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Sample records for pig gastric glands

  1. Effect of hydration on structural and thermodynamic properties of pig gastric and bovine submaxillary gland mucins.

    PubMed

    Znamenskaya, Yana; Sotres, Javier; Engblom, Johan; Arnebrant, Thomas; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2012-04-26

    One of the essential functions of mucous gel is protection of tissues against dehydration. The effect of hydration on the structural and thermodynamic properties of pig gastric mucin (PGM) and bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), sorption, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis of sorption isotherms shows the higher water sorption capacity of PGM compared to BSM at RH levels lower than about 78%. The value of the hydration enthalpy at zero water content at 25 °C for both biopolymers is about -20 kJ/mol. Glass transitions of BSM and PGM occur at RH levels between 60 and 70% for both mucins. AFM indicates the presence of a dumbbell structure as well as a fiber-like structure in PGM samples. The experimental volume of the dry dumbbell molecule obtained by AFM is 3140 ± 340 nm(3). Using DSC data, the amount of nonfreezing water was calculated to be about 0.51 g/g of PGM. The phase diagram of PGM demonstrates two regions of different Tg: dependent and independent of hydration levels. In particular, at mucin concentrations from 0 to 67 wt %, the glass transition occurs at a constant temperature of about -15 °C. At higher concentrations of mucin, Tg is increasing with increasing mucin concentrations.

  2. [Comparative ultrastructural study of parotid gland, lacrimal gland and pituitary gland between miniature pig and mouse].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Hai, Bo; Sun, Yi-lin; Zhang, Chun-mei; Wang, Song-ling

    2009-02-01

    To study the ultrastructure of parotid glands, lacrimal glands and pituitary glands between miniature pig and mouse. Five adult miniature pigs and 5 mice were studied. Ultrastructure of their parotid glands, lacrimal glands, and pituitary glands was observed. The secretary granules in acinar cell of miniature pig parotid glands showed higher density and more aequalis than those of mice. The cell apparatus in acinar cell of mouse parotid glands were more plentiful than those of miniature pigs. The secretary granules on blood vessel wall were richer in parotid gland of miniature pigs compared with mouse parotid gland. Lacrimal gland had the similar ultrastructure to parotid gland in these two animals. Many blood vessel antrum were found in pituitary glands of these two animals. Compared with mouse parotid glands, there are more secretary granules in acinar cells and vascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands, which might enter blood stream and have function of endocrine secretion.

  3. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild. PMID:23093914

  4. Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally.

  5. Ultrastructural cytochemistry of complex carbohydrates of gastric epithelium in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Spicer, S S

    1980-11-01

    Ultrastructural and complex-carbohydrate cytochemical studies were carried out on guinea pig gastric mucosa to assess the histochemical properties of the secretions of different gastric epithelial cells and to investigate the differentiation, origin, and renewal of certain cell types. The observations disclosed heterogeneity or variability of the secretory granules within individual mucigenic cells and zymogen cells. The cytochemical methods also served in characterizing and distinguishing five cell types in the gastric glands, including the isthmus cell, a mucous cell considered comparable to the mucous neck cell, the chief cell, and forms transitional between the isthmus and mucous cells and the mucous and zymogenic cells. The several cell types differed widely in the cytochemical properties of the secretory granules and of the apical plasmalemma, and each had a distinctive distribution in the gastric gland. Cytochemical staining observed here provided evidence on synthesis and intracellular metamorphosis of mucous droplets and on formation of glycocalyx.

  6. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an "unsupervised" and a "supervised" approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach.

  7. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an “unsupervised” and a “supervised” approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach. PMID:28249050

  8. Identification of lingual glands and ducts ventrally in pigs' tongues.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K

    1989-01-01

    Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778

  9. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding α4GnT, and then demonstrated that αGlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that αGlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for αGlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  10. Wine stimulates gastric acid secretion in isolated rabbit gastric glands via two different pathways.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, K; Tomita, K; Okabe, S

    2002-04-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine are well known to potently stimulate gastric acid secretion, most probably through an increase in circulating gastrin level. The present study examined whether or not wine stimulates gastric acid secretion by a direct effect on parietal cells, enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells or both. Gastric mucosa was isolated from female Japanese white rabbits and gland specimens were prepared by the collagenase digestion method. Acid secretion was assessed by gland accumulation of [14C] aminopyrine. The effects of red wine, ethanol, non-alcoholic wine and drugs were determined by incubating gastric glands with aminopyrine. Radioactivity in solubilized glands was determined by a liquid scintillation counting. Neither wine nor ethanol (diluted 1 : 10(2) to 1 : 10(4)) had any effect on gastric acid secretion, whereas non-alcoholic wine stimulated acid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. All substances, however, significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion in IBMX (phosphodiesterase inhibitor)-pretreated glands. S-0509 (a CCK-2 receptor antagonist) and atropine had no effect on acid secretion stimulated by wine, ethanol or non-alcoholic wine in IBMX-pretreated glands. Famotidine and omeprazole significantly inhibited the acid secretion resulting from all of the above stimulants. BAPTA (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) inhibited acid secretion stimulated with wine or ethanol in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit secretion stimulated by non-alcoholic wine. Wine was found to stimulate gastric acid secretion in gastric glands via two pathways, by an ethanol-induced increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ in parietal cells, and by histamine release from ECL cells potentially induced by constituents present in wine.

  11. Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Liebelt, A.G.; Congdon, C.C.; Stewart, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors.

  12. [Histochemical characteristics of the secretory cells of gastric glands compared].

    PubMed

    Shubich, M G; Mogil'naia, G M; Dudetskiĭ, V I; Bogatyr', L Ia

    1978-02-01

    The work is dedicated to complex histological studies of the secreting cells in the gastric fundal glands, in their comparative aspect. In the representatives of Amphibia, Reptilians and birds, histochemical differentiation of oxyntopeptic cells was demonstrated to be independent on the peculiarities of the animal nutrition. In mammals, histochemical characteristic of the carbohydrate component in the glandular secreting cells depends on the type of nutrition.

  13. Geranylgeranylacetone protects guinea pig gastric mucosal cells from gastric stressor-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tatsunori; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Tomisato, Wataru; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2002-07-01

    Various stressors induce apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells, which may cause gastric mucosal lesions in vivo. We recently reproduced gastric stressor-induced apoptosis in vitro, using primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. Geranylgeranylacetone is an antiulcer drug with heat-shock protein-inducing properties. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of geranylgeranylacetone on gastric stressor-induced apoptosis in vitro. Ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid all induced, in a dose-dependent manner, apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment of cells with geranylgeranylacetone inhibited the apoptotic DNA fragmentation caused by each of these gastric stressors. Pretreatment of cells with a low concentration of ethanol, a procedure that is also known tb induce heat-shock proteins, made cells resistant to the apoptotic DNA fragmentation. These results suggest that heat-shock proteins could be at least partly involved in the inhibitory effect of geranylgeranylacetone against apoptosis of gastric mucosal cells caused by these gastric stressors.

  14. Alkaline secretion by frog gastric glands measured with pH microelectrodes in the gland lumen.

    PubMed

    Debellis, L; Caroppo, R; Fromter, E; Curci, S

    1998-11-15

    1. In the present work we have measured the pH of the secreted fluid within the gland lumen of isolated but intact gastric mucosa of Rana esculenta. Tissues were mounted in a double chamber allowing continuous perfusion of the mucosal and serosal compartment, and the measurements were made with double-barrelled pH glass microelectrodes inserted into the glands from the serosal surface under microscopic inspection. 2. During inhibition of H+ secretion by cimetidine (100 microM) the luminal gland pH (pHgl) averaged 7.60 +/- 0.05 pH units (mean +/- s.e.m.; n = 35), a value significantly higher than bath solution pH (7.45 +/- 0.02; P < 0.001) and also higher than intracellular pH of oxyntopeptic cells (pHi), which averaged 7.53 +/- 0.06 (n = 18). 3. Stimulation of acid secretion with histamine (500 microM) reversibly decreased pHgl to values which could be as low as 2.5. Together with electrophysiological criteria this response was routinely used to verify the proper location of the microelectrode tip within the gland lumen. 4. Stimulation with carbachol (100 microM) or pentagastrin (50 microM) in the presence of cimetidine rapidly and reversibly increased pHgl by 0.10 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 24; P < 0.001) and 0.09 +/- 0.02 pH units (n = 6; P < 0.05), respectively. 5. The observation that gastric gland fluid is more alkaline than the bath solutions and that carbachol or pentagastrin further alkalinize it strongly suggests that oxyntopeptic cells participate in gastric alkaline secretion at least under cholinergic stimulation.

  15. Stimulation of acid formation in permeable gastric glands by valinomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, S.J.; Steiner, L. )

    1988-09-01

    Isolated gastric glands made permeable with digitonin treatment were employed to study the ionic requirements of acid formation. Acid formation was monitored by the accumulation of a novel weak base probe, ({sup 14}C)benzylamine. ATP-dependent acid formation was found to require K{sup +} in a concentration-dependent manner, with an apparent K{sub 0.5} = 7 mM. The anion dependence of acid formation gave a selectivity sequence of Cl = I > Br < NO{sub 3} > SO{sub 4} = isethionate, with isethionate being {approximately}50% as effective as Cl. The dependence of acid formation on (Cl) gave an apparent K{sub 0.5} = 6 mM. Addition of the K{sup +} ionophore, valinomycin, to resting glands (cimetidine pretreatment) resulted in a two- to threefold increase in ATP-dependent acid formation. In contrast, stimulated (forskolin pretreated) glands showed a greater accumulation of benzylamine with ATP but significantly less valinomycin stimulation. The valinomycin stimulation required both K{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} and was inhibited by omeprazole and Sch 28080. The results and interpreted to indicate that major events in the transition from a resting to a stimulated state include changes in both K{sup +} and anion permeability of the secretory membrane of parietal cells.

  16. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding pig gastric mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B S; Bhaskar, K R; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, M; Specian, R D; LaMont, J T

    1995-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies raised to deglycosylated pig gastric mucin were used to screen a cDNA library constructed with pig stomach mucosal mRNA. Immunocytochemistry indicated that the antibody recognizes intracellular and secreted mucin in surface mucous cells of pig gastric epithelium. A total of 70 clones producing proteins immunoreactive to this antibody were identified, two of which (PGM-2A,9B) were fully sequenced from both ends. Clone PGM-9B hybridized to a polydisperse mRNA (3-9 kb) from pig stomach, but not liver, intestine or spleen, nor to mRNA from human, mouse, rabbit or rat stomach. Sequence analysis indicated that PGM-9B encodes 33 tandem repeats of a 16-amino-acid consensus sequence rich in serine (46%) and threonine (17%). Using the restriction enzyme MwoI, which has a single target site in the repeat, it was demonstrated that PGM-9B consists entirely of this tandem repeat. Southern-blot analysis indicated that the repeat region is contained in a 20 kb HindIII-EcoRI fragment, and BamHI digestion suggested that most of the repeats are contained in a 10 kb fragment. In situ hybridization with an antisense probe to PGM-9B showed an intense signal in the entire gastric gland. Clone PGM-2A also contains the same repeat sequence as 9B, but, in addition, has a 64-amino-acid-long non-repeat region at its 5' end. Interestingly the non-repeat region of PGM-2A has five cysteine residues, the arrangement of which is identical with that reported for human intestinal mucin gene MUC2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7755593

  17. Characterization of prolactin receptors in pig mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, S; Katoh, M; Berthon, P; Kelly, P A

    1984-01-01

    Prolactin receptors present in the particulate fraction of lactating pig mammary gland were solubilized by 7.5mM-3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-su lph onic acid (Chaps) and purified by affinity chromatography on prolactin coupled to Affi-Gel 10. Nearly 30% of the particulate receptors were solubilized by the detergent and over a 1000-fold purification from homogenates was achieved. A water-soluble fraction rich in receptors was observed during the preparation of membranes, although this fraction has not yet been purified. Prolactin binding to the receptors was a time-dependent, reversible and saturable reaction in particulate, Chaps-solubilized and purified receptors. In all forms, receptors showed the same specificity to peptide hormones. Prolactin and human growth hormone bound to the same receptors, whereas bovine growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin failed to bind. After solubilization, the dissociation constant (Kd) for prolactin was decreased 5-fold from 9.8 X 10(-11) M in the particulate receptors to 1.8 X 10(-11) M in solubilized and purified receptors, being due principally to an increase in the association rate constant from 1.0 X 10(9)M-1 X h-1 to (3.9-4.6) X 10(9)M-1 X h-1, respectively, with the dissociation rate constant remaining unchanged at (1.1-1.3) X 10(-2)h-1. Isoelectric focusing of the prolactin-receptor complex revealed two peaks, one at a pI of 5.5-5.6 and the other at 5.2-5.3. Microsomal receptors were covalently cross-linked to 125I-labelled ovine prolactin with ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate) and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the gel revealed a major subunit of Mr 28 000-35 000 and a minor one of Mr 67 000-69 000. Anti-(prolactin receptor) antibodies raised against rabbit mammary gland prolactin receptors were equally effective in inhibiting prolactin binding to particulate

  18. Thoracic epidural analgesia reduces gastric microcirculation in the pig.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Rikard; Strandby, Rune B; Secher, Niels H; Rünitz, Kim; Svendsen, Morten B S; Petersen, Lonnie G; Achiam, Michael P; Svendsen, Lars B

    2016-10-06

    Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is used for pain relief during and after abdominal surgery, but the effect of TEA on the splanchnic microcirculation remains debated. We evaluated whether TEA affects splanchnic microcirculation in the pig. Splanchnic microcirculation was assessed in nine pigs prior to and 15 and 30 min after induction of TEA. Regional blood flow was assessed by neutron activated microspheres and changes in microcirculation by laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). As assessed by LSCI 15 min following TEA, gastric arteriolar flow decreased by 22 % at the antrum (p = 0.020) and by 19 % at the corpus (p = 0.029) of the stomach. In parallel, the microcirculation decreased by 19 % at the antrum (p = 0.015) and by 20 % at the corpus (p = 0.028). Reduced arteriolar flow and microcirculation at the antrum was confirmed by a reduction in microsphere assessed regional blood flow 30 min following induction of TEA (p = 0.048). These manifestations took place along with a drop in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.030), but with no significant change in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, or heart rate. The results indicate that TEA may have an adverse effect on gastric arteriolar blood flow and microcirculation. LSCI is a non-touch technique and displays changes in blood flow in real-time and may be important for further evaluation of the concern regarding the effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia on gastric microcirculation in humans. Not applicable, non-human study.

  19. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T.; Barlow, Brittney J.; O’Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E.; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. Design We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. Results The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1-expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body, although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1-expressing chief cells. While classically-described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed-type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Conclusions Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localization in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. PMID:24488499

  20. Novel insights of the gastric gland organization revealed by chief cell specific expression of moesin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lixin; Hatakeyama, Jason; Zhang, Bing; Makdisi, Joy; Ender, Cody; Forte, John G

    2009-02-01

    ERM (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) proteins play critical roles in epithelial and endothelial cell polarity, among other functions. In gastric glands, ezrin is mainly expressed in acid-secreting parietal cells, but not in mucous neck cells or zymogenic chief cells. In looking for other ERM proteins, moesin was found lining the lumen of much of the gastric gland, but it was not expressed in parietal cells. No significant radixin expression was detected in the gastric glands. Moesin showed an increased gradient of expression from the neck to the base of the glands. In addition, the staining pattern of moesin revealed a branched morphology for the gastric lumen. This pattern of short branches extending from the glandular lumen was confirmed by using antibody against zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) to stain tight junctions. With a mucous neck cell probe (lectin GSII, from Griffonia simplicifolia) and a chief cell marker (pepsinogen C), immunohistochemistry revealed that the mucous neck cells at the top of the glands do not express moesin, but, progressing toward the base, mucous cells showing decreased GSII staining had low or moderate level of moesin expression. The level of moesin expression continued to increase toward the base of the glands and reached a plateau in the base where chief cells and parietal cells abound. The level of pepsinogen expression also increased toward the base. Pepsinogen C was located on cytoplasmic granules and/or more generally distributed in chief cells, whereas moesin was exclusively expressed on the apical membrane. This is a clear demonstration of distinctive cellular expression of two ERM family members in the same tissue. The results provide the first evidence that moesin is involved in the cell biology of chief cells. Novel insights on gastric gland morphology revealed by the moesin and ZO-1 staining provide the basis for a model of cell maturation and migration within the gland.

  1. Distribution of calcified concretions and calcium ions in the pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, B; Przybylska, B; Wyrzykowski, Z

    1994-01-01

    Serial sections of pig pineal glands were stained with von Kossa's and Alizarin red S methods to determine the occurrence and localization of calcified concretions. In the pineal glands of pigs aged eight months, concretions were not found. A small number of concretions was observed in all investigated pineal glands of three years old pigs. The concretions were distributed in the connective tissue of the pineal capsule and septa. The potassium pyroantimonate method was used for ultracytochemical localization of calcium ions. In pinealocytes, precipitates were observed in nuclei, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic matrix. Single precipitates were found on the outer membranes of dense bodies, multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. There were no differences in the amount or the localization of precipitates between dark and light pinealocytes and between pinealocytes of animals aged both eight months and three years. The results suggest that: (1) the calcified concretions in the pig pineal gland are formed by the leptomeningeal tissue without participation of the pinealocytes, (2) cytoplasmic dense bodies, specific components of the pig pineal gland, are only slightly involved in calcium turnover in the pinealocytes.

  2. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach.

  3. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  4. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  5. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T; Barlow, Brittney J; O'Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R

    2014-11-01

    The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of the stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1 expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1 expressing chief cells. While classically described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localisation in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OF PAROTID GLANDS IN THE MINIATURE PIG

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junji; Yan, Xing; Gao, Runtao; Mao, Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu; Zhang, Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg2+-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage. PMID:20832188

  7. Effect of Irradiation on Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Parotid Glands in the Miniature Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Junji; Yan Xing; Gao Runtao; Mao Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng Changyu; Zhang Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials: A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg{sup 2+}-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results: Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions: Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.

  8. Dysentery in pigs associated with cystic enlargement of submucosal glands in the large intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, H W; Neill, S D; Pearson, G R

    1980-01-01

    Grossly visible glands were found in the submucosa of the large intestine of five pigs with dysentery. Some were cystic, some were filled with necrotic debris and some had perforated the serosal surface. The mucosa of the large intestine of all pigs had areas of acute catarrhal inflammation with haemorrhage and focal sloughing of the surface epithelium. Although very distinctive and analogous in most respects to collitis cystica profunda, it was felt that the cystic and hypertrophic glands were a secondary finding and represented involvement of glandular elements present in normal animals. Anaerobic vibrio were recovered from three pigs, but the significance of these isolates is unknown. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:7407683

  9. Characterization by Lectin Histochemistry of Two Subpopulations of Parietal Cells in the Rat Gastric Glands.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Santos, Laura; Alonso, Edurne; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Madrid, Juan F; Sáez, Francisco J

    2017-05-01

    Parietal cells undergo a differentiation process while they move from the isthmus toward the pits and the base region of the gastric gland. The aim of this work was to analyze the rat gastric glands by lectin histochemistry to show the glycans expressed by upper (young) and lower (old) parietal cells. We used lectins recognizing the most frequent sugar moieties in mammals. Each lectin was assayed alone and in combination with several deglycosylation pretreatments: (1) β-elimination, which removes O-linked oligosaccharides; (2) incubation with Peptide-N-glycosidase F, to remove N-linked glycans; (3) acid hydrolysis, which removes terminal sialic acid moieties; (4) methylation-saponification, to remove sulfate groups from sugar residues; and (5) glucose oxidase, a technique carried out with the lectin concanavalin A to convert glucose into gluconic acid. The lectins from Helix pomatia, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (soybean), Maclura pomifera, Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (lectin I-B4), and Datura stramonium showed a different glycan expression in the parietal cells throughout the gastric gland. This difference supports that parietal cells undergo a maturation/degeneration process while the cells descend along the gland. The role of DBA as a marker of parietal cells previously reported should be taken with caution because these cells showed different reactivity for the lectin, ranging from negative to strong labeling.

  10. The physicochemical characterisation of pepsin degraded pig gastric mucin.

    PubMed

    Abodinar, Atiga; Tømmeraas, Kristoffer; Ronander, Elena; Smith, Alan M; Morris, Gordon A

    2016-06-01

    Mucins are the main macromolecular components of the mucus secretions that cover the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of animals. The properties of the mucus secretions are therefore directly correlated with the physicochemical properties of mucin glycoproteins. In this study, mucins were obtained from pig gastric mucous after digestion with pepsin at 37°C for 4h, these mucins were characterised in terms of compositional and hydrodynamic properties. Compositional analysis showed that this mucin contains protein (15%), carbohydrates (55%) of which the constituents are: fucose (4%), galactose (9%), glucosamine (55%), glucosamine (33%) and sialic acid (2%). The latter component gives the mucin polymer a pH-dependant negative charge, with a ζ-potential of -3mV at pH 1.2 up to -11mV at pH 7.4. The weight average molar mass was ∼1×10(6)g/mol and intrinsic viscosity was ∼0.42dL/g although there was a small pH dependency due to the polyelectrolyte behavior of the polymer. The measurements of viscosity versus shear rate showed shear thinning behavior and the critical overlap concentration was determined to be 10-11% w/v indicating a compact structure. Knowledge of these properties is fundamental to the understanding interactions of mucins, with for example, novel drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mucous Gland Metaplasia in the Esophagus and Gastric Mucosa in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carlos A.; Owston, Michael; Orrego, Abiel; Nilsson, Robert; Löfdahl, Hedwig; Nesi, Gabriella; Dick, Edwards J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chewing of regurgitated food elicits in baboons life-long gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The acid reflux transforms the multilayered squamous cell epithelium of the esophagus into columnar-lined mucosa with mucus-producing accessory glands. The function of this mucous gland metaplasia (MGM), which mimics Barrett’s mucosa with MGM in humans, is to buffer the gastric acid entering the esophagus during regurgitation. In a previous study of entire esophagi, the majority of baboons showed MGM. The gastric mucosa was not investigated. Materials and Methods Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the esophagus, from the lesser gastric curvature and from the greater gastric curvature were collected separately from 50 adult baboons. The presence of MGM was assessed in each one of these locations. Results MGM was demonstrated in 92% (46/50) of blocks from the esophagus, in 98% (49/50) of blocks from the lesser curvature and in 90% (45/50) of those of the greater curvature (fundus). Conclusion The majority of the animals had MGM, not only in the esophagus but also in the proximal gastric mucosa. Rationally, MGM in baboons starts in the distal esophagus and proceeds downwards, towards the proximal stomach. The histogenesis of the MGM in Barrett’s mucosa in humans (that is Barrett’s mucosa type 2) remains elusive. Therefore the baboon might be an important animal model for studying the histogenesis of Barrett’s mucosa with MGM in humans, a recognized pre-cancerous lesion. PMID:21737639

  12. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Postnatal Developing Pituitary Gland of Miniature Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Li, Yuli; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Wu, Jiayan; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Yu, Jun; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Tibetan pig and Bama pig are popularly used as animal models for medical researches. However, little genomic information is available for the two breeds, particularly regarding gene expression pattern at the whole-transcriptome level. In this study, we characterized the pituitary transcriptome profile along their postnatal developmental stages within and between the two breeds in order to illustrate the differential dynamics and functions of differentially expressed genes. We obtained a total of ∼300 million 80-bp paired-end reads, detected 15 715 previously annotated genes. Most of the genes (90.33%) were shared between the two breeds with the main functions in metabolic process. Four hormone genes (GH, PRL, LHB, and FSHB) were detected in all samples with extremely high levels of expression. Functional differences between the three developmental stages (infancy, puberty and adulthood) in each breed were dominantly presented by the gene expressions at the first stage. That is, Bama pig was over-represented in the genes involved in the cellular process, while Tibetan pig was over-represented in the genes represented by the reproductive process. The identified SNPs indicated that the divergence between the miniature pig breeds and the large pig (Duroc) were greater than that between the two miniature pig breeds. This study substantially expands our knowledge concerning the genes transcribed in the pig pituitary gland and provides an overview of pituitary transcriptome dynamics throughout the period of postnatal development. PMID:24282060

  13. Transcriptome profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in postnatal developing pituitary gland of miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Li, Yuli; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Wu, Jiayan; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Yu, Jun; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Tibetan pig and Bama pig are popularly used as animal models for medical researches. However, little genomic information is available for the two breeds, particularly regarding gene expression pattern at the whole-transcriptome level. In this study, we characterized the pituitary transcriptome profile along their postnatal developmental stages within and between the two breeds in order to illustrate the differential dynamics and functions of differentially expressed genes. We obtained a total of ∼300 million 80-bp paired-end reads, detected 15 715 previously annotated genes. Most of the genes (90.33%) were shared between the two breeds with the main functions in metabolic process. Four hormone genes (GH, PRL, LHB, and FSHB) were detected in all samples with extremely high levels of expression. Functional differences between the three developmental stages (infancy, puberty and adulthood) in each breed were dominantly presented by the gene expressions at the first stage. That is, Bama pig was over-represented in the genes involved in the cellular process, while Tibetan pig was over-represented in the genes represented by the reproductive process. The identified SNPs indicated that the divergence between the miniature pig breeds and the large pig (Duroc) were greater than that between the two miniature pig breeds. This study substantially expands our knowledge concerning the genes transcribed in the pig pituitary gland and provides an overview of pituitary transcriptome dynamics throughout the period of postnatal development.

