gene Expression in Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland and Ovary of Female Bama Miniature Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Juexin; Zhang, Bin; Li, Lili; Xiao, Chaowu; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Jiang, Guoli; Ding, Hao; Wang, Shengping; Xing, Yueteng; Xiao, Dingfu; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of soyabean isoflavones (SIF) on onset of puberty, serum hormone concentration, and gene expression in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary of female Bama miniature pigs. Fifty five, 35-days old pigs were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 11 pigs per treatment. Results showed that dietary supplementation of varying dosage (0, 250, 500, and 1,250 mg/kg) of SIF induced puberty delay of the pigs with the age of puberty of pigs fed basal diet supplemented with 1,250 mg/kg SIF was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Supplementation of SIF or estradiol valerate (EV) reduced (p<0.05) serum gonadotrophin releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone concentration, but increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentration in pigs at 4 months of age. The expression of KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor (KISS1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) was reduced (p<0.01) in SIF-supplemented groups. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the pituitary of miniature pigs was reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control when exposed to 250, 1,250 mg/kg SIF and EV. Pigs on 250 mg/kg SIF and EV also showed reduced (p<0.05) expression of cytochrome P450 19A1 compared to the control. Our results indicated that dietary supplementation of SIF induced puberty delay, which may be due to down-regulation of key genes that play vital roles in the synthesis of steroid hormones. PMID:26580281

  19. The dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and gastric ulceration of pars oesophagea in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karin H; Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Haugegaard, Svend; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit B; Pedersen, Lene J; Canibe, Nuria

    2017-01-12

    The aim of the present study was (1) to determine the dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and oesophageal ulceration in pigs kept under typical Danish production conditions (18 pigs/pen, 0.7m(2)/pig, partly slatted floor, ad libitum access to feed), (2) to reveal whether straw ingestion explains the effect of straw provision on the stomach health and (3) to elucidate the effect of straw ingestion on the stomach conditions. Data were collected at slaughter (approximately 100kg body weight) on pigs provided with straw amounts in the range 10g to 500g wheat straw/pig/day from 30kg body weight and fed a wheat-based pelleted feed added 15% non-heated and non-pelleted rolled barley. Aims (1) and (2) included 712 pigs kept in 42 pens, whereas (3) was studied on a subset of 37 pigs with either none or obvious amounts of straw in the stomach. The amount of straw provided affected stomach health in a curvilinear manner. Provision of up to approximately 300gstraw/pig/day progressively decreased the risk of oesophageal ulceration and scarring. At larger amounts of straw the ulceroprotective effect of straw was reduced which requires further investigation. Straw ingestion appeared to be an essential intermediary factor for the improvement of stomach health. The number of pigs without straw in the stomach decreased linearly with the logarithm of the amount of straw provided, which explained the effect of straw provision on stomach health. The structure of the stomach contents increased as revealed by the increased weight and dry matter content and decreased sedimentation of the digesta. Provision of approximately 300gstraw/pig/day on the floor may be a potential strategy to reduce, but not inevitably eliminate, oesophageal ulceration in pigs in commercial pig production.

  20. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  1. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  2. [Macroscopic and histological studies on the gastric carcinoma having arisen from the cardiac gland mucosa--concerning to the esophageal invasion and the reliable surgical cut-line].

    PubMed

    Misono, T; Nishimata, H; Nishimata, Y; Yamasuji, T; Toujinbara, H; Aosaki, S; Arima, T; Nakamura, K; Kimotsuki, K; Suenaga, T

    1993-04-01

    Cardiac carcinoma is defined as the carcinoma whose center of the mucosal lesion is located at the area of the stomach within 2.0cm from the esophago-gastric junction. Histological and macroscopical examination was performed concerning to the frequency of macroscopic type, the direction of the mucosal invasion, the tendency of the submucosal invasion and the esophageal invasion by using these cardiac carcinomas. The objects of this study are a hundred and thirty-nine cases of cardiac carcinomas. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Depressed type (Type II c) in early carcinoma, Type Borrmann 2 and Borrmann 3 in advanced carcinoma are the most frequent form of macroscopic types. 2) The majority (87.7%) of the early carcinomas was situated at the lesser curvature and the posterior wall of the cardiac mucosa (Figure 1). 3) The early cardiac carcinoma had a tendency to invade in the mucosal layer along the esophago-gastric junction (Table 2). 4) The cardiac carcinoma was thought to invade into the submucosa in its early phase, comparing to the carcinoma on the other area of the stomach (Table 3). Twenty-four out of thirty-five (68.6%) cases of cardiac carcinoma ranged from 11 to 20mm in diameter invaded into the submucosa (Table 3). 5) Twelve out of seventy-three (16.4%) of early cases and fifty-seven out of sixty-six (86.4%) of advanced cases showed the infiltration into the esophagus (Table 4, Figure 6). The reliable and surgical cut-line of the oral site can be established at the area over 11 mm in the distance from the oral margin of the mucosal invasion in the cases of early cardiac carcinoma, over 25mm in the cases of advanced differentiated type, and over 30mm in the cases of advanced undifferentiated type (Figure 6).

  3. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  4. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  5. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  6. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  7. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  8. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  9. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  10. Taenia taeniaeformis: immunoperoxidase localization of metacestode culture product(s) in hyperplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Walton, A

    1986-04-01

    Rats infected with the hepatic metacestode Taenia taeniaeformis develop an extraordinary gastric hyperplasia. Indirect immunoperoxidase staining localized larval in vitro excretory secretory product specifically in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the epithelial cells lining the pits and glands in the hyperplastic gastric mucosa. The accumulation of this substance in the stomach epithelial cells may be relevant to the gastric hyperplasia induced by tapeworm infection.

  11. Higher incidence of Gastrospirillum sp. in swine with gastric ulcer of the pars oesophagea.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A J; Silva, J C; Nogueira, A M; Paulino Júnior, E; Miranda, C R

    1995-03-01

    Gastric ulcer in swine is characterized by an area of acid-peptic digestion, occurs usually in the pars oesophagea of the stomach, and has unknown etiopathogenesis. The present work was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the newly described spiral-shaped microorganism Gastrospirillum sp. ("Gastrospirillum suis") in stomachs of abattoir pigs with and without gastric ulcer. Stomachs were removed from 32 consecutive pigs presenting apparently normal mucosa and from 32 additional consecutive pigs presenting frank, chronic gastric ulcer of the pars oesophagea. Fragments of antral, oxyntic, cardiac and pars oesophagea regions were taken from each stomach and processed for histology and for identification of Gastrospirillum sp. in tissue sections. The microorganisms were identified mainly in the mucous layer and in gastric foveolas of the antral and oxyntic mucosa. Forty pigs (62.5%) were positive for Gastrospirillum sp.; among them, 27 (67.5%) had gastric ulcer, and 13 (32.5%) had no ulcer. Twenty-four pigs (37.5%) were negative for Gastrospirillum sp.; among them, five (20.8%) presented with gastric ulcer, and 19 (79.2%) had no ulcer. There was a significant difference between pigs with and without gastric ulcer in regard to the presence of Gastrospirillum sp. (P < 0.01). The spiral-shaped microorganism Gastrospirillum sp. that inhabits the stomach of pigs should be considered a possible factor connected with the etiopathogenesis of swine gastric ulcer.

  12. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  13. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  14. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  15. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  16. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  17. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  18. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  19. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric lavage; Stomach pumping; Nasogastric tube suction; Bowel obstruction - suction ... A tube is inserted through your nose or mouth, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. Your ...

  20. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2013-05-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature.

  1. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  2. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  3. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  4. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  5. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  6. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  7. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  8. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  9. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  10. Evaluation of “Helicobacter heilmannii” Subtypes in the Gastric Mucosas of Cats and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Priestnall, Simon L.; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    Infection with candidatus “Helicobacter heilmannii” is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with “H. heilmannii” type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against “H. heilmannii” ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and “H. heilmannii”-specific probes was employed to directly visualize “H. heilmannii” types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of “H. heilmannii” amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of “H. heilmannii” and were distinct from the “H. heilmannii”-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 “H. heilmannii”-infected cats and dogs were distinct from “H. heilmannii” type 1 and “H. suis” and clustered with “H. heilmannii” types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of “H. heilmannii” types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the “H. heilmannii” types present in cats. In infected dogs, “H. heilmannii” inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by “H. heilmannii” bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from “H. suis.” As “H. heilmannii” type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small. PMID:15131182

  11. Evaluation of "Helicobacter heilmannii" subtypes in the gastric mucosas of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, Simon L; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W

    2004-05-01

    Infection with candidatus "Helicobacter heilmannii" is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against "H. heilmannii" ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and "H. heilmannii"-specific probes was employed to directly visualize "H. heilmannii" types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of "H. heilmannii" amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of "H. heilmannii" and were distinct from the "H. heilmannii"-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 "H. heilmannii"-infected cats and dogs were distinct from "H. heilmannii" type 1 and "H. suis" and clustered with "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the "H. heilmannii" types present in cats. In infected dogs, "H. heilmannii" inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by "H. heilmannii" bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from "H. suis." As "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small.

  12. Notch signaling regulates gastric antral LGR5 stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Carulli, Alexis J; VanDussen, Kelli L; Thomas, Dafydd; Giordano, Thomas J; Liu, Zhenyi; Kopan, Raphael; Samuelson, Linda C

    2015-10-14

    The major signaling pathways regulating gastric stem cells are unknown. Here we report that Notch signaling is essential for homeostasis of LGR5(+) antral stem cells. Pathway inhibition reduced proliferation of gastric stem and progenitor cells, while activation increased proliferation. Notch dysregulation also altered differentiation, with inhibition inducing mucous and endocrine cell differentiation while activation reduced differentiation. Analysis of gastric organoids demonstrated that Notch signaling was intrinsic to the epithelium and regulated growth. Furthermore, in vivo Notch manipulation affected the efficiency of organoid initiation from glands and single Lgr5-GFP stem cells, suggesting regulation of stem cell function. Strikingly, constitutive Notch activation in LGR5(+) stem cells induced tissue expansion via antral gland fission. Lineage tracing using a multi-colored reporter demonstrated that Notch-activated stem cells rapidly generate monoclonal glands, suggesting a competitive advantage over unmanipulated stem cells. Notch activation was associated with increased mTOR signaling, and mTORC1 inhibition normalized NICD-induced increases in proliferation and gland fission. Chronic Notch activation induced undifferentiated, hyper-proliferative polyps, suggesting that aberrant activation of Notch in gastric stem cells may contribute to gastric tumorigenesis.

  13. [Gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    1997-04-15

    The stomach is the most common site involved in primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originates from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue so called MALT. It comprises a group of distinctive clinicopathological entities which are important to take in account for clinical behavior. In recent years, new diagnostic tools and modern modes of treatment have improved their overall prognosis. One of the most exciting recent discoveries is the hypothesis that an infection by a bacterium. Helicobacter pylori has a decisive role in gastric lymphoma.

  14. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  15. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  16. [Gastric cleansing].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Serret, Alina; Alcaraz Bravo, Judit; Carballo Alvarez, Montse; Fernández Vargas, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Numerous cases in emergency wards are due to the ingestion of potentially toxic substances. One of the most utilized procedures under these circumstances is gastric cleansing. This procedure is a technique habitually practiced by nursing personnel but is not without its risks. Therefore, the motive of this article is to make known the indications, contraindications, related complications of gastric cleansing and its integral patient care process in order to offer quality care methods which enable their being performed in an effective and efficient manner, under the maximum security conditions with the minimum inconveniences for the patient while at the same time describing the system most commonly used by our service.

  17. Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

    2009-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation.

  18. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  19. Microvasculature of the gastric mucosa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alguacil, N; Gaspar-Simón, I; Martín, R; Gomez-García, J; Martín-Orti, R

    1997-01-01

    A corrosion casting technique was used to study differences in the microvascular architecture of the pars cardiaca, the fundus ventriculi, the corpus ventriculi and the pars pylorica of the canine gastric mucosa. This technique revealed an unusual arrangement of the microvascular architecture in the nonglandular region surrounding the esophageal opening. Capillaries run tortuously along the mucosal surface parallel to the long axis of the esophagus, and some capillaries form a polygonal network that extends around the seromucous glands. In contrast, the mucosal capillaries of the glandular regions of the stomach are arranged in a symmetric pattern associated with the gastric glands. There are also differences in the mucosal microvessels of the cardiac and fundic areas compared to the corpus and the antrum. In the cardiac and fundic regions, a sparse microvascular pattern was observed and fewer capillaries drained into a single venule. However, the vessels surrounding the gastric glands in the corpus and antral areas drained into venules perpendicular to the hexagonal arrangement of the capillaries.

  20. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34+/PDGFRα+ TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  1. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  3. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  4. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keilberg, Daniela; Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R; Ottemann, Karen M

    2016-10-11

    Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che(-)) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che(-) strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori. After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che−) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che− strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization. PMID:27729513

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  7. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  8. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  9. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  10. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  11. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche.

  12. Identification of non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanghai; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Gastric polyps can be broadly defined as luminal lesions projecting above the plane of the mucosal surface. They are generally divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic polyps. Accurate diagnosis of neoplastic polyps is important because of their well-known relationship with gastric cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. In this study, we used MPM to image the microstructure of gastric polyps, including fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory fibroid polyps and adenomas, then compared with gold-standard hematoxylin- eosin(H-E)-stained histopathology. MPM images showed that different gastric polyps have different gland architecture and cell morphology. Dilated, elongated or branch-like hyperplastic polyps are arranged by columnar epithelial cells. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are composed of small, thin-walled blood vessels surrounded by short spindle cells. Fundic glands polyps are lined by parietal cells and chief cells, admixed with normal glands. Gastric adenomas are generally composed of tubules or villi of dysplastic epithelium, which usually show some degree of intestinal-type differentiation toward absorptive cells, goblet cells, endocrine cells. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be used to identify non- neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps without the need of any staining procedure.

  13. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  14. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  15. The fine structure of the swine sweat gland. I. The acini.

    PubMed

    de Melo, V R; Valeri, V; Orsi, A M

    1984-01-01

    The structure of the acini in the swine sweat gland is described here at the TEM level. The acini of the sweat gland in the pig is formed by 2 secretory cell types: dark seromucous cells and clear cells. The dark seromucous cells are actively secretory and their secretion is apocrine. The clear cells seem to be involved in an active transport of water and electrolytes through their cytoplasms.

  16. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  17. [Restoration of secretory activity of digestive glands in conditions of acute hyperkinesis at persons with different levels of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.

  18. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  19. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  20. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  1. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... In other cases, the doctor can perform a minor procedure in the office. During this procedure, the ... me?Is it safe for me to have sex? Last Updated: February 2014 Tags: bartholin, cyst, gland, ...

  2. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  3. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  4. Attack and defence in the gastric epithelium - a delicate balance.

    PubMed

    Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    The gastric epithelium is a complex structure formed into tubular branched gastric glands. The glands contain a wide variety of cell types concerned with the secretion of hydrochloric acid, proteases, mucus and a range of signalling molecules. All cell types originate from stem cells in the neck region of the gland, before migrating and differentiating to assume their characteristic positions and functions. Endocrine and local paracrine mediators are of crucial importance for maintaining structural and functional integrity of the epithelium, in the face of a hostile luminal environment. The first such mediator to be recognized, the hormone gastrin, was identified over a century ago and is now established as the major physiological stimulant of gastric acid secretion. Recent studies, including those using mice that overexpress or lack the gastrin gene, suggest a number of previously unrecognized roles for this hormone in the regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. This review focuses on the identification of hitherto unsuspected gastrin-regulated genes and discusses the paracrine cascades that contribute to the maintenance of gastric epithelial architecture and secretory function. Helicobacter infection is also considered in cases where it shares targets and signalling mechanisms with gastrin.

  5. Aberrant EphB/ephrin-B expression in experimental gastric lesions and tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Shintaro; Saeki, Noritaka; Ogawa, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the expression profiles of EphB receptor and ephrin-B ligand can be used as markers for dysplastic/oncogenic transformation in gastric mucosa. METHODS: The protein expression and localization of EphB and ephrin-B in normal, ulcerated regenerating, and dysplastic gastric mucosa were examined in a rat experimental model by immunolabeling, and mRNA expression was assessed in four human gastric carcinoma cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Ephrin-B- and EphB-expressing regions were divided along the pit-gland axis in normal gastric units. EphB2 was transiently upregulated in the experimental ulcer, and its expression domain extended to gastric pits and/or the luminal surface where ephrin-B-expressing pit cells reside. EphB2, B3, and B4 and ephrin-B1 were coexpressed in the experimental gastric dysplasia, and more than one ligand-receptor pair was highly expressed in each of the gastric carcinoma cell lines. CONCLUSION: Robust and stable coexpression of EphB and ephrin-B is a feature common to experimentally induced gastric dysplasia and human gastric carcinoma cell lines as compared to normal gastric and ulcerated regenerating epithelia. Thus, EphB/ephrin-B may be a useful marker combination for dysplastic/oncogenic transformation in gastric cancer. PMID:25593460

  6. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  7. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  8. The Gastric Phenotype in the Cypriniform Loaches: A Case of Reinvention?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Odete; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Smolka, Adam J.; Fontainhas, António

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2–3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade. In the present study, the foregut regions of Cobitidae, Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae and the ancestral Botiidae family members were examined for the presence of gastric glands and gastric proton pump (Atp4a) α subunit expression by histology and immunohistochemistry respectively. Atp4a gene expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gastric glands expressing apical H+/K+-ATPase α subunit and isolated partial sequences of atp4a, identified using degenerate primers showing clear orthology to other vertebrate atp4a sequences, were detected in representative species from Nemacheilidae/ Balitoridae and Botiidae, but not Cobitidae (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). In summary, we provide evidence for an uninterrupted gastric evolutionary lineage in the Cobitoidea, making it highly improbable that the stomach was reinvented in the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae clade consistent with Dollo’s principle. These results also indicate that the gastric trait may be present elsewhere in the Cobitoidea. PMID:27783698

  9. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  10. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  11. Eccrine sweat glands are major contributors to reepithelialization of human wounds.

    PubMed

    Rittié, Laure; Sachs, Dana L; Orringer, Jeffrey S; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are skin-associated epithelial structures (appendages) that are unique to some primates including humans and are absent in the skin of most laboratory animals including rodents, rabbits, and pigs. On the basis of the known importance of other skin appendages (hair follicles, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands) for wound repair in model animals, the present study was designed to assess the role of eccrine glands in the repair of wounded human skin. Partial-thickness wounds were generated on healthy human forearms, and epidermal repair was studied in skin biopsy samples obtained at precise times during the first week after wounding. Wound reepithelialization was assessed using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo wounded skin samples. Our data demonstrate a key role for eccrine sweat glands in reconstituting the epidermis after wounding in humans. More specifically, (i) eccrine sweat glands generate keratinocyte outgrowths that ultimately form new epidermis; (ii) eccrine sweat glands are the most abundant appendages in human skin, outnumbering hair follicles by a factor close to 3; and (iii) the rate of expansion of keratinocyte outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands parallels the rate of reepithelialization. This novel appreciation of the unique importance of eccrine sweat glands for epidermal repair may be exploited to improve our approaches to understanding and treating human wounds.

  12. Gastrointestinal ulceration in the guinea pig in response to dimaprit, histamine, and H1- and H2-blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Pfeiffer, C.J.

    1981-04-01

    Histamine is known to induce gastric ulcers in guinea pigs after intraperitoneal administration and duodenal ulcers after repeated intramuscular administrations. This study was undertaken to clarify further the differential role of H1 and H2 receptor sites in respect to gastric and duodenal ulcer in the guinea pig. Groups of guinea pigs were treated with histamine, intraperitoneal (1.81 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or intramuscular (0.09 mg/kg intramuscular X 8 doses); the selective H2 agonist dimaprit (0.09-0.18 mg/kg X 8 doses intramuscular or 1.81-3.62 mg/kg intraperitoneal); NaCl, 154 mM (control); and the selective H1 and H2 antagonists, diphenhydramine (125 mg/kg X 2 doses, intramuscular) or cimetidine (50 mg/kg X 3 doses, intramuscular). Gastric and duodenal lesions were evaluated and residual gastric contents were analyzed. The selective induction of gastric or duodenal ulceration by histamine was confirmed, and the H2 agonist, dimaprit, has been shown to be ulcerogenic to the guinea pig duodenum by intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration. Diphenhydramine produced considerably more protection against histamine-induced gastric ulceration (62% decrease in incidence), while cimetidine was particularly effective in the prevention of histamine-induced duodenal ulcer (64% decrease in incidence). A differential role of histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric as opposed to duodenal ulcer is suggested by the present findings.

  13. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  14. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  15. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  16. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-05

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested.

  17. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  18. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  19. Gastric adenocarcinoma arising in gastritis cystica profunda presenting with selective loss of KCNE2 expression.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Natsumi; Kitazawa, Riko; Fujiishi, Koto; Nagai, Yusa; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2013-02-28

    Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is a rare condition caused by ectopic entrapment of gastric glands, probably secondary to the disruption of muscularis mucosae. GCP is often associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, and loss of the KCNE2 subunit from potassium channel complexes is considered a common primary target molecule leads to both GCP and malignancy. In this study, we, for the first time, analyzed the expression of KCNE2 in surgically excised tissue from human gastric cancer associated with GCP and confirmed that reduced KCNE2 expression correlates with disease formation.

  20. Lymphocytic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, A; Karttunen, T J; Alavaikko, M

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis and primary gastric lymphoma are rare conditions with unknown aetiology. It has recently been suggested that Helicobacter pylori has a role in the pathogenesis of both of them. The occurrence of lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori was studied in a series of patients with primary gastric lymphoma. The cases of primary gastric lymphomas (n = 35) diagnosed in years 1970-1993 were identified. The specimens of 22 cases contained gastric mucosa sufficiently so that the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes, severity of gastritis, and occurrence of H pylori could be studied. Lymphocytic gastritis was detected in seven of 22 patients (32%), and in most cases both in antral and body mucosa. Atrophy of the body glands was significantly more severe in lymphocytic gastritis patients. H pylori was detected in 13 of all 22 patients (59%); two of seven lymphocytic gastritis patients (29%), and 11 of 15 (73%) of patients without lymphocytic gastritis were H pylori positive. Patients with gastric lymphoma have significantly increased prevalence of lymphocytic gastritis. Rarity of H pylori in these patients might be connected with atrophic changes in body mucosa. Further studies are needed to show the significance of lymphocytic gastritis as a precursor of gastric lymphoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7489930

  1. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated. Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous. 3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not. Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study. PMID:28151870

  2. A comparison between the gastric and salivary concentration of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide in man

    PubMed Central

    Harden, R. McG.; Alexander, W. D.; Shimmins, J.; Chisholm, D.