  14. Inhibition of acid formation by epidermal growth factor in the isolated rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed Central

    Dembiński, A; Drozdowicz, D; Gregory, H; Konturek, S J; Warzecha, Z

    1986-01-01

    The effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on basal and stimulated (with histamine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and high concentrations of K+) acid formation have been studied in isolated glands from the rabbit gastric mucosa. The changes in the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine [14C]AP have been used as an indirect measurement of acid production in the glands. Unstimulated gastric glands accumulated [14C]AP indicating the existence of basal acid production in these glands, and EGF caused a small but significant reduction in basal [14C]AP uptake. A similar reduction of basal [14C]AP uptake was observed after exposure to omeprazole but not after ranitidine or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Histamine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and K+ caused a strong and dose-dependent stimulation of acid formation by the glands. EGF, like omeprazole, reduced dose-dependently the [14C]AP accumulation stimulated by both histamine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, while ranitidine and PGE2 reduced histamine- but not dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-stimulated accumulation of [14C]AP. In the absence of other external stimuli, an increased K+ concentration enhanced [14C]AP accumulation to levels similar to those produced by histamine and this effect was not changed by EGF, ranitidine or PGE2 but was inhibited by omeprazole. We conclude that EGF interferes with the final steps of acid production between cyclic nucleotides and proton pump of the parietal cells. PMID:3025433

  15. Cellular localization of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor in pig anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro

    2006-02-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been proposed to have a role in modulating immuno-endocrine functions. Our previous study showed that IL-18 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) colocalized in somatotrophs of the bovine anterior pituitary gland, and the possibility that IL-18 acts on somatotrophs as an autocrine factor. In the present study, we investigated the localization of IL-18 and IL-18R in the pig anterior pituitary gland. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of IL-18 and IL-18R mRNAin the pig anterior pituitary gland. Immunohistochemistry of IL-18 and specific hormones revealed the presence of IL-18 in somatotrophs, mammotrophs, thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs. IL-18R was localized in somatotrophs and thyrotrophs. Furthermore, the somatotrophs immunoreactive for IL-18 did not contain IL-18R. Thus, IL-18R and IL-18 were not colocalized in an identical somatotroph. These findings suggest that the localization of IL-18 in pig somatotrophs is different from that in bovine somatotrophs, although IL-18 closely associates with somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary glands in both species.

  16. Ultrasound findings of diffuse metastasis of gastric signet-ring-cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Morita, Koji; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ota, Shuji; Masugi, Hideo; Chikuta, Ikumi; Mashimo, Yamato; Edo, Naoki; Tokairin, Takuo; Seki, Nobuhiko; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that metastases to the thyroid from extrathyroidal malignancies occur as solitary or multiple nodules, or may involve the whole thyroid gland diffusely. However, diffuse metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old woman with diffuse infiltration of gastric adenocarcinoma (signet-ring-cell carcinoma/poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) cells in the thyroid. The pathological diagnosis was made based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. An 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple lesions with increased uptake, including the bilateral thyroid gland. On thyroid ultrasound examination, diffuse enlargement with internal heterogeneity and hypoechoic reticular lines was observed. On color Doppler imaging, a blood-flow signal was not detected in these hypoechoic lines. These findings were similar to those of diffuse metastases caused by other primary cancers, such as lung cancer, as reported earlier. Therefore, the presence of hypoechoic reticular lines without blood-flow signals is probably common to diffuse thyroid metastasis from any origin and an important diagnostic finding. This is the first report to show detailed ultrasound findings of diffuse gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland using color Doppler.

  17. Effect of ethanol on acid secretion by isolated gastric glands from rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Reichstein, B.J.; Okamoto, C.; Forte, J.G.

    1986-08-01

    Isolated gastric glands from rabbit, as well as basolateral and microsomal membranes derived therefrom, were used to examine the effect of ethanol on several parameters related to acid secretion. Low concentrations of ethanol, 0.2%-5% (vol/vol), had no effect on basal aminopyrine accumulation by isolated gastric glands but significantly potentiated aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine. In contrast, this dose range of ethanol inhibited aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This dose range of ethanol produced a similar effect on adenylate cyclase activity of basolateral membranes from isolated gastric glands, with potentiation of histamine stimulation and inhibition of forskolin stimulation. Low-dose ethanol was found to produce increased proton permeability of the apical membrane of the parietal cell but had no effect on hydrogen-potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. Ethanol (10%) significantly inhibited all parameters of acid secretion studied. Ethanol has a biphasic effect on acid secretion with potentiation of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity at low doses and inhibition of all parameters of acid secretion at high doses.

  18. [Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Adenocarcinoma of the Fundic Gland Type - Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Kenichiro; Kumashiro, Yuji; Watanabe, Takaaki; Adachi, Mio; Matsui, Satoshi; Kurimori, Kou; Ikeda, Naoya; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Omoto, Yawara; Fujita, Yuki; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Kato, Shuji; Kanenobu, Masaaki; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Kato, Shoichi

    2016-11-01

    A 69-year-old man underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which showed a slightly depressed lesion at the greater curvature of the gastric body. We diagnosed gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type(GA-FG)from examination of the biopsy specimen. Endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD)was performed for curative resection. The pathological examination revealed a positive vertical margin. Consequently, laparoscopic gastrectomy was additionally performed. GA-FG has recently been proposed as a new entity of gastric adenocarcinoma. GA-FG mostly develops without Helicobacter pylori infection and often invades the submucosa, regardless of size. However, GA-FG rarely demonstrates lymphatic and venous invasion despite deep submucosal invasion. Since most GA-FG cases undergo ESD, few reports of surgical resection exist. Here, we report our experience of laparoscopic gastrectomy for GA-FG.

  19. Classification of Gastric Tumors using Shape Features of Gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Uchino, Yoshitaka; Oka, Teruaki

    Recently in Japan, pathologists have been in short supply, while each pathological diagnosis requires a substantial amount of time because each analyte must be inspected by multiple pathologists for adequate diagnosis. This paper deals with the classification method of gastric cancer and gastric adenoma, using image processing and pattern analysis. We first select the R component and G component from the RGB basis of the digital image, and the Y component from the YIQ basis for our system. After pre-processing, we automatically extracted the shape of the nucleus and cytoplasm. After many inspections, we selected 40 features for shape of the nucleus and cytoplasm and 14 features for texture within the cytoplasm for assessment of tumors. Principal component analysis, F test of homoscedasticity, t test of difference of average, stepwise method for selecting the smaller number of features, and discriminant method using Mahalanobis distance were all performed. Total ratio of diagnosis reached 96.9%, showing the validity of our proposed method.

  20. Characterisation of sugar residues in glycoconjugates of pig mandibular gland by traditional and lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pedini, V; Scocco, P; Dall'Aglio, C; Ceccarelli, P; Gargiulo, A M

    2000-10-01

    Sugar residues are important components of salivary gland secretion. Traditional histochemical methods and lectin histochemistry were used to characterise glycoconjugates present in the mandibular gland of normal adult pigs. Acinar cells contained abundant quantities of glycoconjugates with the terminal trisaccharide sialic acid - (alpha 2-->3, 6) galactosyl (beta 1-->3) N -acetylgalactosamine. Mandibular acinar cells also contained alpha and beta N -acetylgalactosamine and N -acetylglucosamine residues, whereas the demilunar cells contained glycoconjugates with fucose, mannose and N -acetylglucosamine residues. In the duct system a range of sugar residues were localised throughout the cell cytoplasm or limited to the apical surface. These results provide new knowledge concerning the structure of salivary glycoconjugates in normal adult pig and a basis for future pathological studies.

  1. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

    2009-05-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

  2. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Bonnet, A; Martín de Las Mulas, J; Millán, M Y; Herráez, P; Rodríguez, F; Espinosa de los Monteros, A

    2010-03-01

    Ten spontaneous mammary gland tumors affecting guinea pigs (GP) were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. Histologically, 3 were benign (2 simple adenomas and 1 benign mixed tumor) and 7 were malignant (1 simple solid carcinoma and 6 simple tubulopapillary carcinomas). Immunohistochemical data revealed the glandular immunoprofile of all the tumors and suggested their ductal origin on the basis of cytokeratin 20 expression. Interestingly, cytokeratin 7 was detected in basal/myoepithelial cells. Further, all tumors were positive for type alpha estrogen and progesterone receptors, suggesting a role for steroid hormones in the development of these neoplasias in GP. This article describes the morphological and immunohistochemical features of the normal mammary gland and spontaneous mammary gland tumors in GP.

  3. Phorbol ester stimulates secretory activity while inhibiting receptor-activated aminopyrine uptake by gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Chew, C.S.

    1986-03-05

    Both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent secretagogues stimulate pepsinogen release, respiration and H/sup +/ secretory activity (AP uptake) in rabbit gastric glands. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T), a diacyglycerol analog, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates secretion in many systems. T stimulated respiration and pepsinogen release by glands and increased AP uptake by both glands and purified parietal cells. However, T reduced AP uptake by glands stimulated with carbachol (C) or histamine (H) with an apparent IC/sub 50/ of 1 nM. Preincubation with T for 30 min produced maximum inhibition which was not reversed by removal of T. T accelerated the decline of the transient C peak while the late steady state response to H was most inhibited. H-stimulated AP uptake was also inhibited by 50 ..mu..g/ml 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, a reported PKC activator, but not by the inactive phorbol, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate. In contrast, T potentiated AP uptake by glands stimulated with submaximal doses of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest inhibition by T is a specific effect of PKC activators. The differing effects of T on secretion indicators may result from a dual action of T on receptor and post-receptor intracellular events.

  4. Morphology of deep gland of the third eyelid in pig foetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the deep gland of the third eyelid were carried out on pig foetuses coming from the 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were conducted using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. For the histological examinations, the whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig foetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the deep gland of the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin and Azan method was performed. It was found during the examinations that the process of the formation of the deep gland of the third eyelid starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th day of gestation, the gland cells are evenly distributed in the connective tissue stroma. On the 63rd day of gestation, the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of 6-15 lobules. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible; the efferent ducts are situated in the central part of the lobe. On the 112th day of gestation, the lobes are composed of a high number of lobules composed of two kinds of excretory ducts. The first type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are situated at the base of the cell. The other type of the excretory ducts is lined with the simple cuboid epithelium whose nuclei are round and arranged less or more peripherally.

  5. Morphology of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid on pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2007-12-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid were conducted in pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out by applying the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation, only the superficial gland with the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the primordia of the glandular epithelium were not found in the examined material. The process of the third eyelid and superficial gland formation starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, the gland surrounding the cartilage of the third eyelid is composed of the high amount of loose connective tissue and gland cells which give rise to excretory segments. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible, the efferent ducts form. On the 112th day, the cartilage of the third eyelid assumes the appearance of the mature hyaline cartilage. The excretory segments are composed of simple cuboid epithelium with a large, round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. Their number increases 2- or even 3-fold at the end of gestation.

  6. Endogenous histamine and promethazine-induced gastric ulcers in the guinea pig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djahanguiri, B.; Hemmati, M.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments performed with an inhibitor of diaminoxydase, aminoguanidine and an inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, NSD 1055, showed that the frequency of gastric ulcers induced by promethazine was increased with the first inhibitor and decreased with the second. It is suggested that ulcers induced by promethazine in guinea pigs might be due to histamino-liberator effect of the antihistaminio compound.

  7. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  8. Inverted gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland mucosa type colliding with well differentiated adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Ichihara, Shin; Moriichi, Kentaro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-06-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland mucosa type (GA-FGM) is a rare tumor composed of atypical cells with differentiation toward the fundic gland as well as the foveolar epithelium. Including our case, only 9 cases of GA-FGMs were reported from 2010 to 2016. An 87-year-old man was referred to our institution for endoscopic resection of a gastric lesion. The tumor was classified as type 0-I + IIa according to the Paris classification. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) revealed different structures of crypts and vessels among the components, illustrating the collision of 2 types of gastric cancer. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection and successfully removed the tumor en bloc. The histological findings differed markedly between the 0-I lesion and the 0-IIa lesion. The superficial part of the 0-I lesion consisted of a papillary structure, and the deeper part consisted of a tubular structure that showed inverted downward growth to the submucosal layer with the lamina muscularis mucosae. Immunohistochemically, the superficial part of the 0-I lesion was positive for MUC5AC, which had differentiated to foveolar epithelium. The deeper part was positive for pepsinogen-I and MUC6, which had differentiated to fundic gland. The 0-I lesion was diagnosed as gastric phenotype of adenocarcinoma differentiated to fundic gland mucosa with upward growth in the superficial part and downward growth in the deeper part. The 0-IIa lesion was composed of a tubular structure positive for MUC2, and it was diagnosed as an intestinal phenotype of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. The boundary was clear, and no transitional tissue was observed between the 0-I and 0-IIa lesions, suggesting that the 0-I + IIa lesion was a gastric collision tumor of GA-FGM and well differentiated adenocarcinoma. We herein report the first case of inverted GA-FGM colliding with well differentiated adenocarcinoma. ME-NBI can be used to diagnose GA-FGM even if the lesion

  9. Continuous straw provision reduces prevalence of oesophago-gastric ulcer in pigs slaughtered at 170 kg (heavy pigs).

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Rampin, Fabio; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2013-12-01

    Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs.

  11. Responsiveness of beta-escin-permeabilized rabbit gastric gland model: effects of functional peptide fragments.

    PubMed

    Akagi, K; Nagao, T; Urushidani, T

    1999-09-01

    We established a beta-escin-permeabilized gland model with the use of rabbit isolated gastric glands. The glands retained an ability to secrete acid, monitored by [14C]aminopyrine accumulation, in response to cAMP, forskolin, and histamine. These responses were all inhibited by cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitory peptide. Myosin light-chain kinase inhibitory peptide also suppressed aminopyrine accumulation, whereas the inhibitory peptide of protein kinase C or that of calmodulin kinase II was without effect. Guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) abolished cAMP-stimulated acid secretion concomitantly, interfering with the redistribution of H+-K+-ATPase from tubulovesicles to the apical membrane. To identify the targets of GTPgammaS, effects of peptide fragments of certain GTP-binding proteins were examined. Although none of the peptides related to Rab proteins showed any effect, the inhibitory peptide of Arf protein inhibited cAMP-stimulated secretion. These results demonstrate that our new model, the beta-escin-permeabilized gland, allows the introduction of relatively large molecules, e.g., peptides, into the cell, and will be quite useful for analyzing signal transduction of parietal cell function.

  12. Sexual dimorphism involving steroidal pheromones and their binding protein in the submaxillary salivary gland of the Göttingen miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D

    1984-02-01

    Submaxillary glands of mature Göttingen miniature pigs were examined for the presence of a sexual dimorphism. Gland weights, serous cell hypertrophy and total protein in the glands were much greater in male than female pigs. High concentrations of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids were present in the glands of males and exceeded 2 mmol/g in some animals; this was primarily due to 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 alpha-ol. The high concentration of 16-androstene steroids in boar glands was correlated with the presence of large amounts of binding protein for these steroids in the glands; smaller amounts of the binding protein were detected in female glands. These findings are similar to those found in domestic pigs, but the degree of sexual dimorphism assessed from these findings is more extreme in the miniature pig.

  13. Effect of experimental zinc deficiency on thyroid gland in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R P; Verma, P C; Garg, S L

    1997-01-01

    Zinc deficiency was produced experimentally in guinea-pigs fed on a diet containing 1.03 mg Zn/kg over a period of 45 days. Clinical signs exhibited in Zn-deficient (ZnD) animals were depression with abnormal posture, scaly skin lesions on various parts of the body, oedematous swelling on hind limbs and marked alopecia. There was no effect on food intake. Serum studies in ZnD group revealed significant decreases in the concentrations of Zn from 20 days onwards, and tri-iodo-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) from 30 days onwards. Thyroid glands of ZnD animals were smaller in size and pale or whitish pale in colour. Histopathologically, these glands showed changes of atrophy and degeneration in the follicles. It could be concluded that the depletion in serum T3 and T4 due to Zn deficiency was related to thyroid lesions.

  14. Contribution of ferrous iron to maintenance of the gastric colonization of Helicobacter pylori in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Shimada, Yukio; Sato, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Keigo; Kikuchi, Isamu; Okazaki, Yoko; Miura, Tomoko; Katsuta, Mitsuo; Iwata, Masayuki

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study showed that the colonization levels of Helicobacter pylori were higher in the stomachs of 5-day-old miniature pigs than in 2-week-old ones. As dietary factors can cause these differences, we compared two diets, i.e., Weanymilk and a similar formula with a higher concentration of Fe(II), Weanylobulin. The colonization levels in the fundic mucosa were significantly higher in 2-week-old pigs fed Weanylobulin than in those fed Weanymilk. Supplementing Weanylobulin with an iron chelator, deferoxamine mesylate, significantly lowered the bacteria counts in the gastric mucosa. Normal diets supplemented with Fe(II) in 2-month-old pigs caused significantly more sites of bacteria in the antrum compared with normal diets alone. In addition, ranitidine, an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion that reduces Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the stomach, decreased the bacteria counts in 10-month-old pigs. These results suggested that Fe(II) maintained the colonization levels of H. pylori in the stomach of the miniature pigs.

  15. Ulcerogenic risk assessment of diets for pigs in relation to gastric lesion prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcers in fattening pigs from intensive pork production can cause sudden deaths on farm and the grinding intensity of the diet appears to be among the risk factors. The objective of this work is to adopt the latest laboratory tests and thresholds for the ulcerogenic risk assessment of diets from experimental reports and verify the class of risk in relation to gastric lesion prevalence in reared finishers. Results Specificity and accuracy of feed safety tests based on the ulcerogenic risk of feed associated with the particle size distribution of diets were calculated on the occurrence of gastric lesions observed at a slaughterhouse: 41 lard-type hogs, fed with two diets [pelleted (n = 21 pigs) vs. mixed meal (n = 20 pigs)], analyzed at the laboratory of our Institute, were involved. Gross inspection at the abattoir allowed the identification of the development of macroscopic gastric lesions in the pigs (13/21) fed with a pelleted complete diet, ranked in Class 1 (high ulcerogenic risk) on laboratory assessment. Breakdown of gastric lesion severity: hyperkeratosis (13/13), mucosal erosions (11/13) and bleeding ulcers (2/13). This occurrence was compared to the morphology of stomach mucosa from 20 finishers fed with a mixed meal diet, ranked in Class 3 (low ulcerogenic risk), in which no gastric lesions were observed. Very fine particle (VFP) mass (<0.4 mm) according to cut off thresholds (>36%) for the safety ranking of diets, showed: 100% positive predictive value (PPV); 100% specificity; 88.1% accuracy; 72.2% sensitivity. Conclusions Three factors emerged: the elevated mass (42.6%) of <0.4 mm particles in the pelleted complete diet confirmed the associated risk rank in Class 1 assessed by laboratory procedures, as gastric lesions were selectively observed in 61.9% of finishers fed with the high risk diet; in these animals, macroscopic gastric lesions occurred within four weeks and showed a sub-clinical course, independently of severity

  16. Gastric Adenocarcinoma of the Fundic Gland Type Treated by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Daroca, Philip; Sikka, Sanjay; Wu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (GA-FG) is a rare entity that has only recently been described and defined. There is ongoing controversy regarding the malignant potential of this lesion. We report the case of a GA-FG in a 49-year-old Caucasian man who was referred to endoscopy for management of an incidentally found gastric polyp. Endoscopy showed a single polypoid lesion in the gastric fundus which was successfully removed with endoscopic resection. Grossly, the polyp measured 1.1 cm in greatest dimension. Microscopic examination showed irregularly branched neoplastic glands covered with a nonneoplastic foveolar epithelium. The continuity between the neoplastic glands and the fundic glands is clearly identified, indicating the tumor arose from the fundic glands. The tumor cells exhibited occasional oxyntic cytoplasm with enlarged atypical nuclei. The tumor invaded the submucosa with complete disruption of the muscularis mucosae and mild lymphocytic and fibroblastic stromal reaction. No necrosis, mitosis, or lymph-vascular invasion was identified. Although some authors have proposed reclassification of GA-FGs as oxyntic gland polyps/adenomas, in light of several reported cases with submucosal invasion as well as lymphatic invasion, we maintain that this neoplasm is best categorized as an extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma to reflect its invasive potential. PMID:27994902

  17. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E; Jespersen, Anna; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Margit B; Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Lene J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined effects of the amount of straw offered on occurrence and severity of gastric lesions in pigs kept in pens (18 pigs, 0.7 m(2)/pig) with partly slatted flooring and 10, 500 or 1000 g straw/pig/day from 30 kg live weight. The pigs had ad libitum access to dry feed. Forty-five pigs were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled as 'permanent access'. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P<0.05), suggesting that permanent access to straw may improve animal health, and be considered as one possible strategy to limit gastric ulceration in pigs.