    1969-01-01

    The concentration of iodide (I−) and pertechnetate (TcO4−) and bromide (Br−) has been measured simultaneously in gastric juice and parotid saliva. The combined gastric and salivary clearance for iodide and pertechnetate is more than twice the clearance of these ions by the thyroid gland. The concentration of the ions was in the order I−>TcO4−>Br− in both gastric juice and saliva. Differences exist between the secretion of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide. Bromide, in contrast to iodide and pertechnetate, was found to be more concentrated in gastric juice than in saliva. The ratio of the iodide to pertechnetate clearance was greater in gastric juice than in saliva. PMID:5358585

  3. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  4. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  5. Mechanics of pulsatile transpyloric flow in the pig.

    PubMed

    Anvari, M; Dent, J; Malbert, C; Jamieson, G G

    1995-10-01

    1. In eight conscious pigs equipped with gastric and duodenal cannulae, the relationship of transpyloric flow to gastro-duodenal motor events was evaluated during gastric emptying of 1000 ml of saline. Rates of liquid gastric emptying were correlated with pressures at the antrum, pylorus and duodenum, recorded by a sleeve sensor and multiple perfused side-holes. Transpyloric flow was recorded concurrently by continuous collection and weighing of the duodenal effluent. 2. In three pigs the above measurements were repeated during concurrent videofluoroscopy of gastric emptying after adding 100 ml of liquid barium to the gastric instillate. 3. The mean volume of saline emptied in 30 min was 627 +/- 51.2 ml. Pulsatile flow accounted for 71% of total emptying. Pulses had a mean flow rate of 3.9 +/- 0.44 ml s-1. Most flow pulses (59%) occurred during the first 5 min of emptying. 4. Distinctive, low-amplitude (4.8 +/- 0.33 mmHg), relatively long-lasting (15.8 +/- 0.46 s) antral pressure waves were associated with 58% of flow pulses. In all antral pressure recording points, the first and longest duration component of these pressure waves had an identical timing, amplitude and waveform consistent with pressurization of the entire antrum-gastric cavity. 5. Videofluoroscopy and concurrent manometry showed that these antral common cavity pressure waves were associated with non-lumen-occlusive contractions of the gastric wall, initially observed at the corpus which propagated down to the pylorus; 93% of these contractions became lumen occlusive in the terminal antrum and pylorus when pressure waves of a unique pattern for each recording point were recorded at this level. 6. The onset of 68% of the flow pulses which accounted for 62% of pulsatile emptying occurred in the interval (mean 7.9 +/- 0.65 s) between the onset of the common cavity wave and the onset of localized, lumen-occlusive distal antral-pyloric pressure waves. 7. These findings indicate that in the pig, pulsatile

  6. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Alén, Begoña O; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-02-02

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  7. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Alén, Begoña O.; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S.; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer. PMID:26716511

  8. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  9. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2(+) cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5(+) stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5(+) stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2(+) cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2(+) cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program.

  10. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  11. Relationship between parotid amylase secretion and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between parotid amylase secretion and the osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet was investigated. In sham-operated rats fed a pelleted diet, amylase activity in the parotid glands decreased, amylase activity in the plasma increased, and there was strong amylase activity in the gastric contents. As a result, both reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents increased. In parotid duct-ligated rats, the feeding of a pelleted diet affected neither parotid nor plasma amylase activity and there was little amylase activity in the gastric contents; this resulted in decreased starch digestion. The amylase activity in the gastric contents of rats fed a liquid diet was lower than that of rats fed the pelleted diet. Both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were lower than those of rats fed the pelleted diet. However, both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were higher than those in the liquid diet itself. A small quantity of parotid amylase seems to effectively digest a large part of the starch in the stomaches of rats fed the liquid diet. These findings suggest that amylase secreted from parotid glands increases osmolality in the gastric contents via the production of reducing sugars from starch in rats when fed either pelleted or liquid diets.

  12. Somatic pain sensitivity during formation and healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Yarushkina, Natalya; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Filaretova, Ludmila

    2006-06-30

    A classical feature of visceral pain is its referring to somatic locations. Gastric ulcer is a source of visceral pain. In the present study we investigated whether gastric ulcers may trigger the changes in somatic nociception. For this aim somatic pain sensitivity was estimated under conditions of gastric ulcer development and healing. Gastric ulcers were induced by luminal application of 60% acetic acid under surgical conditions. Control rats were subjected to the same surgical procedure, but with the application of saline instead of the acid. Somatic pain sensitivity (tail flick latency), plasma corticosterone level, adrenal and thymus weight were investigated under conditions of the formation and the healing of gastric ulcers. The application of the acid resulted in the formation of kissing gastric ulcers, the increase of somatic pain sensitivity (the decrease of tail flick latency) as well as the appearance of typical signs of chronic stress: long-lasting increase of plasma corticosterone level, adrenal gland hypertrophy and thymus gland involution. Natural healing of gastric ulcers was accompanied by restoration of pain sensitivity as well as attenuation of the signs of chronic stress. Delay of ulcer healing by the daily indomethacin administration (2 mg/kg, s.c.) prevented the restoration of somatic pain sensitivity. The results suggest that chronic gastric ulcers may trigger somatic hypersensitivity.

  13. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  14. [Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zverkov, I V; Vinogradov, V A; Smagin, V G

    1983-10-01

    Immunohistochemical staining with the use of peroxidase-antiperoxidase was applied to study cells producing gamma- and alpha-endorphines in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer. The cells producing gamma-endorphines were discovered to be mainly located in the epithelium of the cervical and upper third of the pyloric glands and to be alike G-cells producing gastrin. The cells producing alpha-endorphine were found both in the epithelium of the upper third of the gastric pyloric glands and in the gastric mucosa lamina proper. In peptic ulcer, there was an almost two-fold increase in the amount of gamma-endorphine-producing cells and diminution of epithelial endocrine cells producing alpha-endorphine.

  15. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  16. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  17. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  18. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

    1998-06-01

    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens.

  19. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  20. Solitary gastric Peutz-Jeghers type stomach polyp mimicking a malignant gastric tumor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Yu, Ji-Kuen; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Lin, Lien-Fu

    2012-04-21

    Most cases of Peutz-Jeghers type polyps of the stomach are associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation and multiple intestinal polyposis. A solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach is rare. We here report a case of a 71-year-old woman with a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach who presented with intolerable epigastric pain and weight loss of 5 kg over the prior two months. During the hospital treatment course for this patient, endoscopic examination revealed a bulging lesion with a central hole, mucosal ulceration, an asymmetrical wall thickness and a narrowing of the gastric lumen. A gastric biopsy further revealed ulceration with moderate dysplasia. The patient received endoscopic ultrasonography which showed a second subepithelial lesion that measured 4 cm × 3 cm. Computed tomography of the abdomen subsequently showed a thickened gastric wall with three visibly enlarged lymph nodes, all greater than 1 cm. The suspected diagnosis was malignant gastric cancer with lymph node metastases. The other lesion, which measured 2 cm × 2 cm × 1 cm was noted in the submucosa of the jejunum during surgery. The patient was treated using a subtotal gastrectomy and partial resection of the jejunal tumor. The final pathological report indicated a gastric Peutz-Jeghers type polyp with proliferation of smooth muscle bundles in the submucosal layer, and hyperplastic glands in the mucosal layer and ectopic pancreas of the jejunum. This is the first reported clinical case of a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach accompanying a lymph node enlargement and ectopic pancreas in the jejunum that simulates stomach cancer with lymph node metastases.

  1. Native and bone marrow-derived cell mosaicism in gastric carcinoma in H. pylori-infected p27-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Songhua; Kim, Woojin; Pham, Tu T.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Houghton, Jean Marie; Moss, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection promotes non-cardia gastric cancer. Some mouse models suggest that bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) contribute to Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We determined whether this increased susceptibility to Helicobacter-induced gastric carcinogenesis of p27-deficient mice is dependent upon their p27-null BMDC or their p27-null gastric epithelial cells. Design Female mice (recipients) were irradiated and transplanted with BMDC from male donors. Wild type (WT) mice in group 1 (control) received BMDC from male GFP-transgenic mice. Female WT and p27 KO mice were engrafted with male p27KO mice BMDC (Group 2) or GFP-transgenic WT BMDC (Group 3). Recipients were infected with H. pylori SS1 for one year. Results Mice lacking p27 in either the BM pool or gastric epithelium developed significantly more advanced gastric pathology, including high-grade dysplasia. Co-staining of donor BMDC in dysplastic gastric glands was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Gastric expression of IL-1 beta protein was reduced in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05 vs control) whereas expression of IFN-γ and chemokines MIP-1 beta, MIG, IP-10 and RANTES in group 2 were significantly higher than group 3. Conclusions Both bone marrow-derived and gastric epithelial cells contribute to the increased gastric cancer susceptibility of p27-deficient H. pylori-infected mice. PMID:27655701

  2. Black Spot, a Novel Gastric Finding Potentially Induced by Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Yu; Haruma, Ken; Ayaki, Maki; Kamada, Tomoari; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Murao, Takahisa; Manabe, Noriaki; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Shiotani, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective We have recently discovered new gastric lesions with black spots. There have been no reports about black spots and their clinicopathological features. We therefore report the clinicopathological features of black spots and assess their causes and mechanisms. Methods Sixty-four patients with black spots among 26,620 Japanese patients that underwent endoscopy between May 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled. Endoscopic findings of black spots were defined as black pigmentations in the gastric mucosa by conventional endoscopy. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, including gender, age, underlying diseases and medications, endoscopic and pathologic findings of patients with black spots. Results The prevalence of patients with black spots was 0.24%. Of sixty-four cases, 44 (68.8%) were taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Eight (12.5%) were taking corticosteroids. There were 10 cases (15.6%) with decreased renal function. All black spots were identified only in the fundic gland region. Forty-one (64.1%) patients had multiple (more than ten) black spots. There were two different types: black spots on the flat mucosa and black spots on fundic gland polyps. Pathologically, parietal cell protrusions, fundic gland cysts and brownish pigmentation in fundic gland cysts were seen in 26 (76.5%), 23 (67.6%) and 6 (17.6%) patients, respectively. Conclusion We herein describe gastric black spots as a new gastric mucosal finding that arises only in the fundic gland region. The black spots are pathologically brownish pigmentations in fundic gland cysts. Adverse events of PPIs and parietal cell protrusion caused by PPI use are strongly considered to be one of the etiologies of black spots. PMID:27803398

  3. Pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. Histology, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlations of 101 cases.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Laurino, L; Dei Tos, A P; De Boni, M; Franzin, G; Braidotti, P; Viale, G

    1993-11-01

    The occasional finding within the gastric mucosa of unidentified epithelial cells with morphological features closely resembling those of pancreatic acinar cells has prompted us to investigate a retrospective series of 8,430 consecutive gastric biopsies and of 126 surgical specimens of gastric resection and total gastrectomy. The aims of the study were to morphologically and immunocytochemically characterize these cells, to define their actual prevalence in a large series of unselected cases, and to assess the clinicopathologic correlates of their occurrence. Pancreatic acinar-like cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm, which was acidophilic and finely granular in the apical and middle portions and basophilic in the basal compartment, have been identified in 101 cases (84 gastric biopsies and 17 gastrectomies). These cells, arranged in nests or in variably sized lobules among the gastric glands, were morphologically indistinguishable from pancreatic acinar cells, both by light and by electron microscopy. Furthermore, they were consistently immunoreactive for pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen and, in 75% of the cases, for pancreatic alpha-amylase. The appearance of these cells within the gastric mucosa was correlated significantly with chronic gastritis (p = 0.032) and with the simultaneous occurrence of intestinal and pyloric types of gastric metaplasia (p = 0.021). The findings indicate that this is a previously unrecognized pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, clinically and morphologically distinct from pancreatic heterotopia.

  4. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  5. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  6. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  7. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  8. Role of gastric blood flow, neutrophil infiltration, and mucosal cell proliferation in gastric adaptation to aspirin in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Stachura, J; Dembinski, A; Majka, J

    1994-01-01

    Gastric mucosa exhibits the ability to adapt to ulcerogenic action of aspirin but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. In this study, acute gastric lesions were produced by single or repeated doses of acidified aspirin in rats with intact or resected salivary glands and with intact or suppressed synthase of nitric oxide. A single oral dose of aspirin produced a dose dependent increase in gastric lesions accompanied by considerable blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, significant reduction in gastric blood flow, and almost complete suppression of biosynthesis of prostaglandins. After rechallenge with aspirin, the mucosal damage became smaller and progressively declined with repeated aspirin insults. Gastric adaptation to aspirin was accompanied by a significant rise in gastric blood flow, reduction in both blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, and a remarkable increase in mucosal cell regeneration and mucosal content of epidermal growth factor. Salivectomy, which reduced the mucosal content of epidermal growth factor, aggravated the initial mucosal damage induced by the first exposure to acidified aspirin but did not prevent the adaptation of this mucosa to repeated aspirin insults. Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, eliminated the hyperaemic response to repeated aspirin but did not abolish the development of adaptation to aspirin showing that the maintenance of the gastric blood flow plays little part in this adaptation. In conclusion, the stomach adapts readily to repeated aspirin insults and this is accompanied by a considerable reduction in blood neutrophilia and the severity of neutrophil infiltration and by an extensive proliferation of mucosal cells possibly involving epidermal growth factor. PMID:7525421

  9. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  10. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  11. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  12. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  13. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  14. Effect of D-002 on gastric mucus composition in ethanol-induced ulcer.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Noa, M; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Aguilar, C; Más, R

    2000-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of D-002, a natural product isolated and purified from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on gastric mucus composition on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The morphology of the lesions was analysed histologically, and morphometric analysis of gastric-gland content in total glycoprotein and sulphated macromolecules were done. Oral pretreatment with D-002 at 5 and 25 mgkg(-1)1 before oral administration of ethanol at 60%, produced a significant increase in the amount of gastric mucus and total protein. The histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage at the same doses showed a significant increase in neutral glycoproteins and sulfated macromolecules. It is concluded that enhancement of the quantity and quality of the mucus could partly explain the gastroprotective effect of D-002.

  15. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  16. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  17. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  18. The fundamental hemodynamic mechanism underlying gastric "stress ulceration" in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, R W; Bulkley, G B; Hamilton, S R; Morris, J B; Haglund, U H; Meilahn, J E

    1987-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic ulceration of the gastric mucosa is seen frequently in patients with hypovolemic or cardiogenic shock. Although such lesions clearly are related to regional gastric ischemia, little attention has been directed at the underlying mechanism(s) mediating the ischemia itself. To this end, anesthetized pigs were subjected to sustained cardiogenic shock (mild hemorrhage and pericardial tamponade) such that cardiac output was reduced to 38 +/- 1% of the baseline level for 4 hours, followed by release of the tamponade, reinfusion of the shed blood, and resuscitation for 2 hours. During the period of shock, there was profound regional gastric ischemia, resulting from severe and disproportionate gastric vasoconstriction. "Blinded" gross and microscopic evaluation of the stomachs removed after the experiment revealed severe mucosal ischemic necrosis, hemorrhage, and ulceration, whereas sham-operated pigs showed no lesions. The characteristics of this model therefore mimic the essential features of the gastric "stress ulceration" syndrome. Prior confirmed total alpha-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine failed to alter these features significantly. In contrast, prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis, whether by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with teprotide or by bilateral nephrectomy, significantly and substantially ameliorated the ischemia, vasospasm, and mucosal injury. In this model of cardiogenic shock, acute gastric mucosal "stress ulceration" is caused by a disproportionately severe regional gastric ischemia resulting from selective splanchnic vasospasm that is unaffected by sympathetic blockade but abolished by prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis. Like nonocclusive small bowel ischemia, ischemic colitis, and the "shock liver" syndrome, gastric "stress ulceration" is yet another component of the multiple splanchnic organ failure syndrome that appears to be mediated primarily by the remarkable sensitivity of the splanchnic

  19. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  20. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line.

  1. KLF4 deletion alters gastric cell lineage and induces MUC2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Lin, T; Liu, J; Li, M; Zhang, W; Xu, X; Zhao, W; Liu, M; Napier, D L; Wang, C; Evers, B M; Liu, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The mechanism of gastric cancer is less understood compared with other types of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger transcription factor and is a potential tumor suppressor in GI cancers. In this study, we have generated two mouse models, Rosa-Cre;Klf4fl/fl and Lgr5-Cre;Klf4fl/fl. KLF4 was deleted by Rosa-Cre in the gastric epithelia cells or by Lgr5-Cre in the antral stem cells in the adult mice. KLF4 deletion resulted in increased proliferating cells and decreased pit mucous cells. Surprisingly, the intestinal goblet cell marker, MUC2, which is not expressed in normal gastric tissues, was strongly induced at the base of the KLF4-deleted antral glands. To understand the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression of KLF4 and MUC2 in human gastric cancer. In a subset of human gastric cancer, the expression of KLF4 is negatively associated with MUC2 expression. In conclusion, KLF4 is essential for normal homeostasis of antral stem cells; loss of KLF4 and expression of MUC2 could be important markers for gastric cancer diagnosis. PMID:27277677

  2. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  3. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  4. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  5. Identification of ezrin as a target of gastrin in immature mouse gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Pagliocca, Adelina; Hegyi, Peter; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Khan, Zara; Burdyga, Galina; Wang, Timothy C; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2008-11-01

    The gastric acid-secreting parietal cell exhibits profound morphological changes on stimulation. Studies in gastrin null (Gas-KO) mice indicate that maturation of parietal cell function depends on the hormone gastrin acting at the G-protein-coupled cholecystokinin 2 receptor. The relevant cellular mechanisms are unknown. The application of differential mRNA display to samples of the gastric corpus of wild-type (C57BL/6) and Gas-KO mice identified the cytoskeletal linker protein, ezrin, as a previously unsuspected target of gastrin. Gastrin administered in vivo or added to gastric glands in vitro increased ezrin abundance in Gas-KO parietal cells. In parietal cells of cultured gastric glands from wild-type mice treated with gastrin, histamine or carbachol, ezrin was localized to vesicular structures resembling secretory canaliculi. In contrast, in cultured parietal cells from Gas-KO mice, ezrin was typically distributed in the cytosol, and this did not change after incubation with gastrin, histamine or carbachol. However, priming with gastrin for approximately 24 h, either in vivo prior to cell culture or by addition to cultured gastric glands, induced the capacity for secretagogue-stimulated localization of ezrin to large vesicular structures in Gas-KO mice. Similarly, in a functional assay based on measurement of intracellular pH, cultured parietal cells from Gas-KO mice were refractory to gastrin unless primed. The priming effect of gastrin was not attributable to the paracrine mediator histamine, but was prevented by inhibitors of protein kinase C and transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. We conclude that in gastrin null mice there is reduced ezrin expression and a defect in ezrin subcellular distribution in gastric parietal cells, and that both can be reversed by priming with gastrin.

  6. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  7. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  8. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  9. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.

  10. Diffusion through Pig Gastric Mucin: Effect of Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Runnsjö, Anna; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Sparr, Emma; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Arnebrant, Thomas; Engblom, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Mucus covers the epithelium found in all intestinal tracts, where it serves as an important protecting barrier, and pharmaceutical drugs administrated by the oral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, or nasal route need to penetrate the mucus in order to reach their targets. Furthermore, the diffusion in mucus as well as the viscosity of mucus in the eyes, nose and throat can change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this study we have investigated how diffusion through gels of mucin, the main protein in mucus, is affected by changes in ambient relative humidity (i.e. water activity). Already a small decrease in water activity was found to give rise to a significant decrease in penetration rate through the mucin gel of the antibacterial drug metronidazole. We also show that a decrease in water activity leads to decreased diffusion rate in the mucin gel for the fluorophore fluorescein. This study shows that it is possible to alter transport rates of molecules through mucus by changing the water activity in the gel. It furthermore illustrates the importance of considering effects of the water activity in the mucosa during development of potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:27336158

  11. Type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor: report of one case

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanliang; Su, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this article we reported a female patient with type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET). The patient developed upper abdominal pain, acid reflux, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting without obvious cause 16 years ago. Later, a tumor was found in her stomach. Two years ago, a solid mass was found at the pancreatic head. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy showed positive result. Puncture biopsy showed the presence of a NET. The serum gastrin level was significantly increased (3,527 pg/mL) at presentation. A second gastroscopy showed polypoid uplifts in gastric body. Puncture biopsy confirmed the presence of a G2 NET in gastric body. The patient previously had received a pituitary tumor surgery and thyroid gland resection. The diagnosis was multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). The treatments included sutent, lanreotide, and traditional Chinese herbs. In this article we described the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with MEN-1 accompanied with type 2 gastric NET, which may be clinically informative. PMID:28138653

  12. Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index

    SciTech Connect

    Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

  13. Traffic Noise Exposure Increases Gastric Pepsin Secretion in Rat.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Azam; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Rouhbakhsh, Nematollah; Sotudeh, Masoud; Salimi, Ehsan; Barzegar Behrooz, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Noise is considered as one of the most severe sources of environmental and workplace constraints. Many noise effects are well known on immune function, hormonal levels, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise exposure on basal and stimulated gastric pepsin secretion. 48 male rats were exposed to traffic noise (86 dB) for a short term of (8h/day for 1 day) and a long term of (8h/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) as well as a control group. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out technique. Pepsin secretion was measured by employing the Anson method. Histological studies were carried out on the epithelial layer. The corticosteroid hormone was measured in the serum for the stress augmentation. The present finding indicated no changes in pepsin secretion content in the short term, but in the 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal gastric pepsin secretion increased markedly compared to the control group. Histological results showed that the number of oxyntic glands and cell nuclei decreased in comparison with the control group while the thickness of the epithelial layer increases. In addition, the corticosterone levels increase in all groups in comparison with the control. It seems that the increase of gastric pepsin secretion is due to the description and translation processes in the peptic cells and needs enough time for completion.

  14. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  15. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  16. Developmental aspects and factors influencing the synthesis and status of ascorbic Acid in the pig.