  18. Thiol-oxidant monochloramine mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in parietal cells of rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Breda M; Naik, Haley B; Dubach, J Matthew; Beshire, Melissa; Wieland, Aaron M; Soybel, David I

    2007-11-01

    In Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis, oxidants are generated through the interactions of bacteria in the lumen, activated granulocytes, and cells of the gastric mucosa. In this study we explored the ability of one such class of oxidants, represented by monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), to serve as agonists of Ca(2+) accumulation within the parietal cell of the gastric gland. Individual gastric glands isolated from rabbit mucosa were loaded with fluorescent reporters for Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm (fura-2 AM) or intracellular stores (mag-fura-2 AM). Conditions were adjusted to screen out contributions from metal cations such as Zn(2+), for which these reporters have affinity. Exposure to NH(2)Cl (up to 200 microM) led to dose-dependent increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), in the range of 200-400 nM above baseline levels. These alterations were prevented by pretreatment with the oxidant scavenger vitamin C or a thiol-reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT), which shields intracellular thiol groups from oxidation by chlorinated oxidants. Introduction of vitamin C during ongoing exposure to NH(2)Cl arrested but did not reverse accumulation of Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm. In contrast, introduction of DTT or N-acetylcysteine permitted arrest and partial reversal of the effects of NH(2)Cl. Accumulation of Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm induced by NH(2)Cl is due to release from intracellular stores, entry from the extracellular fluid, and impaired extrusion. Ca(2+)-handling proteins are susceptible to oxidation by chloramines, leading to sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Under certain conditions, NH(2)Cl may act not as an irritant but as an agent that activates intracellular signaling pathways. Anti-NH(2)Cl strategies should take into account different effects of oxidant scavengers and thiol-reducing agents.

  19. Clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial neoplasms: Focus on tumors with a gastric mucin phenotype (pyloric gland-type tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuishi, Takehiro; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Hirooka, Shinichi; Fukasawa, Nei; Aizawa, Daisuke; Hara, Yuko; Dobashi, Akira; Goda, Kenichi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Saruta, Masayuki; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Ikegami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Epithelial tumors less commonly occur in the duodenum than in the stomach or large intestine. The clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors remain a matter of debate. We therefore studied resected specimens to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors. Materials and methods Among duodenal epithelial tumors resected endoscopically or surgically in our hospital, we studied the clinicopathological characteristics of 110 adenomas or intramucosal carcinomas. The grade of atypia of all tumors was classified into 3 groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification. The tumors were immunohistochemically evaluated to determine the frequency of differentiation toward fundic glands. Results As for patient characteristics, there were 76 men (75.2%) and 25 women (24.8%), with a median age of 65 years (range, 34 to 84). The tumors most commonly arose in the first to second part of the duodenum. Many lesions were flat, and the median tumor diameter was 8.0 mm. The lesions were classified into 2 types according to mucin phenotype: intestinal-type tumors (98 lesions, 89.1%) and gastric-type tumors (12 lesions, 10.9%). Intestinal-type tumors were subdivided into 2 groups: tubular-type tumors (91 lesions, 82.7%) and tubulovillous-type tumors (7 lesions, 6.4%). Gastric-type tumors were classified into 2 types: foveolar type (3 lesions, 2.7%) and pyloric gland-type (PG) tumors (9 lesions, 8.2%). The grade of atypia was significantly higher in gastric-type tumors (p<0.01). PG tumors were gastric-type tumors characterized by pyloric glands and findings suggesting differentiation toward fundic glands. Conclusions About 10% of the duodenal tumors had a gastric-type mucin phenotype. Gastric-type tumors showed high-grade atypia. In particular, PG tumors showed similarities to PG tumors of the stomach, such as differentiation toward fundic glands. PMID:28376132

  20. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer: advanced-stage undifferentiated adenocarcinoma located in the pyloric gland area.

    PubMed

    Okano, Akihiro; Kato, Shigeru; Ohana, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer (HpNGC) is extremely low. A 78-year old female without H. pylori infection was diagnosed with type 4 advanced-stage gastric prepylorus cancer. Distal gastrectomy was performed as for HpNGC (cT3N0M0). Histological findings of the resected specimen showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma, which were located in the pyloric gland area, diffusely invaded beyond the serosa without lymph node metastasis (pT4aN0M0). Most cases of undifferentiated-type HpNGC are diagnosed in the early stage and are located in the fundic gland area. We report the first case of advanced-stage undifferentiated HpNGC located in the pyloric gland area.

  1. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  2. The association between melatonin production and electrophysiology of the guinea pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    McCance, I; Parkington, H C; Coleman, H A

    1996-09-01

    Melatonin production by isolated pineal glands from guinea pigs was examined under conditions that affect membrane potential or the firing of action potential-like spikes. In glands from superior cervical ganglionectomized animals, depolarization resulting from increasing extracellular potassium concentration to 100 mM did not initiate melatonin production, and it delayed the response to the beta-adrenoceptor agonist orciprenaline. In glands from intact animals melatonin production was initiated by exposure to 100 mM potassium with a time-course similar to the response to orciprenaline. A proportion of this response was propanol resistant, suggesting that the normal control of melatonin production may involve a neurotransmitter in addition to norepinephrine. Exposure to verapamil or nifedipine, or removal of extracellular calcium, previously shown to eliminate action potential-like spikes, did not substantially affect the increase in melatonin production induced by orciprenaline. Phenylephrine, which stimulates spiking, produced only a slight increase in melatonin production. It is concluded that the depolarization and the spiking are not closely related to the stimulation of melatonin production, but may relate principally to the secretion of a substance other than melatonin.

  3. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Endoscopic gastric submucosal transplantation of islets (ENDO-STI): technique and initial results in diabetic pigs.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, G J; McGrath, K; Bottino, R; Hara, H; Dons, E M; van der Windt, D J; Ekser, B; Casu, A; Houser, S; Ezzelarab, M; Wagner, R; Trucco, M; Lakkis, F G; Cooper, D K C

    2009-11-01

    The results of transplantation of human donor islets into the portal vein (PV) in patients with diabetes are encouraging. However, there are complications, for example, hemorrhage, thrombosis and an immediate loss of islets through the 'instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction' (IBMIR). The gastric submucosal space (GSMS) offers potential advantages. Islets were isolated from adult pigs. Recipient pigs were made diabetic by streptozotocin. Donor islets were injected into the GSMS through a laparotomy (Group 1A, n = 4) or endoscopically (Group 1B, n = 8) or into the PV through a laparotomy (Group 2, n = 3). The pigs were followed for a maximum of 28 days. Monitoring of C-peptide in Group 1 indicated that there was minimal immediate loss of islets whereas in Group 2 there was considerable loss from IBMIR. In Group 1, there were significant reductions in mean blood glucose and mean exogenous insulin requirement between pretransplantation and 20 days posttransplantation. In Group 2, there was no significant reduction in either parameter. Insulin-positive cells were seen in the GSMS in Group 1, but not in the liver in Group 2. Endoscopic gastric submucosal transplantation of islets (ENDO-STI) offers a minimally invasive and quick approach to islet transplantation, avoids IBMIR and warrants further exploration.

  5. Loss of Lrig1 leads to expansion of Brunner glands followed by duodenal adenomas with gastric metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Poulin, Emily J; Franklin, Jeffery L; Coffey, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-ErbB negative regulator and intestinal stem cell marker down-regulated in many malignancies. We previously reported that 14 of 16 Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1(-/-)) mice developed duodenal adenomas, providing the first in vivo evidence that Lrig1 acts as a tumor suppressor. We extended this study to a larger cohort and found that 49 of 54 Lrig1(-/-) mice develop duodenal adenomas beginning at 3 months. Most adenomas were histologically low grade and overlaid expanded Brunner glands. There was morphologic and biochemical blurring of the boundary between the epithelium and Brunner glands with glandular coexpression of ErbB2, which is normally restricted to the epithelium, and the Brunner gland marker Mucin6. Some adenomas were high grade with reduced Brunner glands. At age 4 to 5 weeks, before adenoma formation, we observed enhanced proliferation in Brunner glands and, at 2 months, an increase in the size of the Brunner gland compartment. Elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligands amphiregulin and β-cellulin, as well as Egfr and phosphorylated Egfr, was detected in adenomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. These adenomas expressed the gastric-specific genes gastrokine1 and mucin5ac, indicating gastric metaplasia. Moreover, we found that a subset of human duodenal tumors exhibited features of LRIG1(-/-) adenomas, including loss of LRIG1, gastric metaplasia (MUCIN5AC and MUCIN6), and increased amphiregulin and Egfr activity.

  6. Loss of Lrig1 Leads to Expansion of Brunner Glands Followed by Duodenal Adenomas with Gastric Metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Poulin, Emily J.; Franklin, Jeffery L.; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-ErbB negative regulator and intestinal stem cell marker down-regulated in many malignancies. We previously reported that 14 of 16 Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1−/−) mice developed duodenal adenomas, providing the first in vivo evidence that Lrig1 acts as a tumor suppressor. We extended this study to a larger cohort and found that 49 of 54 Lrig1−/− mice develop duodenal adenomas beginning at 3 months. Most adenomas were histologically low grade and overlaid expanded Brunner glands. There was morphologic and biochemical blurring of the boundary between the epithelium and Brunner glands with glandular coexpression of ErbB2, which is normally restricted to the epithelium, and the Brunner gland marker Mucin6. Some adenomas were high grade with reduced Brunner glands. At age 4 to 5 weeks, before adenoma formation, we observed enhanced proliferation in Brunner glands and, at 2 months, an increase in the size of the Brunner gland compartment. Elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligands amphiregulin and β-cellulin, as well as Egfr and phosphorylated Egfr, was detected in adenomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. These adenomas expressed the gastric-specific genes gastrokine1 and mucin5ac, indicating gastric metaplasia. Moreover, we found that a subset of human duodenal tumors exhibited features of LRIG1−/− adenomas, including loss of LRIG1, gastric metaplasia (MUCIN5AC and MUCIN6), and increased amphiregulin and Egfr activity. PMID:25794708

  7. Cholinergic facilitation of neurotransmission to the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Lau, W A; Pennefather, J N; Mitchelson, F J

    2000-07-01

    1. Functional experiments have been conducted to assess the effects of acetylcholine and carbachol, and the receptors on which they act to facilitate neurotransmission to the stromal smooth muscle of the prostate gland of the guinea-pig. 2. Acetylcholine and carbachol (0.1 microM - 0.1 mM) enhanced contractions evoked by trains of electrical field stimulation (20 pulses of 0.5 ms at 10 Hz every 50 s with a dial setting of 60 V) of nerve terminals within the guinea-pig isolated prostate. In these concentrations they had negligible effects on prostatic smooth muscle tone. 3. The facilitatory effects of acetylcholine, but not those of carbachol, were further enhanced in the presence of physostigmine (10 microM). 3. The facilitatory effects of carbachol were unaffected by the neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-arginina mide) (0.3 microM, n=3) or suramin (100 microM, n=5). Prazosin (0.1 microM, n=5) and guanethidine (10 microM, n=5) alone and in combination (n=4), reduced responses to field stimulation and produced rightward shifts of the log concentration-response curves to carbachol. 4. The rank orders of potency of subtype-preferring muscarinic receptor antagonists in inhibiting the facilitatory actions of acetylcholine and carbachol were: pirenzepine > HHSiD (hexahydrosiladifenidol) > pF-HHSiD (para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol)>/= 5 himbacine, and pirenzepine > HHSiD > himbacine>/= 5 pF-HHSiD, respectively. These profiles suggest that muscarinic receptors of the M(1)-subtype mediate the facilitatory effects of acetylcholine and carbachol on neurotransmission to the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate.

  8. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs(1-3).

    PubMed

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.

  9. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in α1,2, α1,3, and α1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents.

  10. Stimulation of electrogenic chloride secretion by prostaglandin E2 in guinea-pig isolated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, K T; Spraggs, C F

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on ion transport were investigated in guinea-pig isolated gastric mucosa. 2. Under resting conditions the mucosa produced a short-circuit current (SCC), the majority of which could be attributed to electrogenic chloride secretion. This interpretation was confirmed by the dependence of the basal SCC on extracellular chloride, and inhibition by the chloride channel blocker, diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. The mucosa also exhibited low rates of acid secretion and of sodium and rubidium absorption. 3. PGE2 stimulated an increase in net chloride secretion which was more than sufficient to account for the concomitant increase in SCC. As with the basal SCC, the SCC response to PGE2 was chloride dependent and inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate. PGE2 also significantly increased acid secretion and net rubidium absorption, but these changes were not sufficient to account for SCC. 4. The H+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole, inhibited basal and PGE2-stimulated acid secretion, but did not modify the effects the PGE2 on net chloride secretion, SCC or conductance, suggesting that these effects of PGE2 were not related to changes in gastric acid secretion. 5. Both basal and PGE2-stimulated SCC were dependent on extracellular sodium and inhibited by ouabain, indicating the importance of a sodium gradient and the Na+-K+-ATPase in maintaining the electrogenic properties of the mucosa. 6. These results are consistent with the view that PGE2 stimulates electrogenic chloride secretion in guinea-pig gastric mucosa, and provide an ionic basis for the stimulation of secretion of sodium and chloride by prostaglandins observed in mammalian gastric mucosa in vivo. PMID:2458457

  11. Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Lori R; Huang, Steven Y; Gagea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    A 5.5-mo-old castrated, male Red Duroc pig presented acutely with depression and abdominal pain 9 d after an altercation with another pig. A CT examination indicated right pneumothorax and herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Due to a poor prognosis, the pig was euthanized. A necropsy and gross examination revealed a tear of the diaphragmatic muscle in the region of the esophageal hiatus through which the stomach was displaced into the right side of the thoracic cavity. In addition, the herniated stomach had a rupture of the stomach wall through which the gastric mucosa was everted and exposed into the right thoracic cavity. The right thoracic cavity had acute fibrinous pleuritis, and the right lung was collapsed. CT scans performed every 1 to 2 wk for 2 mo prior to the pig's death did not reveal any abnormalities in the diaphragm. Trauma was considered the most likely cause of the diaphragmatic tear and subsequent herniation and rupture of the stomach. PMID:27780007

  12. Studies on gastric digestion of protein and carbohydrate, gastric secretion and exocrine pancreatic secretion in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Zebrowska, T; Low, A G; Zebrowska, H

    1983-05-01

    Six pigs, initially of 35 kg mean live weight, were each fitted with a re-entrant cannula. This was formed on either side of a short pouch of duodenum into which the pancreatic duct opened and which contained a simple cannula linked to the centre of the re-entrant cannula. Each pig received two diets: diet A was based on wheat starch, sucrose and casein, while diet B was based on barley and soya-bean meal. The diets were given in equal amounts at 12 h intervals. Digesta and pancreatic juice were collected continuously during three 12 h periods for each pig on each diet. Mean duodenal output: dietary intake values for diets A and B respectively were: digesta 1.80, 2.86; dry matter 1.05, 1.03; nitrogen 1.05, 1.06; trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble N 7.69, 9.10; glucose 0.97, 0.89. For diet A the proportion of TCA-soluble N in total N rose from 13 to 50% during 12 h, while it was approximately 50% throughout 12 h for diet B. Mean total pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1) activities (units/24 h) were 760449 (diet A) and 1 466 571 (diet B). Salivary and gastric secretions were calculated to be approximately 4 and 8 kg/24 h for diets A and B respectively. Mean flows in pancreatic juice (g/24 h) for diets A and B respectively were: juice 1204, 2182; protein 10.94, 12.10; N 1.98, 2.14; ash 9.46, 17.31; sodium 3.88, 6.91; potassium 0.23, 0.54; calcium 0.031, 0.046; phosphorus 0.024, 0.026. Mean total enzyme activities (units x 10(-3)/24 h) for diets A and B respectively were: trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) 138, 114; chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) 84, 84; carboxypeptidase A (EC 3.4.2.1) 5, 4; carboxypeptidase B (EC 3.4.2.2) 15, 17; amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) 1061, 981. It was calculated that the minimum amount of endogenous N from saliva and gastric secretion was 0.3-0.6 g in 24 h. This assumes no absorption of N occurred anterior to the duodenal cannula.

  13. Improvement of anti-nutritional effect resulting from β-glucanase specific expression in the parotid gland of transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Zeng; Cai, Jin-Shun; Zhao, Shuai; Sun, Yu-Ping; Wang, Jing-Lan; Jiang, Yong; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2017-02-01

    β-Glucan is the predominant anti-nutritional factors in monogastric animal feed. Although β-glucanase supplementation in diet can help to eliminate the adverse effects, enzyme stability is substantially modified during the feed manufacturing process. To determine whether the expression of endogenous β-glucanase gene (GLU) in vivo can improve digestibility of dietary β-glucan and absorption of nutrients, we successfully produced transgenic pigs via nuclear transfer which express the GLU from Paenibacillus polymyxa CP7 in the parotid gland. In three live transgenic founders, β-glucanase activities in the saliva were 3.2, 0.07 and 0.03 U/mL, respectively, and interestingly the enzyme activities increased in the pigs from 178 days old to 789 days old. From the feed the amount of gross energy, crude protein and crude fat absorbed by the transgenic pigs was significantly higher than the non-transgenic pigs. Meanwhile the moisture content of the feces was significantly reduced in transgenic pigs compared with the non-transgenic pigs. Furthermore, in all positive G1 pigs, β-glucanase activity was detectable and the highest enzyme activity reached 3.5 U/mL in saliva. Also, crude protein digestion was significantly higher in G1 transgenic pigs than in control pigs. Taken together, our data showed that the transgenic β-glucanase exerted its biological catalytic function in vivo in the saliva, and the improved performance of the transgenic pigs could be accurately passed on to the offspring, indicating a promising alternative approach to improving nutrient availability was established to improve utilization of livestock feed through transgenic animals.

  14. Monochloramine-induced toxicity and dysregulation of intracellular Zn2+ in parietal cells of rabbit gastric glands

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Jonathan E.; Dubach, J. Matthew; Naik, Haley B.; Tai, Kaniza; Blass, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Monochloramine (NH2Cl) is a potent, thiol-directed oxidant capable of oxidizing thiol (S-H) residues in a wide variety of proteins. Generated in the stomach by the interaction of bacterial and host products, monochloramine has been shown to dysregulate Ca2+ homeostasis and disrupt mucosal integrity. In this report, we show that monochloramine also leads to disturbances in intracellular free zinc concentration ([Zn2+]i) in the gastric gland of the rabbit and that the increased Zn2+ within the cell causes an independent decrease in cell viability. Changes in [Zn2+]i were measured by using the fluorescent reporter FluoZin-3, whereas cell viability was assessed by measuring the conversion of calcein-AM to fluorescent calcein, an assay that is not affected by intracellular oxidation state. Cell death was confirmed using propidium iodide and YO-PRO-1 dye uptake measurements. Our experiments demonstrate that [Zn2+]i is increased in gastric glands exposed to NH2Cl and that elevated [Zn2+]i decreases cell viability. Chelation of Zn2+ with tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine decreases the toxicity of NH2Cl, but only when administered concurrently. These findings suggest that the toxic effect of thiol oxidants present during chronic gastritis is partially due to dysregulation of [Zn2+]i early in the process and that zinc chelation can protect, but not rescue, gastric glands exposed to toxic doses of NH2Cl. PMID:20430873

  15. Monochloramine-induced toxicity and dysregulation of intracellular Zn2+ in parietal cells of rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Jonathan E; Dubach, J Matthew; Naik, Haley B; Tai, Kaniza; Blass, Amy L; Soybel, David I

    2010-07-01

    Monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) is a potent, thiol-directed oxidant capable of oxidizing thiol (S-H) residues in a wide variety of proteins. Generated in the stomach by the interaction of bacterial and host products, monochloramine has been shown to dysregulate Ca(2+) homeostasis and disrupt mucosal integrity. In this report, we show that monochloramine also leads to disturbances in intracellular free zinc concentration ([Zn(2+)](i)) in the gastric gland of the rabbit and that the increased Zn(2+) within the cell causes an independent decrease in cell viability. Changes in [Zn(2+)](i) were measured by using the fluorescent reporter FluoZin-3, whereas cell viability was assessed by measuring the conversion of calcein-AM to fluorescent calcein, an assay that is not affected by intracellular oxidation state. Cell death was confirmed using propidium iodide and YO-PRO-1 dye uptake measurements. Our experiments demonstrate that [Zn(2+)](i) is increased in gastric glands exposed to NH(2)Cl and that elevated [Zn(2+)](i) decreases cell viability. Chelation of Zn(2+) with tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine decreases the toxicity of NH(2)Cl, but only when administered concurrently. These findings suggest that the toxic effect of thiol oxidants present during chronic gastritis is partially due to dysregulation of [Zn(2+)](i) early in the process and that zinc chelation can protect, but not rescue, gastric glands exposed to toxic doses of NH(2)Cl.

  16. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+

    PubMed Central

    Forte, John G.; Machen, Terry E.

    2016-01-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl− transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K+ and Cl− efflux, as canalicular [K+] ([K+]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H+/K+ exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K+]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K+], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H+ pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K+; 3) decreased H+ secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K+]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change (“long time-constant transient”) in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K+]can; 5) the Na+-K+-2Cl− symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl− influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl− influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl− secretion (≈H+) and resting short-circuit Cl− secretion (>>H+). PMID:26847387

  17. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)).

  18. A comparative study on the modes of action of TAK-438, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, and lansoprazole in primary cultured rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Jun; Hori, Yasunobu; Nishida, Haruyuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2011-05-01

    TAK-438 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) type antisecretory agent that reversibly inhibits gastric H+, K+-ATPase. Previously, we showed that TAK-438 has superior efficacy compared to lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in the inhibition of acid secretion in vivo. In this study, we investigated the differences in the mode of actions of the two drugs using primary cultured rabbit gastric glands. TAK-438 and lansoprazole inhibited gastric acid formation in acutely isolated gastric glands (IC₅₀) values, 0.30 and 0.76 μM, respectively). In cultured gastric glands that were preincubated with TAK-438, the inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated acid formation was augmented over the incubation period, whereas the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was not affected by time of incubation. Next, we evaluated the durations of the actions of TAK-438 and lansoprazole after gastric glands were incubated with either drug for 2h followed by washout. Even 8h after the drug washout, TAK-438 at higher concentrations inhibited acid formation, but the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole disappeared immediately after washout. Additionally, only a small amount of [¹⁴C] lansoprazole accumulated in resting glands, and this accumulation was enhanced by treatment with 1 μM of forskolin. In contrast, high levels of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 accumulated in both resting and forskolin-treated glands. Furthermore, a 2-h preincubation followed by washout demonstrated a slow clearance of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 from the glands. These findings suggest that TAK-438 exerts a longer and more potent antisecretory effect than lansoprazole as a result of its high accumulation and slow clearance from the gastric glands.

  19. ChePep Controls Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Gastric Glands and Chemotaxis in the Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Michael R.; Lee, Josephine Y.; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Vogelmann, Roger; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Ottemann, Karen M.; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes use directed motility to colonize harsh and dynamic environments. We discovered that Helicobacter pylori strains establish bacterial colonies deep in the gastric glands and identified a novel protein, ChePep, necessary to colonize this niche. ChePep is preferentially localized to the flagellar pole. Although mutants lacking ChePep have normal flagellar ultrastructure and are motile, they have a slight defect in swarming ability. By tracking the movement of single bacteria, we found that ∆ChePep mutants cannot control the rotation of their flagella and swim with abnormally frequent reversals. These mutants even sustain bursts of movement backwards with the flagella pulling the bacteria. Genetic analysis of the chemotaxis signaling pathway shows that ChePep regulates flagellar rotation through the chemotaxis system. By examining H. pylori within a microscopic pH gradient, we determined that ChePep is critical for regulating chemotactic behavior. The chePep gene is unique to the Epsilonproteobacteria but is found throughout this diverse group. We expressed ChePep from other members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, including the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and the deep sea hydrothermal vent inhabitant Caminibacter mediatlanticus, in H. pylori and found that ChePep is functionally conserved across this class. ChePep represents a new family of chemotaxis regulators unique to the Epsilonproteobacteria and illustrates the different strategies that microbes have evolved to control motility. PMID:21791582

  20. Impact of paraoxon followed by acetylcholinesterase reactivator HI-6 on gastric myoelectric activity in experimental pigs.