    PubMed

    Mahan, D C; Ching, S; Dabrowski, K

    2004-01-01

    Ascorbic acid synthesis in the pig occurs at mid-pregnancy, but activity of the enzyme l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GLO) declines thereafter during gestation and remains low when the pig nurses the sow. During late gestation the ascorbic acid concentration in the fetus increases, but serum and liver ascorbic acid concentration in the sow declines without affecting the dam's liver GLO activity. It is presumed that as gestation progresses an increased amount of maternal ascorbic acid is transferred to the fetus and to the mammary gland. Colostrum and milk are rich sources of the vitamin and supply the nursing pig with ascorbic acid. The available data suggest that high amounts of ascorbic acid appear to suppress liver GLO activity in the pig. Upon weaning, when exogenous vitamin C is generally not provided, liver GLO activity and serum ascorbic acid increases. During the initial periods postweaning, some reports have indicated growth benefits of supplemental vitamin C. Body tissues differ in their concentrations of ascorbic acid, but tissues of high metabolic need generally have greater concentrations. The corpus luteum in the female, the testis in the male, and the adrenal glands in all pigs contain greater concentrations of the vitamin. Knockout genes preventing ascorbic acid synthesis in pigs have demonstrated poor skeletal and collagen formation and poor antioxidant protection. Under periods of stress ascorbic acid declines in the adrenal, but the pig rapidly recovers to its resting state once the stressor agent is removed. Although there are periods when supplemental vitamin C has been shown to promote pig performance (e.g., during high environmental stress and early postweaning), supplemental vitamin C has not been shown to routinely enhance pig performance.

  17. Role of fucosyltransferases in the association between apomucin and Lewis antigen expression in normal and malignant gastric epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ferrer, A; de Bolos, C; Barranco, C; Garrido, M; Isern, J; Carlstedt, I; Reis, C; Torrado, J; Real, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In normal gastric epithelium, MUC5AC is detected in superficial epithelium associated with Lewis type 1 antigens and MUC6 is detected in antral glands with Lewis type 2. Therefore, the stomach constitutes an excellent model to examine the role of glycosyltransferases in determining the specificity of apomucin glycosylation.
AIMS—To determine the molecular basis of this association and to examine changes in expression of gastric and intestinal apomucins and their association with Lewis antigens during the gastric carcinogenesis process.
METHODS—Fucosyltransferase (FUT1, FUT2, FUT3) and mucin (MUC5AC, MUC6) transcripts were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Apomucin (MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6) and Lewis antigen (types 1 and 2) expression were analysed using single and double immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
RESULTS—In the normal stomach, FUT1 is exclusively detected associated with MUC6; FUT2 is only detected when MUC5AC is present. This co-regulation is lost in gastric tumours, as is differential expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 in normal gastric epithelial cells. In gastric tumours, especially those with the intestinal phenotype, MUC2 and MUC4 genes are upregulated, and gastric-type and intestinal-type mucins are coexpressed. These changes are early events in the gastric carcinogenesis process, as they are detected in intestinal metaplasia.
CONCLUSIONS—The glycosylation pattern found in normal gastric epithelium is dictated by the specific set of fucosyltranferases expressed by the cells rather than by the apomucin sequence. The development of intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer is associated with the appearance of cellular phenotypes that are absent from normal epithelium.


Keywords: fucosyltransferases; gastric carcinogenesis; gastric mucins; Lewis antigens PMID:10940270

  18. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the (Ca)i transient.

  19. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  20. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  1. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  2. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  3. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Polo, C. M.; Moraes, T. M.; Pellizzon, C. H.; Marques, M. O.; Rocha, L. R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76%) within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P < .05) the height of regenerated mucosa (59%) when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions. PMID:23243451

  4. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  5. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  6. Innervation of eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1980-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown on the example of primate skin that in addition to abundant cholinergic innervation, the eccrine glands are also supplied by adrenergic fibers, containing catecholamines. The presence of an adrenergic component of the innervation is demonstrated on the plantar eccrine sweat glands of a number of rodents and the cat by the detection of monoamine oxidase in it. The myelin nerve trunks, the short unmyelinated varicose terminals in direct contact with the secretory cells, as well as the mitochondria of cells of the eccrine sweat glands are rich in monoamine oxidase. Specific and nonspecific cholinesterases are localized in the dense network of nerves in lacing the secretory portions of the glands; individual fibers accompany the excretory ducts. The acetylcholinesterase concentration is lower than the concentration of nonspecific cholinesterase. In rats with chemical sympathectomy, induced by four-week administration of 25 mg/kg guanethidine from the first day of birth, in which 99% of the neurons in the stellate ganglia die, the monoamine oxidase concentration in the myelin nerves and in the mitochondria of the secretory cells drops very sharply, and acetylcholinesterase disappears from the nerves surrounding the glands.

  7. Interferon-inducer polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid: a potent anti-gastric ulcer agent and inhibitor of the gastric proton pump in rats.

    PubMed

    Nath, C; Rastogi, L; Dikshit, M; Patnaik, G K; Saxena, R C; Gupta, M B

    1998-01-01

    1. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:Poly C), an interferon inducer was studied for its effect on gastric ulceration in rats. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, i.m.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric ulcers induced by aspirin, cold restraint stress and pylorus ligation (Shay's model). Protective dose (PD50) +/- SEM values of Poly I:Poly C on these models of ulcers were 1.9 +/- 0.2, 2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 (mg/kg, i.m.) respectively. 2. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (10-60 micrograms) produced dose-dependent inhibition of gastric proton pump (H+/K(+)-ATPase) activity in the gastric parietal microsomal fraction. The concentration of Poly I:Poly C causing a 50% inhibition (IC50) +/- SEM was found to be 17.6 +/- 1.2 micrograms. 3. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid caused a significant decrease in free and total acid and pepsin and an increase in mucin content in Shay (pylorus-ligated) rat. 4. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid did not exert a significant influence on isolated tissue preparations for anti-cholinergic (acetylcholine-induced contraction of guinea-pig ileum) and H2-anti-histaminic (histamine-induced contraction of rat uterus and guinea-pig auricle) activities. 5. Thus, the present study indicates that Poly I:Poly C may possess anti-gastric ulcer activity as a result of inhibition of the gastric proton pump.

  8. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: the mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-04-28

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-"aging gastropathy"-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-α-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older

  9. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 – 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes. PMID:28271094

  10. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-03-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 - 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes.

  11. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Nighot, Meghali P; Nighot, Prashant K; Ma, Thomas Y; Malinowska, Danuta H; Shull, Gary E; Cuppoletti, John; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05) and 53% (P<0.001) respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025) lower by 9.4 fold (89%) in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84-95%, P<0.005) in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion.

  12. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nighot, Meghali P.; Nighot, Prashant K.; Ma, Thomas Y.; Malinowska, Danuta H.; Shull, Gary E.; Cuppoletti, John; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05) and 53% (P<0.001) respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025) lower by 9.4 fold (89%) in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84–95%, P<0.005) in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion. PMID:26378782

  13. Inhibition of gastric H,K-ATPase activity and gastric epithelial cell IL-8 secretion by the pyrrolizine derivative ML 3000

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Adam J; Goldenring, James R; Gupta, Sandeep; Hammond, Charles E

    2004-01-01

    Background ML 3000 ([2,2-dimethyl-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-yl]-acetic acid) is an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase in vitro, and shows promise as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Unlike conventional NSAIDs which are associated with gastric ulcerogenic effects, ML 3000 causes little or no damage to the gastric mucosa, even though it significantly depresses gastric prostaglandin synthesis. Methods As part of an effort to clarify mechanisms underlying the gastric sparing properties of ML 3000, we studied the effects of ML 3000 on H,K-ATPase activity in vitro, on acid accumulation in isolated gastric parietal cells, and on IL-8 secretion by gastric epithelial cells in culture. Results SCH28080-sensitive H,K-ATPase activity in highly-purified pig gastric microsomes was dose-dependently inhibited by ML 3000 (IC50 = 16.4 μM). Inhibition was reversible, and insensitive to ML 3000 acidification in the pH range 2.0–8.0. In rabbit gastric parietal cells, ML 3000 dose-dependently inhibited histamine-stimulated acid accumulation (IC50 = 40 μM) and forskolin-stimulated acid accumulation (IC50 = 45 μM). Lastly, in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells, ML 3000 dose-dependently inhibited both baseline and IL-1β-stimulated (20 ng/ml) IL-8 secretion with IC50s of 0.46 μM and 1.1 μM respectively. Conclusion The data indicate that ML 3000 affects acid-secretory mechanisms downstream of cAMP mobilization induced by histamine H2 receptor activation, that it directly inhibits H,K-ATPase specific activity, and that baseline gastric epithelial cell IL-8 secretory inhibition may be mediated by ML 3000 inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity. We conclude that these gastric function inhibitory data may underlie the gastric sparing properties of ML 3000. PMID:15028114

  14. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries.

  15. Intravascular lymphoma and thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Darko; Valković, Toni; Lucin, Ksenija; Rudez, Josip

    2006-03-01

    Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic cells in the small blood vessels that frequently goes undiagnosed until the time of autopsy. The neoplastic cells are usually of B-cell origin. The clinical course was examined to determine factors that would facilitate antemortem diagnosis. IVL is observed with clinical, histopathological and immunohystochemical methods. This is a unique case because the thyroid gland is a rare place for IVL. Accent is given on immunohystochemical methods and tissue biopsy in the differential diagnosis of IVL when nervous system and thyroid gland dysfunction occur This report indicates that micro-ecosystem of multinodular goitrous might influence the expression of chemokines and/or adhesion moleculs on endothelial and lymphoma cells, leading to heavy infiltration of thyroid gland. Concurrently, that may guide the physician to tissue biopsy facilitating antemortem diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy.

  16. Adrenal gland disease in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal gland disease in ferrets is unique to this species, with clinical signs and pathophysiology different from those seen in the dog. Its prevalence is increasing; 70% of pet ferrets in the United States were affected in 2003. The exact causes of the adrenal gland changes that lead to the disease are not known. Early oophorohysterectomies and neutering, combined with the artificially prolonged photoperiod experienced by indoor pet ferrets, and a possible genetic component, may be contributing factors. Signs of adrenal gland disease include progressive hair loss, pruritus, lethargy, atrophy, and, in female ferrets, vulvar swelling. An understanding of the signs and physiologic changes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. A review of anatomy, physiology, and current surgical and medical options is presented.

  17. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  18. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  19. Schlafen 4–expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M.; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori–infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  20. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  2. Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

  3. Laparoscopic partial gastric transection and devascularization in order to enhance its flow

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Abente, Federico; Assalia, Ahmad; del Genio, Gianmattia; Rogula, Tomasz; Nocca, David; Ueda, Kazuki; Gagner, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background Esophagogastric fistula following an esophagectomy for cancer is very common. One of the most important factors that leads to its development is gastric isquemia. We hypothesize that laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe operation that will enhance the vascular flow of the fundus of the stomach. Method Our study included eight pigs. Each animal had two operations. In the first one, a laparoscopic gastric devascularization and mobilization took place. Vascular flow was measured previous to the procedure and immediately after it with a laser doppler (endoscopic probe). After three weeks, a second operation took place. We re-measured the vascular flow and sent a sample of gastric fundus for histopathologic evaluation. Results The gastric fundus showed signs of neovascularization after both macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. These findings correlated with laser doppler measurements. Conclusion Laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe procedure that increases the vascular flow of the stomach in a three week period. This finding can have a positive impact in terms of decreasing fistula formation. PMID:18606017

  4. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  5. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  6. Metamorphosis of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus: cell proliferation and differentiation of the gastric mucosa and developmental effects of altered thyroidal status.

    PubMed

    Soffientino, B; Specker, J L

    2001-06-15

    Summer flounder, like most marine fishes studied to date, are stomachless at first feeding, and subsequently acquire gastric function during the process of metamorphosis. Stomach formation is controlled largely by thyroxine (T4). In the present work we sought to understand gastric organogenesis in terms of cell proliferation and its relationship to histological differentiation. The objectives of the study were (1) to obtain a developmental pattern of cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa and to relate that pattern to the progress of gastric differentiation; and (2) to understand the regulatory role of T4 on cell proliferation and histological differentiation by altering the thyroidal status of the developing larvae. We observed that (1) in normally developing larvae, cell proliferation increased by early metamorphic climax (MC), remained high until mid-MC, and decreased to basal levels by late MC; concomitantly, the gastric glands appeared and differentiated in the fundic mucosa, and were complete by late MC; (2) T4 accelerated the differentiation of gastric glands and mucus neck cells, while inhibiting the concomitant increase in cell proliferation observed in controls; and (3) the goitrogen thiourea inhibited both cell proliferation and gastric differentiation compared to controls. These results indicate that T(4) is necessary for the three-fold increase in cell proliferation that occurs in early metamorphic climax, but that high T4 levels promote differentiation at the expense of proliferation. The observed effects would be consistent with the normal, metamorphosis-related increase in whole body T4.

  7. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel

    2014-04-01

    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  8. Microvascular injury in persistent gastric ulcers after yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization for liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Belinda; Lapetino, Shawn R; Diffalha, Sameer A L; Yong, Sherri; Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Koppe, Sean; Garzon, Steven; Guzman, Grace

    2016-04-01

    Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization ((90)Y MRE) is a therapy for liver malignancies by permanently implanting (90)Y-containing microspheres into tumors via hepatic artery. The etiology of persistent gastric ulcerations in patients presenting months after treatment remains unclear. Three patients who presented with gastric ulceration 4 to 13 months after (90)Y MRE were examined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsies. Pathological examinations showed multiple (90)Y microspheres scattered within the lamina propria and submucosa. Most of the microspheres were distributed in a linear fashion, consistent with an intravascular location; however, the vascular lumen and endothelial cells were not present. The microspheres were surrounded by fibrotic tissue infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells and rare neutrophils. Epithelial granulation without pititis and miniaturized glands with intervening fibrosis were noted, compatible with chronic ischemic changes. These findings suggest that the persistent gastric ulceration is a result of localized ischemic injury in response to (90)Y MRE-induced vascular damage.

  9. Congenital deficiency of meibomian glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, A J; Mengher, L S

    1987-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with contact lens intolerance. She was found to have a marked deficiency of meibomian glands in the upper lids and almost total absence in the lower lids. Evidence of tear film instability was found and attributed to deficient lid oil production. A daily wear soft contact lens was later fitted and tolerated. PMID:3580344

  10. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  11. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  12. Morphogenesis and growth of the soft tissue and cartilage of the vomeronasal organ in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ignacio; Lombardero, Matilde; Cifuentes, José M; Quinteiro, Pablo Sánchez; Alemañ, Nuria

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of the soft tissue and supporting cartilage of the vomeronasal organ of the fetal pig was studied from early stages to term. Specimens obtained from an abattoir were aged by crown-to-rump distance. Series of transverse sections show that some time before birth all structures – cartilage, connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, glands and epithelia – are well developed and very similar in appearance to those of the adult. Furthermore, in transmission electron microscopy photomicrographs obtained at this stage the vomeronasal glands exhibit secretory activity. PMID:12846472

  13. Effect of flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis and metabolism in the pig.

    PubMed

    Odensvik, K; Cort, N; Basu, S; Kindahl, H

    1989-09-01

    The effect of flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin synthesis and metabolism was evaluated in the pig in vivo. It was found that the prostaglandin metabolite, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha, was decreased in the peripheral circulation within 20 min of injection of the drug. In therapeutic doses in the pig the drug had no effect on the metabolism of PGF2 alpha. Flunixin was compared with some other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an in vitro test system utilizing sheep vesicular gland microsomes. It was concluded that this drug is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in pigs infected experimentally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Andrada, M; Quesada-Canales, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Paz-Sánchez, Y; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia, primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), is a contagious disease characterized by catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Previous studies have evaluated immunohistochemically the distribution of Mh, different cellular populations and cytokines during Mh-induced pneumonia. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is overexpressed during inflammatory responses by different cell types in the lung. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of porcine enzootic pneumonia. COX-2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissues from 10 pigs infected experimentally with Mh. Ten pigs were inoculated intranasally with Mh and killed in pairs weekly from 1 to 5 weeks post inoculation. Three Mh-free pigs were taken as controls. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, bronchial submucosal glands and a small number of macrophages in the bronchoalveolar exudate expressed COX-2. COX-2 protein was always associated with areas of pneumonia and expression was minimal in lungs from control pigs. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of Mh-infection.

  15. Galectin-3 Plays an Important Role in Innate Immunity to Gastric Infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah-Mee; Hagiwara, Satoru; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Yoshie, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    We studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal3) in gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori We first demonstrated that Gal3 was selectively expressed by gastric surface epithelial cells and abundantly secreted into the surface mucus layer. We next inoculated H. pylori Sydney strain 1 into wild-type (WT) and Gal3-deficient mice using a stomach tube. At 2 weeks postinoculation, the bacterial cells were mostly trapped within the surface mucus layer in WT mice. In sharp contrast, they infiltrated deep into the gastric glands in Gal3-deficient mice. Bacterial loads in the gastric tissues were also much higher in Gal3-deficient mice than in WT mice. At 6 months postinoculation,H. pylori had successfully colonized within the gastric glands of both WT and Gal3-deficient mice, although the bacterial loads were still higher in the latter. Furthermore, large lymphoid clusters mostly consisting of B cells were frequently observed in the gastric submucosa of Gal3-deficient mice.In vitro, peritoneal macrophages from Gal3-deficient mice were inefficient in killing engulfed H. pylori Furthermore, recombinant Gal3 not only induced rapid aggregation of H. pylori but also exerted a potent bactericidal effect on H. pylori as revealed by propidium iodide uptake and a morphological shift from spiral to coccoid form. However, a minor fraction of bacterial cells, probably transient phase variants of Gal3-binding sugar moieties, escaped killing by Gal3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Gal3 plays an important role in innate immunity to infection and colonization of H. pylori.

  16. Modeling human development and disease in pluripotent stem cell-derived gastric organoids

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kyle W.; Catá, Emily M.; Crawford, Calyn M.; Sinagoga, Katie L.; Schumacher, Michael; Rockich, Briana E.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Mayhew, Christopher N.; Spence, Jason R.; Zavros, Yana; Wells, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world’s population and are largely due to chronic H. pylori infection1–3. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis4, and there is no experimental model of normal human gastric mucosa. Here we report the de novo generation of three-dimensional human gastric tissue in vitro through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We identified that temporal manipulation of the FGF, WNT, BMP, retinoic acid and EGF signaling pathways and three-dimensional growth are sufficient to generate human gastric organoids (hGOs). Developing hGOs progressed through molecular and morphogenetic stages that were nearly identical to the developing antrum of the mouse stomach. Organoids formed primitive gastric gland- and pit-like domains, proliferative zones containing LGR5-expressing cells, surface and antral mucous cells, and a diversity of gastric endocrine cells. We used hGO cultures to identify novel signaling mechanisms that regulate early endoderm patterning and gastric endocrine cell differentiation upstream of the transcription factor NEUROG3. Using hGOs to model pathogenesis of human disease, we found that H. pylori infection resulted in rapid association of the virulence factor CagA with the c-Met receptor, activation of signaling and induction of epithelial proliferation. Together, these studies describe a novel and robust in vitro system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying human stomach development and disease. PMID:25363776

  17. [Melatonin as a therapeutic factor in gastric ulcer healing under experimental diabetes].

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Brzozowska, Iwona; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Nawrot, Elizbieta; Szczyrk, Urszula; Kwiecień, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormon secreted mostly by the pineal gland in the brain which maintains the body's circadian rhythm. Interestingly, this indol derivative is produced by enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in amount about 400 fold greater than detected in the pinealocytes. Previous studies revealed that melatonin exerts beneficial action against acute gastric damage induced by stress ethanol, aspirin and ischemia-reperfusion. Hyperglycemia, which is the main symptom of diabetes mellitus, is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, both promoting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS were shown to exhibit higher activity than molecular oxygen under basal conditions due to unpaired electron in its outermost shell of electrons. ROS lead to damage of cellular proteins, nucleic acids and membrane polyunsaturated fatty lipids. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus by the application of strep. tozocin in presence of gastric ulcers. Male Wistar rats were used in this model. 9 days after gastric ulcers and diabetes mellitus induction, groups of rats were treated with saline or melatonin (20 mg/kg i.g.). At the termination of the experiment, rats were anesthetized, abdomen was opened and gastric blood flow (GBF) was measured. Stomachs were removed for determination of gastric ulcers area by planimetry. Tissue samples were collected for biochemical assays. We demonstrated that melatonin significantly accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without coexistence of diabetes mellitus. This effect was accompanied by increase of GBF level. Moreover, we observed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an decrease in lipid peroxidation products concentration within gastric tissue homogenates of animals treated with melatonin, as compared with control group. Melatonin application accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without presence of

  18. Lipocalins of boar salivary glands binding odours and pheromones.

    PubMed

    Marchese, S; Pes, D; Scaloni, A; Carbone, V; Pelosi, P

    1998-03-15

    Large amounts of an odorant-binding protein have been isolated from submaxillary glands of mature male pig. This polypeptide molecule is sex-specific, being absent in females. On electrophoretic gels under denaturing conditions it migrated as a broad band with an apparent molecular mass of around 20 kDa. Electrospray mass spectrometry revealed the presence of three main components, whose mass differences are not interpretable as result of any common post-translational modifications, indicating the presence of distinct polypeptide chains. N-terminal Edman degradation yielded a single sequence of 29 amino acids. It includes the lipocalin signature (-G-X-W-) and shows clear homology with a subclass of odorant-binding proteins present in mouse saliva, nasal mucus and urine. The purified protein still retained small ligands tightly bound; among them 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol, both known sex pheromones for the pig, were identified. The protein also binds 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, a good ligand for most odorant-binding proteins, with a dissociation constant of 5 microM.

  19. Neuropeptidergic control of Octopus oviducal gland.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The oviducal gland of the female of Octopus vulgaris lies about halfway along the oviduct. Progesterone and 17beta-estradiol receptors have been immunolocalized in the nuclei of the cells of the glandular compartment of previtellogenic glands. We also have evidence of FMRFamide-like and cGnRH-I-like immunoreactivity in the nerve endings that reach the oviducal gland. Moreover, we have recently shown APGWamide immunoreactivity in the glandular cells of the inner part of the oviducal gland. Here we report a review on these findings as well as our latest studies on the effect that neuropeptides may exert on the secretory activity of the oviducal gland. cAMP seems to be a possible second messenger involved in such a process. We discuss the findings of a neuropeptidergic action on the glandular cells of oviducal gland in a more complex frame of molecules, such as steroids, biogenic amines and neuromodulators, controlling the activity of the gland.