    PubMed

    Bures, Jan; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Pavlik, Michal; Kunes, Martin; Kopacova, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Jun, Daniel; Hrabinova, Martina; Kuca, Kamil; Tachecí, Ilja

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds represent nerve agents, pesticides and several industrial compounds. Treatment after exposure to organophosphates involves the use of parasympatolytics, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators/modulators and anticonvulsive drugs. Wider clinical use of several AChE reactivators/modulators might be limited because of possible side effects, including gastrointestinal toxicity. In this study we evaluated the effect of paraoxon and an AChE reactivator (HI-6) on the gastric myoelectric activity in experimental pigs. Six female experimental pigs (mean weight 33 kg) entered the study. Intramuscular paraoxon (1.5 g) was administrated after the baseline gastric electrogastrography (EGG) recording, followed by HI-6 dimethansulphonate (1.5 g i.m.) 10 min. later. A further ten 15-minute-interval EGG recordings were performed. Running spectral analysis was used for the elemental evaluation of the EGG. The results were expressed as dominant frequency of slow waves at all intervals of EGG recordings. EGG power analysis was performed in all animals. Paraoxon induced a non-significant decrease of dominant frequency (2.8±0.6 vs. 2.6±0.5 cycles per min.; p=0.092). Subsequent administration of HI-6 normalised dominant frequency to basal values and increased it significantly within the subsequent 30 minutes (3.0±0.4; p<0.001). Paraoxon administration did not influence the power (within a 10-minute exposure). However, the amplitudes increased significantly 90 minutes after administration of HI-6 (819±109 vs. 5054±732 μV2; p<0.001). AChE reactivator HI-6 blocked the gastric effect of paraoxon significantly. Subsequent myoelectric changes in the dominant frequency and power were executed by HI-6. The effect of paraoxon was non-significant.

  1. Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea)

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Catherine A.; Decker, Sarah E.; Silva, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 μeq·h−1·g−1 and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 μeq·h−1·g−1. GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 μeq·h−1·g−1 and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue. PMID:24553297

  2. Distribution of isoflavones in samples of serum, liver and mammary glands of rats or pigs fed dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Farmer, Chantal; Dyck, Monica; Robertson, Patrick; Dahiya, Jagroop; Sepehr, Estatira; Fan, Li; Nicolidakis, Helen; Curran, Ivan; Cooke, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    There has been great interest in the potential beneficial and adverse health effects of dietary isoflavones. Determination of tissue concentrations of isoflavone metabolites provides an insight into the potential bioactivity of dietary isoflavones. However, data on the distribution of isoflavones in animal models fed dietary isoflavones are limited. In this study, additional data on the distribution of isoflavones in serum and/or tissues of rats and pigs fed dietary isoflavones were generated. Rats (male and female) were fed a casein control diet (containing no isoflavones) and an isoflavone-supplemented diet (containing an alcohol-washed soy protein isolate plus NOVASOY, providing a total of 1,047 mg/kg of total isoflavones). Female pigs were fed a control diet (without soy) containing 17.5 mg/kg of isoflavones, a soy diet containing 582.8 mg/kg of isoflavones or a soy diet supplemented with a daily dose of 2.3 g (equivalent to 42.0 and 14.5 mg/kg of body weight at the onset and end of treatment, respectively) of crystalline genistein. The concentrations of isoflavones in serum and tissues (liver and mammary gland) and in tissues (liver and mammary gland) of pigs were determined via a sensitive and rapid method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rats fed the control diet containing no isoflavones had nondetectable levels of isoflavone metabolites in serum, liver and mammary gland samples. Rats fed the isoflavone-supplemented diet had the greatest levels of equol, followed by genistein, daidzein and glycitein, respectively, in their serum, livers and mammary glands. The concentrations of total isoflavones (daidzein, equol and genistein plus glycitein) in serum were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in male rats vs. female rats, but the reverse was true in the case of livers. Concentrations of daidzein, equol, genistein and glycitein were lowest (p < 0.05) in the livers of pigs fed the control diet, and in the mammary glands of female pigs there was only

  3. Prostaglandin protection of human isolated gastric glands against indomethacin and ethanol injury. Evidence for direct cellular action of prostaglandin.

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, A; Brzozowski, T; Sarfeh, I J; Krause, W J; Ulich, T R; Gergely, H; Hollander, D

    1988-01-01

    Isolated human gastric glands from surgical specimens were preincubated in an oxygenated medium with placebo or 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) and incubated at 37 degrees C in either medium alone, medium containing 4.43 mM indomethacin or medium containing 8% ethanol. We assessed the viability of gland cells with fast green exclusion, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the medium, and ultrastructural damage by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both indomethacin and ethanol significantly reduced the viability of placebo-pretreated glands, increased LDH release into the medium, and produced prominent ultrastructural damage. DmPGE2 significantly reduced both indomethacin and ethanol-induced injury, increased the number of viable cells, reduced LDH release, and diminished the extent of ultrastructural damage. These studies indicate that PG protection of gastric mucosal cells has a direct cellular action that is not limited to replacement of depleted endogenous PGs. PG protection in our experiments did not depend on PG's previously described systemic actions, such as protection of the microvessels, preservation of the mucosal blood flow, or stimulation of bicarbonate and mucus secretion. Images PMID:3350966

  4. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.

  5. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  6. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  7. Characteristics of the K+-competitive H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor AZD0865 in isolated rat gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, P; Andersson, K; Socrates, T; Sidani, S; Kosiek, O; Geibel, J P

    2006-11-01

    The gastric H+,K+-ATPase of the parietal cell is responsible for acid secretion in the stomach and is the main target in the pharmacological treatment of acid-related diseases. Omeprazole and other benzimidazole drugs, although having delayed efficacy if taken orally, have high success rates in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Potassium competitive acid blockers (P-CAB) compete with K+ for binding to the H+,K+-ATPase and thereby they inhibit acid secretion. In this study, the in vitro properties of AZD0865, a reversible H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, are described. We used a digital-imaging system and the pH sensitive dye BCECF to observe proton efflux from hand-dissected rat gastric glands. Glands were stimulated with histamine (100 microM) and exposed to a bicarbonate- and Na+-free perfusate to induce an acid load. H+,K+-ATPase inhibition was determined by calculating pHi recovery (dpH/dT) in the presence of omeprazole (10-200 microM) or AZD0865 (0.01-100 microM). The efficacies of both drugs were compared. Our data show that acid secretion is inhibited by both the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the P-CAB AZD0865. Complete inhibition of acid secretion by AZD0865 had a rapid onset of activation, was reversible, and occurred at a 100-fold lower dose than omeprazole (1 microM AZD0865 vs. 100 microM omeprazole). This study demonstrates that AZD0865 is a potent, fast-acting inhibitor of gastric acid secretion, effective at lower concentrations than drugs of the benzimidazole class. Therefore, these data strongly suggest that AZD0865 has great potential as a fast-acting, low-dose inhibitor of acid secretion.

  8. Sialylated glycans and mucins in the lacrimal gland and eyelid of man and pig. Potential receptors for pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Svend; Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Vorum, Henrik

    2011-12-20

    The conjunctiva of the eyelid is coated by secretion products from the lacrimal and eyelid glands, and by mucins produced by conjunctival goblet cells, which together form a glycoprotein-rich layer that lubricates and protects the surface of the eye. However, these ocular carbohydrates may also act as adhesives for viruses and bacteria and thereby facilitate their colonization. This paper provides histochemical demonstration of the in situ localization of such carbohydrate receptors in the form of sialylated glycans and mucins in the lacrimal and eyelid glands and conjunctiva from both humans and pigs. The pig is included in this study because viruses of swine origin may be capable of transmission to humans. We found that the human and pig ocular surfaces contain receptors for bacteria and viruses in the form of mucins (both membrane bound and secreted) and carbohydrates terminating in Sialylα2-6Gal epitopes and to a lesser degree in Sialylα2-3Gal. The glycosylation of the human soft palate could indicate a mucinous route for the spread of microorganisms from the eye via the nasolacrimal duct to the nasopharynx and thus to the upper part of the respiratory tract.

  9. Characterization of cholecystokinin receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, T.; Sakamoto, C.; Nagao, M.; Nishisaki, H.; Konda, Y.; Nakano, O.; Matsuda, K.; Wada, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kasuga, M. )

    1991-02-14

    The binding of cholecystokinin (CCK) to its receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes were characterized by the use of {sup 125}I-CCK-octapeptide (CCK8). At 30{degrees}C optimal binding was obtained at acidic pH in the presence of Mg2+, while Na+ reduced the binding. In contrast to reports on pancreatic and brain CCK receptors, scatchard analysis of CCK binding to chief cell membranes revealed two classes of binding sites. Whereas, in the presence of a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S, only a low affinity site of CCK binding was observed. Chief cell receptors recognized CCK analogs, with an order of potency of: CCK8 greater than gastrin-I greater than CCK4. Although all CCK receptor antagonists tested (dibutyryl cyclic GMP, L-364718 and CR1409) inhibited labeled CCK binding to chief cell membranes, the relative potencies of these antagonists in terms of inhibiting labeled CCK binding were different from those observed in either pancreatic membranes or brain membranes. The results indicate, therefore, that on gastric chief cell membranes there exist specific CCK receptors, which are coupled to G protein. Furthermore, chief cell CCK receptors may be distinct from pancreatic or brain type CCK receptors.

  10. Subcellular distribution of ionic components in gastric mucosa of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Spicer, S S

    1981-01-01

    The topographical distribution of cations, anions and polyanions in the guinea-pig stomach has been studied by ultrastructural cytochemical methods. After fixation with the pyroantimonate-osmium tetroxide solution, variable-sized precipitates were localized in the basolateral extracellular space bordering parietal cells or chief cells but not in that bordering mucus-secreting cells. The basal lamina of all gastric cells disclosed a continuous layer of heavy antimonate deposits. Parietal cells disclosed uniformly fine deposits also on the apical plasmalemma both at the main lumen and in the intracellular canaliculi, and revealed, as well, coarse precipitates in the mitochondria. Fixation with a silver acetate-osmium tetroxide solution yielded nitric acid-resistant, silver deposits confined to the luminal surface of the apical plasmalemma in the main lumen and intracellular canaliculi, the lateral intercellular space, the outer surface of the basal plasmalemma and the basal lamina of the parietal cell. Staining with dialyzed iron demonstrated a glycocalyx rich in acid mucosubstance on the basolateral plasmalemma but not on the apical plasmalemma of parietal cells. In contrast, acid glycoconjugate was visualized on the apical plasmalemma of isthmus cells, mucous neck cells and the transitional cell between isthmus and mucous neck cells but little or no acidic glycoconjugate was demonstrated on the basolateral plasmalemma of these cells. The entire plasmalemma of gastroendocrine cells, unlike other epithelial cells, stained uniformly for acidic glycoconjugate. The dialyzed iron and high iron diamine methods stained the outer compartment of mitochondria in parietal cells intensely and that in other gastric cells lightly. These reagents stained the basal lamina of all gastric cells as did ruthenium red. The several characteristic cytochemical properties of parietal cells presumably relate to the unique secretory activity of these cells and are consistent with the view of

  11. Unique Cellular Lineage Composition of the First Gland of the Mouse Gastric Corpus.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Andrew; Petersen, Christine P; Choi, Eunyoung; Engevik, Amy C; Goldenring, James R

    2017-01-01

    The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin. Prominent numbers of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) positive tuft cells were present in the first gland. The first gland contained Lgr5-expressing putative progenitor cells, and a large proportion of the cells were positive for Sox2. The cells of the first gland stained strongly for MUC4 and EpCAM, but both were absent in the normal corpus mucosa. The present studies indicate that the first gland in the corpus represents a unique anatomic entity. The presence of a concentration of progenitor cells and sensory tuft cells in this gland suggests that it may represent a source of reserve reparative cells for adapting to severe mucosal damage.

  12. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2016-02-01

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals.

  13. Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland (chief cell-predominant type): A review of endoscopic and clinicopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, Masaki; Matsuda, Mitsuru; Yano, Masaaki; Hara, Yasumasa; Arihara, Fumitaka; Horita, Yosuke; Matsuda, Koichiro; Sakai, Akito; Noda, Yatsugi

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland (chief cell-predominant type, GA-FG-CCP) is a rare variant of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and has been proposed to be a novel disease entity. GA-FG-CCP originates from the gastric mucosa of the fundic gland region without chronic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia. The majority of GA-FG-CCPs exhibit either a submucosal tumor-like superficial elevated shape or a flat shape on macroscopic examination. Narrow-band imaging with endoscopic magnification may reveal a regular or an irregular microvascular pattern, depending on the degree of tumor exposure to the mucosal surface. Pathological analysis of GA-FG-CCPs is characterized by a high frequency of submucosal invasion, rare occurrences of lymphatic and venous invasion, and low-grade malignancy. Detection of diffuse positivity for pepsinogen-I by immunohistochemistry is specific for GA-FG-CCP. Careful endoscopic examination and detailed pathological evaluation are essential for early and accurate diagnosis of GA-FG-CCP. Nearly all GA-FG-CCPs are treated by endoscopic resection due to their small tumor size and low risk of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:28082804

  14. Identification of specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, nipples, small intestine, and skin of pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Min, G; Sherwood, O D

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that relaxin promotes growth and softening of the cervix and development of the mammary glands in the pregnant pig. An important aspect of understanding relaxin's mechanism of action in these tissues is to identify the specific cell type(s) that contains relaxin receptors, that is, to identify those cells that initiate relaxin's effects. The objective of the present study was to identify relaxin-binding cells in tissues known to respond to relaxin (cervix and mammary gland) as well as in tissues suspected of being responsive to relaxin (nipple, small intestine, and skin) in the pregnant pig. To accomplish that objective we developed an in vitro modification of an immunohistochemical technique recently developed for identification of relaxin-binding cells. Two groups of pregnant gilts were used: intact control (group C) and ovariectomized progesterone-treated (group OP). Group OP was ovariectomized on Day 40 of gestation (Day 40) and treated with progesterone (50 mg/2 ml corn oil i.m., twice daily) until Day 110 to maintain pregnancy. On Day 110, tissues from both groups were removed, cut into cubes (2-3 cm3), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and cryosectioned (8 microns). Specific cell types that bind relaxin were identified by sequential application of a biotinylated relaxin probe, antibiotin immunoglobulin G conjugated to 1 nm colloidal gold, and silver for signal amplification. The study demonstrates for the first time that relaxin binds with specificity to 1) blood vessels (cervix, mammary glands, nipples, small intestine); 2) smooth muscles in small intestine (circular, longitudinal, muscularis mucosa); and 3) skin from sites other than the mammary nipples (back, ear, thigh, leg). In addition, consistent with previous findings in the rat, prominent labeling was observed in epithelial cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples; in smooth muscle cells in the cervix and mammary nipples; and in the skin of the nipples. There were no

  15. Characterization of tick antigens inducing host immune resistance. I. Immunization of guinea pigs with Amblyomma americanum-derived salivary gland extracts and identification of an important salivary gland protein antigen with guinea pig anti-tick antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brown, S J; Shapiro, S Z; Askenase, P W

    1984-12-01

    Guinea pigs immunized by subcutaneous injection of an emulsion of incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) containing tick salivary gland extract antigens (SGA) from partially fed female ticks expressed a significant level of tick rejection when challenged 17 days later. This level of tick rejection was similar to animals actively sensitized by tick feeding and challenged at the same time. SGA emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or administered with saline was ineffective. However, ticks that fed on animals immunized with SGA+IFA or SGA+CFA expressed significant reductions in engorgement weight. SGA was active when prepared with or without protease inhibitors. The minimum effective immunizing dose of SGA was between 100 and 280 micrograms per animal. Extracts made from salivary gland-derived cement material (CA) from partially fed female ticks administered at 50 micrograms in IFA induced levels of tick rejection comparable to animals immunized with 280 micrograms of SGA+IFA. Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) of 35S- and 125I-radiolabeled SGA and CA extracts immunoprecipitated by guinea pig anti-tick serum that transferred immune resistance demonstrated a unique protein of 20,000 m.w. Serum from animals immunized with SGA+IFA (successful immunization) recognized this same protein, whereas serum from animals immunized with SGA+CFA (unsuccessful immunization) did not. The results of this study suggest that a 20,000 m.w. protein derived from the tick salivary gland may be responsible for the induction and perhaps elicitation of host immune resistance responses to Amblyomma americanum ticks.

  16. Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, S P; Bolton, T B

    2004-01-01

    After enzymatic dispersion of the muscle of the guinea-pig gastric fundus, single elongated cells were observed which differed from archetypal smooth muscle cells due to their knurled, tuberose or otherwise irregular surface morphology. These, but not archetypal smooth muscle cells, consistently displayed spontaneous localized (i.e. non-propagating) intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) release events. Such calcium events were novel in their magnitude and kinetic profiles. They included short transient events, plateau events and events which coalesced spatially or temporally (compound events). Quantitative analysis of the events with an automatic detection programme showed that their spatio-temporal characteristics (full width and full duration at half-maximum amplitude) were approximately exponentially distributed. Their amplitude distribution suggested the presence of two release modes. Carbachol application caused an initial cell-wide calcium transient followed by an increase in localized calcium release events. Pharmacological analysis suggested that localized calcium release was largely dependent on external calcium entry acting on both inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release stored calcium. Nominally calcium-free external solution immediately and reversibly abolished all localized calcium release without blocking the initial transient calcium release response to carbachol. This was inhibited by 2-APB (100 μm), ryanodine (10 or 50 μm) or U-73122 (1 μm). 2-APB (100 μm), xestospongin C (XeC, 10 μm) or U-73122 (1 μm) blocked both spontaneous localized calcium release and localized release stimulated by 10 μm carbachol. Ryanodine (50 μm) also inhibited spontaneous release, but enhanced localized release in response to carbachol. This study represents the first characterization of localized calcium release events in cells from the gastric fundus. PMID:14608011

  17. Muscarinic activity modulated by C-type natriuretic peptide in gastric smooth muscles of guinea-pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Xing, De-gang; Huang, Xu; Li, Chun-hui; Li, Xiang-lan; Piao, Lian-hua; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Yang; Kim, Yong-chul; Xu, Wen-xie

    2007-10-04

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) generation system like nitric oxide (NO) and play an inhibitory regulation in gastrointestinal motility but the effect of NPs on muscarinic activity is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on muscarinic control of gastric motility and its ion channel mechanism. The spontaneous contraction of gastric smooth muscle strip was recorded by using physiograph in guinea-pig. Membrane currents and potential were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. CNP significantly inhibited muscarinic M receptor agonist carbachol (Cch)-induced contractions of gastric smooth muscle strips and dramatically hyperpolarized Cch-induced depolarization of membrane potential in gastric single smooth muscle cell. Muscarinic currents induced by both Cch and GTPgammaS, a G-protein agonist were significantly suppressed by CNP. 8-Br-cGMP mimicked the effect of CNP on Cch-induced muscarinic currents, and the peak holding current was decreased from -200.66+/-54.35 pA of control to -67.35+/-24.82 pA. LY83583, a guanylate cyclase nonspecific inhibitor, significantly weakened the inhibitory effect of CNP on muscarinic current while zaprinast, a cGMP sensitive phosphoesterase inhibitor, potentiated the inhibitory effect of CNP on muscarinic current. cGMP production was dramatically enhanced by CNP and this effect was suppressed by LY83583 in gastric smooth muscle. These results suggest that CNP modulates muscarinic activity via CNP-NPR-particulate guanylate cyclase (pGC)-cGMP pathway in guinea-pig.

  18. Detection of novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the human epidermis and serum and pig adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Li, Wei; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Tieu, Elaine W; Tang, Edith K Y; Tuckey, Robert C

    2015-10-08

    To investigate whether novel pathways of vitamin D3 (D3) and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and previously characterized in vitro, occur in vivo, we analyzed samples of human serum and epidermis, and pig adrenals for the presence of intermediates and products of these pathways. We extracted human epidermis from 13 individuals and sera from 13 individuals and analyzed them by LC/qTOF-MS alongside the corresponding standards. Pig adrenal glands were also analyzed for these steroids and secosteroids. Epidermal, serum and adrenal samples showed the presence of D3 hydroxy-derivatives corresponding to 20(OH)D3, 22(OH)D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,24(OH)2D3, 20,25(OH)2D3, 20,26(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3, plus 1,20(OH)2D3 which was detectable only in the epidermis. Serum concentrations of 20(OH)D3 and 22(OH)D3 were only 30- and 15-fold lower than 25(OH)D3, respectively, and at levels above those required for biological activity as measured in vitro. We also detected 1,20,24(OH)3D3, 1,20,25(OH)3D3 and 1,20,26(OH)3D3 in the adrenals. Products of CYP11A1 action on 7DHC, namely 22(OH)7DHC, 20,22(OH)27DHC and 7-dehydropregnenolone were also detected in serum, epidermis and the adrenal. Thus, we have detected novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the skin, serum and adrenal gland and based on their concentrations and biological activity suggest that they act as hormones in vivo.

  19. Effects of cimetidine on adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa stimulated by histamine, sodium fluoride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate.

    PubMed

    Anttila, P; Westermann, E

    1976-08-01

    Cimetidine, a recently developed histamine H2-receptor blocking agent has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rat, cat, dog and man. To study the mode of action of cimetidine the modification of stimulatory effects of histamine, sodium flouride and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate by cimetidine on the adenylate cyclase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa was studied. The effect of cimetidine was also compared to that of metiamide, an older histamine H2-receptor antagonist. The effect of cimetidine was qualitatively similar to that of metiamide, i.e. a selective blockade of histamine H2-receptors. Quantitatively cimetidine was about 10-fold more potent than metiamide.

  20. Simultaneous detection of gastric acid and histamine release to unravel the regulation of acid secretion from the guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Bitziou, Eleni; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2012-08-01

    Gastric acid secretion is regulated by three primary components that activate the parietal cell: histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine (ACh). Although much is known about these regulatory components individually, little is known on the interplay of these multiple activators and the degree of regulation they pose on the gastric acid secretion mechanism. We utilized a novel dual-sensing approach, where an iridium oxide sensor was used to monitor pH and a boron-doped diamond electrode was used for the detection of histamine from in vitro guinea pig stomach mucosal sections. Under basal conditions, gastrin was shown to be the main regulatory component of the total acid secretion and directly activated the parietal cell rather than by mediating gastric acid secretion through the release of histamine from the enterochromaffin-like cell, although both pathways were active. Under stimulated conditions with ACh, the gastrin and histamine components of the total acid secretion were not altered compared with levels observed under basal conditions, suggestive that ACh had no direct effect on the enterochromaffin-like cell and G cell. These data identify a new unique approach to investigate the regulation pathways active during acid secretion and the degree that they are utilized to drive total gastric acid secretion. The findings of this study will enhance our understanding on how these signaling mechanisms vary under pathophysiology or therapeutic management.

  1. Influence of bilirubin and other antioxidants on nitrergic relaxation in the pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Colpaert, E E; Lefebvre, R A

    2000-03-01

    1. The influence of several antioxidants (bilirubin, urate, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the manganese SOD mimic EUK-8) on nitrergic relaxations induced by either exogenous nitric oxide (NO; 10(-5) M) or electrical field stimulation (4 Hz; 10 s and 3 min) was studied in the pig gastric fundus. 2. Ascorbate (5x10(-4) M), alpha-tocopherol (4x10(-4) M), SOD (300 - 1000 u ml(-1)) and EUK-8 (3x10(-4) M) did not influence the relaxations to exogenous NO. In the presence of GSH (5x10(-4) M), the short-lasting relaxation to NO became biphasic, potentiated and prolonged. Urate (4x10(-4) M) and bilirubin (2x10(-4) M) also potentiated the relaxant effect of NO. None of the antioxidants influenced the electrically evoked relaxations. 3. 6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583; 10(-5) M) had no influence on nitrergic nerve stimulation but nearly abolished the relaxant response to exogenous NO. Urate and GSH completely prevented this inhibitory effect, while it was partially reversed by SOD and bilirubin. Ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and EUK-8 were without effect. 4. Hydroquinone (10(-4) M) did not affect the electrically induced nitrergic relaxations, but markedly reduced NO-induced relaxations. The inhibition of exogenous NO by hydroquinone was completely prevented by urate and GSH. SOD and ascorbate afforded partial protection, while bilirubin, EUK-8 and alpha-tocopherol were ineffective. 5. Hydroxocobalamin (10(-4) M) inhibited relaxations to NO by 50%, but not the electrically induced responses. Full protection versus this inhibitory effect was obtained with urate, GSH and alpha-tocopherol. 6. These results strengthen the hypothesis that several endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic, might play a role in the nitrergic neurotransmission process.

  2. The Effect of Peripheral CRF Peptide and Water Avoidance Stress on Colonic and Gastric Transit in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zahid; Kim, Hae Won; Huh, Cheal Wung; Lee, Young Ju; Park, Hyojin

    2017-07-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit. Colonic transits in non-fasted guinea pigs were assessed by fecal pellet output assay after above IP CRF doses. Blockade of CRF receptors by Astressin, and its effect on GI transit was also analyzed. Guinea pigs were subjected to WAS to measure gastrocolonic transit in different sets of experiments. Dose 10 μg/kg of CRF significantly inhibited upper GI transit. In contrast, there was dose dependent acceleration of the colonic transit. Remarkably, pretreatment of astressin significantly reverses the effect of CRF peptide on GI transit. WAS significantly increase colonic transit, but failed to accelerate upper GI transit. Peripheral CRF peptide significantly suppressed upper GI transit and accelerated colon transit, while central CRF involved WAS stimulated only colonic transit. Therefore, peripheral CRF could be utilized to establish the animal model of overlap syndrome. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  3. Effect of estradiol and progesterone on thyroid gland in pigs: a histochemical, stereological, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, Milka; Sosić-Jurjević, Branka; Filipović, Branko; Nestorović, Natasa; Negić, Natasa; Stojanoski, Milica Manojlović; Milosević, Verica

    2007-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular organization of thyroid follicular cells in peripubertal (6-month-old) male pigs treated with estradiol-dipropionate (Oe) plus progesterone (Pr) in combination on the first postnatal day was studied. A stereological method was used for morphometric determinations of the relative volume densities of the follicular epithelium, colloid and interstitium, and for establishing the epithelial height and index of activation rate. Statistically significant differences of the examined parameters between the control and Oe+Pr -treated groups were determined by Student's t-test. The subcellular organization of thyroid follicular cells was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with the control group, in the Oe+Pr -treated pigs, thyroid follicles possessed a noticeably higher follicular epithelium when compared with the control animals. The observed changes were quantified and comparison between the experimental groups showed that the height, volume density of follicular epithelium, and index of activation rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, whereas the relative volume density of the colloid was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. At the subcellular level the thyroid follicular cells of Oe+Pr -treated pigs were characterized by increased number of polysomes and dense bodies and extensive endoplasmatic reticulum. It was concluded that a single neonatal treatment with female gonadal steroids exerted a prolonged effect on the pig's thyroid, characterized by increased biosynthesis and reabsorption of the colloid by the follicular cells.

  4. Effect of parathyroid hormone on bicarbonate secretion in the guinea-pig stomach and the amphibian isolated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Flemström, G; Garner, A

    1981-04-01

    1. The effect of parathyroid hormone on gastric bicarbonate secretion was determined in the anaesthetized guinea pig. Subcutaneous injections of bovine parathyroid hormone (75 U.S.P units day-1 kg-1) for 7 days caused a significant increase in HCO3- output. There was also a rise in K+ output and a slight elevation of H+ secretion. A similar increase in HCO3- output occurred after acute intravenous injection of the hormones (75 U.S.P. units/kg). 2. Both chronic and acute administration of parathyroid hormone caused a significant increase in serum calcium concentration and it is likely that the changes in gastric ion outputs reflect raised calcium levels. Given alone intravenous calcium (1.5 mg/kg body wt.) stimulated gastric secretion of both HCO3- and H+. 3. To determine whether parathyroid hormone had a direct action on gastric ion transport experiments were performed in the amphibian isolate mucosa. Antrum transports HCO3- spontaneously while HCO3- transport in fundus was studied after inhibition of the greater H+ secretion by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist metiamide. Parathyroid hormone at a concentration of 0.2 United States Pharmacopea (U.S.P.) unit/ml in the nutrient-side bathing solution inhibited both antral and fundic HCO3- transport. A higher concentration (2.0 units/ml) had no effect on fundic H+ secretion. 4. The inhibitory effect in vitro was greater in the antrum and parathyroid hormone may almost abolish the active component of HCO3- transport in this tissue. It is likely that any similar inhibition of gastric HCO3- secretion by parathyroid hormone in vivo is masked by the stimulatory effects of released calcium.

  5. Effects of nitric oxide on slow waves and spontaneous contraction of guinea pig gastric antral circular muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewan; La, Junho; Lee, Janghern; Yang, Ilsuk

    2003-08-01

    We examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors, S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-NO) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), on slow waves and contractile activity in the circular muscle of guinea pig gastric antrum. In the presence of atropine and guanethidine, electrical field stimulation (EFS) reduced the amplitude of phasic contraction. The effect of EFS was significantly inhibited by both the NO synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Cys-NO and SIN-1 mimicked the effect of EFS on phasic contraction and reduced the amplitude of slow waves in a concentration-dependent manner, with no effect on frequency and resting membrane potential. Phasic contraction was more sensitive to NO donors than slow waves. The inhibitory effects of NO donors were antagonized by ODQ and mimicked by a membrane permeable cGMP analogue 8-bromo-cGMP. Several K(+) channel blockers such as apamin, iberiotoxin, and glibenclamide had no effect on the inhibitory action of SIN-1. These results suggest that NO inhibits the phasic contraction and slow waves through cGMP-dependent mechanisms in guinea pig gastric antrum. The effect of NO is unlikely to be mediated by the activation of Ca(2+)-activated or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

  6. Electrophysiological investigation of microdissected gastric glands of bullfrog. II. Basolateral membrane properties in the presence of histamine.

    PubMed

    Coppola, S; Caroppo, R; Frömter, E

    1994-12-01

    Following the technical approach described in the preceding publication we have investigated if, and how, stimulation of gastric HCl secretion affects the basolateral ion transport properties of oxyntopeptic cells of Rana catesbeiana stomach. To this end microdissected gastric glands were punctured with conventional or H(+)-sensitive glass microelectrodes and the effects of changing bath ion concentrations on the cell membrane potential (Vb) and cell pH (pHi) were determined. Except for a transient alkalinization, histamine (0.5 mmol/l) did not significantly affect Vb or pHi. The latter averaged 7.18 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SEM, n = 5) under resting conditions (0.1 mmol/l cimetidine) and 7.21 +/- 0.07 (n = 5) in the presence of histamine. In addition, neither the initial velocity nor the final steady-state value of the cell alkalinization following a 10:1 reduction of bath Cl- concentration changed in the presence of histamine, and the same holds true for the cell acidification following a 10:1 reduction of bath HCO3- concentration. These observations indicate that the basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger was not stimulated by histamine, and that no other base transporters were activated. By contrast, the Vb response to elevation of bath K+ concentration decreased, and so did the initial depolarizing Vb response to bath Cl- substitution, while the secondary hyperpolarizing response increased. The latter observations are compatible with the notion that stimulation by histamine reduced a pH-insensitive part of the basolateral K+ conductance and reduced also the basolateral Cl- conductance.

  7. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propagation of slow waves in the guinea-pig gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Hirst, G David S; Garcia-Londoño, A Pilar; Edwards, Frank R

    2006-02-15

    Intracellular recordings were made from the circular layer of the intact muscular wall of the guinea-pig gastric antrum in preparations where much of the corpus remained attached. When two electrodes were positioned parallel to and near to the greater curvature, slow waves were first detected at the oral site and subsequently at the anal site: the oro-anal conduction velocity was found to be 2.5 mm s(-1). When one electrode was positioned near the greater curvature and the other at a circumferential location, slow waves were first detected near the greater curvature and subsequently at the circumferential site: the circumferential conduction velocity was 13.9 mm s(-1). When recordings were made from preparations in which the circular muscle layer had been removed, the oro-anal and the circumferential conduction velocities were both about 3.5 mm s(-1). When slow waves were recorded from preparations in which much of the myenteric network of antral interstitial cells (ICC(MY)) had been dissected away, slow waves were first detected near the region of intact ICC(MY) and subsequently at a circumferential location: the circumferential conduction velocity of slow waves in regions devoid of ICC(MY) was 14.7 mm s(-1). When the electrical properties of isolated single bundles of circular muscle were determined, their length constants were about 3 mm and their time constant about 230 ms, giving an asymptotic electrotonic propagation velocity of 25 mm s(-1). Oro-anal electrical coupling between adjacent bundles of circular muscle was found to vary widely: some bundles were well connected to neighbouring bundles whereas others were not. Together the observations suggest that the slow oro-anal progression of slow waves results from a slow conduction velocity of pacemaker potentials in the myenteric network of interstitial cells. The rapid circumferential conduction of slow waves results from the electrical properties of the circular muscle layer which allow intramuscular ICC

  9. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  10. Detection of ouabain-insensitive H(+)-transporting, K(+)-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in rat gastric glands by cerium-based cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Seguchi, H

    1990-12-01

    We employed a modification of our previously reported cerium-based cytochemical method for ouabain-sensitive, K-dependent p-nitrophenylphosphatase (Na-K ATPase) activity to detect ouabain-insensitive, K-stimulated p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K-pNPPase) activity in rat gastric glands. Biochemically, the enzyme activity of gastric glands incubated in a medium containing 50 mM Tricine buffer (pH 7.5), 50 mM KCl, 10 mM MgCl2, 2 mM CeCl3, 2 mM p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP), 2.5 mM levamisole, 10 mM ouabain, and 0.00015% Triton X-100, was optimal at pH 7.5-8.0 and decreased above pH 8.5. The amount of p-nitrophenol after incubation increased linearly in proportion to the amount of tissue in the medium. The enzyme activity was inhibited by omeprazole, sodium flouride (NaF), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Heat-treated specimens had no enzyme activity. The enzyme activity increased with addition of K ions up to the concentration of 50 mM, and became constant above 50 mM. Cytochemically, the parietal cells of the gastric glands reacted positively for ouabain-insensitive K-pNPPase activity. Intense reaction was observed at the microvilli of the luminal surface and the intracellular canaliculi. The tubulovesicular system showed weak enzyme activity. The reaction products were found as fine, granular, electron-dense deposits in the cytoplasm just beneath the plasma membrane. The ouabain-insensitive K-pNPPase activity detected in this study appears, therefore, to be associated with that of H-transporting, K-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (H-K ATPase).

  11. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs.

  13. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  14. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P< 0·05): the half gastric emptying time of DM was 137 v. 172 min ( ± 7·4 min pooled standard error) for the diets with and without actinidin, respectively. The presence of dietary actinidin in the stomach chyme increased the digestion of beef muscle protein (P< 0·05) and, more specifically, those proteins with a high molecular weight (>34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  15. Loss of gastric gland mucin-specific O-glycan is associated with progression of differentiated-type adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Shiratsu, Kazuo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin secreted from the lower portion of the gastric mucosa contains unique O-linked oligosaccharides having terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (αGlcNAc) residues largely attached to a MUC6 scaffold. Previously, we generated A4gnt-deficient mice, which totally lack αGlcNAc, and showed that αGlcNAc functions as a tumor suppressor for gastric cancer. Here, to determine the clinicopathological significance of αGlcNAc in gastric carcinomas, we examined immunohistochemical expression of αGlcNAc and mucin phenotypic markers including MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2, and CD10 in 214 gastric adenocarcinomas and compared those expression patterns with clinicopathological parameters and cancer-specific survival. The αGlcNAc loss was evaluated in MUC6-positive gastric carcinoma. Thirty-three (61.1%) of 54 differentiated-type gastric adenocarcinomas exhibiting MUC6 in cancer cells lacked αGlcNAc expression. Loss of αGlcNAc was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, stage, and venous invasion by differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Loss of αGlcNAc was also significantly associated with poorer patient prognosis in MUC6-positive differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. By contrast, no significant correlation between αGlcNAc loss and any clinicopathologic variable was observed in undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Expression of MUC6 was also significantly correlated with several clinicopathological variables in differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. However, unlike the case with αGlcNAc, its expression showed no correlation with cancer-specific survival in patients. In undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma, we observed no significant correlation between mucin phenotypic marker expression, including MUC6, and any clinicopathologic variable. These results together indicate that loss of αGlcNAc in MUC6-positive cancer cells is associated with progression and poor prognosis in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, types of gastric adenocarcinoma. © 2013 The

  16. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing—which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts—the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism. PMID:27409639

  17. CD133 is a marker of gland-forming cells in gastric tumors and Sox17 is involved in its regulation.

    PubMed

    Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Shu; Ito, Kosei; Ito, Yoshiaki; Yuasa, Yasuhito

    2011-07-01

    CD133 is a universal marker of tissue stem/progenitor cells as well as cancer stem cells, but its physiological significance remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the relationship between expression of CD133 and features of gastric epithelial cells, and found that CD133-positive (CD133[+]) tumor cell lines formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133-negative (CD133[-]) lines formed poorly differentiated ones when subcutaneously injected into nude mice. We also found that CD133(+) and CD133(-) cell populations co-existed in some cell lines. FACS analysis showed that CD133(+) cells were mother cells because CD133(+) cells formed both CD133(+) and CD133(-) cells, but CD133(-) cells did not form CD133(+) cells. In these cell lines, CD133(+) cells formed well-differentiated tumors while CD133(-) cells formed poorly differentiated ones. In human gastric cancers, CD133 was exclusively expressed on the luminal surface membrane of gland-forming cells, and it was never found on poorly differentiated diffuse-type cells. Considering that poorly differentiated tumors often develop from well-differentiated tumors during tumor progression, these results suggest that loss of expression of CD133 might be related to gastric tumor progression. Microarray analysis showed that CD133(+) cells specifically expressed Sox17, a tumor suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis. Forced expression of SOX17 induced expression of CD133 in CD133(-) cells, and reduction of SOX17 caused by siRNA in CD133(+) cells induced a reduction in the level of CD133. These results indicate that Sox17 might be a key transcription factor controlling CD133 expression, and that it might also play a role in the control of gastric tumor progression. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. A novel porcine gene, MAPKAPK3, is differentially expressed in the pituitary gland from mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Liu

    2010-10-01

    The mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences of gene expression in the pituitary gland from mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs. One novel gene differentially expressed was identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and its cDNA complete sequence was then obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 384 amino acids has high homology with the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPKAPK3) of eight species--cattle (96%), horse (96%), rhesus monkey (93%), rabbit (77%), human (98%), chimpanzee (98%), mouse (94%) and rat (91%)--so that it can be defined as swine MAPKAPK3 gene. This gene was finally assigned GENE ID: 100233192. Computer assisted analysis revealed that the genomic DNA of open reading frame of the swine MAPKAPK3 gene consists of ten exons and nine introns. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the swine MAPKAPK3 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MAPKAPK3 of cattle. The tissue expression analysis indicated that the MAPKAPK3 mRNA expression levels of large-type Diannan small-ear pigs are ubiquitously increased in various tissues compared to the mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs. Our experiment suggested that the swine MAPKAPK3 gene might play an important role in the growth and development differences between mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs.

  19. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using /sup 3/H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined.

  20. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P < 0.05) in pigs fed NF-BD and NF-BD + phytase. The decreases were 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, substantial amounts of InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated to 17% of InsP₆-P intake). The accumulation of lower inositol phosphates in gastric digesta was very small for all treatments and at all times because of a rapid and almost complete degradation. In conclusion, phytase addition to the nonfermented diet increased the degradation of gastric InsP₆. However, considerable amounts of intact InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for Ins

  1. Identification of gastric H,K-ATPase in an early vertebrate, the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina.

    PubMed

    Smolka, A J; Lacy, E R; Luciano, L; Reale, E

    1994-10-01

    Virtually all vertebrates acidify their gastric contents to a pH between 0.8 and 2.0. In mammals, acid secretion is mediated by a K-stimulated proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (H,K-ATPase), which establishes a million-fold gradient of protons across the apical membrane of the gastric parietal cell. The earliest phylogenetic appearance of gastric acid secretion is in cartilaginous fish, and we sought to verify in this class (Chondrichthyes) the presence and distribution of H,K-ATPase in gastric epithelial cells. An antibody against a synthetic peptide based on the C-terminus of pig H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit was localized in the gastric glands of the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina. The C-terminal antibody stained all cells with tubulovesicles and the apical membrane domain of mucous neck cells. In proximal stomach, gastric glands showed the strongest immunoreactivity in cells close to the isthmus; in the distal stomach, strongest immunoreactivity was found in cells at the base of the glands. Oxyntic cells were more intensely immunoreactive than oxynticopeptic cells. This antibody labeled a single band of M(r) 100,600 on immunoblots of D. sabina gastric microsomes. These results show the earliest phylogenetic occurrence of a gastric ATPase in putative acid-secreting cells and suggest that this enzyme shares structural features with mammalian H,K-ATPase.

  2. Endoscopic biopsy of islet transplants in the gastric submucosal space provides evidence of islet graft rejection in diabetic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Fujita, Minoru; Bottino, Rita; Piganelli, Jon D.; McGrath, Kevin; Li, Jiang; Lee, Whayoung; Iwase, Hayato; Wijkstrom, Martin; Bertera, Suzanne; Long, Cassandra; Landsittel, Douglas; Haruma, Ken; Cooper, David K.C.; Hara, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transplantation of islets into the gastric submucosal space (GSMS) has several advantages (e.g., avoidance of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory response [IBMIR], ability to biopsy). The aim of this study was to determine whether endoscopic biopsy of islet allografts transplanted into the GSMS in diabetic pigs can provide histopathological and immunohistochemical information that correlates with the clinical course (e.g.,, blood glucose level, insulin requirement). Islet allografts (Group1: 10,000 kIEq /kg [n = 4]; Group2: 15,000 kIEq /kg [n = 2]) were transplanted into the GSMS of diabetic pigs under immunosuppression. In Group2, the anti-oxidant, BMX-001 was applied during preservation, isolation, and culture of the islets, and at the time of transplantation. Endoscopic biopsies of the islet grafts were obtained one or 2 weeks after transplantation, and histopathological features were compared with the clinical course (e.g., blood glucose, insulin requirement). In Group1, in the absence of anti-oxidant therapy, most of the islets became fragmented, and there was no reduction in exogenous insulin requirement. In Group2, with an increased number of transplanted islets in the presence of BMX-001, more healthy insulin-positive islet masses were obtained at biopsy and necropsy (4 weeks), and these correlated with reductions in both blood glucose level and insulin requirement. In all cases, inflammatory cell infiltrates were present. After islet transplantation into the GSMS, endoscopic biopsy can provide information on graft rejection, which would be an immense advantage in clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26857703

  3. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type resected by combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET).

    PubMed

    Kato, Motohiko; Uraoka, Toshio; Isobe, Yoh; Abe, Keiichiro; Hirata, Tetsu; Takada, Yoshiaki; Wada, Michiko; Takatori, Yusaku; Takabayashi, Kaoru; Fujiyama, Yoichi; Sekiya, Kousuke; Kawaguchi, Yoshiki; Sukeda, Aoi; Shiraishi, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    A male in his eighties attended our hospital for further evaluation of gastric cancer. A gastroscopy revealed a whitish flat elevated lesion (Paris, 0-IIa) of 15 mm in diameter on the greater curvature of the proximal fornix. The preoperative diagnosis was intra-mucosal differentiated gastric cancer, and a novel therapeutic approach, combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET) was applied and the lesion was resected in a single piece without any complications. Histopathological findings revealed atypical glandular epithelium proliferated in the mucosa and shallow layer (300 μm) of submucosa. These cells stained positive for pepsinogen-I and the final diagnosis was gastric cancer of fundic gland type (GAFT). There was no lymph-vascular involvement and free horizontal and vertical margins were confirmed. CLEAN-NET could be a therapeutic option for GAFT at low risk of lymph node metastasis because it prevents excess wall defect and exposure of cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity.

  4. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (P<0.05 in all cases). The increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001) and an elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (P<0.01), the other indices reflecting HF severity. There was a positive relationship between the increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all P<0.05). The association with noradrenaline remained significant also when adjusted for LVEF and plasma BNP, suggesting a significant contribution of adrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of the antioxidant enzymes biliverdin reductase and heme oxygenase-2 in human and pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Colpaert, Erwin E; Timmermans, Jean Pierre; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic antioxidant capacities of the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are increasingly recognized since both heme degradation products can exert beneficial cytoprotective effects due to their scavenging of oxygen free radicals and interaction with antioxidant vitamins. Several studies have been published on the localization of the carbon monoxide producing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which concomitantly generates biliverdin; histochemical data on the distribution of biliverdin reductase (BVR), converting biliverdin to bilirubin, are still very scarce in large mammals including humans. The present study revealed by means of immunohistochemistry the presence of BVR and HO-2 in mucosal epithelial cells and in the endothelium of intramural vessels of both human and porcine gastric fundus. In addition, co-labeling with the specific neural marker protein-gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) demonstrated that both BVR and HO-2 were present in all intrinsic nerve cell bodies of both submucous and myenteric plexuses, while double labeling with c-Kit antibody confirmed their presence in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results substantiate the hypothesis that BVR, through the production of the potent antioxidant bilirubin, might be an essential component of normal physiologic gastrointestinal defense in man and pig.