  20. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  1. Gut microbiota and gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Dolores; Miranda, Agnese; Romano, Lorenzo; Romano, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other. In fact microscopic structures of gastric mucosa (mucus layer and luminal contents) influence local microflora and vice versa. In this article our attention is directed specifically to explain the effects of this "cross-talk" on gastric homeostais. The gastric microbiota grossly consists of two macrogroups: HP and non-HP bacteria. Here, we review the relationship between these two populations and their role in the development of the different gastric disorders: functional dyspepsia, gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and gastric cancer. Moreover we focus on the effects on the gastric microbiota of exogenous interference as diet and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

  2. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  3. Pheromaxein, the pheromonal steroid-binding protein, is a major protein synthesized in porcine submaxillary salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D; von Glos, K I

    1991-02-01

    Submaxillary salivary gland tissue from large White, Göttingen miniature and Meishan (Chinese) breeds of pig, and European wild boars, was incubated with [35S]methionine. The radiolabelled amino acid was incorporated into protein in all incubations as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Specifically [35S]methionine was predominantly incorporated into the alpha- and beta-charge isomers of pheromaxein, a 16-androstene steroid-binding protein, as shown by SDS-PAGE in combination with vertical isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide slab gels. The synthesis of pheromaxein occurred in submaxillary gland tissue from both sexes, including tissues stored frozen at -70 degrees C for long periods. There was little evidence for pheromaxein synthesis in parotid gland tissue or skeletal muscle. Total protein, pheromaxein and total 16-androstenes were determined in the submaxillary gland cytosols of six mature Göttingen miniature boars and a positive correlation was found between these glandular constituents. The amounts of endogenous pheromaxein relative to total protein in the submaxillary gland cytosols (range 10.3-18.0%), together with the predominant synthesis of this protein in vitro, indicate that pheromaxein is a major protein produced in porcine submaxillary glands, particularly in those of the male.

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  5. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects.

  6. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels.

  7. Pediatric Gastric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

  8. Generation of RUNX3 knockout pigs using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-T; Ryu, J; Cho, B; Lee, E-J; Yun, Y-J; Ahn, S; Lee, J; Ji, D-Y; Lee, K; Park, K-W

    2016-12-01

    Pigs are an attractive animal model to study the progression of cancer because of their anatomical and physiological similarities to human. However, the use of pig models for cancer research has been limited by availability of genetically engineered pigs which can recapitulate human cancer progression. Utilizing genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 system allows us to generate genetically engineered pigs at a higher efficiency. In this study, specific CRISPR/Cas9 systems were used to target RUNX3, a known tumour suppressor gene, to generate a pig model that can induce gastric cancer in human. First, RUNX3 knockout cell lines carrying genetic modification (monoallelic or biallelic) of RUNX3 were generated by introducing engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system specific to RUNX3 into foetal fibroblast cells. Then, the genetically modified foetal fibroblast cells were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer, followed by embryo transfer. We successfully obtained four live RUNX3 knockout piglets from two surrogates. The piglets showed the lack of RUNX3 protein in their internal organ system. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is effective in inducing mutations on a specific locus of genome and the RUNX3 knockout pigs can be useful resources for human cancer research and to develop novel cancer therapies.

  9. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  10. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  11. [Surgical treatment for gastric cancer in a specialized service: the Rebagliati Hospital experience].

    PubMed

    Portanova, Michel; Vargas, Fernando; Lombardi, Emilio; Carbajal, Ramiro; Palacios, Nestor; Rodriguez, Cesar; Orrego, Jorge; Ferreyra, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The results of the surgical treatment for gastric cancer within a specialized surgical service in this pathology are described in this work. This system for surgical treatment of gastric cancer is new in our country. The implementation process included prepare a team of surgeons and establish protocols and guides to surgical treatment, based on the recommendations of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Additional training in the Japanese advanced surgical technique was required, as well as a strict documentation of the cases. During 2004, 139 surgical interventions were carried out on 137 patients with tumoral gastric pathology. Surgical mortality was 2.1% and morbidity was 21.8%. The average resected glands was 38.6.t 13.7 (range: 20-87) for distal gastrectomy and 46.6 +/- 16.2 (range: 24-87) for total gastrectomy. The stay in the hospital was 11.7 +/- 6.3 days (range: 5-37) for distal gastrectomy and 14.8 +/- 11.3 days (range: 7-56) for total gastrectomy. The hospital and surgeon volumes are underlined as important factors in determining the short and long term results. Implementation of specialized surgical units in general hospitals, for surgical treatment of gastric cancer, is recommended.

  12. Contribution of prostanoids to gastric circulatory and metabolic actions of solcoseryl.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, W W; Gustaw, P; Sendur, R; Czarnobilski, K; Konturek, S J

    1990-01-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic properties remain elusive. The present study was designed to determine the effects of solcoseryl on gastric total (GBF) and mucosal (MBF) blood flow, gastric oxygen consumption (GVO2) and mucosal formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in anesthetized dogs. Soloseryl given iv or ia into the oxyntic gland area of canine stomach caused a dose-dependent increase in the GBF, MBF and GVO2, PGE2 and LTC4 contents in the ethanol-treated gastric mucosa showed a 5-12 fold increase over the values in the intact mucosa. The generation of LTC4, but not PGE2, was significantly diminished by solcoseryl. Pre-treatment with indomethacin completely prevented the effects of solcoseryl on mucosal PGE2, but not LTC4 levels, and significantly reduced its circulatory and metabolic actions on the stomach. The results of these studies indicate that solcoseryl causes dilatation of gastric arterioles and precapillary sphincters thereby improving mucosal blood flow and oxygen supply. The results also suggest that endogenous prostaglandins serve as mediators of the vascular and possibly metabolic effects of the drug on the stomach. The observed reduction by solcoseryl in gastric biosynthesis of LTC4 during mucosal injury may be an important factor in the gastroprotective and anti-ulcer effects of solcoseryl.

  13. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  14. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Lactating Mammary Gland in Divergent Phenotype Swine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Zhao, Jun-Sheng; Shen, Yi-Fei; Mao, Hai-Guang; Xu, Ning-Ying

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a key role in development and specific biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Extensive studies of mammary miRNAs have been performed in different species and tissues. However, little is known about porcine mammary gland miRNAs. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the lactating mammary gland in two distinct pig breeds, Jinhua and Yorkshire. Many miRNAs were detected as significantly differentially expressed between the two libraries. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, many are known to be related to mammary gland development and lactation by interacting with putative target genes in previous studies. These findings suggest that miRNA expression patterns may contribute significantly to target mRNA regulation and influence mammary gland development and peak lactation performance. The data we obtained provide useful information about the roles of miRNAs in the biological processes of lactation and the mechanisms of target gene expression and regulation. PMID:25580536

  15. Simulation of flow in the silk gland.

    PubMed

    Breslauer, David N; Lee, Luke P; Muller, Susan J

    2009-01-12

    Spiders and silkworms employ the complex flow of highly concentrated silk solution as part of silk fiber spinning. To understand the role of fluidic forces in this process, the flow of silk solution in the spider major ampullate and silkworm silk glands was investigated using numerical simulation. Our simulations demonstrate significant differences between flow in the spider and silkworm silk glands. In particular, shear flow effects are shown to be much greater in the spider than the silkworm, the silkworm gland exhibits a much different flow extension profile than the spider gland, and the residence time within the spider gland is eight times greater than in the silkworm gland. Lastly, simulations on the effect of spinning speed on the flow of silk solution suggest that a critical extension rate is the initiating factor for fiber formation from silk solution. These results provide new insight into silk spinning processes and will guide the future development of novel fiber spinning technologies.

  16. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  17. [Unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    2003-01-01

    Our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. Large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. These glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi and contain hydrophobic lipids. The available data substantiate revision of the data on the structure of many skin glandular organs with atypical sebaceous glands.

  18. The effect of caffeine on mammary gland development and milk yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Hacker, R R

    1995-02-01

    Pregnant Yorkshire gilts (n = 42) were fed caffeine (6 g/d) or served as controls from d 60 of pregnancy until d 4 postpartum to test the effect of caffeine on mammary gland development, milk yield, and feed consumption. Caffeine reduced voluntary feed intake (P = .001) and body weight gain (P = .001) of gilts from d 60 to 109 of gestation. Pig birth weight in the treated group was less than (P = .01) that in the control group. However, pig viability score at birth was not affected by maternal caffeine ingestion. For assessing mammary gland DNA, RNA, dry fat-free tissue (DFFT), fat, and protein content, four sows from the caffeine group and three controls were slaughtered on the 1st d of lactation. Immediately after slaughter, mammary systems were removed, separated by gland, and dissected free of skin, muscle, and fatty pad, which had not been invaded by glandular tissue. The DNA and RNA content were evaluated in DFFT. Caffeine increased mammary RNA content (P = .023) and milk yield (P = .001) on d 1 of lactation. However, DNA, DFFT, fat, and protein were not significantly increased, although values were somewhat greater in the treatment group (approximately 82%). On d 21 of lactation, milk yield of treated sows did not differ from that of controls. The increased milk yield on d 1 of lactation was due to increased mammary epithelial cell activity and cell numbers. These results indicate that caffeine feeding can have a positive effect on porcine mammary gland development as well as milk yield.

  19. The parathyroid gland in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L.; Cassady, J.; Hajianpour, M. A.; Paz, J.; Reiss, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the parathyroid glands from 100 previously healthy subjects who died suddenly and were admitted to the Dade County Medical Examiner's (ME) morgue and from 66 inpatients who died at Jackson Memorial Hospital (JMH). Parathyroid glands in patients with diseases (JMH series) were heavier than those in healthy persons (ME series), and both groups of glands were significantly heavier than those previously reported. Mean glandular weight in white subjects was 42.6 +/- 20.3 mg, with a range of 22-103 mg. The 95% upper limit of gland weight for healthy white subjects was 73.1 mg and for black subjects, 91.6 mg. The size and weight exhibited a skewed distribution. Gland weight varied with age, increasing to a maximum in the 41-60 year old age group in all subsets except white women, in whom it continued to increase till after age 70. There was slight correlation (r2 = 0.15) of gland weight with body weight within series and race groups; parenchymal content of the glands was not constant but correlated positively with glandular weight. Glands from both series had a comparable fat content. Fat was unevenly distributed throughout the gland, and its amount was highly variable, ranging between 0 and 90%, with a mean of 26% for white subjects and 24% for black subjects in both series. Therefore, percentage fat may not be used as an index of hyperplasia. Healthy back subjects had heavier glands than healthy white subjects, unaccounted for by differences in body weights; this difference was not statistically significant in subjects with disease. Within the black race, glands were not significantly heavier in disease than in health, and in the few cases with serum calcium determinations, the gland weight did not vary inversely with serum calcium levels as in white subjects, suggesting a basic difference in parathyroid calcium metabolism between the two races. PMID:3789088

  20. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  1. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  2. Cysteamine improves growth performance and gastric ghrelin expression in preweaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Shi, Z; Xia, D; Wei, X; Zhang, L; Parvizi, N; Zhao, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cysteamine on growth performance of preweaning piglets and gastric expression of ghrelin mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Twelve litters of newborn piglets were allocated randomly to control and treatment groups. From 15 d of age, piglets in the control group were fed basal creep diet, whereas the treatment group received basal diet supplemented with 120 mg cysteamine per kg of diet until weaning on 35 d of age. Body weight gain, creep feed consumption, and diarrhea rates were recorded, and gastric mucosal tissues were collected for quantifying mRNA expression. To evaluate the direct effect of cysteamine on gastric ghrelin expression, primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells isolated from 35-d-old piglets were exposed to cysteamine for 20 h at 0, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Dietary cysteamine increased (P < 0.05) average daily creep feed consumption and BW gain in preweaning pigs, which was accompanied by reduction in diarrhea rates. At 35 d of age, piglets treated with cysteamine showed increased (P < 0.05) ghrelin and gastrin and decreased (P < 0.05) somatostatin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa. Moreover, dietary cysteamine treatment increased serum concentration of gastrin (P < 0.05). In vitro, cysteamine significantly increased ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric mucosal cells at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. In conclusion, dietary cysteamine is effective in improving the growth performance and health condition of preweaning piglets, which is associated with its stimulatory effects on gastric ghrelin mRNA expression both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  4. Duodenal Neoplasms of Gastric Phenotype: An Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study With a Practical Approach to the Classification.

    PubMed

    Hida, Risa; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Hirahashi, Minako; Kumagai, Reiko; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Gi, Toshihiro; Esaki, Motohiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Duodenal neoplasm of gastric phenotype (DNGP) is very rare, and details of its histopathologic, genetic, and biological features are still unclear. Frequent gene mutations in GNAS, KRAS, and APC have been reported in pyloric gland adenomas and fundic gland-type neoplasms (initially reported as low-grade adenocarcinomas) of the stomach. Here we retrospectively analyzed 16 cases of extra-ampullary DNGP (benign to malignant), and we examined the mucin immunoprofile and oncogene mutations (GNAS, KRAS, APC, BRAF, and CTNNB1). The 16 DNGPs were histologically classified into adenomas (5 pyloric gland adenomas and 2 foveolar-type adenomas), neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential (NUMPs, n=6), and invasive adenocarcinomas (n=3). NUMPs consisted of slightly atypical epithelial cells with pale, eosinophilic, or basophilic cytoplasm growing in an anastomosing or branching glandular pattern, often with expansive submucosal extension. In contrast to invasive adenocarcinomas, NUMPs lacked significant nuclear irregularity, desmoplastic stromal reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and metastasis; their features were reminiscent of fundic gland-type neoplasms of the stomach. Immunophenotypically, most of NUMPs were predominantly positive for MUC6 with variable expressions of pepsinogen-I, HKATPase, human gastric mucin, and MUC5AC. Molecular analyses revealed the gene mutations of GNAS in 6 (38%) of 16 DNGPs (4 [57%] adenomas, 1 [16%] NUMP, and 1 [33%] invasive adenocarcinoma) and APC in 4 of 15 (27%) DNGPs: no adenomas, 2 (33%) NUMPs, and 2 (67%) invasive adenocarcinomas. BRAF mutation was present in only 1 (16%) NUMP, and KRAS and CTNNB1 mutations were absent. In conclusion, gastric-phenotype adenomas and NUMPs of the duodenum are similar to their counterparts of the stomach, in terms of histologic, genetic, and clinicopathologic features. We propose the term "NUMP" as an intermediate category between adenoma and definitely invasive adenocarcinoma. Our findings may provide novel

  5. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  6. Effects of Physical Properties of Feed on Microbial Ecology and Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Pig Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Lene Lind; Naughton, Patrick J.; Hedemann, Mette S.; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2004-01-01

    A two-by-two factorial experiment with pigs was conducted to study the effect of feed grinding (fine and coarse) and feed processing (pelleted and nonpelleted) on physicochemical properties, microbial populations, and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Results demonstrated a strong effect of diet on parameters measured in the stomachs of the pigs, whereas the effect was less in the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs fed the coarse nonpelleted (C-NP) diet showed more solid gastric content with higher dry matter content than pigs fed the fine nonpelleted (F-NP), coarse pelleted (C-P), or fine pelleted (F-P) diet. Pigs fed the C-NP diet also showed significantly increased number of anaerobic bacteria (P < 0.05), increased concentrations of organic acids, and reduced pH in the stomach. In addition, pigs fed the C-NP diet showed increased in vitro death rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in content from the stomach (P < 0.001). Pigs fed the C-NP diet had a significantly higher concentration of undissociated lactic acid in gastric content than pigs fed the other diets (P < 0.001). A strong correlation between the concentration of undissociated lactic acid and the death rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 was found. In the distal small intestine, cecum, and midcolon, significantly lower numbers of coliform bacteria were observed in pigs fed the coarse diets than in pigs fed the fine diets (P < 0.01). Pigs fed the C-NP diet showed the lowest number of coliform bacteria in these segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs fed the coarse diets showed increased concentration of butyric acid in the cecum (P < 0.05) and colon (P < 0.10) compared with pigs fed the fine diets. It was concluded that feeding a coarsely ground meal feed to pigs changes the physicochemical and microbial properties of content in the stomach, which decreases the survival of Salmonella during passage through

  7. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-09-15

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14-16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt(-1)·meal(-1) every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited.

  8. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  9. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Biopsy Peptic Ulcer Stomach Cancer Stomach Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  10. Organ-specific activation of the gastric branch of the efferent vagus nerve by ghrelin in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Habara, Hiromi; Hayashi, Yujiro; Inomata, Norio; Niijima, Akira; Kangawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin plays multiple physiological roles such as growth hormone secretion and exerting orexigenic actions; however, its physiological roles in the electrical activity of autonomic nerves remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of human ghrelin on several autonomic nerve activities in urethane-anesthetized rats using an electrophysiological method. Intravenous injection of ghrelin at 3 μg/kg significantly and transiently potentiated the efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve; however, it did not affect the efferent activity of the hepatic vagus nerve. The activated response to ghrelin in the gastric efferent vagus nerve was not affected by the gastric afferent vagotomy, suggesting that this effect was not induced via the gastric afferent vagus nerve. Ghrelin did not affect the efferent activity of the brown adipose tissue, adrenal gland sympathetic nerve, and the renal sympathetic nerve. In addition, rectal temperature and the plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, corticosterone, and renin were also not changed by ghrelin. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin stimulates the gastric efferent vagus nerve in an organ-specific manner without affecting the gastric afferent vagus nerve and that ghrelin does not acutely affect the efferent basal activity of the sympathetic nerve in rats.

  11. Genetic Ablation of Parietal Cells in Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Analyzing Cell Lineage Relationships in the Gastric Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Victor; West, A. Brian; Goldenring, James R.; Levenson, Robert

    1996-03-01

    The gastric mucosa of mammalian stomach contains several differentiated cell types specialized for the secretion of acid, digestive enzymes, mucus, and hormones. Understanding whether each of these cell lineages is derived from a common stem cell has been a challenging problem. We have used a genetic approach to analyze the ontogeny of progenitor cells within mouse stomach. Herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase was targeted to parietal cells within the gastric mucosa of transgenic mice, and parietal cells were ablated by treatment of animals with the antiherpetic drug ganciclovir. Ganciclovir treatment produced complete ablation of parietal cells, dissolution of gastric glands, and loss of chief and mucus-producing cells. Termination of drug treatment led to the reemergence of all major gastric epithelial cell types and restoration of glandular architecture. Our results imply the existence of a pluripotent stem cell for the gastric mucosa. Parietal cell ablation should provide a model for analyzing cell lineage relationships within the stomach as well as mechanisms underlying gastric injury and repair.

  12. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  13. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  14. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Disorders > About > Diagnosis Page Content ​ ​How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Methods for diagnosing ... Tumors To diagnose an adrenal gland tumor, a health care provider may order one or more tests. 3 ...

  15. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

  16. Endovascular management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E

    2014-11-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications.

  17. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life.

  18. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  19. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  20. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  1. Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5μm axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

  2. Two forensic autopsy cases of death from unexpected lesions of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hayashi, Kino; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the findings of 2 forensic autopsy cases, in which unexpected pituitary lesions were the underlying cause of death. Case 1: A 56-year-old woman was found dead at her home during a cold winter spell. Macroscopic autopsy findings included a difference in the color of blood that filled her left and right cardiac chambers (deep red and dark red, respectively), collapse of both lungs, atrophy of the thyroid gland, and a large tumor arising from the sella turcica. Microscopic examination revealed a pituitary adenoma along with extensive bleeding. The cause of death was considered to be hypothermia, resulting from dysregulation of thermogenesis due to the pituitary adenoma. Case 2: An 86-year-old man with a history of pollakiuria was found dead in a bathtub, with his face and chest submerged in bathwater and his legs positioned outside the bathtub. The macroscopic findings of the autopsy included hyper-inflated lungs, fluid collection in the thoracic cavity, and aspiration of gastric contents in the bronchi. The atherosclerotic changes of the man's coronary and cerebral arteries were considered mild for his age. Microscopic examination showed a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the posterior pituitary gland, as well as in the liver, pancreas, and submandibular gland. Considering the results of the autopsy and the findings from the investigation conducted at the death scene, we concluded that the man probably lost consciousness following a neurally mediated syncope, which was induced by diabetes insipidus (lymphocytic hypophysitis). After losing consciousness, the man likely fell in the filled bathtub and then drowned. These 2 cases highlight the need for a thorough post-mortem investigation, including a microscopic examination of the pituitary gland. In addition, forensic pathologists should carefully study the pituitary gland in cases where the cause of death is thought to be related to dysfunction of thermoregulation or

  3. Pathology of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the embryology, histology and pathology of the human parathyroid glands. It emphasizes those pathologic lesions which are found in the setting of clinical hyperparathyroidism. Also discussed are certain molecular features of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The difficulties encountered in parathyroid FNA are reviewed and illustrated.

  4. The adrenal glands and their functions.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Deepthi C; Wijesiriwardene, Bandula

    2007-09-01

    The adrenal glands secrete hormones essential for metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, and sodium and glucose homeostasis. Hypo- or hypersecretion of these hormones is life threatening. Understanding the physiological functions of adrenal hormones is a prerequisite to the management of adrenal gland disease.

  5. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  6. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  7. Flagelliform or coronata glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Candelas, G C

    1995-07-01

    The flagelliform or coronata glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other silk-producing glands from the organism. The glands, which produce silk for the double filament of the core thread in the sticky spiral, exhibit three distinct morphological areas: tail, sac, and duct. Electrophoretic separation of the solubilized contents of the glands yields an uppermost diffuse band of high molecular size, preceded by a stepladder of well-defined peptides, which have been shown to be products of discontinuous translation in three other sets of glands. The luminal contents do not migrate as a discrete and well-defined band as those of the other glands, but rather as a diffuse area, typical of glycosylated proteins. Fibroin synthesis is stimulated by the mechanical depletion of the organism's stored silks, as in other Nephila glands, judged by the increased intensity of the bands and also by the structural alterations seen in cross sections of the glands' tails.

  8. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  9. The impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on normal metabolism in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Andreas; Ekelund, Mikael; Garcia-Vaz, Eliana; Ståhlman, Marcus; Pierzynowski, Stefan; Gomez, Maria F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Groop, Leif; Hedenbro, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) has generated inconclusive results on the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects on weight loss and glycaemia, partially due to the problems of designing clinical studies with the appropriate controls. Moreover, RYGB is only performed in obese individuals, in whom metabolism is perturbed and not completely understood. Methods In an attempt to isolate the effects of RYGB and its effects on normal metabolism, we investigated the effect of RYGB in lean pigs, using sham-operated pair-fed pigs as controls. Two weeks post-surgery, pigs were subjected to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and circulating metabolites, hormones and lipids measured. Bile acid composition was profiled after extraction from blood, faeces and the gallbladder. Results A similar weight development in both groups of pigs validated our experimental model. Despite similar changes in fasting insulin, RYGB-pigs had lower fasting glucose levels. During an IVGTT RYGB-pigs had higher insulin and lower glucose levels. VLDL and IDL were lower in RYGB- than in sham-pigs. RYGB-pigs had increased levels of most amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids, but these were more efficiently suppressed by glucose. Levels of bile acids in the gallbladder were higher, whereas plasma and faecal bile acid levels were lower in RYGB- than in sham-pigs. Conclusion In a lean model RYGB caused lower plasma lipid and bile acid levels, which were compensated for by increased plasma amino acids, suggesting a switch from lipid to protein metabolism during fasting in the immediate postoperative period. PMID:28257455

  10. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  11. Submaxillary gland mucocele: presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Boneu-Bonet, Fernando; Vidal-Homs, Enric; Maizcurrana-Tornil, Aránzazu; González-Lagunas, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The term mucocele is referred to two concepts: the extravasation cysts resulting from salivary glandular duct rupture, with mucin leakage into the surrounding peri-glandular soft tissue, and the retention cysts, caused by a glandular duct obstruction and resulting in a decrease or even an absence of glandular secretion. Mucocele can not be considered as a true cyst because its wall lacks an epithelial lining. These lesions are very common in the minor salivary glands (particularly in the labial glands), but are very infrequent in the major salivary glands--including the submaxillary glands. The present study describes a clinical case of a right submaxillary gland mucocele resolved by surgical treatment and reviews the differential diagnosis with other clinical entities.

  12. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells.

  13. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl− and HCO3− and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  14. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

  15. A surface energy analysis of mucoadhesion: contact angle measurements on polycarbophil and pig intestinal mucosa in physiologically relevant fluids.

    PubMed

    Lehr, C M; Bouwstra, J A; Boddé, H E; Junginger, H E

    1992-01-01

    The possible role of surface energy thermodynamics in mucoadhesion was investigated with Polycarbophil and pig intestinal mucosa. In separate experiments, the surface energy parameters of the substrate (mucosa) and the adhesive (polymer film) were determined by contact angle measurements on captive air/octane bubbles in three physiologically relevant test fluids (isotonic saline, artificial gastric fluid, and artificial intestinal fluid). Whereas the swollen Polycarbophil films were relatively hydrophilic as indicated by small water contact angles (22, 23, and 16 degrees), the water contact angles measured on mucosal tissue were significantly larger (61, 48, and 57 degrees). Hence, mucus was found to possess an appreciable hydrophobicity. The measured adhesive performance (force of detachment) between Polycarbophil and pig small intestinal mucosa was highest in nonbuffered saline medium, intermediate in gastric fluid, and minimal in intestinal fluid. In agreement with this trend, the mismatch in surface polarities between substrate and adhesive, calculated from the contact angle data, increased in the same order.

  16. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  17. Rapid purification of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase complex by tomato-lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, J M; Toh, B H; Simpson, R J; Baldwin, G S; Gleeson, P A

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that tomato lectin binds specifically to the 60-90 kDa membrane glycoprotein of parietal cell tubulovesicles, the beta-subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase (proton pump) [Callaghan, Toh, Pettitt, Humphris & Gleeson (1990) J. Cell Sci. 95, 563-576; Toh, Gleeson, Simpson, Mortiz, Callaghan, Goldkorn, Jones, Martinelli, Mu, Humphris, Pettitt, Mori, Masuda, Sobieszczuk, Weinstock, Mantamadiotis & Baldwin (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6418-6422]. Here we have exploited this interaction for the development of a rapid single-step chromatography procedure for the purification of an active pig gastric proton pump complex. Initially, H+/K(+)-ATPase-enriched membranes, prepared from pig gastric microsomes by density-gradient centrifugation, were extracted in 1% Triton X-100 and passed through a 1 ml tomato lectin-Sepharose 4B column. The bound material, eluted with 20 mM-chitotriose, showed a major band with an apparent molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a faint broad band of 60-90 kDa, by SDS/PAGE. N-Glycanase treatment of the bound material resulted in the appearance of a 35 kDa band, the size of the protein core of the 60-90 kDa glycoprotein beta-subunit. The two components were identified as the 95 kDa alpha-subunit and the 60-90 kDa beta-subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase, by immunoreactivity with monospecific antibodies, and by tryptic peptide sequences of the tomato-lectin-bound material. The beta-subunit was present in approximately equimolar amounts to the catalytic alpha-subunit. Whereas the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase was not active after solubilization in 1% Triton X-100, solubilization of density-gradient-purified membranes in the non-ionic detergent, C12E8, followed by chromatography of the extract on tomato lectin-Sepharose 4B, resulted in the purification of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase complex which exhibited K(+)-dependent phosphatase activity. This is the first report of a rapid purification of a partially active solubilized

  18. The electrophoresis of human gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.; Builder, Janet E.

    1962-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of normal human gastric juice is described. The effect of autodigestion of gastric juice and of the peptic digestion of albumin is described. The fallacies involved in the study of gastric juice proteins where peptic digestion of the protein constituent has not been prevented are emphasized. In this study the gastric juice was neutralized within the stomach to prevent changes due to autodigestion. PMID:13943717

  19. In vivo formation of nitrosocarbamates in the stomach of rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, R.W.; Dorough, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The N-nitrosocarbamates are potent mutagens and carcinogens and have been synthesized under acid conditions that prevail in the human stomach. However, it has never been documented that nitrosocarbamates are actually formed in vivo in the stomach of any mammalian species. Using /sup 14/C-labeled carbaryl and carbofuran, attempts were made to isolate the nitroso derivatives from the stomach contents of rats and guinea pigs treated orally with the carbamate and sodium nitrite. Only trace quantities of nitrocarbamate were recovered from the rat stomach, whereas 0.5 to 2.0% of the carbamate doses were isolated as the nitroso derivative from the contents of the guinea pig stomach. The rather low apparent yields resulted in part from the instability of the nitrosocarbamates and from absorption of the carbamate and/or nitrosocarbamate from the stomach. Higher rates of synthesis were indicated by incubating the carbamates with sodium nitrite in the presence of the stomach contents at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min. About 30% nitrosation occurred with the guinea pig and about 0.5% with the rat. The difference was attributed to the pH of the gastric contents. For the rat, the pH ranged from 3 to 5; gastric contents of the guinea pig had a pH between 1 and 2. Since the pH of the human stomach is also in the pH 1-2 range, it is likely that nitrosation of carbamates in humans would be very similar to that in the guinea pig. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Gastric juice miR-129 as a potential biomarker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Luo, Lin; Wu, Yibo; Yu, Xiuchong; Liu, Yang; Yu, Xuelin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinjun; Cui, Long; Ye, Guoliang; Le, Yanping; Guo, Junming

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles during the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Conventional serological tests for screening gastric cancer have limits on sensitivity and specificity. Several miRNAs in peripheral blood have been used as biomarkers of gastric cancer. However, most of these miRNAs are shared by several types of cancer. Thanks to the tissue specificity of gastric juice, here we examined the feasibility of using gastric juice miR-129-1/2, which are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, to screen gastric cancer. Total of 141 gastric juices samples from gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and minimal gastritis patients or subjects with normal mucosa were collected by gastroscopy. The gastric juice miR-129-1/2 levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. We showed that, compared with patients with benign gastric diseases, patients with gastric cancer had significantly lower levels of gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.639 and 0.651 for miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p, respectively. Using the parallel combination test, the AUC was up to 0.656. In summary, our results suggest that gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p are potential biomarkers for the screening gastric cancer, and the detection of gastric juice miRNAs is a convenient non-invasion method for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  1. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  2. Factors modifying the frequency of spontaneous activity in gastric muscle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Kito, Y; Hashitani, H; Nakamura, E

    2006-11-01

    The cellular mechanisms that determine the frequency of spontaneous activity were investigated in gastric smooth muscles isolated from the guinea-pig. Intact antral muscle generated slow waves periodically; the interval between slow waves was decreased exponentially by depolarization of the membrane to reach a steady interval value of about 7 s. Isolated circular muscle bundles produced slow potentials spontaneously or were evoked by depolarizing current stimuli. Evoked slow potentials appeared in an all-or-none fashion, with a refractory period of approximately 2-3 s. Low concentrations of chemicals that modify intracellular signalling revealed that the refractory period was causally related to the activity of protein kinase C (PKC). Activation of PKC increased and inhibition of PKC activity decreased the frequency of slow potentials. Chemicals that inhibit mitochondrial functions reduced the frequency of slow waves. Inhibition of internal Ca(2+)-store activity decreased the amplitude, but not the frequency of slow potentials, suggesting that the amplitude is causally related to Ca(2+) release from the internal store. The results suggest that changes in [Ca(2+)](i) caused by the activity of mitochondria may play a key role in determining the frequency of spontaneous activity in gastric pacemaker cells.

  3. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies.

  4. The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function.

    PubMed

    Couto-Moraes, Renato; Palermo-Neto, João; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2009-02-01

    The temporal organization of mammals presents a daily adjustment to the environmental light/dark cycle. The environmental light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway. During the night, this gland produces and releases the nocturnal hormone melatonin, which circulates throughout the whole body and adjusts several bodily functions according to the existence and duration of darkness. We have previously shown that during the time frame of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inhibit while anti-inflammatory mediators, such as glucocorticoids, enhance the synthesis of melatonin, interfering in the daily adjustment of the light/dark cycle. Therefore, injury disconnects the organism from environmental cycling, while recovery restores the light/dark information to the whole organism. Here, we extend these observations by evaluating the effect of a mild restraint stress, which did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. After 2 h of restraint, there was an increase in circulating corticosterone, indicating activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In parallel, an increase in melatonin production was observed. Taking into account the data obtained with models of inflammation and stress, we reinforce the hypothesis that the activity of the pineal gland is modulated by the state of the immune system and the HPA axis, implicating the darkness hormone melatonin as a modulator of defense responses.

  5. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds.

  6. Small ampullate glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Ortíz, R; Céspedes, W; Nieves, L; Robles, I V; Plazaola, A; File, S; Candelas, G C

    2000-02-01

    The small ampullate glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other of the silk producing glands from this organism. They exhibit the same gross morphological features of the other glands. Electrophoretic analyses show that the gland's luminal contents migrate as a single band, while the contents of the secretory epithelium reveal a step-ladder array of peptides in addition to the full size product. Previous studies from our laboratory identified these peptides as products generated by translational pauses. This alternate mode of translation is typical of fibroin synthesis in all the spider glands thus far studied as well as in those of the silkworm. The correlation of the peptides to the process of fibroin synthesis is shown through experimental evidence in this paper. The gradual ultrastructural changes in Golgi vesicles elicited by the fibroin synthesis stimulus can be seen in this paper. The response to stimulation is of a higher magnitude in these glands than in any of those previously analyzed. These studies show the small ampullate glands are a promising and certainly exploitable model system for studies on the synthesis of tissue-specific protein product and its control. J. Exp. Zool. 286:114-119, 2000.

  7. Pepsinogens I and II: purification from gastric mucosa and radioimmunoassay in serum

    SciTech Connect

    Samloff, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II were purified from gastric mucosa and used to develop a radioimmunoassay for pepsinogen II and an improved radioimmunoassay for pepsinogen I. Each immunochemically homogeneous preparation contained only its characteristic components by radioelectophoretic analysis, and migrated as a singly band in polyacrylamide gel. The mean (+/- SD) level of serum pepsinogen II in 42 healthy control subjects was 10,8 +/- 3.8 ng/ml, significantly less (p less than 0.001) than the level of pepsinogen I, which was 62.9 +/- 22.2 ng/ml. The correlation between serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II was highly significant (r . 0.700, p less than 0.001) in these subjects. In 20 patients with pernicious anemia the mean serum pepsinogen II level was 10.6 +/- 2.5 ng/ml, not different from normal, but significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the level of pepsinogen I which was 5.9 +/- 4.7 ng/ml. IN 10 patients with total gastrectomy, serum pepsinogen I was 3.9 +/- 3.1 ng/ml and serum pepsinogen II was 3.2 +/- 3.1 ng/ml; both values were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the corresponding levels in pernicious anemia. The predominance of pepsinogen I in the serum of healthy control subjects suggests that either the gastric chief cell normally releases more pepsinogen I than pepsinogen II into the circulation or that pepsinogen I has longer metabolic clearance rate than pepsinogen II. The marked decrease in serum pepsinogen I in patients with pernicious anemia is best explained by a loss of gastric chief cells due to severe atropic gastritis of the fundic glands. The normal distribution of serum pepsinogen II levels in these patients may reflect an increased number of pyloric glands due to pyloric gland metaplasia of the proximal stomach.

  8. [COMPOSITION OF GASTRIC JUICE AND BILE IN RATS AT THE EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Gorenko, Z A; Grinchenko, O A; Veselsky, S P; Baban, V M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas, which is characterized by destruction of pancreatic secretory parenchyma and progressing exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Usually these patients have complications as cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and liver failure, and various gastric dysfunctions. The data of clinical observations do not reveal fully the functional state of the stomach and liver in chronic pancreatitis also remains an open question about the quality of the gastric juices and bile by this pathology. Therefore our aim was to investigate the secretory functions of the stomach and liver features in rats at the experimental chronic pancreatitis. This pathology modeled using L-arginine. Basal gastric secretion was investigated in chronic experiment by aspiration method for 10th and 63rd days, and pancreas and liver--in acute experiments at 13th and 68th days after the last administration of L-arginine. It was established that the character of the secretory response of the digestive tract depends on the duration of the pathology course. On the 10th day the functional state of the gastric secretory glands in rats with chronic pancreatitis characterized by twice increase of gastric acid production but decrease the level of hexosamines on 23.8% (P < 0.001) that indicate a increase of gastric content aggressiveness and mucus producing cells secretory insufficiency. In these animals the rate of total protein decreased on 61.7% (P < 0.05). On the 13th day observed the increase of pancreatic juice on 332% (P < 0.01), hepatic secret volume on 74.9% (P < 0.001) and redistribution in the cholates spectrum: glycocholates level increased but tauro-, free and total dehydroxylated bile acids decreased. These changes suggest deterioration of bile detergent properties, inhibition of acidic pathway of bile acids biosynthesis and conjugation of cholates with taurine. In two months total deficit of amino acids in gastric juice correlated with

  9. Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

  10. Esophageal motility disorders after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Deveney, C W; McConnell, D B; Wolfe, B M; Jobe, B A

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of gastric banding on esophageal function are not well described. This report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed signs and symptoms of abnormal esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter hypotension after gastric banding for morbid obesity. The current literature addressing the effects of gastric banding on esophageal function in light of this case report is discussed.

  11. Simultaneous quadruple modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Jian; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    We report the development of a unique simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopy (i.e., stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and third-harmonic generation (THG)) platform for characterization of the gastric diseases (i.e., gastritis, intestinal metaplasia (IM), intestinal type adenocarcinoma). SRS highlights the goblet cells found in IM. SHG images the distribution of collagen in lamina propria. Collagen is found to aggregate for intestinal type adenocarcinoma. TPEF reveals the cell morphology and can reflect the damage inside glands caused by the diseases. THG visualizes the nuclei with high spatial resolution, which facilitates the identification of neutrophils that are usually used as a feature of inflammation. This work shows that the co-registration of quadruple-modal images can be an effective means for diagnosis and characterization of gastric diseases at the cellular and molecular levels.

  12. Chronic stress induces upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Zepeda-Carreño, Rodrigo; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-05-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. These alterations have been related with the development of cognitive deficits in major depression. Moreover, stress induces deleterious actions on the epithalamic pineal organ, a gland involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the stress effects on the pineal gland are related with changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland. We found that BDNF is produced in situ in the pineal gland. Chronic immobilization stress induced upregulation of BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland but did not produce changes in beta-actin mRNA or in GAPDH expression. Stressed animals also evidenced an increase in anxiety-like behavior and acute gastric lesions. These results suggest that BDNF and integrin alpha5 may have a counteracting effect to the deleterious actions of immobilization stress on functionally stimulated pinealocytes. Furthermore, this study proposes that the pineal gland may be a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  13. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of ras oncogene p21 product in human gastric carcinomas and their adjacent mucosas.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, F; David, L; Sunkel, C; Lopes, C; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    1992-04-01

    In an attempt to clarify the relationship between ras oncogene expression and the clinico-pathological features of malignant and pre-malignant lesions of the stomach we undertook the immunohistochemical study of the expression of ras gene p21 product in a series of eighty gastric carcinomas and their respective adjacent mucosas. In two cases the mRNA of Ha-ras was also studied by in situ hybridization. The majority of gastric carcinomas as well as their adjacent non-neoplastic mucosas expressed ras gene product. There was a significant relationship between the expression of ras gene p21 product and the morphologic pattern of the tumours. An enhanced ras expression was found in several conditions regarded as precursor lesions of intestinal and/or diffuse types of gastric carcinoma (dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia and even the neck zone of normal-appearing gastric glands, namely in the mucosa adjacent to diffuse carcinomas). Ras expression was actually more prominent in most of these conditions than in their respective adjacent carcinomas. No significant relationship was found between ras expression and invasiveness of the wall, nodal metastases and venous invasion.

  15. Oral glutathione supplementation drastically reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric pathologies

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Foss, Dennis; Sanchez, Margaret; Joosten, Myrthe; Zhang, Guangzhi; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastric pathologies in both pigs and humans. Very little is known on the metabolism of this bacterium and its impact on the host. In this study, we have revealed the importance of the glutamate-generating metabolism, as shown by a complete depletion of glutamine (Gln) in the medium during H. suis culture. Besides Gln, H. suis can also convert glutathione (GSH) to glutamate, and both reactions are catalyzed by the H. suis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Both for H. pylori and H. suis, it has been hypothesized that the degradation of Gln and GSH may lead to a deficiency for the host, possibly initiating or promoting several pathologies. Therefore the in vivo effect of oral supplementation with Gln and GSH was assessed. Oral supplementation with Gln was shown to temper H. suis induced gastritis and epithelial (hyper)proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Astonishingly, supplementation of the feed with GSH, another GGT substrate, resulted in inflammation and epithelial proliferation levels returning to baseline levels of uninfected controls. This indicates that Gln and GSH supplementation may help reducing tissue damage caused by Helicobacter infection in both humans and pigs, highlighting their potential as a supportive therapy during and after Helicobacter eradication therapy. PMID:26833404

  16. Uncovering head gland diversity in neotropical Polistinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): comparative analysis and description of new glands.

    PubMed

    Penagos-Arévalo, Andrea C; Billen, Johan; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    Exocrine glands are involved in several wasp colony activities; however, the number of known glands in the Vespidae is rather low when compared to other social insect groups. The aim of this study is to survey the head of Neotropical social wasps and to provide a detailed comparative study of the glands found in the Polistinae. A total of 33 species distributed over 13 genera were studied with serial histological sections of the head, excluding the labiomaxillary complex. Additionally, the exoskeleton was explored using scanning electron microscopy looking for associated modifications. A total of eleven exocrine glands were observed, five are structures recorded for the first time for the Hymenoptera, three are new records for the Polistinae and three are previously known organs. The glands studied are: ocellar gland I, ocellar gland II, periocular gland, subantennal gland, hypopharyngeal gland, clypeal gland, posterobasal genal gland, ectal mandibular gland, mesal mandibular gland, intramandibular gland I, and intramandibular gland II. The widespread distribution of most of these glands suggests an origin prior to the evolution of the Polistinae. Our results highlight the importance of detailed morphological studies to unveil the significance of chemical communication in one of the most characteristic groups of social animals.

  17. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  18. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs.

  19. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wronski, A; Arendt, L M; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Although mouse models have provided invaluable information on the mechanisms of mammary gland development, anatomical and developmental differences between human and mice limit full understanding of this fundamental process. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by injecting immortalized human breast stromal cells into the cleared murine mammary fat pad enables the growth and development of human mammary epithelial cells or tissue. This facilitates the characterization of human mammary gland development or tumorigenesis by utilizing the mouse mammary fat pad. Here we describe the process of isolating human mammary stromal and epithelial cells as well as their introduction into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice.

  20. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  1. [Frequency, diagnosis and dependance of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, T; Wagner, P K

    1978-08-01

    In a attempt to prove the dependence of duodenitis upon the morphological status of the gastric mucosa, a biopsy of the corpus, antrum, and duodenal canal had been made of 354 patients. In 56 cases, a superficial duodenitis was histologically verified; however, this infection had not contaminated the Brunner' glands. A duodenitis was found to be more often associated with surface gastritis of the corpus and antrum than it was with atropic gastritis. A duodenitis was discovered by a biopsy in 16 patients possessing a normal antrum mucosa and in 25 patients having a normal corpus mucosa, thus proving the possibility of isolated duodenitis.

  2. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  3. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  4. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  5. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  6. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  7. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  8. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of mammary glands. 310.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.17 Inspection of mammary glands. (a) Lactating mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed...

  9. Structure-Inherent Targeting of NIR Fluorophores for Parathyroid and Thyroid Gland Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Hoon; Park, Min Ho; Owens, Eric A.; Wada, Hideyuki; Henary, Maged; Handgraaf, Hein J.M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2014-01-01

    The typical method for creating targeted contrast agents requires covalent conjugation of separate targeting and fluorophore domains. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible create tissue-specific near-infrared fluorophores using the inherent chemical structure. Thus, a single compact molecule performs both targeting and imaging. We use this strategy to solve a major problem in head/neck surgery, the identification and preservation of parathyroid and thyroid glands. We synthesized 700-nm and 800-nm halogenated fluorophores that show high uptake in the specific glands after a single intravenous injection of only 0.06 mg kg−1 in a pig. Using a dual-channel near-infrared imaging system, we demonstrate the real-time, high-sensitivity, unambiguous identification of parathyroid and thyroid glands simultaneously in the context of blood and surrounding soft tissue. This novel technology lays the foundation for head/neck surgery performed with increased precision and efficiency, and potentially lowers morbidity, and a general strategy for targeted near-infrared fluorophore development. PMID:25559343

  10. Primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Petranovic, Duska; Pilcic, Gorazd; Peitl, Milena; Cubranic, Aleksandar; Valkovic, Toni; Nacinovic, Antica Duletic; Lucin, Ksenija; Jonjic, Nives

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma represents 2.5–7% all of non Hodgkin's lymphomas. Stomach is the most common site of extranodal lymphoma. However, that is not the case with mantle cell lymphoma, which is extremely rare. We present a case of 71-year-old woman admitted to the Internal Clinic of the University Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, because of stomach discomfort and melena. Endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a polyp in gastric antrum. Histopathologic, immunohistochemic and genetic methods were also performed and the results were consistent with primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma without periepigastric and/or local or distant abdominal lymph node involvement. PMID:22567215

  11. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  12. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  13. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].