  6. Effects of rapeseed-press cake glucosinolates and iodine on the performance, the thyroid gland and the liver vitamin A status of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Tischendorf, F; Leiterer, M; Hartung, H; Bargholz, J

    2001-01-01

    Rapeseed press cake (per kg DM 181 g EE, 341 g CP and 23.3 mmol glucosinolates) was tested in a long-term experiment with a total of sixty pigs (live weight range 24 to 104 kg). The 3 x 2 factorial design consisted of three rapeseed press cake levels (no rapeseed press cake--control, 75 g or 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet) each with two iodine dosages (125 or 250 micrograms supplementary iodine per kg diet). Reduced feed intake and depressed weight gain were found in groups receiving 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet, which correspond to 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. At an inclusion level of 75 g rapeseed-press cake per kg diet no differences in feed intake and growth intensity were recorded in comparison to the rape feed free control. The rapeseed-press cake diet increased the weight of thyroid gland and liver and decreased the serum thyroxine (T4) concentration. Higher iodine dosage increased the serum T4 concentration of pigs receiving 75 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet (= 1.6 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet) to the level of the control group and retarded the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Intake of rapeseed products lowered the iodine content of the thyroid gland, however, there was no significant difference between groups given 1.6 and 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. The vitamin A content of the whole liver and the vitamin A serum concentration were not influenced by the diets tested. However, rapeseed press cake and the glucosinolates, respectively, decreased the vitamin A concentration per gram liver due to the organ enlargement and the resulting dilution effect.

  7. Intraglandular Transplantation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for the Alleviation of Irradiation-Induced Parotid Gland Damage in Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Ju, Zhaoyu; He, Longlong; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-01

    In a previous study, the authors verified the protective efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the prevention of salivary gland (SG) damage induced by irradiation in mice. As a critical step before implementation in clinical practice, the present study investigated the protective effect of ADSCs in a miniature pig SG model, because miniature pigs share many characteristics with humans. Third-passage autologous ADSCs at a concentration of 4 × 10(6) cells/mL were transplanted by intraglandular injection into parotid glands (PGs) immediately after local irradiation at a single dose of 20 Gy. The injection process was repeated twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional and histologic evaluations were performed by measuring salivary flow rate (SFR) and hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic examinations also were conducted to evaluate amylase (AMY) production, microvessel density (MVD), and microstructural changes. The irradiated PGs showed remarkable decreases in SFR, AMY production, and MVD. However, transplantation of ADSCs alleviated irradiated PG morphology and function by preserving more functional acinar cells and increasing SFR and AMY production. In addition, greater MVD was observed in the ADSC-treated group than in the irradiated group. These results indicated that intraglandular transplantation of autologous ADSCs is an effective method to protect PGs against damage from irradiation in miniature pigs, which might have clinic application in the future. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated guinea pig gastric chief cells express tumour necrosis factor receptors coupled with the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, S; Santucci, L; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Amorosi, A; Mancini, A; Roberti, R; Morelli, A

    1996-01-01

    The tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis. Both conditions are characterised by high plasma pepsinogen concentrations, which are thought to reflect an increased rate of enzyme release by the pepsinogen secreting (chief) cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cell dysfunction are unknown. This study investigates whether chief cells express TNF receptors and, if so, whether their activation results in cell death. Immunohistochemical studies conducted with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two TNF receptor associated proteins of 55 kDa (TNF-R1) and 75 kDa (TNF-R2) showed that TNF binding sites were expressed in approximately 100% gastric chief cells. Western blot analysis of whole chief cell lysates probed with the TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 mAbs gave two distinct bands of 55 and 75 kDa in the immunoprecipitate. Incubating chief cells with TNF caused concentration and time dependent cell death, which was prevented by pretreating the cells with anti-TNF receptor mAbs. Exposing the cells to TNF reduced sphingomyelin content by 25%. Sphingomyelinase (10(-6) to 10(-2) IU/ml) mimicked the effect of TNF in that it provoked a concentration and time dependent reduction in chief cell viability and increased pepsinogen release. In conclusion, gastric chief cells express two TNF receptors partially linked to the sphingomyelin pathway. TNF induced chief cell dysfunction might be responsible for the high plasma pepsinogen concentrations seen in patients with NSAID gastropathy or H pylori induced gastritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801194

  9. Nitric oxide inhibits smooth muscle responses evoked by cholinergic nerve stimulation in the guinea pig gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, S; Suzuki, H

    2001-12-01

    In circular smooth muscle tissues of the guinea pig gastric fundus, transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) evoked an atropine-sensitive cholinergic excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) and, after inhibiting the e.j.p. with atropine, an apamin-sensitive nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.). The amplitude of e.j.p.s was similar when the frequency of TNS was low (<0.5 Hz), but it decreased successively (depression phenomenon) when the frequency was high (>1 Hz). The depression phenomenon was attenuated after inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), but was not altered by inhibiting the i.j.p. with apamin. The e.j.p.s were increased in amplitude by the inhibition of cholinesterase activity, but they were decreased by NO produced from SNP with no alteration of their depression phenomenon. Isometric twitch contractions were depressed during high-frequency TNS. NOLA caused an increase in the amplitude of twitch contractions and the attenuation of their depression that changed the transient contraction produced by high-frequency TNS (1 Hz) to a tetanic one. SNP reduced the amplitude of twitch contractions, with no alteration of the depression phenomena. Contractions produced by low concentrations of acetylcholine, but not by high concentrations, were attenuated by SNP, with no alteration of the membrane depolarization. The results suggest that NO produced during TNS has inhibitory actions on cholinergic transmission; the depression of e.j.p.s is mainly prejunctional events, and the depression of mechanical responses is mainly postjunctional events.

  10. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P < 0.05), and the intragastric pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet.

  11. A continuous dietary supply of free calcium formate negatively affects the parietal cell population and gastric RNA expression for H+/K+-ATPase in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Paolo; Mazzoni, Maurizio; De Filippi, Sara; Trevisi, Paolo; Casini, Luisa; Petrosino, Gregorio; Lalatta-Costerbosa, Giovanna

    2006-05-01

    Baby formula acidification can be used to reduce diarrhea. Calcium formate is a dietary acidifier frequently used in animal weaning diets; it is also a source of available calcium. Gastric acidification reduces gastrin release and hydrochloric acid (HCl) secretion. To study the medium-term effects on fundic gastric mucosa, we fed weaning pigs control diets or diets supplemented with free or fat-protected calcium formate. We evaluated the following: 1) the number of HCl-secreting parietal cells, by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against H(+)/K(+)-ATPase; 2) the number of enteroendocrine cells immunohistochemically stained with chromogranin A (CGA), somatostatin, and histamine (HIS); and 3) the expression of the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene, by real-time RT-PCR in the oxyntic mucosa. Cells co-staining for CGA and HIS were defined as enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. Pigs fed calcium formate had fewer parietal cells and a lower expression of the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene than the controls (P < 0.05). This reduction did not occur in pigs fed fat-protected calcium formate. Somatostatin immune-reactive cells were also more numerous in pigs fed free calcium formate than in controls (P < 0.05). The number of ECL cells was not affected. Using covariance analysis, the number of parietal cells explained part of the differences in the expression of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene (positive correlation, r = 0.385, P < 0.01), and excluded the statistical significance of the diet. In the future, the effects on the oxyntic mucosa should be checked when the diet supplemented with calcium formate is discontinued. Furthermore, a reduction in the number of parietal cells could impair the absorption of vitamin B-12 due to a reduced secretion of the intrinsic factor by these cells.

  12. Effects of adrenoceptor antagonists and neuronal uptake inhibitors on dimethylphenylpiperazinium-induced release of catecholamines from the rabbit isolated adrenal gland and guinea-pig atria

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, A.R.; Story, D.F.

    1984-11-01

    Isolated rabbit adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C and the catecholamine storage sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)epinephrine. Release of radioactivity was evoked by 2-min periods of perfusion with dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 100 microM). DMPP-induced efflux of radioactivity was decreased by desipramine (1 microM), cocaine (30 microM), phenoxybenzamine (1 and 10 microM), phentolamine (1, 3 and 10 microM) and propranolol (1 microM). The reduction in DMPP-induced efflux cannot be accounted for by interactions with alpha adrenoceptors, as prazosin (1 microM) and yohimbine (1 microM) were without effect. There also was no correlation between inhibition of DMPP-induced efflux and ability of the drugs to inhibit catecholamine uptake as phentolamine (1 microM) and propranolol (1 microM) did not affect the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)epinephrine by the gland. In guinea-pig atria, in which the catecholamine storage sites had been labeled with (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine, efflux of radioactivity was elicited by 1-min periods of contact with DMPP. DMPP-induced efflux of radioactivity from atria was decreased by desipramine (1 microM), cocaine (30 microM), phenoxybenzamine (1 and 10 microM), phentolamine (1 and 10 microM) and propranolol (1 microM) but not by prazosin (1 microM) or yohimbine (1 microM). The inhibition of DMPP-induced efflux in guinea-pig atria could not be correlated with alpha adrenoceptor antagonism or blockade of neuronal uptake. There were differences between the two preparations in the degree of inhibition of DMPP-induced release produced by the above drugs.

  13. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  14. Folding of pig gastric mucin non-glycosylated domains: a discrete molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Barz, Bogdan; Turner, Bradley S; Bansil, Rama; Urbanc, Brigita

    2012-09-01

    Mucin glycoproteins consist of tandem-repeating glycosylated regions flanked by non-repetitive protein domains with little glycosylation. These non-repetitive domains are involved in polymerization of mucin and play an important role in the pH-dependent gelation of gastric mucin, which is essential for protecting the stomach from autodigestion. We examine folding of the non-repetitive sequence of PGM-2X (242 amino acids) and the von Willebrand factor vWF-C1 domain (67 amino acids) at neutral and low pH using discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) in an implicit solvent combined with a four-bead peptide model. Using the same implicit solvent parameters, folding of both domains is simulated at neutral and low pH. In contrast to vWF-C1, PGM-2X folding is strongly affected by pH as indicated by changes in the contact order, radius of gyration, free-energy landscape, and the secondary structure. Whereas the free-energy landscape of vWF-C1 shows a single minimum at both neutral and low pH, the free-energy landscape of PGM-2X is characterized by multiple minima that are more numerous and shallower at low pH. Detailed structural analysis shows that PGM-2X partially unfolds at low pH. This partial unfolding is facilitated by the C-terminal region GLU236-PRO242, which loses contact with the rest of the domain due to effective "mean-field" repulsion among highly positively charged N- and C-terminal regions. Consequently, at low pH, hydrophobic amino acids are more exposed to the solvent. In vWF-C1, low pH induces some structural changes, including an increased exposure of CYS at position 67, but these changes are small compared to those found in PGM-2X. For PGM-2X, the DMD-derived average β-strand propensity increases from 0.26 ± 0.01 at neutral pH to 0.38 ± 0.01 at low pH. For vWF-C1, the DMD-derived average β-strand propensity is 0.32 ± 0.02 at neutral pH and 0.35 ± 0.02 at low pH. The DMD-derived structural information provides insight into pH-induced changes in the

  15. Supplementation of diets for lactating sows with zinc amino acid complex and gastric nutriment-intubation of suckling pigs with zinc methionine on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation in lipopolysaccharide-challenged weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Caine, W R; McFall, M; Miller, B; Ward, T L; Kirkwood, R N; Mosenthin, R

    2010-04-01

    Sixty-four pigs from 16 sows were used to evaluate addition of zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) to lactating sows and gastric nutriment-intubation of zinc methionine (ZnMet) to suckling pigs on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation after weaning. Sows were fed a barley-based diet supplying 120 ppm zinc (Zn; control) or the control diet supplemented with 240 ppm Zn from ZnAA. At birth, day-10 and day-21 (weaning) of age, pigs from each litter were nutriment-intubated with 5 ml of an electrolyte solution without or with 40 mg Zn from ZnMet. At weaning, 24 h prior to the collection of small and large intestinal lymph nodes and sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the pigs received an intramuscular injection of saline without or with 150 microg/kg body weight of Escherichia coli O26:B6 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). With the exception of a tendency (p = 0.09) for lower serum concentration of copper in pigs at weaning from ZnAA-supplemented sows, there were no differences (p > 0.1) than for pigs from control-fed sows for mineral status or intestinal morphology. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum (p = 0.001) and liver (p = 0.003) Zn concentrations, number of goblet cells per 250 microm length of jejunal villous epithelium (p = 0.001) and tended (p = 0.06) to enhance jejunum mucosa thickness. Interactive effects (p < 0.05) for higher jejunal villi height and villi:crypt ratio and increased ileal goblet cell counts were apparent for pigs from ZnAA-supplemented sows that also received nutriment-intubation of ZnMet. Challenge with LPS increased (p = 0.05) ileal villous width. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet decreased (p = 0.05) anaerobic bacteria colony forming unit counts in the large intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum and liver tissue concentrations of Zn and resulted in limited improvement to intestinal morphology of weaned pigs.

  16. Effect of an abrupt switch from a milk-based to a fibre-based diet on gastric emptying rates in pigs: difference between origins of fibre.

    PubMed

    Boudry, Gaëlle; Guérin, Sylvie; Henri Malbert, Charles

    2004-12-01

    A characteristic dietary feature at weaning is a switch from a milk-based to plant-based diet, i.e. from a non-fibrous to a fibrous diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of such an abrupt dietary switch on gastric emptying rate in pigs maintained on a milk substitute after weaning. Eighteen piglets were kept on a milk substitute for 5 weeks after weaning and were then switched to wheat-based or barley-based diets or kept on the milk substitute (six piglets per group). All piglets were fasted for 1 d before the switch and daily food intake was then increased linearly to reach initial values within 3 d. The gastric emptying rate was measured by gamma-scintigraphy before and after the switch. Corpo-antral peristalsis was also evaluated by the use of high-frequency scintigraphic frames. The gastric emptying rate of the wheat-based diet was accelerated on days 1 to 3 after the switch, but was similar to that in the milk-substitute group thereafter. This acceleration was concomitant with an enhanced frequency of corpo-antral waves on days 2 and 3. Conversely, the gastric emptying rate of the barley-based diet tended to be enhanced on day 2, but was delayed on days 4 and 5, without any change in frequency of corpo-antral waves. We conclude that a switch from a non-fibrous to a fibrous diet alters the gastric emptying rate differently depending on the type of dietary fibre.

  17. Distribution of vitamin C is tissue specific with early saturation of the brain and adrenal glands following differential oral dose regimens in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hasselholt, Stine; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-05-28

    Vitamin C (VitC) deficiency is surprisingly common in humans even in developed parts of the world. The micronutrient has several established functions in the brain; however, the consequences of its deficiency are not well characterised. To elucidate the effects of VitC deficiency on the brain, increased knowledge about the distribution of VitC to the brain and within different brain regions after varying dietary concentrations is needed. In the present study, guinea pigs (like humans lacking the ability to synthesise VitC) were randomly divided into six groups (n 10) that received different concentrations of VitC ranging from 100 to 1500 mg/kg feed for 8 weeks, after which VitC concentrations in biological fluids and tissues were measured using HPLC. The distribution of VitC was found to be dynamic and dependent on dietary availability. Brain saturation was region specific, occurred at low dietary doses, and the dose-concentration relationship could be approximated with a three-parameter Hill equation. The correlation between plasma and brain concentrations of VitC was moderate compared with other organs, and during non-scorbutic VitC deficiency, the brain was able to maintain concentrations from about one-quarter to half of sufficient levels depending on the region, whereas concentrations in other tissues decreased to one-sixth or less. The adrenal glands have similar characteristics to the brain. The observed distribution kinetics with a low dietary dose needed for saturation and exceptional retention ability suggest that the brain and adrenal glands are high priority tissues with regard to the distribution of VitC.

  18. Transgenic pigs as bioreactors: a comparison of gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid in recombinant human protein C and factor IX by the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Van Cott, K E; Butler, S P; Russell, C G; Subramanian, A; Lubon, H; Gwazdauskas, F C; Knight, J; Drohan, W N; Velander, W H

    1999-11-01

    The mammary gland of transgenic livestock can be used as a bioreactor for producing complex therapeutic proteins. However, the capacity for making a given post-translational modification upon any given polypeptide is uncertain. For example, the efficiency of gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid in the amino terminal regions of recombinant human protein C (rhPC) and recombinant human Factor IX (rhFIX) is different at similar expression levels. At an expression level of about 200 microg/ml in the milk of transgenic pigs, rhFIX is highly gamma-carboxylated as indicated by pro-coagulant activity and amino acid sequencing. However, only about 20-35% of rhPC has a native, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-dependent conformation and anti-coagulant activity. Thus, this work provides an example of apparent differences in substrate specificity between two homologous proteins to the endogenous carboxylase of porcine mammary epithelium which leads to varying degrees of post-translational modification.

  19. Electrogastrography in experimental pigs: the influence of gastrointestinal injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate on porcine gastric erythromycin-stimulated myoelectric activity.

    PubMed

    Tachecí, Ilja; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Kunes, Martin; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Pavlik, Michal; Kopacova, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bures, Jan; Pleskot, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive investigation of gastric myoelectrical activity. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of erythromycin on EGG in gastrointestinal toxic injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in experimental pigs. The experiments were carried out on 12 adult pigs (weighing 30-35 kg). EGG was recorded using Digitrapper equipment (Synectics Medical AB, Stockholm). Running spectrum activity was used for EGG evaluation. There were two groups of animals: Group I: 6 controls with erythromycin administration (1,600 mg intragastrically); Group II: 6 animals treated with DSS (for 5 days, 0.25 g/kg per day in a dietary bolus) followed by erythromycin administration. Baseline and subsequent six separate 30-minute EGG-recordings (from time 0 to 360 min) were accomplished in each animal. A total of 84 records were analysed. Baseline dominant frequency of slow waves was fully comparable in both groups. In Group I, there was a significant increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration (maximum between 240-360 min). There was a flat non-significant and delayed increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration in Group II. The difference between Group I and II at particular time intervals was not significant but a diverse trend was evident. EGG recording enables us to register a gastric myoelectrical effect of prokinetic drugs. Erythromycin induced a significant increase in the dominant frequency of slow waves. DSS caused toxic injury to the porcine gastrointestinal tract responsible for the delayed and weaker myoelectrical effect of erythromycin in experimental animals.

  20. Gastric stability and oral bioavailability of colistin sulfate in pigs challenged or not with Escherichia coli O149: F4 (K88).

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Bergeron, Nadia; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Fairbrother, John Morris; Letellier, Ann

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro gastric stability of colistin sulfate (CS) and its antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and to study the impact of ETEC O149: F4 (K88) infection in pigs on CS intestinal absorption. The stability profile of CS was evaluated in a simulated gastric fluid (SGF). Antimicrobial activity of CS and its degradation products were examined in a 96-well polystyrene microplate model. The effect of experimental infection with ETEC O149: F4 on CS intestinal absorption was determined by quantification of CS systemic concentration using a validated LC-MS/MS method. A rapid degradation of CS accompanied by an increase in CS antimicrobial activity by comparison with non-degraded CS (P<0.0001) was observed in SGF. Additionally, CS levels were not quantifiable in systemic circulation using a highly sensitive method and concurrent oral challenge did not affect CS absorption in an induction model of subclinical post-weaning diarrhea (PWD).

  1. Newly developed surface coil for endoluminal MRI, depiction of pig gastric wall layers and vascular architecture in ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yoshinori; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Yoshinaka, Hayato; Matsuoka, Yuichiro; Kuroda, Kagayaki; Gotanda, Masakazu; Sekino, Naomi; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Yoshida, Masaru; Inokuchi, Hideto; Azuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize the gastric wall layers and to depict the vascular architecture in vitro by using resected porcine stomachs studied with high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Normal dissected porcine stomach samples (n = 4) were examined with a 3 Tesla MR system using a newly developed surface coil. MR images were obtained by the surface coil as receiver and a head coil as transmitter. High-spatial-resolution spin-echo MR images were obtained with a field of view of 8 x 8 cm, a matrix of 256 x 128 and slice thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm. T1 and T2-weighted MR images clearly depicted the normal porcine gastric walls as consisting of four distinct layers. In addition, vascular architectures in proper muscle layers were also visualized, which were confirmed by histological examinations to correspond to blood vessels. High-spatial-resolution MR imaging using a surface coil placed closely to the gastric wall enabled the differentiation of porcine gastric wall layers and the depiction of the blood vessels in proper muscle layer in this experimental study.

  2. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  3. A stereological evaluation of secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide-containing mucosal cells of the perinatal small intestine of the pig.

    PubMed

    Van Ginneken, C; Weyns, A

    2004-10-01

    Stereological methods were used to quantify secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-immunoreactivity (GIP-IR) in paraffin sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of fetal and neonatal piglets. In addition, sections were processed for GLP-1-immunohistochemistry. The volume density of the tunica mucosa increased after birth, giving rise to a decreased volume density of the tela submucosa and tunica muscularis. Generally known region-specific morphological distinctions were reflected in differing volume densities of the various layers. The highest volume density of GIP-IR epithelial cells was observed in the jejunum of the neonate. In contrast, the volume density of secretin-IR epithelial cells was highest in the duodenum of both fetal and neonatal piglets. The volume occupied by GIP-IR and secretin-IR epithelial cells increased in the jejunum after birth. Additionally, ileal secretin-IR epithelial cells were more numerous in the neonatal piglet. In conclusion, the quantitative and qualitative presence of GIP-IR and secretin-IR epithelial cells agree with earlier reports of their presence and co-localization between GIP-IR and GLP-1-IR, in the pig small intestine. Furthermore, the differences suggest that age- and region-related functional demands are temporally and probably causally related with the morphological diversification of the intestine and its endocrine cells.

  4. Studies on the intracellular segregation of polyribosome-associated messenger ribonucleic acid species in the lactating guinea-pig mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, R K; Boulton, A P; Harrison, O S; Parker, D; Campbell, P N

    1979-01-01

    (pre-alpha-lactalbumin) is removed. 8. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms involved in the intracellular segregation of mRNA species in the lactating guinea-pig mammary gland. Images PLATE 1 Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:518553

  5. The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and DβH. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of DβH-positive fibres as well as in a small population of DβH-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of DβH-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion.

  6. Introduction of the human growth hormone gene into the guinea pig mammary gland by in vivo transfection promotes sustained expression of human growth hormone in the milk throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Hens, J R; Amstutz, M D; Schanbacher, F L; Mather, I H

    2000-10-18

    We tested the feasibility of transfecting mammary tissue in vivo with an expression plasmid encoding the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Guinea pig mammary glands were transfected with plasmid DNA infused through the nipple canal and expression was monitored in control and transfected glands by radioimmunoassay of milk samples for hGH. Sustained expression of hGH throughout lactation was attained with a polyion transfection complex shown to be optimal for the transfection of bovine mammary cells, in vitro. However, contrary to expectations, hGH expression was consistently 5- to 10-fold higher when DEAE-dextran was used alone for transfection. Thus polyion complexes which are optimal for the transfection of cells in vitro may not be optimal in vivo. The highest concentrations of hGH in milk were obtained when glands were transfected within 3 days before parturition. This method may have application for studying the biological role or physical properties of recombinant proteins expressed in low quantities, or for investigating the regulation of gene promoters without the need to construct viral vectors or produce transgenic animals.

  7. Ca2+ phase waves: a basis for cellular pacemaking and long-range synchronicity in the guinea-pig gastric pylorus

    PubMed Central

    van Helden, Dirk F; Imtiaz, Mohammad S

    2003-01-01

    Ca2+ imaging and multiple microelectrode recording procedures were used to investigate a slow wave-like electrical rhythmicity in single bundle strips from the circular muscle layer of the guinea-pig gastric pylorus. The ‘slow waves’ (SWs) consisted of a pacemaker and regenerative component, with both potentials composed of more elementary events variously termed spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs) or unitary potentials. STDs and SW pacemaker and regenerative potentials exhibited associated local and distributed Ca2+ transients, respectively. Ca2+ transients were often larger in cellular regions that exhibited higher basal Ca2+ indicator-associated fluorescence, typical of regions likely to contain intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCIM). The emergence of rhythmicity arose through entrainment of STDs resulting in pacemaker Ca2+ transients and potentials, events that exhibited considerable spatial synchronicity. Application of ACh to strips exhibiting weak rhythmicity caused marked enhancement of SW synchronicity. SWs and underlying Ca2+ increases exhibited very high ‘apparent conduction velocities’ (‘CVs’) orders of magnitude greater than for sequentially conducting Ca2+ waves. Central interruption of either intercellular connectivity or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated store Ca2+ release in strips caused SWs at the two ends to run independently of each other, consistent with a coupled oscillator-based mechanism. Central inhibition of stores required much wider regions of blockade than inhibition of connectivity indicating that stores were voltage-coupled. Simulations, made using a conventional store array model but now including depolarization coupled to IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release, predicted the experimental findings. The linkage between membrane voltage and Ca2+ release provides a means for stores to interact as strongly coupled oscillators, resulting in the emergence of Ca2+ phase waves and associated pacemaker

  8. Effect of Soyabean Isoflavones Exposure on Onset of Puberty, Serum Hormone Concentration and Gene Expression in Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland and Ovary of Female Bama Miniature Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Juexin; Zhang, Bin; Li, Lili; Xiao, Chaowu; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Jiang, Guoli; Ding, Hao; Wang, Shengping; Xing, Yueteng; Xiao, Dingfu; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of soyabean isoflavones (SIF) on onset of puberty, serum hormone concentration, and gene expression in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary of female Bama miniature pigs. Fifty five, 35-days old pigs were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 11 pigs per treatment. Results showed that dietary supplementation of varying dosage (0, 250, 500, and 1,250 mg/kg) of SIF induced puberty delay of the pigs with the age of puberty of pigs fed basal diet supplemented with 1,250 mg/kg SIF was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Supplementation of SIF or estradiol valerate (EV) reduced (p<0.05) serum gonadotrophin releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone concentration, but increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentration in pigs at 4 months of age. The expression of KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor (KISS1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta-5-delta-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) was reduced (p<0.01) in SIF-supplemented groups. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the pituitary of miniature pigs was reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control when exposed to 250, 1,250 mg/kg SIF and EV. Pigs on 250 mg/kg SIF and EV also showed reduced (p<0.05) expression of cytochrome P450 19A1 compared to the control. Our results indicated that dietary supplementation of SIF induced puberty delay, which may be due to down-regulation of key genes that play vital roles in the synthesis of steroid hormones. PMID:26580281

  9. The dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and gastric ulceration of pars oesophagea in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karin H; Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Haugegaard, Svend; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit B; Pedersen, Lene J; Canibe, Nuria

    2017-01-12

    The aim of the present study was (1) to determine the dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and oesophageal ulceration in pigs kept under typical Danish production conditions (18 pigs/pen, 0.7m(2)/pig, partly slatted floor, ad libitum access to feed), (2) to reveal whether straw ingestion explains the effect of straw provision on the stomach health and (3) to elucidate the effect of straw ingestion on the stomach conditions. Data were collected at slaughter (approximately 100kg body weight) on pigs provided with straw amounts in the range 10g to 500g wheat straw/pig/day from 30kg body weight and fed a wheat-based pelleted feed added 15% non-heated and non-pelleted rolled barley. Aims (1) and (2) included 712 pigs kept in 42 pens, whereas (3) was studied on a subset of 37 pigs with either none or obvious amounts of straw in the stomach. The amount of straw provided affected stomach health in a curvilinear manner. Provision of up to approximately 300gstraw/pig/day progressively decreased the risk of oesophageal ulceration and scarring. At larger amounts of straw the ulceroprotective effect of straw was reduced which requires further investigation. Straw ingestion appeared to be an essential intermediary factor for the improvement of stomach health. The number of pigs without straw in the stomach decreased linearly with the logarithm of the amount of straw provided, which explained the effect of straw provision on stomach health. The structure of the stomach contents increased as revealed by the increased weight and dry matter content and decreased sedimentation of the digesta. Provision of approximately 300gstraw/pig/day on the floor may be a potential strategy to reduce, but not inevitably eliminate, oesophageal ulceration in pigs in commercial pig production.

  10. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  11. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  12. [Macroscopic and histological studies on the gastric carcinoma having arisen from the cardiac gland mucosa--concerning to the esophageal invasion and the reliable surgical cut-line].

    PubMed

    Misono, T; Nishimata, H; Nishimata, Y; Yamasuji, T; Toujinbara, H; Aosaki, S; Arima, T; Nakamura, K; Kimotsuki, K; Suenaga, T

    1993-04-01

    Cardiac carcinoma is defined as the carcinoma whose center of the mucosal lesion is located at the area of the stomach within 2.0cm from the esophago-gastric junction. Histological and macroscopical examination was performed concerning to the frequency of macroscopic type, the direction of the mucosal invasion, the tendency of the submucosal invasion and the esophageal invasion by using these cardiac carcinomas. The objects of this study are a hundred and thirty-nine cases of cardiac carcinomas. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Depressed type (Type II c) in early carcinoma, Type Borrmann 2 and Borrmann 3 in advanced carcinoma are the most frequent form of macroscopic types. 2) The majority (87.7%) of the early carcinomas was situated at the lesser curvature and the posterior wall of the cardiac mucosa (Figure 1). 3) The early cardiac carcinoma had a tendency to invade in the mucosal layer along the esophago-gastric junction (Table 2). 4) The cardiac carcinoma was thought to invade into the submucosa in its early phase, comparing to the carcinoma on the other area of the stomach (Table 3). Twenty-four out of thirty-five (68.6%) cases of cardiac carcinoma ranged from 11 to 20mm in diameter invaded into the submucosa (Table 3). 5) Twelve out of seventy-three (16.4%) of early cases and fifty-seven out of sixty-six (86.4%) of advanced cases showed the infiltration into the esophagus (Table 4, Figure 6). The reliable and surgical cut-line of the oral site can be established at the area over 11 mm in the distance from the oral margin of the mucosal invasion in the cases of early cardiac carcinoma, over 25mm in the cases of advanced differentiated type, and over 30mm in the cases of advanced undifferentiated type (Figure 6).

  13. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  14. AAV2-mediated transfer of the human aquaporin-1 cDNA restores fluid secretion from irradiated miniature pig parotid glands

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Runtao; Yan, Xing; Zheng, Changyu; Goldsmith, Corinne M.; Afione, Sandra; Hai, Bo; Xu, Junji; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Chunmei; Chiorini, John A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang, Songlin

    2010-01-01

    Previously (Shan et al, 2005), we reported that adenoviral vector-mediated transfer of the human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) cDNA to minipig parotid glands following irradiation (IRti) transiently restored salivary flow to near normal levels. This study evaluated a serotype 2, adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vector for extended correction of IR (single dose; 20 Gy)-induced, parotid salivary hypofunction in minipigs. Sixteen weeks following IR, parotid salivary flow decreased by 85-90%. AAV2hAQP1 administration at week 17 transduced only duct cells and resulted in a dose-dependent increase in salivary flow to ∼35% of pre-IR levels (to ∼1ml/10min) after 8 weeks (peak response). Administration of a control AAV2 vector or saline, was without effect. Little change was observed in clinical chemistry and hematology values after AAV2hAQP1 delivery. Vector treated animals generated high anti-AAV2 neutralizing antibody titers by week 4 (∼1:1600) and significant elevations in salivary (∼15%), but not serum, GM-CSF levels. Following vector administration, salivary [Na+] was dramatically increased, from ∼10mM to ∼55 (at 4 weeks) and 39 mM (8 weeks). The findings demonstrate that localized delivery of AAV2hAQP1 to IR-damaged parotid glands leads to increased fluid secretion from surviving duct cells, and may be useful in providing extended relief of salivary hypofunction in previously irradiated patients. PMID:20882054

  15. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  16. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  17. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  18. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  19. Gastric microbiome and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Kyle M; Morrow, Casey D; Smith, Phillip D

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of noncultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely affects gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer.

  20. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  1. Taenia taeniaeformis: immunoperoxidase localization of metacestode culture product(s) in hyperplastic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Walton, A

    1986-04-01

    Rats infected with the hepatic metacestode Taenia taeniaeformis develop an extraordinary gastric hyperplasia. Indirect immunoperoxidase staining localized larval in vitro excretory secretory product specifically in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the epithelial cells lining the pits and glands in the hyperplastic gastric mucosa. The accumulation of this substance in the stomach epithelial cells may be relevant to the gastric hyperplasia induced by tapeworm infection.

  2. Higher incidence of Gastrospirillum sp. in swine with gastric ulcer of the pars oesophagea.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A J; Silva, J C; Nogueira, A M; Paulino Júnior, E; Miranda, C R

    1995-03-01

    Gastric ulcer in swine is characterized by an area of acid-peptic digestion, occurs usually in the pars oesophagea of the stomach, and has unknown etiopathogenesis. The present work was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the newly described spiral-shaped microorganism Gastrospirillum sp. ("Gastrospirillum suis") in stomachs of abattoir pigs with and without gastric ulcer. Stomachs were removed from 32 consecutive pigs presenting apparently normal mucosa and from 32 additional consecutive pigs presenting frank, chronic gastric ulcer of the pars oesophagea. Fragments of antral, oxyntic, cardiac and pars oesophagea regions were taken from each stomach and processed for histology and for identification of Gastrospirillum sp. in tissue sections. The microorganisms were identified mainly in the mucous layer and in gastric foveolas of the antral and oxyntic mucosa. Forty pigs (62.5%) were positive for Gastrospirillum sp.; among them, 27 (67.5%) had gastric ulcer, and 13 (32.5%) had no ulcer. Twenty-four pigs (37.5%) were negative for Gastrospirillum sp.; among them, five (20.8%) presented with gastric ulcer, and 19 (79.2%) had no ulcer. There was a significant difference between pigs with and without gastric ulcer in regard to the presence of Gastrospirillum sp. (P < 0.01). The spiral-shaped microorganism Gastrospirillum sp. that inhabits the stomach of pigs should be considered a possible factor connected with the etiopathogenesis of swine gastric ulcer.

  3. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  4. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  5. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  6. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  7. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors including pheochromocytomas Infections A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary, which helps to regulate the adrenal gland Certain medicines Treatment depends on which problem you have. Surgery or ...

  8. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  9. Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Molina-Infante, Javier; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori in 1983, the stomach was no longer considered a sterile environment. In 2015, evolving data shows that H. pylori is not the only inhabitant of the gastric mucosa. Using culture-independent methods of analysis, a non-H. pylori microbial community has been recently observed in the human stomach, the so-called human gastric microbiota, along with H. pylori itself. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that although H. pylori may be the most relevant, it is not the only local bacterial culprit leading to gastric diseases. Further studies are warranted to offer a better picture of the role and functions of gastric microbiota and to identify the best therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota for the management of gastric diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  11. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2013-05-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature.

  12. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature. PMID:23518679

  13. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  14. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  15. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, H

    1991-01-01

    Gastric cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is variable in incidence on the world. In this paper, there is a review of the epidemiology and the etiopathogenic factors of the disease: genetics, hereditary, immunologic and environmental and, also, of the so called precursor diseases: atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, gastric adenoma, gastrectomized patients, pernicious anemia and Menetrier's disease. There is an explanation about the changes of the gastric epithelium related both with the intestinal and diffuse type of adenocarcinoma; the anatomo-pathological notion of macroscopic advanced-Borrmann and early cancer-Japanese classification and the clinical and diagnostic procedures are included with the fundamentals of therapeutic management.

  16. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric lavage; Stomach pumping; Nasogastric tube suction; Bowel obstruction - suction ... A tube is inserted through your nose or mouth, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. Your ...

  17. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  18. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  19. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach's extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition.

  20. bak deletion stimulates gastric epithelial proliferation and enhances Helicobacter felis-induced gastric atrophy and dysplasia in mice.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, C A; Abuderman, A A; Burkitt, M D; Williams, J M; O'Reilly, L A; Pritchard, D M

    2015-09-15

    Helicobacter infection causes a chronic superficial gastritis that in some cases progresses via atrophic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. Proapoptotic bak has been shown to regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in the stomach and colon and also susceptibility to colorectal carcinogenesis in vivo. Therefore we investigated the gastric mucosal pathology following H. felis infection in bak-null mice at 6 or 48 wk postinfection. Primary gastric gland culture from bak-null mice was also used to assess the effects of bak deletion on IFN-γ-, TNF-α-, or IL-1β-induced apoptosis. bak-null gastric corpus glands were longer, had increased epithelial Ki-67 expression, and contained fewer parietal and enteroendocrine cells compared with the wild type (wt). In wt mice, bak was expressed at the luminal surface of gastric corpus glands, and this increased 2 wk post-H. felis infection. Apoptotic cell numbers were decreased in bak-null corpus 6 and 48 wk following infection and in primary gland cultures following cytokine administration. Increased gastric epithelial Ki-67 labeling index was observed in C57BL/6 mice after H. felis infection, whereas no such increase was detected in bak-null mice. More severe gastric atrophy was observed in bak-null compared with C57BL/6 mice 6 and 48 wk postinfection, and 76% of bak-null compared with 25% of C57BL/6 mice showed evidence of gastric dysplasia following long-term infection. Collectively, bak therefore regulates gastric epithelial cell apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, mucosal thickness, and susceptibility to gastric atrophy and dysplasia following H. felis infection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  2. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  3. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  4. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  5. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  6. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  7. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  8. Evaluation of "Helicobacter heilmannii" subtypes in the gastric mucosas of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, Simon L; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W

    2004-05-01

    Infection with candidatus "Helicobacter heilmannii" is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against "H. heilmannii" ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and "H. heilmannii"-specific probes was employed to directly visualize "H. heilmannii" types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of "H. heilmannii" amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of "H. heilmannii" and were distinct from the "H. heilmannii"-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 "H. heilmannii"-infected cats and dogs were distinct from "H. heilmannii" type 1 and "H. suis" and clustered with "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the "H. heilmannii" types present in cats. In infected dogs, "H. heilmannii" inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by "H. heilmannii" bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from "H. suis." As "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small.

  9. Evaluation of “Helicobacter heilmannii” Subtypes in the Gastric Mucosas of Cats and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Priestnall, Simon L.; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    Infection with candidatus “Helicobacter heilmannii” is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with “H. heilmannii” type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against “H. heilmannii” ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and “H. heilmannii”-specific probes was employed to directly visualize “H. heilmannii” types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of “H. heilmannii” amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of “H. heilmannii” and were distinct from the “H. heilmannii”-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 “H. heilmannii”-infected cats and dogs were distinct from “H. heilmannii” type 1 and “H. suis” and clustered with “H. heilmannii” types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of “H. heilmannii” types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the “H. heilmannii” types present in cats. In infected dogs, “H. heilmannii” inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by “H. heilmannii” bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from “H. suis.” As “H. heilmannii” type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small. PMID:15131182

  10. Notch signaling regulates gastric antral LGR5 stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Carulli, Alexis J; VanDussen, Kelli L; Thomas, Dafydd; Giordano, Thomas J; Liu, Zhenyi; Kopan, Raphael; Samuelson, Linda C

    2015-10-14

    The major signaling pathways regulating gastric stem cells are unknown. Here we report that Notch signaling is essential for homeostasis of LGR5(+) antral stem cells. Pathway inhibition reduced proliferation of gastric stem and progenitor cells, while activation increased proliferation. Notch dysregulation also altered differentiation, with inhibition inducing mucous and endocrine cell differentiation while activation reduced differentiation. Analysis of gastric organoids demonstrated that Notch signaling was intrinsic to the epithelium and regulated growth. Furthermore, in vivo Notch manipulation affected the efficiency of organoid initiation from glands and single Lgr5-GFP stem cells, suggesting regulation of stem cell function. Strikingly, constitutive Notch activation in LGR5(+) stem cells induced tissue expansion via antral gland fission. Lineage tracing using a multi-colored reporter demonstrated that Notch-activated stem cells rapidly generate monoclonal glands, suggesting a competitive advantage over unmanipulated stem cells. Notch activation was associated with increased mTOR signaling, and mTORC1 inhibition normalized NICD-induced increases in proliferation and gland fission. Chronic Notch activation induced undifferentiated, hyper-proliferative polyps, suggesting that aberrant activation of Notch in gastric stem cells may contribute to gastric tumorigenesis. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  12. [Gastric cleansing].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Serret, Alina; Alcaraz Bravo, Judit; Carballo Alvarez, Montse; Fernández Vargas, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Numerous cases in emergency wards are due to the ingestion of potentially toxic substances. One of the most utilized procedures under these circumstances is gastric cleansing. This procedure is a technique habitually practiced by nursing personnel but is not without its risks. Therefore, the motive of this article is to make known the indications, contraindications, related complications of gastric cleansing and its integral patient care process in order to offer quality care methods which enable their being performed in an effective and efficient manner, under the maximum security conditions with the minimum inconveniences for the patient while at the same time describing the system most commonly used by our service.

  13. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  14. [Gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    1997-04-15

    The stomach is the most common site involved in primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originates from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue so called MALT. It comprises a group of distinctive clinicopathological entities which are important to take in account for clinical behavior. In recent years, new diagnostic tools and modern modes of treatment have improved their overall prognosis. One of the most exciting recent discoveries is the hypothesis that an infection by a bacterium. Helicobacter pylori has a decisive role in gastric lymphoma.

  15. Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

    2009-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation.

  16. Microvasculature of the gastric mucosa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alguacil, N; Gaspar-Simón, I; Martín, R; Gomez-García, J; Martín-Orti, R

    1997-01-01

    A corrosion casting technique was used to study differences in the microvascular architecture of the pars cardiaca, the fundus ventriculi, the corpus ventriculi and the pars pylorica of the canine gastric mucosa. This technique revealed an unusual arrangement of the microvascular architecture in the nonglandular region surrounding the esophageal opening. Capillaries run tortuously along the mucosal surface parallel to the long axis of the esophagus, and some capillaries form a polygonal network that extends around the seromucous glands. In contrast, the mucosal capillaries of the glandular regions of the stomach are arranged in a symmetric pattern associated with the gastric glands. There are also differences in the mucosal microvessels of the cardiac and fundic areas compared to the corpus and the antrum. In the cardiac and fundic regions, a sparse microvascular pattern was observed and fewer capillaries drained into a single venule. However, the vessels surrounding the gastric glands in the corpus and antral areas drained into venules perpendicular to the hexagonal arrangement of the capillaries.

  17. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  18. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  20. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34+/PDGFRα+ TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  1. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted to ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce more ...

  2. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  3. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  4. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  5. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  7. Lrig1+ gastric isthmal progenitor cells restore normal gastric lineage cells during damage recovery in adult mouse stomach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunyoung; Lantz, Tyler L; Vlacich, Gregory; Keeley, Theresa M; Samuelson, Linda C; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R; Powell, Anne E

    2017-08-16

    Lrig1 is a marker of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in the skin and intestine. We examined whether Lrig1-expressing cells are long-lived gastric progenitors in gastric glands in the mouse stomach. We also investigated how the Lrig1-expressing progenitor cells contribute to the regeneration of normal gastric mucosa by lineage commitment to parietal cells after acute gastric injury in mice. We performed lineage labelling using Lrig1-CreERT2/+;R26R-YFP/+ (Lrig1/YFP) or R26R-LacZ/+ (Lrig1/LacZ) mice to examine whether the Lrig1-YFP-marked cells are gastric progenitor cells. We studied whether Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to normal gastric lineage cells in damaged mucosa using Lrig1/YFP mice after treatment with DMP-777 to induce acute injury. We also studied Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1 knockout) mice to examine whether the Lrig1 protein is required for regeneration of gastric corpus mucosa after acute injury. Lrig1-YFP-marked cells give rise to gastric lineage epithelial cells both in the gastric corpus and antrum, in contrast to published results that Lgr5 only marks progenitor cells within the gastric antrum. Lrig1-YFP-marked cells contribute to replacement of damaged gastric oxyntic glands during the recovery phase after acute oxyntic atrophy in the gastric corpus. Lrig1 null mice recovered normally from acute gastric mucosal injury indicating that Lrig1 protein is not required for lineage differentiation. Lrig1+ isthmal progenitor cells did not contribute to transdifferentiating chief cell lineages after acute oxyntic atrophy. Lrig1 marks gastric corpus epithelial progenitor cells capable of repopulating the damaged oxyntic mucosa by differentiating into normal gastric lineage cells in mouse stomach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Pathogenesis of Lassa Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    INFECTION AND IMMUNITY. Aug. 1982. p. 771-778 Vol. 37. No. 2 0019-9567/82/080771-08$02.00/0 Pathogenesis of Lassa Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs... virus strain Josiah. In contrast, no more than 30% of the Hartley guinea pigs died regardless of the virus rdose. In lethally infected strain 13 guinea...pigs, peak titers of virus (107 to 10 PFU) occurred in the spleen and lymph nodes at 8 to 9 days, in the salivary glands at 11 days, and in the lung at

  9. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keilberg, Daniela; Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R; Ottemann, Karen M

    2016-10-11

    Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che(-)) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che(-) strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori. After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che−) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che− strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization. PMID:27729513

  11. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  12. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  13. Gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A; Lee, Jeeyun; Sano, Takeshi; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Fan, Daiming; Song, Shumei

    2017-06-01

    Gastric cancers, with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) as the most common histological type, impose a considerable global health burden. Although the screening strategies for early detection have been shown to be successful in Japan and South Korea, they are either not implemented or not feasible in most of the world, leading to late diagnosis in most patients. Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to the development of many endemic GACs, and pre-emptive eradication or early treatment of this bacterial infection might provide effective primary prevention. GACs are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. Localized (clinical stage I) GAC is best treated either endoscopically or with limited surgical resection, but clinical stage II or stage III tumours require multidisciplinary adjunctive approaches in addition to surgery. Although GAC is highly treatable in its early stages, advanced (clinical stage IV) GAC has a median survival of just ∼9-10 months. However, detailed molecular and immune profiling of GAC is yielding promise; early studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors suggest that GAC is amenable to immune modulation. Molecular studies have yielded a vast quantity of new information for potential exploitation. Nevertheless, advances against GACs have lagged compared with other tumours of similar incidence, and more research is necessary to overcome the obstacles to prolong survival.

  14. The fine structure of the swine sweat gland. I. The acini.

    PubMed

    de Melo, V R; Valeri, V; Orsi, A M

    1984-01-01

    The structure of the acini in the swine sweat gland is described here at the TEM level. The acini of the sweat gland in the pig is formed by 2 secretory cell types: dark seromucous cells and clear cells. The dark seromucous cells are actively secretory and their secretion is apocrine. The clear cells seem to be involved in an active transport of water and electrolytes through their cytoplasms.

  15. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche.