    PubMed

    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran

    2002-07-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  14. Structure and context in prostatic gland segmentation and classification.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kien; Sarkar, Anindya; Jain, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    A novel gland segmentation and classification scheme applied to an H&E histology image of the prostate tissue is proposed. For gland segmentation, we associate appropriate nuclei objects with each lumen object to create a gland segment. We further extract 22 features to describe the structural information and contextual information for each segment. These features are used to classify a gland segment into one of the three classes: artifact, normal gland and cancer gland. On a dataset of 48 images at 5x magnification (which includes 525 artifacts, 931 normal glands and 1,375 cancer glands), we achieved the following classification accuracies: 93% for artifacts v. true glands; 79% for normal v. cancer glands, and 77% for discriminating all three classes. The proposed method outperforms state of the art methods in terms of segmentation and classification accuracies and computational efficiency.

  15. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Sublingual Salivary Gland Obstructing the Submandibular Salivary Gland Duct

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venkata Suneel; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Beeraka, Swapna; Natarajan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual salivary gland malignancies are extremely rare and account for only 0.3-1% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors. Here, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual salivary gland that presented as a swelling in the right anterior floor of the mouth obstructing the submandibular duct. Sublingual salivary gland ACC obstructing the submandibular duct is rare and only three cases have been reported in the literature until date. We discuss the different patterns of ACC seen during the pathologic investigations and its radiologic features. PMID:24516773

  16. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland.

  17. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, I M A; Knox, S M; Hoffman, M P

    2011-07-01

    An irreversible loss of salivary gland function often occurs in humans after removal of salivary tumors, after therapeutic radiation of head and neck tumors, as a result of Sjögren's syndrome and in genetic syndromes affecting gland development. The permanent loss of gland function impairs the oral health of these patients and broadly affects their quality of life. The regeneration of functional salivary gland tissue is thus an important therapeutic goal for the field of regenerative medicine and will likely involve stem/progenitor cell biology and/or tissue engineering approaches. Recent reports demonstrate how both innervation of the salivary gland epithelium and certain growth factors influence progenitor cell growth during mouse salivary gland development. These advances in our understanding suggest that developmental mechanisms of mouse salivary gland development may provide a paradigm for postnatal regeneration of both mice and human salivary glands. Herein, we will discuss the developmental mechanisms that influence progenitor cell biology and the implications for salivary gland regeneration.

  18. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  19. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  20. Trace element transport in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity to adapt to maternal deficiency or excess of iron, copper, and zinc and to homeostatically control milk concentrations of these essential nutrients. Similarly, it can regulate changes in concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc change during lactation. For iron, this regulation is achieved by transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, whereas mammary gland copper metabolism is regulated by Ctr1, ATP7A, and ATP7B. Zinc homeostasis is complex, involving both zinc importers (Zip3) and zinc exporters (ZnT-1, ZnT-2, and ZnT-4). Both transcriptional and post-translational regulation can affect protein abundance and cellular localization of these transporters, finely orchestrating uptake, intracellular trafficking, and secretion of iron, copper, and zinc. The control of mammary gland uptake and milk secretion of iron, copper, and zinc protects both the mammary gland and the breast-fed infant against deficiency and excess of these nutrients.

  1. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  2. Role of sebaceous glands in inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Vivian Y; Leo, Michael; Hassoun, Lauren; Chahal, Dev S; Maibach, Howard I; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-11-01

    Skin is an important interface between the host and its environment. Inflammatory dermatoses often have disrupted skin barrier function, rendering patients more susceptible to allergenic triggers leading to an exaggerated immune response. The skin surface lipid film, an important component of the skin barrier, comprises a mixture of keratinocyte and sebaceous gland-derived lipids. Recent evidence demonstrated that defective keratinocyte lipid synthesis predisposes for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, the important role of sebaceous gland-derived lipids in skin inflammatory diseases may be underrecognized. This overview focuses on the importance of the contribution of sebaceous glands to barrier function. Sebaceous gland alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of common skin diseases including acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis.

  3. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  4. Plexiform Neurofibroma Involving the Lacrimal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hofsli, Mikael; Gampenrieder, Nico; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background To present a rare case of a 2-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who presented with ptosis of the right upper eyelid along with a tumor in the eyelid. Methods A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the orbit revealed a solid tumor located extraconally at the site of the right lacrimal gland. A transcranial orbitotomy was performed. Results Histopathological examination demonstrated expanded nerve branches/fascicles cut in various planes in between normal lacrimal gland acini. These findings were consistent with a plexiform neurofibroma presumably deriving from the lacrimal nerve and/or a supraorbital nerve branch. Conclusion This is the first case of a plexiform neurofibroma involving the lacrimal gland ever described and the tumor shows similarities with neurofibroma in other salivary glands with a high recurrence rate. Plexiform neurofibromas are frequently seen in patients with NF1 and rarely undergo malignant transformation. PMID:28203199

  5. Unusual Presentation of Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, S M; Badu, B P; Lavaju, P; Shrestha, B G; Pant, A R; Agarwal, M

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland presents as a painless, progressive, slowly growing supero-temporal swelling with variable proptosis. This tumor is usually found in adults and extremely rare in teenage. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland which mimicked pseudotumor of orbit due to its presentation as an orbital inflammatory disease and the age distribution. Neuroimaging also suggested pseudotumor and oral steroid was started. But, there was no improvement on steroids and ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed which suggested Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. En-bloc excision of the mass through antero-lateral orbitotomy was done with satisfactory final outcome The histopathological evaluation was consistent with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.

  6. Mammary gland: From embryogenesis to adult life.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular factors that ensure the optimal development and maintenance of the mammary gland thanks to their integration and coordination. The development of the mammary gland is supported, not only by endocrine signals, but also by regulatory molecules, which are able to integrate signals from the surrounding microenvironment. A major role is certainly played by homeotic genes, but their incorrect expression during the spatiotemporal regulation of proliferative, functional and differentiation cycles of the mammary gland, may result in the onset of neoplastic processes. Attention is directed also to the endocrine aspects and sexual dimorphism of mammary gland development, as well as the role played by ovarian steroids and their receptors in adult life.

  7. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  8. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  9. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  10. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  11. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  12. Primary hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Oklu, Rahmi

    2014-10-23

    An elderly man presented with a 2-year history of refractory hypertension. His medical history, physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. On subsequent ultrasound study for the evaluation of renal artery stenosis, a large mass obliterating the adrenal gland containing internal cystic structures was identified. A CT study confirmed the diagnosis of primary adrenal gland hydatid cyst. Following surgical resection, the patient's hypertension resolved and medications to control blood pressure were discontinued.

  13. [Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands: diagnostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Bagán Sebastián, J V; Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    We present 3 cases of Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands, one male and two females, who presented associated systemic pathology (liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus), detected following clinically suspect syaloadenosis (the patients were unaware of their systemic disease). In all three cases definitive diagnosis was established by needle aspiration of the gland. Which revealed great acinar dilatation. Finally, differential diagnosis was established between sialoadenosis and those conditions with clinical presentations similar to those described for sialoadenosis.

  14. Infantile Hemangioendothelioma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chaubal, Rajas; Tavri, Om; Sawant, Atul; Singh, Chitrangada

    2017-01-01

    A 4-month-old infant presented with a painless swelling overlying the left angle of mandible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large lesion replacing the entire left parotid gland, with multiple enlarged vessels. Homogeneous enhancement of the lesion was seen on the postcontrast MRI scans. Based on the imaging features, a diagnosis of infantile hemangioendothelioma of the parotid gland was offered. This helped in avoiding any further invasive testing. PMID:28217408

  15. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  16. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  17. Polarized Distribution of IQGAP Proteins in Gastric Parietal Cells and Their Roles in Regulated Epithelial Cell Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rihong; Guo, Zhen; Watson, Charles; Chen, Emily; Kong, Rong; Wang, Wenxian; Yao, Xuebiao

    2003-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. Cdc42, a member of Rho GTPase family, modulates actin dynamics via its regulators, such as IQGAP proteins. Gastric parietal cells are polarized epithelial cells in which regulated acid secretion occurs in the apical membrane upon stimulation. We have previously shown that actin isoforms are polarized to different membrane domains and that the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for acid secretion. Herein, we show that Cdc42 is preferentially distributed to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. In addition, we revealed that two Cdc42 regulators, IQGAP1 and IQGAP2, are present in gastric parietal cells. Interestingly, IQGAP2 is polarized to the apical membrane of the parietal cells, whereas IQGAP1 is mainly distributed to the basolateral membrane. An IQGAP peptide that competes with full-length IQGAP proteins for Cdc42-binding in vitro also inhibits acid secretion in streptolysin-O-permeabilized gastric glands. Furthermore, this peptide disrupts the association of IQGAP and Cdc42 with the apical actin cytoskeleton and prevents the apical membrane remodeling upon stimulation. We propose that IQGAP2 forms a link that associates Cdc42 with the apical cytoskeleton and thus allows for activation of polarized secretion in gastric parietal cells. PMID:12631726

  18. [Effect of mild irritants on gastric outputs of bicarbonates and pepsinogen depends on the rate of acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, V A; Andreeva, Iu V; Khropycheva, R P

    2012-06-01

    The aggressive luminal content in the stomach activates gastroprotective processes affecting exocrine and endocrine secretion of gastric glands and permeability of the pre-epithelial mucus layer. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of chemical irritants similar to physiological characteristics of digestion (pH 2.0 and/or 500 mM NaCl) on outputs of bicarbonates and pepsinogen as well as assess the role of endogenous acid production in control ofnon-parietal secretion during irritation of the gastric mucosa. In experiments on conscious rats with chronic gastric fistula as well as on anesthetized animals it was demonstrated that luminal infusion of acidic hyperosmotic solution of NaCl enhances basal secretions of bicarbonates and pepsinogen that was fully blocked by indomethacin. Suppression of gastric acid secretion by omeprazole potentiates the stimulative effect of mild irritants likely due to the reduction of pH gradient on the surface of gastric mucosa which causes the growth of sensitivity of the epithelium to chemical stimuli and the increase of synthesis ofprostaglandins. Additionally, mild irritation enhances secretion of HCO3(-) and pepsinogen induced by stimulation of the vagus nerve; and this response does not depend on the action ofprostaglandins. The enhancing effect of irritation on the vagally induced bicarbonate output was eliminated after the treatment with omeprazole.

  19. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  20. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours.

  1. The neurobiology of the meibomian glands.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie M; Nichols, Jason J

    2014-07-01

    This article compiles research regarding the neuroanatomy of the meibomian glands and their associated blood vessels. After a review of meibomian gland morphology and regulation via hormones, a case for innervation is made based on anatomical findings whereby the nerves lack a myelin sheath and Schwann cells. The localization and co-localization of dopamine beta-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P are explored with emphasis on differences that exist between species. The presence of the various neuropeptides/neurotransmitters adjacent to the meibomian gland versus the vasculature associated with the meibomian gland is documented so that conclusions can be made with regard to direct and indirect effects. Research regarding the presence of receptors and receptor proteins for these neuropeptides is documented. Evidence supporting the influence of certain neurotransmitters and/or neuropeptides on the meibomian gland is given based on research that correlates changes in meibomian gland morphology and/or tear film with changes in neurotransmitter and/or neuropeptide presence. Conclusions are drawn related to direct and indirect regulation and differences between the various nervous systems.

  2. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  3. Lacrimal Gland Radiosensitivity in Uveal Melanoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Karin Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Naus, Nicole; Pan, Connie de; Santen, Cornelis A. van; Levendag, Peter; Luyten, Gre P.M.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To find a dose-volume effect for inhomogeneous irradiated lacrimal glands. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2006, 72 patients (42 men and 30 women) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial (median follow-up, 32 months). A total dose of 50 Gy was given on 5 consecutive days. The mean of all Schirmer test results obtained {>=}6 months after treatment was correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the lacrimal gland. Also, the appearance of dry eye syndrome (DES) was related to the lacrimal gland dose distribution. Results: Of the 72 patients, 17 developed a late Schirmer value <10 mm; 9 patients developed DES. A statistically significant relationship was found between the received median dose in the lacrimal gland vs. reduced tear production (p = 0.000) and vs. the appearance of DES (p = 0.003), respectively. A median dose of 7 Gy/fraction to the lacrimal gland caused a 50% risk of low Schirmer results. A median dose of 10 Gy resulted in a 50% probability of DES. Conclusion: We found a clear dose-volume relationship for irradiated lacrimal glands with regard to reduced tear production and the appearance of DES.

  4. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Møller, M

    1996-10-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased intracellular content of cGMP. The role of cGMP in pineal metabolism, however, is still enigmatic. Using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the presence of NOS has been confirmed in the pineal gland of some species. In the rat and especially in the sheep, NOS is located in nerve fibres innervating the gland. These nerve fibres also contain the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and are probably of parasympathetic origin. In cell cultures and tissue sections NOS immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in pinealocytes of the rat and bovine but not in the sheep. Finally, NOS is also present in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the pineal gland. Accordingly, in the mammalian pineal gland, NO is synthesized in both presynaptic nerve fibers and pinealocytes, as well as in blood vessels. However, the anatomical location of NO synthesis varies considerably among species. NO released in the pineal gland, might influence both the pineal metabolism and the blood flow of the gland.

  5. Reversibility of gastric mucosal lesions induced by sodium phosphate tablets and characterized by probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Coron, Emmanuel; Dewitte, Marie; Aubert, Philippe; Musquer, Nicolas; Neunlist, Michel; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Adequate bowel preparation is key for the optimal quality of colonoscopy. The sodium phosphate laxatives used for preparation may induce gastric injuries. However, in vivo studies monitoring the effects of sodium phosphate on the gastric mucosa are currently lacking. We aimed to characterize the effects of sodium phosphate tablets (Colokit®; Mayoly Spindler, Chatou, France) on the gastric mucosa in a large-animal model. Methods: Fourteen anesthetized pigs were used for this study. Fundic mucosal sites were analyzed at 1.5, 24, and 72 hours after the endoscopically guided application of sodium phosphate tablets (NaPT) and placebo tablets (PlaT) and were compared with unexposed sites. Different mucosal parameters were assessed with white light endoscopy, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), histology, and ex vivo permeability measurements. Results: At 90 minutes after the application of NaPT, significant increases in epithelial irregularity and crypt pit intensity were observed with pCLE. These microscopic lesions persisted at 24 hours but were resolved at 72 hours. In addition, white light endoscopy revealed local exanthema in 57 % of the animals at 1.5 hours after NaPT application. Such lesions were observed in 22 % of the pigs at 24 hours and disappeared at 72 hours after application. After 1.5 hours, PlaT induced a slight but significant increase in epithelial irregularity, as well as architectural scores that were significantly lower than the ones induced by NaPT and that disappeared after 72 hours. Conclusions: The direct and prolonged gastric application of NaPT in pigs can induce acute superficial macroscopic and microscopic injuries that are reversible within 72 hours. PMID:26134776

  6. Inflammatory response in the pig uterus induced by seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Bischof, R J; Lee, C S; Brandon, M R; Meeusen, E

    1994-03-01

    The immunological and physiological influence of seminal plasma on the local uterine environment was investigated by immunohistochemical and flow cytometrical studies on uterine tissues and lymph nodes taken from gilts after mating with a vasectomised boar and from control, unmated gilts. These studies revealed that mating with a vasectomised boar induces an acute transient inflammatory response in the endometrium resulting in marked changes in the presence and distribution of leukocytes and extensive proliferation of the endometrial glands. At the same time there was an increase in CD8L and sIg+ cells and an up-regulation of MHC class II and IL-2 receptor expression in the uterine lymph nodes of mated pigs. This would suggest that seminal plasma deposited in the uterus can activate cells in the local draining lymph nodes. Together, these results demonstrate in utero that pronounced immunological and physiological changes are induced in vivo by seminal plasma.

  7. The Postpharyngeal Gland: Specialized Organ for Lipid Nutrition in Leaf-Cutting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Decio, Pâmela; Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Dias, Nathalia Baptista; Palma, Mario Sergio; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2016-01-01

    There are several hypotheses about the possible functions of the postpharyngeal gland (PPG) in ants. The proposed functions include roles as cephalic or gastric caeca and diverticulum of the digestive tract, mixing of hydrocarbons, nestmate recognition, feeding larvae, and the accumulation of lipids inside this gland, whose origin is contradictory. The current study aimed to investigate the functions of these glands by examining the protein expression profile of the PPGs of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Mated females received lipid supplementation and their glands were extracted and analyzed using a proteomic approach. The protocol used combined two-dimensional electrophoresis and shotgun strategies, followed by mass spectrometry. We also detected lipid β-oxidation by immunofluorescent marking of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Supplying ants with lipids elicited responses in the glandular cells of the PPG; these included increased expression of proteins related to defense mechanisms and signal transduction and reorganization of the cytoskeleton due to cell expansion. In addition, some proteins in PPG were overexpressed, especially those involved in lipid and energy metabolism. Part of the lipids may be reduced, used for the synthesis of fatty alcohol, transported to the hemolymph, or may be used as substrate for the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, which is oxidized to form molecules that drive oxidative phosphorylation and produce energy for cellular metabolic processes. These findings suggest that this organ is specialized for lipid nutrition of adult leaf-cutting ants and characterized like a of diverticulum foregut, with the ability to absorb, store, metabolize, and mobilize lipids to the hemolymph. However, we do not rule out that the PPG may have other functions in other species of ants. PMID:27149618

  8. Gastric Schwannoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Mzoughi, Zeineb; Slama, Sana Ben; Ennaifer, Rym; Belhadj, Najet

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are generally benign, slow growing tumors. They are rarely observed in the gastrointestinal tract with the most common site being the stomach. These tumors are usually asymptomatic. The preoperative diagnosis via endoscopy is a challenging issue due to the difficulty of differentiation from other submucosal tumors. A 54-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain persisting for the last 10 months. Upper endoscopy revealed an elevated submucosal mass of the gastric antrum. The overlying mucosa was normal. Biopsy specimens yielded only unspecific signs of mild inactive chronic inflammation. Endoscopic ultrasound examination noted a hypoechoic homogeneous mass lesion located in the gastric antrum. The mass appeared to arise from the muscularis propria, and there was no perigastric lymphadenopathy. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan identified a homogeneous round mass and arising from the antrum of the stomach. Submucosal tumor was suspected and surgical intervention was recommended. The patient underwent an elective laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. The histopathologic features and immunohistochemical-staining pattern were consistent with a benign gastric schwannoma. Our patient shows no recurrence with a follow-up of one year. The definitive diagnosis of gastric schwannomas requires immunohistochemical studies. Complete margin negative surgical resection, as in this case, is the curative treatment of choice. The clinical course is generally benign. PMID:28028429

  9. Familial gastric cancer - clinical management.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Caldas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The clinical management of familial gastric cancer is the same as that for sporadic gastric cancer at the current time. As the causative mutations for these cases are identified this should lead to the development of specific treatments which target the molecular abnormality. The only germline mutations identified so far occur within the E-cadherin gene (CDHI) and they account for approximately 30% of familial gastric cancer cases. When index patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome have a CDHI mutation identified then genetic testing of asymptomatic relatives should be considered. The clinical sequelae of testing positive for such a mutation are profound and therefore it is essential that counselling is given prior to genetic testing. The management options are surveillance endoscopy and prophylactic gastrectomy. In this chapter the practicalities of genetic testing are discussed as well as the pros and cons of the two management options. It is essential that experience of these rare families is pooled so that surveillance and treatment can be optimised in the future.

  10. Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson

    2011-12-01

    The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.

  11. Gastrin and gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabri, P J; McGuigan, J E

    1976-01-01

    data are present. These differential tests are of value in identifying the Zollinger-Ellison patient who has borderline serum gastrin levels and in differentiation from the syndrome of the retained antrum. 6. In a patient with a recurrent ulcer following surgery in whom a drug-induced ulcer can be excluded and gastric outlet obstruction cannot be demonstrated, a serum gastrin level may be indicated. A serum gastrin value greater than 300 pg. per ml. (normal less than 200 pg. per ml.) in a fasting morning serum sample is significantly elevated, even after vagotomy, and warrants further investigation. Provocative testing of the gastrin response to calcium and secretin should elucidate the etiology of the recurrent ulceration in this type of patient.

  12. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  13. Inhibition of prolactin in the last trimester of gestation decreases mammary gland development in gilts.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C; Sorensen, M T; Petitclerc, D

    2000-05-01

    Prolactin is required for mammary development in various species but its possible role for mammogenesis in pigs is not known. The goal of the present study was therefore to determine the effect of prolactin inhibition by bromocriptine during the last third of gestation on mammary gland development in gilts. Twenty-eight primigravid gilts were assigned as controls (n = 15) or received 10 mg of bromocriptine orally thrice daily (n = 13) from d 70 to 110 of gestation. Jugular blood samples were collected on d 70 of gestation and every 8 d thereafter and were assayed for prolactin, IGF-I, estradiol, and progesterone. Gilts were slaughtered on d 110 of gestation and fetuses were counted and weighed. One row of mammary glands was used for dissection of parenchymal and extraparenchymal tissues and for determination of DNA, RNA, dry matter, protein, and fat contents. Tissue from the other row was used for measures of prolactin receptor number and affinity. Concentrations of prolactin were drastically reduced throughout the bromocriptine treatment period (P < .001), whereas there was no overall treatment effect on progesterone and IGF-I levels (P > .10). Total weight and extraparenchymal tissue weight of the mammary glands were unaffected by treatment (P > or = .1), but weight of parenchymal tissue, total DNA, and total RNA decreased (P < .01) with bromocriptine treatment. Percentages of fat and dry matter in parenchymal tissue increased with bromocriptine treatment (P < .01) and the percentage of protein decreased (P < .01). Number of prolactin receptors in parenchymal tissue decreased with bromocriptine treatment (P < .001) and receptor affinity increased (P < .001). Average fetal weight was lower in gilts receiving bromocriptine than in control gilts (P = .05), but fetal number did not differ (P > .1). These results clearly demonstrate that prolactin is essential for normal mammary gland development and can affect fetal growth during the last third of gestation in gilts.

  14. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  15. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  16. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  17. Effects of ketoprofen and flunixin in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, J M; Pijpers, A; Vernooy, J C; Van Nes, A; Verheijden, J H

    1994-08-01

    The antipyretic effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketoprofen (3 mg/kg) and flunixin (2 mg/kg) were studied in pigs. The drugs were administered intramuscularly at 8 and 32 h following endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Infected (non-medicated) and non-infected (non-medicated) controls were used. Endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induced laboured breathing, coughing, fever, reduced food and water consumption and increased white blood cell counts. At autopsy, pleuropneumonia was evident. Ketoprofen showed a highly significant antipyretic effect but flunixin did not. The decrease in food consumption of ketoprofen-treated pigs was significantly less than that of the infected (non-medicated) controls. Blood parameters were not significantly influenced by either NSAID and, at necropsy, gastric and renal side-effects were not observed for either drug.

  18. Pathogenesis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolate (US/Iowa/18984/2013) in 3-week-old weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Madson, D M; Magstadt, D R; Arruda, P H E; Hoang, H; Sun, D; Bower, L P; Bhandari, M; Burrough, E R; Gauger, P C; Pillatzki, A E; Stevenson, G W; Wilberts, B L; Brodie, J; Harmon, K M; Wang, C; Main, R G; Zhang, J; Yoon, K J

    2014-11-07

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is associated with clinical diarrhea in naïve swine of all ages. This report describes timing of antibody generation and disease progression following infection with a US PEDV isolate by assessing fecal viral shedding, morphometric analysis of intestinal lesions, and magnitude of immunohistochemical staining. Sixty-three, 3-week-old pigs were randomly allocated into control (n=27) and challenged (n=36) groups. Challenged pigs were administered 1 mL of 1 × 10(3) PFU/mL of US/Iowa/18984/2013 PEDV isolate by oro-gastric gavage. Three control and four challenged pigs were necropsied on days post-inoculation (dpi) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and weekly thereafter, until study termination on dpi 35. Clinical disease, fecal shedding, body weight, and temperature were monitored during the study period. Diarrhea was observed in challenged pigs beginning for some on dpi 2, affecting a majority of pigs by dpi 6 and subsiding by dpi 10. Average daily gain was significantly lower (P<0.001) for one week post-infection in challenged pigs. PEDV was detected in feces by PCR on dpi 1 and continued in a subset of pigs until dpi 24. PEDV-specific antigen was detected in villous enterocytes of challenged pigs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on dpi 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14. Microscopic lesions included severe diffuse atrophic enteritis with significantly reduced (P<0.001) villous length observed on dpi 3, 4, and 7. Under the conditions of this study, fecal shedding of PEDV and IHC staining can precede and continue beyond the observation of clinical signs, thus increasing the risk of viral transmission.

  19. [Non-neoplastic changes in the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Franz, P; Swoboda, H; Quint, C

    1994-05-01

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands are divided into the following groups: malformations, salivary gland cysts, sialadenosis, sialolithiasis, sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, oncocytosis and necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction). Clinically, an etiological classification of sialadenitis is mandatory. Sialadenosis is distinguishable from sialadenitis by its clinical, radiological, and morphological characteristics. Non-neoplastic cysts make up about 6% of diseases of the salivary glands. Mucoceles represent the majority of these cysts (75%). HIV-associated salivary gland disease includes lymphoepithelial lesions and cysts involving the salivary gland tissue and/or intraglandular lymph nodes, and Sjögren's syndrome-like conditions, diffuse interstitial lymphocytosis syndrome, and other reported lesions of the major salivary glands. The diagnosis, differential diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of different non-neoplastic salivary gland disorders are discussed.

  20. Identification of parathyroid glands: anatomical study and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Melo, Catarina; Pinheiro, Susana; Carvalho, Lina; Bernardes, António

    2015-03-01

    While performing thyroid surgery, the unintentional lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves results in a profound alteration in patient's quality of life. To minimize thyroid surgery morbidity, the surgeon must have an in-depth knowledge of the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck. This work intended to simulate total thyroidectomies using cadaver parts and isolate fragments that may correspond to parathyroid glands. The thyroid glands and "eventual" parathyroid glands were then submitted to histological study. Ninety-two cadaver parts were used for macroscopic dissection. A total of 242 fragments were isolated, 154 of which were confirmed through histological study to be parathyroid glands. In 36 cases, all "eventual" parathyroid glands isolated during dissection were confirmed through histological verification. In 40 cases, some glands were confirmed. In 16 cases, none of the "eventual" parathyroid glands was confirmed. The 92 thyroid glands isolated during dissection were also submitted to histological study. In 21 thyroid glands, 16 parathyroid glands were identified in the histological cuts: 8 sub-capsular, 8 extra-capsular, 6 intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical difference between the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland identification and preservation are sometimes a challenge during thyroid surgery, difficulty that has been demonstrated during dissection of cadaver parts.

  1. Production of ghrelin by the stomach of patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kizaki, Junya; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Poor nutrition and weight loss are important factors contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that, plays a role in appetite increase and fat storage. The present study aims to clarify the location of ghrelin mRNA in the stomach, changes in blood ghrelin concentrations after gastrectomy and whether or not they are associated with the reconstruction method in patients with gastric cancer. We collected seven normal mucosa samples from different parts of six totally resected stomachs with gastric cancer. We extracted RNA from the normal mucosa, synthesized cDNA from total RNA (1 μg), and then quantified ghrelin mRNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ghrelin blood concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in 74 patients with gastric cancer (total gastrectomy (TG), n=23; distal gastrectomy (DG), n=30; proximal gastrectomy (PG), n=11; pylorus preserving gastrectomy (PPG), n=10). In order, the ghrelin gene was expressed most frequently in the gastric body, followed by the fornix, cardia, antrum and pylorus ring. Blood ghrelin concentrations after surgery similarly changed in all groups. The average blood ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the DG and PPG groups than in the TG group on postoperative days (POD) 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180. However, blood ghrelin concentrations did not significantly differ between the DG and TG groups on POD 270 and 360. Cells that produce ghrelin are supposed to be located mostly in the fundic gland of the stomach. We speculate that the production of ghrelin from other organs increases from around nine months after total gastrectomy. Therefore, evaluating the nutritional status and the weight of patients at nine months after total gastrectomy is important to help these patients improve their QOL.

  2. Protein-carbohydrate interactions between Lactobacillus salivarius and pig mucins.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez-Palomares, C; Jiménez-Flores, R; Vázquez-Moreno, L; Ramos-Clamont-Montfort, G; Acedo-Félix, E

    2011-10-01

    Adherence to the gastrointestinal tract is a key element desirable for many of the proposed beneficial health effects of probiotic bacteria. The aims of this study were to determine the amounts of adhesion of 3 Lactobacillus salivarius strains (Lb6, Lb9, and Lb10) to porcine small intestinal mucins and to determine whether adhesion is a function of lectin-like activities. Dot and Western blot assays were performed to investigate bacterial adhesion. Several carbohydrates and glycoproteins were evaluated to determine whether they interfered with adhesion of the Lactobacillus strains to intestinal mucins and to determine whether they had lectin-like activities. The Lb9 and Lb10 strains had greater association with piglet mucins than did those from 22- to 24-wk-old finishing pigs (P = 0.021 and 0.037, respectively), whereas the Lb6 strain adhered to both (P = 0.138). Western blot assays showed that bacterial adhesion detected piglet mucosa from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. In finishing pigs, the adhesion was variable throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Galactose and mannose diminished the interaction of the Lb9 and Lb10 strains in intestinal mucosa (P = 0.028 and 0.026, respectively), whereas pig gastric mucin reduced the adhesion of the Lb6 strain (P = 0.013). Adhesion of the Lb9 and Lb10 strains to intestinal mucosa was less after protease treatment (P = 0.023 and 0.018, respectively), which indicates that proteins are needed for the Lb9 and Lb10 strains to recognize mucin. The Lb6 strain also demonstrated diminished adhesion after periodate treatment (P = 0.038). From these results, we suggest that the nature of the bacterial lectin-like substance is a surface protein that loosely binds to the bacterial cell surface. All the tested strains adhered to specific targets in the small intestinal mucosa of piglets, and the bacteria had lectin-like proteins involved in this adhesion.

  3. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  4. A new gastric ulcer model induced by ischemia-reperfusion in the rat: role of leukocytes on ulceration in rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Wada, K; Kamisaki, Y; Kitano, M; Kishimoto, Y; Nakamoto, K; Itoh, T

    1996-01-01

    A new model of gastric ulcer involving damage to the muscularis mucosae was developed by clamping the celiac artery in rat to induce ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Although erosions with falling off of the gastric mucosa were observed immediately, 24 and 36 hours after the I-R, gastric ulcers involving the injury of muscularis mucosae were observed in the area of gastric glands at 48 and 72 hours after initiation of injury. Administration of omeprazol, a proton pump inhibitor, or pentoxifylline, an anti-leukocyte drug, just after the initiation of injury significantly decreased the total area of ulcers at 72 hours. A combination of omeprazol and pentoxifylline was more effective than either drug alone. An anti-leukocyte adhesion molecule (anti-CD18 antibody) also showed significant inhibitory effect on the development of ulcers at 72 hours and the infiltration of leukocytes into both submucosa and mucosa. These results indicate that in our model, gastric acid together with leukocytes contribute to the development of ulcers following erosions. This model may be used to investigate the mechanisms of the development of gastric ulcer and evaluate antiulcer drugs in a preclinical setting.

  5. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined.

  6. The aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    The acinar salivary glands of cockroaches receive a dual innervation from the subesophageal ganglion and the stomatogastric nervous system. Acinar cells are surrounded by a plexus of dopaminergic and serotonergic varicose fibers. In addition, serotonergic terminals lie deep in the extracellular spaces between acinar cells. Excitation-secretion coupling in cockroach salivary glands is stimulated by both dopamine and serotonin. These monoamines cause increases in the intracellular concentrations of cAMP and Ca(2+). Stimulation of the glands by serotonin results in the production of a protein-rich saliva, whereas stimulation by dopamine results in saliva that is protein-free. Thus, two elementary secretory processes, namely electrolyte/water secretion and protein secretion, are triggered by different aminergic transmitters. Because of its simplicity and experimental accessibility, cockroach salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system to study the cellular actions of biogenic amines and to examine the pharmacological properties of biogenic amine receptors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the aminergic control of cockroach salivary glands and discuss our efforts to characterize Periplaneta biogenic amine receptors molecularly.

  7. Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.

    PubMed

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-11-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus.

  8. Estrogens sensitize anterior pituitary gland to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pisera, D; Candolfi, M; Navarra, S; Ferraris, J; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Castro, M G; Seilicovich, A

    2004-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and cell death by apoptosis. Estradiol affects proliferation as well as apoptosis in hormone-dependent tissues. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary gland to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cycling female rats, and the influence of estradiol in this response in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were chronically estrogenized with implanted Silastic capsules containing 1 mg of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Cycling or OVX and E2-treated rats were injected with LPS (250 microg/rat ip). Apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in sections of the anterior pituitary gland and spleen. Chronic estrogenization induced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland. Acute endotoxemia triggered apoptosis of cells in the anterior pituitary gland of E2-treated rats but not of OVX rats. No differences were observed in the apoptotic response to LPS in spleen between OVX and E2-treated rats. The apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary to LPS was variable along the estrous cycle, being higher at proestrus than at estrus or diestrus I. Approximately 75% of the apoptotic cells were identified as lactotropes by immunofluorescence. In conclusion, our results indicate that estradiol induces apoptosis and enables the proapoptotic action of LPS in the anterior pituitary gland. Also, our study suggests that estrogens may be involved in anterior pituitary cell renewal during the estrous cycle, sensitizing lactotropes to proapoptotic stimuli.

  9. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeun J.; Hong, Hyun S.; Jeong, Sun H.; Lee, Eun H.; Jung, Min J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) is a rare malignancy with the histopathological feature of undifferentiated carcinoma and an intermixed reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Although clinically significant because of its malignant nature, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis by preoperative imaging. Here, we report 3 cases of primary LEC arising in the major salivary glands, which showed unusual imaging features unlike other malignant tumors. Patient concerns: Our first case is a 44-year-old man with LEC in the right parotid gland, the second case is a 71-year-old woman with LEC in the right submandibular gland, and the third case is a 35-year-old woman with LEC in the right parotid gland. All of the patients presented with a palpable mass of variable duration. Diagnoses: Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a relatively well-defined, slightly hyperattenuated exophytic solid mass that had homogeneous well-enhanced regions. Ultrasonography (US) in the first 2 cases showed well-defined, hypoechoic solid masses with posterior enhancement. The CT findings seem to be benign tumors, but US features are compatible with highly cellular and hypervascular tumors. Interventions: The resection of the involved salivary gland with postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Outcomes: There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 5 years in all 3 patients. Lessons: Understanding these unusual imaging findings may be helpful in detecting LEC, and may also help clinicians provide adequate management to patients, such as surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, because of its malignant entity. PMID:28207533

  10. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  11. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P < 0.001), gastric ulcer (OR = 6.97, P = 0.015), gastric dysplasia (OR = 6.11, P = 0.038), and gastric cancer (OR = 6.53, P = 0.027). Histologic findings of Barrett’s esophagus (OR = 0.28, P = 0.003) and esophageal dysplasia (OR = 0.11, P = 0.014) were inversely associated with gastric IM. Tobacco use (OR = 1.73, P = 0.005) was associated with gastric IM. CONCLUSION Patients who smoke or have the endoscopic finding of atrophic gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  12. Percutaneous drainage of gastric remnant dilatation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bibyan, M; Khandelwal, R G; Parmar, A K; Reddy, P K

    2012-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Gastric remnant dilatation is an uncommon early complication of this procedure that can be fatal if treatment is delayed, as it can cause peritonitis and death. Herein we report a gastric bypass patient who presented with profound shock 3 months after the surgery. After resuscitation and evaluation, she was diagnosed as having a massive dilatation of gastric remnant, which we managed with percutaneous drainage.

  13. Effects of ezrin knockdown on the structure of gastric glandular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saori; Yamamoto, Hiroto; Tetsui, Takahito; Kobayakawa, Yuka; Hatano, Ryo; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Asano, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Ezrin, an adaptor protein that cross-links plasma membrane-associated proteins with the actin cytoskeleton, is concentrated on apical surfaces of epithelial cells, especially in microvilli of the small intestine and stomach. In the stomach, ezrin is predominantly expressed on the apical canalicular membrane of parietal cells. Transgenic ezrin knockdown mice in which the expression level of ezrin was reduced to <7% compared with the wild-type suffered from achlorhydria because of impairment of membrane fusion between tubulovesicles and apical membranes. We observed, for the first time, hypergastrinemia and foveolar hyperplasia in the gastric fundic region of the knockdown mice. Dilation of fundic glands was observed, the percentage of parietal and chief cells was reduced, and that of mucous-secreting cells was increased. The parietal cells of knockdown mice contained dilated tubulovesicles and abnormal mitochondria, and subsets of these cells contained abnormal vacuoles and multilamellar structures. Therefore, lack of ezrin not only causes achlorhydria and hypergastrinemia but also changes the structure of gastric glands, with severe perturbation of the secretory membranes of parietal cells.

  14. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

    2012-01-01

    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  15. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight exciting new advances and opportunities in studies of cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, growth factors, and gene expression patterns to improve our understanding of this important process. PMID:21125789

  16. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis.

  17. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  18. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    PubMed

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Müller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future.

  19. Human gastric epithelial cells contribute to gastric immune regulation by providing retinoic acid to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, D; Kao, J Y; Zhang, M; Cochrun, S; Mannon, P; Peter, S; Wilcox, C M; Mönkemüller, K E; Harris, P R; Grams, J M; Stahl, R D; Smith, P D; Smythies, L E

    2015-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule retinol (ROL), and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of ROL synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation.

  20. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  1. Insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes an insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Both guinea pigs presented with neurologic signs and low blood glucose readings. The neurologic signs resolved with dextrose administration. Insulinoma was confirmed on postmortem examination. PMID:15943120

  2. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  3. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  4. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha Ashok Kumar; Mulla, Aamera Farouq; Mayank, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27721615

  5. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front.

  6. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity.

  7. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  8. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using (3H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate (( 3H)QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. (3H)QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with (3H)pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies.

  9. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  10. Selected Endoscopic Gastric Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Rothstein, Richard I

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on the stomach target devices that are currently in various stages of development. Approved intragastric balloons, devices targeting small bowel and aspiration techniques, are described in other contributions to this issue. Bariatric endoscopic devices targeting the stomach directly alter gastric physiology and promote weight loss by potentially changing functional gastric volume, gastric emptying, gastric wall compliance, neurohormonal signaling, and, thereby, satiety. Many stomach-targeting devices are on the horizon for clinical use, and further study will determine the safety and efficacy for clinical use.

  11. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  12. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir; Khoury, Tawfik

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  13. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Craanen, M E; Blok, P; Dekker, W; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal metaplasia were significantly more common in intestinal type early gastric cancer compared with diffuse type early gastric cancer (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). H pylori was found in 61.3% of intestinal type early gastric cancer and in 54.5% of diffuse type early gastric cancer (NS). The age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in the patients with antral gastritis was higher in H pylori positive patients in all age groups studied. Comparing gastritis patients with patients with intestinal type early gastric cancer showed the age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia to be significantly higher in the patients with early gastric cancer in all age groups studied. In conclusion, H pylori is associated with both types of early gastric carcinoma. Intestinal metaplasia formation seems to be a multifactorial process in which H pylori may play a part. These findings suggest that gastric cancer may be included in the spectrum of H pylori associated diseases, although many questions about causality remain to be answered. PMID:7959189

  14. Thiamphenicol disposition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Castells, G; Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Pérez, B; Arboix, M; Cristòfol, C; Martì, G

    1999-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) were determined after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 30 mg kg-1 of TAP in pigs. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Intravenous TAP kinetics were fitted to a bi-exponential equation, with a first rapid disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short, at 59.3 (29.4) minutes; volume of distribution at steady state was 0.62 (0.24) 1 kg-1; and plasma clearance was 13.4 (4.5) ml min-1 kg-1. After i.m. administration, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax= 4.1 microg ml-1) was reached in about 60 minutes; these concentrations are lower than those reported in other species. The TAP elimination half-life after i.m. administration, 250.2 (107.1) minutes was longer after than i.v. administration, probably due to the slow rate of absorption from the muscle. The mean bioavailability value for i.m. administration was 76 (12) per cent.

  15. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  16. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  17. Practical imaging of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bag, Asim K; Curé, Joel K; Chapman, Philip R; Pettibon, Keith D; Gaddamanugu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    The parotid gland may be affected by numerous pathologies, and physicians from many different medical and surgical specialties request parotid imaging. Mastering the typical imaging features of various types of parotid pathology is facilitated by understanding how various diseases produce their characteristic imaging findings. In this review article, we present succinct overviews of the normal anatomy and the common pathologies of the parotid gland and recommend a practical approach to differential diagnosis that can be easily implemented in day-to-day radiology practice.

  18. Nonneoplastic disorders of the eccrine glands.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, F G; Horn, T D

    1998-01-01

    Eccrine glands are uniquely susceptible to a variety of pathologic processes. Alteration in the rate of sweat secretion manifests as hypohidrosis and hyperhidrosis. Obstruction of the eccrine duct leads to miliaria. The excretion of drugs into eccrine sweat may be a contributory factor in neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH), syringosquamous metaplasia (SSM), coma bulla, and erythema multiforme (EM). Alterations in the electrolyte composition of eccrine sweat can be observed in several systemic diseases, most notably cystic fibrosis. This article summarizes current knowledge of eccrine gland pathophysiology.

  19. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  20. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  1. Breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Julia Fragoso; Bacchin, Renata Prota; Costa, Priscila Scatena; Alves, Gisele Malavazi; Fraige Filho, Fadlo; Stella, Lenira Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic tumors to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. Breast and lung are the commonest sites of the primary tumor. Prognosis of patients with breast cancer metastasis is poor and depends on the primary neoplastic extension. We report a 54 year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary stalk first diagnosed because of visual disturbance with no other symptoms. Pituitary gland stalk metastasis is a very uncommon find and this case report includes a literature review.

  2. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer. From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed. Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474). The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer. PMID:27828865

  3. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer.From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed.Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474).The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer.

  4. Importance of the pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins and sensory nerves in the gastroprotective actions of central and peripheral melatonin against stress-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Brzozowska, Iwona; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Pawlik, Michal; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-11-01

    Melatonin attenuates acute gastric lesions induced by topical strong irritants because of scavenging of free radicals, but its role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions has been sparingly investigated. In this study we compared the effects of intragastric (i.g.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of melatonin and its precursor, L-tryptophan, with or without concurrent treatment with luzindole, a selective antagonist of melatonin MT2 receptors, on gastric lesions induced by water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). The involvement of pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins (PG) and sensory nerves in gastroprotective action of melatonin and L-tryptophan against WRS was studied in intact or pinealectomized rats or those treated with indomethacin or rofecoxib to suppress cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, respectively, and with capsaicin to induce functional ablation of the sensory nerves. In addition, the influence of i.c.v. and i.g. melatonin on gastric secretion was tested in a separate group of rats equipped with gastric fistulas. At 3.5 hr after the end of WRS, the number of gastric lesions was counted, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was determined by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma melatonin and gastrin levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Biopsy mucosal samples were taken for determination of expression of mRNA for COX-1 and COX-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and of the mucosal generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by RIA. Melatonin applied i.g. (1.25-10 mg/kg) or i.c.v. (1.25-10 microg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion and significantly attenuated the WRS-induced gastric damage. This protective effect of melatonin was accompanied by a significant rise in the GBF and plasma melatonin and gastrin levels and in mucosal generation of PGE2. Pinealectomy, which suppressed plasma melatonin levels, aggravated the gastric lesions induced by WRS and these effects

  5. The orbitofacial glands of bats: an investigation of the potential correlation of gland structure with social organization.

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Smith, Timothy D; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P

    2010-08-01

    The facial glands of bats are modified skin glands, whereas there are up to three different orbital glands: Harderian, lacrimal, and Meibomian glands. Scattered studies have described the lacrimal and Meibomian glands in a handful of bat species, but there is as yet no description of a Harderian gland in bats. In this study we examined serial sections of orbitofacial glands in eight families of bats. Much variation amongst species was observed, with few phylogenetic patterns emerging. Enlarged facial glands, either sudoriparous (five genera) or sebaceous (vespertilionids only) were observed. Meibomian and lacrimal glands were present in most species examined (except Antrozous), though the relative level of development varied. Two types of anterior orbital glands were distinguished: the Harderian gland (tubulo-acinar: observed in Rousettus, Atribeus, Desmodus and Miniopterus) and caruncular (sebaceous: observed in Eptesicus and Dieamus). The relative development of the nasolacrimal duct and the vomeronasal organ did not appear to be correlated with the development of any of the exocrine glands examined. There does, however, appear to be a correlation between the presence of at least one well developed exocrine gland and the level of communality and known olfactory acuity, best documented in Artibeus, Desmodus, and Miniopterus.

  6. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tetsuroh; Mine, Tetsuya; Katoh, Masaru

    2002-05-01

    WNT signal is transduced to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway, or the Ca2+-releasing pathway through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled genes (FZD1-FZD10). We have previously cloned and characterized human WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, and WNT14B/WNT15 by using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, we investigated expression of human WNT5A mRNA in various normal tissues, 66 primary tumors derived from various tissues, and 15 human cancer cell lines. WNT5A mRNA was relatively highly expressed in salivary gland, bladder, uterus, placenta, and fetal kidney. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was detected in 5 out of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer, 5 out of 18 cases of primary colorectal tumors, and in 2 out of 7 cases of primary uterus tumors by using matched tumor/normal expression array analysis. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was also detected in 7 out of 10 other cases of primary gastric cancer by using cDNA-PCR. Although low-level expression of WNT5A mRNA was detected in gastric cancer cell line MKN45, WNT5A mRNA was almost undetectable in gastric cancer cell lines OKAJIMA, TMK1, MKN7, MKN28, MKN74, and KATO-III. Compared with frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer, expression levels of WNT5A mRNA in 7 gastric cancer cell lines were significantly lower than that in normal stomach. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in human primary gastric cancer might be due to cancer-stromal interaction.

  7. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The methods for isolation and purification of a guinea-pig serum protein with homocytotropic antibody activity and characteristics of IgE are described. By precipitation in the equivalence zone or immunoadsorption and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, we isolated an homocytotropic antibody, that was not able to give a precipitin line when it was reacted directly with the antigen. It was capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA after a latent period of 24–48 hours but not after 3 hours; it was sensitive to treatment with mercaptoethanol. It had antigenic determinants present in the other guinea-pig immunoglobulins and particular antigenic determinants. All these properties make us believe that this protein belongs to an immunoglobulin different from γ1 and similar to the reaginic antibody (IgE) described in other species. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4126261

  8. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The physicochemical and biological properties of purified guinea-pig reaginic antibody were studied. It is a labile protein different to γ1. Its antibody activity is completely destroyed by heating at 56° for 6 hours and by treatment with mercaptoethanol. The capacity to give PCA is decreased by repeated freezing and thawing. It is a bivalent antibody, haemagglutinating, does not fix complement and is capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA reaction after a latent period of a week but not after 3 hours. Reaginic antibody appears on day 7–8 after the first inoculation and the higher levels (PCA reaction) are obtained at the eleventh to thirteenth days. After the fifteenth to seventeenth days the PCA is negative. The reaginic antibody does not pass the placenta. Higher levels of reaginic antibody were obtained when the guinea-pigs were inoculated with the antigen in saline with simultaneous inoculation, intraperitoneally, of killed Bordetella pertussis, phase I. PMID:4354828

  9. Analysis of the Distribution of Mucins in Adult Human Gastric Mucosa and Its Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mucins are complex composition of carbohydrates seen in the epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Normal distribution of such mucins in different part of the GIT and its alteration in various inflammatory, benign and malignant lesions of GIT has aroused interest in the field of histochemistry. Aim By applying variety of histochemical techniques an attempt has been made to draw a map of mucin secretion by the different epithelial cell types in different parts of the stomach. Materials and Methods Fifty samples were taken each from different parts of the stomach like fundus, body and pylorus, from dissected fresh specimens (total of 150 specimens). Tissue samples were subjected for routine process and studied for histological and different histochemical staining. Results Mucin pattern in adult predominantly secretes neutral mucosubstances. Surface epithelium shows predominant neutral mucin while cardiac and gastric glands with foveolar cells show moderate amount. Sialomucin is present in a few cells of the surface epithelium, foveolar cells and in most of the mucous neck cells. Small amount of sialomucin and sulphomucin are found in surface epithelial foveolar cells while traces of sulphomucin are found in deep foveolar cells. Mucous neck cells secrete both sulphomucin and sialomucin. Conclusion Normal gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric ulcers and malignant tumours of stomach secretes mucins which differ histochemically and biochemically from that of normal. Early recognition of such changes could be useful in recognizing the different type of carcinomas and their prognosis. PMID:27042436

  10. Submandibular gland mucocele associated with a mixed ranula.

    PubMed

    Hze-Khoong, Eugene Poh; Xu, Liqun; Shen, Shukun; Yin, Xuelai; Wang, Lizhen; Zhang, Chenping

    2012-06-01

    Mucoceles of the submandibular gland are extremely rare pathologic occurrences that present an investigative and management dilemma owing to their clinical indistinguishability from plunging ranulas. Of the few that have been documented, these mucous extravasation cysts involved the submandibular gland alone. We describe perhaps the first case of an extensive submandibular gland mucocele occurring in conjunction with a mixed ranula from the ipsilateral sublingual gland, and discuss the various considerations in the management of such lesions.

  11. NERP-2 regulates gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying via the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Cherl; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ueta, Yoichi; Kim, Min-Seon; Minamino, Naoto; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-16

    Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of NERP-2 to rats increased gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, whereas peripheral administration did not affect gastric function. NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying were blocked by an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867. NERP-2 also induced Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus X, which are key sites in the central nervous system for regulation of gastric function. Atropine, a blocker of vagal efferent signal transduction, completely blocked NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion. These results demonstrate that central administration of NERP-2 activates the orexin pathway, resulting in elevated gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying.

  12. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; MacNaughton, W K; Zhang, X J; Thompson, J H; Charbonnet, R M; Bobrowski, P; Lao, J; Trentacosti, A M; Sandoval, M

    2000-07-01

    Sangre de grado is an Amazonian herbal medicine used to facilitate the healing of gastric ulcers and to treat gastritis, diarrhea, skin lesions, and insect stings. This study was designed to evaluate the gastrointestinal applications. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by brief serosal exposure of the fundus to acetic acid (80%). Sangre de grado was administered in drinking water at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions from the postoperative period to day 7. Guinea pig ileum secretory responses to capsaicin, electrical field stimulation, and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) agonist [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P were examined in Ussing chambers. Sangre de grado facilitated the healing of experimental gastric ulcer, reducing myeloperoxidase activity, ulcer size, and bacterial content of the ulcer. The expression of proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated by ulcer induction but reduced by sangre de grado treatment, particularly iNOS and IL-6. In Ussing chambers, sangre de grado impaired the secretory response to capsaicin but not to electrical field stimulation or the NK-1 agonist. We conclude that sangre de grado is a potent, cost-effective treatment for gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and sensory afferent-dependent actions.

  13. Duodeno-gastric reflux and gastric adenomas: a scintigraphic study in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, A D; Granowska, M; Phillips, R K

    1991-01-01

    To test whether the presence of gastric adenomas (dysplasia) was associated with gastric reflux of duodenal contents, six patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who had gastric adenomas and nine matched FAP patients without gastric adenomas underwent scintigraphic duodeno-gastric reflux scanning. Reflux was graded 0-6, where 0 = no reflux, 1 = intermittent reflux into antrum only, 2 = prolonged reflux into antrum only, 3 = intermittent reflux into body, 4 = prolonged reflux into body, 5 = intermittent reflux into body and fundus, and 6 = prolonged reflux into body and fundus. FAP patients with gastric adenomas had more severe reflux (median 6, range 4-6) than did controls (median 3, range 0-6; P = 0.009, Mann-Whitney U test). These results are consistent with a role for bile in the development of gastric adenomatous polyps and suggest that bile is involved in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:1653358

  14. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion. PMID:26752884

  15. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  16. Comparative aspects of mammary gland development and homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary glands are crucial to the reproductive strategy of mammals and the milk of domesticated ruminants serves as an important source of nutrients for the human population. The majority of mammary gland development occurs postnatally and the mammary gland undergoes cyclical periods of growth, dif...

  17. VIP and its homologous increase vascular conductance in certain endocrine and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, L.J.; Connors, J.M.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-04-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and related structural homologues on tissue vascular conductances were investigated in anesthetized male rats. VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), or saline was infused intravenously over 4 min. Tissue blood flows were measured during this time by use of {sup 141}Ce-labeled microspheres. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels were determined before and at 20 min and 2 h after treatment. Marked increases in thyroid, pancreatic, and salivary gland vascular Cs occurred during peptide infusion with the order of potency correlating with the degree of structural homology to VIP. PHI and secretin produced maximal increases in vascular Cs, which were the same as those obtained with VIP. Circulating TSH, T{sub 3}, and T{sub 4} levels were not different from values in saline-infused rats after peptide treatments that caused striking increases in thyroid vascular C. These observations indicate that the vascular beds of certain endocrine and exocrine glands are responsive to the vasodilatory action of VIP and related homologues with the order of potency corresponding to the degree of structural homology to VIP. These results are also consistent with the proposal that structural homologues of VIP act at the same vascular receptor as VIP. Alternative, the involvement of different vascular receptors, acting through the same mechanism at a level beyond the receptor site, cannot be excluded.

  18. FGF23 and the parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphatonin that is secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in response to hyperphosphatemia and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). It acts on its receptor complex, Klotho-FGFR1c (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 c-splicing form), in the distal convoluted tubule to repress renal phosphorus reabsorption in the proximal tubule and suppress the renal synthesis of 1,25D. Klotho-FGFR1c is also expressed in the parathyroid glands. FGF23 acts on the receptor complex in the parathyroid glands to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression and PTH secretion through activation of the MAPK pathway. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), both FGF23 and PTH are increased, implying resistance of the parathyroid glands to FGF23. There is a decrease in the Klotho-FGFR1c complex in the parathyroid glands in both experimental CKD and in patients with end-stage renal disease. In addition, in advanced experimental CKD, FGF23 has a decreased ability to inhibit PTH expression.

  19. The Salivary Glands of Adult Blackflies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Salivary glands of adult female blackflies of known ages were examined by histological methods. These studies showed that each of the paired...secretory cells when the blackfly takes a blood meal. During the first 24 h after a blood meal the secretory cells again synthesize some PAS-positive

  20. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Arellano, L; Ibarra, A

    1984-09-01

    Ten occult carcinomas of the thyroid gland were found in 274 unselected autopsies at the Pathology Service, Hospital José Joaquín Aguirre, between December 1980 and March 1983. This is the lowest incidence among the most recent published series. The present results suggest that environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of this type of carcinoma.

  1. [Hypertrophy of the salivary glands in bulimia].

    PubMed

    Herrlinger, P; Gundlach, P

    2001-07-01

    We report a case of bulimia nervosa with bilateral swelling of the parotid and submandibular glands. It was the only symptom of the behavioral disorder. Sjögren's disease was excluded histologically. In our case, the parotomegaly as a symptom of sialadenosis was found at the same time as the eating disorder. MRI or ultrasound are important diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis.

  2. Pineal gland cyst evaluated by transcranial sonography.

    PubMed

    Budisic, M; Bosnjak, J; Lovrencic-Huzjan, A; Mikula, I; Bedek, D; Demarin, V

    2008-03-01

    Transcranial sonography (TCS) has never been used in the evaluation of morphology of pineal gland. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of TCS to distinguish normal from cystic pineal gland and to correlate its size with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first examination and during follow-up. Sixty patients with previously made MRI of the brain were evaluated by two independent observers using TCS, blinded to the results of the MRI. Inappropriate bone window limited TCS examination in seven patients. All 14 pineal gland cysts (PGC) seen on MRI were detected by both observers using TCS. Control group consisted of 39 healthy examinees. No statistically significant difference has been found between: PGC size measured by first and second observer by TCS (P = 0.425), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, P = 0.353; second observer, P = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, P = 0.497; second observer, P = 0.370) or interobserver variability in control group (P = 0.373). The MRI and TCS follow-up of ten patients after six months did not show any difference in size of PGC. TCS can be used as a method in detection, measurement and follow-up of PGC.

  3. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  4. Metastatic liposarcoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Azar, A R; Weynand, B; Daumerie, C; Coche, E

    2003-10-01

    Metastatic liposarcoma of the thyroid gland is exceptionally rare. A case of pleomorphic liposarcoma, which manifested as a soft tissue lump in the neck, is described in a 30-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration cytology permitted prompt diagnosis. The ultrasound and CT appearance of this type of thyroid metastasis is described which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  5. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  6. Stem cells and the developing mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Maisam; Spike, Benjamin T; Dravis, Christopher; Kannan, Nagarajan; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Eaves, Connie J

    2013-06-01

    The mammary gland undergoes dynamic changes throughout life. In the mouse, these begin with initial morphogenesis of the gland in the mid-gestation embryo followed by hormonally regulated changes during puberty and later in adulthood. The adult mammary gland contains a hierarchy of cell types with varying potentials for self-maintenance and differentiation. These include cells able to produce complete, functional mammary glands in vivo and that contain daughter cells with the same remarkable regenerative potential, as well as cells with more limited clonogenic activity in vitro. Here we review how applying in vitro and in vivo methods for quantifying these cells in adult mammary tissue to fetal mammary cells has enabled the first cells fulfilling the functional criteria of transplantable, isolated mammary stem cells to be identified a few days before birth. Thereafter, the number of these cells increases rapidly. Populations containing these fetal stem cells display growth and gene expression programs that differ from their adult counterparts but share signatures characteristic of certain types of breast cancer. Such observations reinforce growing evidence of important differences between tissue-specific fetal and adult cells with stem cell properties and emphasize the merits of investigating their molecular basis.

  7. [Morphological changes in gastric wall of mongolian gerbils following the 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3].

    PubMed

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G

    2012-01-01

    Gastric wall of Meriones unguiculatus is distinguished by species-specific properties arising from the peculiar proportion of interstitium, muscle and epithelial tissues. Exposure to the factors of the 12-d Foton-M3 flight led to microfocal lesions of the mucous coat, dystrophic developments in the acid glands, dissociation of the mucous barrier function and deterioration of its biosynthetic function. Modifications of the tinctorial properties of the interstitium reticulum in every stomach layer progressed concurrently with reductions in prismatic epithelium height, as well as in mucous and muscular layer thickness. It is assumed that existence in the low gravity aboard the Biosat stimulated involutory processes in the gastric wall. Animals of the ground synchronous control conducted in the flight equipment mockup (Kontur-L) exhibited though similar yet less pronounced changes.

  8. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θYC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  9. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  10. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Akalonu, Amaka; Yasrebi, Mona; Rios, Zarela Molle

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Female, 11 • Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous gastric perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • distention • vomiting • leukocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Both patients had surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare etiology Background: Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare clinical disorder. The majority of the available data have been reported in the neonatal age group. There are a few cases of spontaneous gastric perforation in preschool children. To our knowledge, there is no published information on spontaneous gastric perforation in older children and adolescents. Case Report: We describe the presentation and clinical course of two adolescent children who presented with spontaneous gastric perforation. Both children presented with acute onset abdominal pain, which progressively worsened. In both cases, the patient were taken urgently to the operating room after imaging studies had shown pneumoperitoneum. In both cases, surgery revealed gastric perforation with no obvious etiology, specifically no ulcer, inflammation, or other pathology. Conclusions: These two cases highlight the importance of including spontaneous gastric perforation, not just the typical duodenal/gastric ulcer, in the differential of a patient with severe abdominal pain and distension, who has imaging showing pneumoperitoneum. PMID:27686129

  11. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  12. First Case Report of a Sporadic Adrenocortical Carcinoma With Gastric Metastasis and a Synchronous Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Kovecsi, Attila; Jung, Ioan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Azamfirei, Leonard; Kovacs, Zsolt; Gurzu, Simona

    2015-09-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with high aggresivity that can associate systemic metastases. A 71-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer. The abdominal computed tomography also revealed a tumor above the right kidney. Total gastrectomy and right adrenalectomy were performed. The encapsulated tumor of the adrenal gland weighed 560 grams and presented diffuse tumor architecture under microscope, with capsular, sinusoidal, and vascular invasion. The large tumor cells had a polygonal shape, with slight basophilic, eosinophilic, or vacuolated cytoplasm, pleomorphic nuclei, and a high mitotic rate. In the stomach, the protruded tumor was covered by normal mucosa; under microscope, the tumor cells were observed only in the submucosal layer. In primary adrenal tumor and gastric metastasis the tumor cells were marked by vimentin, inhibin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and calretinin. Based on these criteria, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) with gastric metastasis and no lymph node metastases was established. A synchronous 10 × 10-mm-sized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach, without mitoses, was also identified. So far, as we know, this is the 15th case of ever reported synchronous/metachronous sporadic ACCs; the ACC-related gastric metastases either synchronous ACC and GIST, has not been reported in the literature previously.

  13. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  14. Factors controlling gastric-glucagon release.

    PubMed Central

    Lefèbvre, P J; Luyckx, A S

    1977-01-01

    A system consisting of an isolated dog stomach perfused with whole blood has been designed to study gastric glucagon secretion. Under basal conditions, gastric glucagon release was 0.0-3.1 ng glucagon/100g of stomach per min. Arginine, at an arterial plasma concentration averaging 10 mM, elicited a rapid glucagon release. This gastric glucagon release was almost completely abolished by somatostatin (100 ng/ml). The release of gastric glucagon was not affected by hyperglycemia alone but was reduced by about 40% when hyperglycemia was concomitant with an hyperinsulinemia within the physiological range. These observations support the concept that adequate concentrations of insulin are necessary in order for hyperglycemia to inhibit gastric glucagon secretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that the isolated perfused dog stomach might provide a unique tool permitting investigation of alpha-cell function in the absence of endogenously released insulin. PMID:845258

  15. Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Risk factors of gastric carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, DNA damage, Helicobacter pylori infection, bad eating habits, and smoking. Since oxidative stress is related to DNA damage, smoking, and H. pylori infection, scavenging of reactive oxygen species may be beneficial for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. Lycopene, one of the naturally occurring carotenoids, has unique structural and chemical features that contributes to a potent antioxidant activity. It shows a potential anticancer activity and reduces gastric cancer incidence. This review will summarize anticancer effect and mechanism of lycopene on gastric carcinogenesis based on the recent experimental and clinical studies. PMID:26151041

  16. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  17. Gastric Pneumatosis in a Premature Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Chan, Kwong-leung; Wong, Siu-chun Mabel; Chim, Stella; Wong, Kar-yin

    2011-01-01

    Gastric pneumatosis is extremely rare during infancy. It has been reported in association with necrotizing enterocolitis or congenital abnormalities such as pyloric stenosis. Here, we report a case of gastric pneumatosis in a premature neonate on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No pneumatosis was noted in the rest of the bowel or esophagus. There could have been mild damage in the gastric mucosa, either related to the placement of the feeding tube or secondary to the use of indomethacin or both. The condition was further aggravated by noninvasive ventilation. An increase in intragastric pressure resulted in the submucosal dissection of air followed by the development of gastric pneumatosis. Conservative management strategies, including the use of a nasogastric tube for decompression and the withholding of feeding, successfully managed the gastric pneumatosis in our patient. An uneventful recovery was made after conservative management. Prompt recognition and evaluation of this condition were essential for making the diagnosis. PMID:23705077

  18. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  19. Gastric acid secretion: changes during a century.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Francesco; Goni, Elisabetta

    2014-12-01

    The advances in knowledge of gastric physiology within the past century have been the most exciting and important in this area of interest for many decades. The aim of this presentation consists of a comprehensive review of the extensive recent literature on this topic in order to highlight milestones in the field of gastric physiology, in particular in gastric acid secretion, gastric pathophysiology, acid-related diseases and use of acid regulatory drugs. Moreover, in the 21st century there have been many epidemiologic changes as well as a decrease of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer together with an increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the related increase of pomp proton inhibitor wide use.

  20. Novel urease-negative Helicobacter sp. 'H. enhydrae sp. nov.' isolated from inflamed gastric tissue of southern sea otters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zeli; Batac, Francesca; Mannion, Anthony; Miller, Melissa A; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ho, Calvin; Manning, Sean; Paster, Bruce J; Fox, James G

    2017-02-08

    A total of 31 sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis found dead or moribund (and then euthanized) were necropsied in California, USA. Stomach biopsies were collected and transected with equal portions frozen or placed in formalin and analyzed histologically and screened for Helicobacter spp. in gastric tissue. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from 9 sea otters (29%); 58% (18 of 31) animals were positive for helicobacter by PCR. The Helicobacter sp. was catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. By electron microscopy, the Helicobacter sp. had lateral and polar sheathed flagella and had a slightly curved rod morphology. 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses of all 'H. enhydrae' isolates had similar sequences, which clustered as a novel Helicobacter sp. closely related to H. mustelae (96-97%). The genome sequence of isolate MIT 01-6242 was assembled into a single ~1.6 Mb long contig with a 40.8% G+C content. The annotated genome contained 1699 protein-coding sequences and 43 RNAs, including 65 genes homologous to known Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter spp. virulence factors. Histological changes in the gastric tissues extended from mild cystic degeneration of gastric glands to severe mucosal erosions and ulcers. Silver stains of infected tissues demonstrated slightly curved bacterial rods at the periphery of the gastric ulcers and on the epithelial surface of glands. The underlying mucosa and submucosa were infiltrated by low numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, with occasional lymphoid aggregates and well-defined lymphoid follicles. This is the second novel Helicobacter sp., which we have named 'H. enhydrae', isolated from inflamed stomachs of mustelids, the first being H. mustelae from a ferret.