  16. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  17. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  19. Male accessory gland infection.

    PubMed

    Krause, W

    2008-04-01

    Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics.

  20. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Identification of non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanghai; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Gastric polyps can be broadly defined as luminal lesions projecting above the plane of the mucosal surface. They are generally divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic polyps. Accurate diagnosis of neoplastic polyps is important because of their well-known relationship with gastric cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. In this study, we used MPM to image the microstructure of gastric polyps, including fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory fibroid polyps and adenomas, then compared with gold-standard hematoxylin- eosin(H-E)-stained histopathology. MPM images showed that different gastric polyps have different gland architecture and cell morphology. Dilated, elongated or branch-like hyperplastic polyps are arranged by columnar epithelial cells. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are composed of small, thin-walled blood vessels surrounded by short spindle cells. Fundic glands polyps are lined by parietal cells and chief cells, admixed with normal glands. Gastric adenomas are generally composed of tubules or villi of dysplastic epithelium, which usually show some degree of intestinal-type differentiation toward absorptive cells, goblet cells, endocrine cells. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be used to identify non- neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps without the need of any staining procedure.

  2. Signet-ring cell carcinoma arising from a fundic gland polyp in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Seol; Kim, Sung Eun; Kwon, Mi-Jung; Seo, Jae Yong; Lim, Hyun; Park, Ji Won; Kang, Ho Suk; Moon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Park, Choong Kee

    2014-12-21

    Fundic gland polyps (FGPs) are currently the most common type of gastric polyps and are usually benign. However, although rare, gastric adenocarcinoma of FGP has been recently proposed as a new variant of gastric adenocarcinoma. Here we report the first case of a 49-year-old woman with focal signet ring cell carcinoma that arose from an FGP of the stomach. The tumor was completely excised by endoscopic snare polypectomy. FGPs should therefore be evaluated for malignant changes although they occur rarely, if the FGP has an erosive or irregular surface.

  3. Substance P stimulates human airway submucosal gland secretion mainly via a CFTR-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Khansaheb, Monal; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Robbins, Robert C.; Weill, David; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic bacterial airway infections are the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Normal airway defenses include reflex stimulation of submucosal gland mucus secretion by sensory neurons that release substance P (SubP). CFTR is an anion channel involved in fluid secretion and mutated in CF; the role of CFTR in secretions stimulated by SubP is unknown. We used optical methods to measure SubP-mediated secretion from human submucosal glands in lung transplant tissue. Glands from control but not CF subjects responded to mucosal chili oil. Similarly, serosal SubP stimulated secretion in more than 60% of control glands but only 4% of CF glands. Secretion triggered by SubP was synergistic with vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or forskolin but not with carbachol; synergy was absent in CF glands. Pig glands demonstrated a nearly 10-fold greater response to SubP. In 10 of 11 control glands isolated by fine dissection, SubP caused cell volume loss, lumen expansion, and mucus flow, but in 3 of 4 CF glands, it induced lumen narrowing. Thus, in CF, the reduced ability of mucosal irritants to stimulate airway gland secretion via SubP may be another factor that predisposes the airways to infections. PMID:19381016

  4. [Restoration of secretory activity of digestive glands in conditions of acute hyperkinesis at persons with different levels of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.

  5. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  6. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  7. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  8. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  9. [Exo- and endosecretive digestive glands of enzymes as modulators of secretion].

    PubMed

    Korot'ko, G F

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes, exosecreted by the digestive glands plays not only a role of the hydrolases, but also an informational and modulating role in the urgent adaptation of the enzyme secretion to the structure and properties of the luminal content of the gastrointestinal tract. Endosecreted enzymes in the blood not only inform about enzymatic condition of the hydrolase-producing glands and duct system, but also plays an informational and modulating role by the inhibition of the secretion of the same enzymes, and by the stimulation of the secretion of the heteronymic enzyme, defines a parity of their secretion and recretion, integrates enzyme secretion of the pancreas and gastric glands.

  10. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  12. Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  13. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  14. Attack and defence in the gastric epithelium - a delicate balance.

    PubMed

    Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    The gastric epithelium is a complex structure formed into tubular branched gastric glands. The glands contain a wide variety of cell types concerned with the secretion of hydrochloric acid, proteases, mucus and a range of signalling molecules. All cell types originate from stem cells in the neck region of the gland, before migrating and differentiating to assume their characteristic positions and functions. Endocrine and local paracrine mediators are of crucial importance for maintaining structural and functional integrity of the epithelium, in the face of a hostile luminal environment. The first such mediator to be recognized, the hormone gastrin, was identified over a century ago and is now established as the major physiological stimulant of gastric acid secretion. Recent studies, including those using mice that overexpress or lack the gastrin gene, suggest a number of previously unrecognized roles for this hormone in the regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. This review focuses on the identification of hitherto unsuspected gastrin-regulated genes and discusses the paracrine cascades that contribute to the maintenance of gastric epithelial architecture and secretory function. Helicobacter infection is also considered in cases where it shares targets and signalling mechanisms with gastrin.

  15. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  16. Aberrant EphB/ephrin-B expression in experimental gastric lesions and tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Shintaro; Saeki, Noritaka; Ogawa, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the expression profiles of EphB receptor and ephrin-B ligand can be used as markers for dysplastic/oncogenic transformation in gastric mucosa. METHODS: The protein expression and localization of EphB and ephrin-B in normal, ulcerated regenerating, and dysplastic gastric mucosa were examined in a rat experimental model by immunolabeling, and mRNA expression was assessed in four human gastric carcinoma cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Ephrin-B- and EphB-expressing regions were divided along the pit-gland axis in normal gastric units. EphB2 was transiently upregulated in the experimental ulcer, and its expression domain extended to gastric pits and/or the luminal surface where ephrin-B-expressing pit cells reside. EphB2, B3, and B4 and ephrin-B1 were coexpressed in the experimental gastric dysplasia, and more than one ligand-receptor pair was highly expressed in each of the gastric carcinoma cell lines. CONCLUSION: Robust and stable coexpression of EphB and ephrin-B is a feature common to experimentally induced gastric dysplasia and human gastric carcinoma cell lines as compared to normal gastric and ulcerated regenerating epithelia. Thus, EphB/ephrin-B may be a useful marker combination for dysplastic/oncogenic transformation in gastric cancer. PMID:25593460

  17. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  18. Accessory parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M; Huliyappa, Harsha A

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches.

  19. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  20. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  1. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  2. Eccrine Sweat Glands are Major Contributors to Reepithelialization of Human Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Rittié, Laure; Sachs, Dana L.; Orringer, Jeffrey S.; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are skin-associated epithelial structures (appendages) that are unique to some primates including humans and are absent in the skin of most laboratory animals including rodents, rabbits, and pigs. On the basis of the known importance of other skin appendages (hair follicles, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands) for wound repair in model animals, the present study was designed to assess the role of eccrine glands in the repair of wounded human skin. Partial-thickness wounds were generated on healthy human forearms, and epidermal repair was studied in skin biopsy samples obtained at precise times during the first week after wounding. Wound reepithelialization was assessed using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo wounded skin samples. Our data demonstrate a key role for eccrine sweat glands in reconstituting the epidermis after wounding in humans. More specifically, i) eccrine sweat glands generate keratinocyte outgrowths that ultimately form new epidermis; ii) eccrine sweat glands are the most abundant appendages in human skin, outnumbering hair follicles by a factor close to 3; and iii) the rate of expansion of keratinocyte outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands parallels the rate of reepithelialization. This novel appreciation of the unique importance of eccrine sweat glands for epidermal repair may be exploited to improve our approaches to understanding and treating human wounds. PMID:23159944

  3. Eccrine sweat glands are major contributors to reepithelialization of human wounds.

    PubMed

    Rittié, Laure; Sachs, Dana L; Orringer, Jeffrey S; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are skin-associated epithelial structures (appendages) that are unique to some primates including humans and are absent in the skin of most laboratory animals including rodents, rabbits, and pigs. On the basis of the known importance of other skin appendages (hair follicles, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands) for wound repair in model animals, the present study was designed to assess the role of eccrine glands in the repair of wounded human skin. Partial-thickness wounds were generated on healthy human forearms, and epidermal repair was studied in skin biopsy samples obtained at precise times during the first week after wounding. Wound reepithelialization was assessed using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo wounded skin samples. Our data demonstrate a key role for eccrine sweat glands in reconstituting the epidermis after wounding in humans. More specifically, (i) eccrine sweat glands generate keratinocyte outgrowths that ultimately form new epidermis; (ii) eccrine sweat glands are the most abundant appendages in human skin, outnumbering hair follicles by a factor close to 3; and (iii) the rate of expansion of keratinocyte outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands parallels the rate of reepithelialization. This novel appreciation of the unique importance of eccrine sweat glands for epidermal repair may be exploited to improve our approaches to understanding and treating human wounds.

  4. [Gastric micropneumatosis: a rare endoscopic entity].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Miklós; Garamszegi, Mária; Bogner, Barna; Beró, Tamás

    2007-04-29

    The rarely described gastric micropneumatosis is caused by accumulating air in the mucus membrane. It may associate mainly with Helicobacter pylori positive atrophic gastritis or with pneumatosis due to gas producing bacteria or non-infectious causes. In our case the disorder was diagnosed in a 69 years old patient, taking clopidogrel, living in a nursing home, with history of hypertension, general arteriosclerosis, cerebral infarction, who was admitted to our department because of melaena and hematemesis. Upper endoscopy revealed a map-like, slightly raised, palm-sized area with yellowish spots on the posterior wall of the markedly inflamed stomach at the level of fundus - corpus border. Based on histology findings, that showed empty spaces among corpus glands, 10-20 microm in diameter, with no epithelial lining, the diagnosis was gastric micropneumatosis. The impaired mucosal integrity caused by mesenteric ischaemia and repeated vomiting were supposed as possible etiological factors, because 72 hours after the patient had stopped vomiting, control endoscopy showed regression, and the empty spaces were no more detectable in the histology samples. By this case report the authors would like to draw attention to a seldom diagnosed gastric injury, and discuss the factors that may predispose the development of gastric micropneumatosis.

  5. Gastrointestinal ulceration in the guinea pig in response to dimaprit, histamine, and H1- and H2-blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Pfeiffer, C.J.

    1981-04-01

    Histamine is known to induce gastric ulcers in guinea pigs after intraperitoneal administration and duodenal ulcers after repeated intramuscular administrations. This study was undertaken to clarify further the differential role of H1 and H2 receptor sites in respect to gastric and duodenal ulcer in the guinea pig. Groups of guinea pigs were treated with histamine, intraperitoneal (1.81 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or intramuscular (0.09 mg/kg intramuscular X 8 doses); the selective H2 agonist dimaprit (0.09-0.18 mg/kg X 8 doses intramuscular or 1.81-3.62 mg/kg intraperitoneal); NaCl, 154 mM (control); and the selective H1 and H2 antagonists, diphenhydramine (125 mg/kg X 2 doses, intramuscular) or cimetidine (50 mg/kg X 3 doses, intramuscular). Gastric and duodenal lesions were evaluated and residual gastric contents were analyzed. The selective induction of gastric or duodenal ulceration by histamine was confirmed, and the H2 agonist, dimaprit, has been shown to be ulcerogenic to the guinea pig duodenum by intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration. Diphenhydramine produced considerably more protection against histamine-induced gastric ulceration (62% decrease in incidence), while cimetidine was particularly effective in the prevention of histamine-induced duodenal ulcer (64% decrease in incidence). A differential role of histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric as opposed to duodenal ulcer is suggested by the present findings.

  6. Bartholin gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Violante; Casorelli, Assunta; Bardhi, Erlisa; Vena, Flaminia; Claudia, Marchetti; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2017-09-01

    Bartholin gland carcinoma is an extremely rare condition. Because of its, phase III trials have not been carried out, there exists no unanimous consensus on treatment and guidelines are missing. All studies reporting cases of Bartholin cancer were collected and screened for the evaluations. Baseline characteristics of studies were extracted and were queried in a database. A total number of 133 manuscripts collected were available for the review process, representing a total number of 275 reported cases. The histological type of Bartholin gland cancer was specified in 90.4% cases: 30.7% cases were squamous cell carcinoma, 29.6% adenoid cystic carcinoma, 25% adenocarcinomas. At multivariate analysis adenocarcinoma histotype and positive lymph node were statistical correlated with worse prognosis. Bartholin gland cancer remains a challenge for gynecologic oncologists. To better understand and treat this disease, centralization to referral centers and design of multi institutional trials is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Gastric Phenotype in the Cypriniform Loaches: A Case of Reinvention?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Odete; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Smolka, Adam J.; Fontainhas, António

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2–3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade. In the present study, the foregut regions of Cobitidae, Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae and the ancestral Botiidae family members were examined for the presence of gastric glands and gastric proton pump (Atp4a) α subunit expression by histology and immunohistochemistry respectively. Atp4a gene expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gastric glands expressing apical H+/K+-ATPase α subunit and isolated partial sequences of atp4a, identified using degenerate primers showing clear orthology to other vertebrate atp4a sequences, were detected in representative species from Nemacheilidae/ Balitoridae and Botiidae, but not Cobitidae (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). In summary, we provide evidence for an uninterrupted gastric evolutionary lineage in the Cobitoidea, making it highly improbable that the stomach was reinvented in the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae clade consistent with Dollo’s principle. These results also indicate that the gastric trait may be present elsewhere in the Cobitoidea. PMID:27783698

  8. A case of gastric polyposis in antral area of stomach following prolonged proton-pump therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alqutub, Adel Nazmi; Masoodi, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    We describe the clinical scenario of a young male with history of non ulcer dyspepsia who had endoscopic evidence of gastric polyposis in antral area. The polyps disappeared four months after proton pump inhibitors were stopped. Proton pump inhibitors have been linked to gastric fundal polyposis and not antral gland polyposis. This is the first report originating from an Asian country describing antral gland polyposis (AGPs) in a patient on long-term PPI therapy with no evidence of Helicobacter pylori. A case report with brief review is presented. PMID:20930929

  9. Effect of low-power radiation (helium/neon) upon submandibulary glands.

    PubMed

    Plavnik, Luis M; De Crosa, Marta E; Malberti, Alicia I

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of low-power laser radiation on guinea pig salivary glands. Low-power laser radiation changes some cellular functions. The effect on salivary glands has not been sufficiently studied. One hundred and forty-four male guinea pigs (150 +/- 30 g body weight) were used. The animals were divided into two groups: control group (fed animals and those undergoing 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 h of fasting) and experimental group (irradiated). Both the right and left submandibular glands were later irradiated with helium-neon laser at 7-mW power, with a 0.75-mm spot, under continuous pulse for 2 min in a one-session exposure; a 11.2 J/cm(2) energy density was applied. Then, the irradiated animals were fed, or underwent 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 h of fasting. Samples of submandibular glands were taken with a punch (5 mm diameter) and were used for optic and transmission electron microscopy studies. The structural observations showed that the irradiation effect was progressive; and showed a trophic stimulant effect at 2 h following irradiation, with vasodilatation, vascular congestion, perivascular infiltrate, and a necrotic picture of glandular parenchyma at longer times. The ultrastructural observations showed alterations of rough endoplasmic reticulum. We propose that low-power laser radiation with the doses applied in this study disturbs protein synthesis and secretion of guinea pig submandibulary glands.

  10. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  11. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  12. Gastric neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and type 1 tumours occurring within gastric hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Runjan; Gill, Pelvender; Mugon, Parassar; Shrimankar, Jyotsna; Hughes, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    We wish to highlight the unusual occurrence of gastric neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and type I neuroendocrine tumours within three hyperplastic polyps. In all cases, the neuroendocrine component was present within and between the hyperplastic foveolar glands of the polyps and overall formed the minor part of the polyps. Two of the patients presented with epigastric pain and the other with fatigue from anaemia, and on endoscopy, all three were found to have superficially ulcerated gastric polyps in the body (cases 1 and 2) and fundus (case 3). Two of the cases had serologically proven autoimmune atrophic gastritis, while the third case had histological evidence of an atrophic gastritis, most likely also autoimmune in aetiology. Cases 1 and 3 had single hyperplastic polyps, while case 2 had three polyps. All polyps showed linear neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia within hyperplastic foveolar epithelium both at the surface and within deeper-situated glands. Neuroendocrine immunohistochemistry highlighted the neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. The bulk of the neuroendocrine component was restricted to hyperplastic mucosa forming the polyps. Non-hyperplastic adjacent mucosa showed less prominent neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. It is unclear whether the two pathologies occurred simultaneously or independently. The common feature and causal link is atrophic gastritis, which predisposed the gastric mucosa to the development of both neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and tumours, and hyperplastic polyps.

  13. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... source of sex steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not work properly. They can be classified into disorders that occur when too much hormone is produced or when too little hormone is produced. These ...

  15. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  16. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  17. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  18. Adrenalectomy abolishes hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion

    PubMed Central

    Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Jet fighter pilots experience high gravitational acceleration forces in the cephalocaudal direction (+Gz), causing severe stress. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subject of numerous studies, crucial information regarding potential pathophysiological alterations following hypergravity exposure in the gastrointestinal tract is lacking. We recently documented a significant decrease in gastric secretory activity in rats after acute exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adrenalectomy on gastric acid secretion and plasma gastrin level in hypergravity-exposed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were adrenalectomized and exposed to +10Gz three times for 3 min. Gastric juice and blood samples were collected, and the volume and total acidity of gastric juice and plasma level of gastrin were measured. Consistent with our previous data, acute exposure to +10Gz significantly altered the gastric juice parameters in the sham-operated rats. The volume (P < 0.001) and acidity (P < 0.001) of gastric juice in the hypergravity-exposed rats were significantly lower than those in the nonexposed rats. In contrast, in adrenalectomized rats, the differences in the gastric juice volume (P = 0.712) and acidity (P = 0.279) were not statistically significant between the hypergravity-exposed and nonexposed rats. We demonstrated that adrenalectomy abolished hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion, but did not influence gastrin release. These findings suggest that the adrenal glands are required for hypergravity-induced gastric acid hyposecretion. PMID:28430608

  19. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-05

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested.

  20. Radioisotope study of salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    De Rossi, G.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

  1. Gastric cancer: Basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Molina-Castro, Silvia; Pereira-Marques, Joana; Figueiredo, Ceu; Machado, Jose C; Varon, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most incident and deadliest malignancies in the world. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the end point of a long and multistep process, which results from the stepwise accumulation of numerous (epi)genetic alterations, leading to dysregulation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways. Gastric cancer stem cells have emerged as fundamental players in cancer development and as contributors to gastric cancer heterogeneity. For this special issue, we will report last year's update on the gastric cancer molecular classification, and in particular address the gastric cancer groups who could benefit from immune checkpoint therapy. We will also review the latest advances on gastric cancer stem cells, their properties as gastric cancer markers and therapeutic targets, and associated signaling pathways. The understanding of the molecular basis underlying gastric cancer heterogeneity and of the role played by gastric cancer stem cells in cancer development and heterogeneity is of major significance, not only for identifying novel targets for cancer prevention and treatment, but also for clinical management and patient stratification for targeted therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gastric adenocarcinoma arising in gastritis cystica profunda presenting with selective loss of KCNE2 expression.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Natsumi; Kitazawa, Riko; Fujiishi, Koto; Nagai, Yusa; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2013-02-28

    Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is a rare condition caused by ectopic entrapment of gastric glands, probably secondary to the disruption of muscularis mucosae. GCP is often associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, and loss of the KCNE2 subunit from potassium channel complexes is considered a common primary target molecule leads to both GCP and malignancy. In this study, we, for the first time, analyzed the expression of KCNE2 in surgically excised tissue from human gastric cancer associated with GCP and confirmed that reduced KCNE2 expression correlates with disease formation.

  3. Mechanics of pulsatile transpyloric flow in the pig.

    PubMed

    Anvari, M; Dent, J; Malbert, C; Jamieson, G G

    1995-10-01

    1. In eight conscious pigs equipped with gastric and duodenal cannulae, the relationship of transpyloric flow to gastro-duodenal motor events was evaluated during gastric emptying of 1000 ml of saline. Rates of liquid gastric emptying were correlated with pressures at the antrum, pylorus and duodenum, recorded by a sleeve sensor and multiple perfused side-holes. Transpyloric flow was recorded concurrently by continuous collection and weighing of the duodenal effluent. 2. In three pigs the above measurements were repeated during concurrent videofluoroscopy of gastric emptying after adding 100 ml of liquid barium to the gastric instillate. 3. The mean volume of saline emptied in 30 min was 627 +/- 51.2 ml. Pulsatile flow accounted for 71% of total emptying. Pulses had a mean flow rate of 3.9 +/- 0.44 ml s-1. Most flow pulses (59%) occurred during the first 5 min of emptying. 4. Distinctive, low-amplitude (4.8 +/- 0.33 mmHg), relatively long-lasting (15.8 +/- 0.46 s) antral pressure waves were associated with 58% of flow pulses. In all antral pressure recording points, the first and longest duration component of these pressure waves had an identical timing, amplitude and waveform consistent with pressurization of the entire antrum-gastric cavity. 5. Videofluoroscopy and concurrent manometry showed that these antral common cavity pressure waves were associated with non-lumen-occlusive contractions of the gastric wall, initially observed at the corpus which propagated down to the pylorus; 93% of these contractions became lumen occlusive in the terminal antrum and pylorus when pressure waves of a unique pattern for each recording point were recorded at this level. 6. The onset of 68% of the flow pulses which accounted for 62% of pulsatile emptying occurred in the interval (mean 7.9 +/- 0.65 s) between the onset of the common cavity wave and the onset of localized, lumen-occlusive distal antral-pyloric pressure waves. 7. These findings indicate that in the pig, pulsatile

  4. Lymphocytic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, A; Karttunen, T J; Alavaikko, M

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis and primary gastric lymphoma are rare conditions with unknown aetiology. It has recently been suggested that Helicobacter pylori has a role in the pathogenesis of both of them. The occurrence of lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori was studied in a series of patients with primary gastric lymphoma. The cases of primary gastric lymphomas (n = 35) diagnosed in years 1970-1993 were identified. The specimens of 22 cases contained gastric mucosa sufficiently so that the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes, severity of gastritis, and occurrence of H pylori could be studied. Lymphocytic gastritis was detected in seven of 22 patients (32%), and in most cases both in antral and body mucosa. Atrophy of the body glands was significantly more severe in lymphocytic gastritis patients. H pylori was detected in 13 of all 22 patients (59%); two of seven lymphocytic gastritis patients (29%), and 11 of 15 (73%) of patients without lymphocytic gastritis were H pylori positive. Patients with gastric lymphoma have significantly increased prevalence of lymphocytic gastritis. Rarity of H pylori in these patients might be connected with atrophic changes in body mucosa. Further studies are needed to show the significance of lymphocytic gastritis as a precursor of gastric lymphoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7489930

  5. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated. Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous. 3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not. Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study. PMID:28151870

  6. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Eamlamnam, Kallaya; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Visedopas, Naruemon; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn

    2006-04-07

    To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing. Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n=48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as control group, group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4 as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera. The rats from each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence, TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer by 20% acetic acid. On day 1 after induction of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was significantly (P<0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the control group. The level of TNF-alpha was elevated and the level of IL-10 was reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera, leukocyte adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule. The level of IL-10 was elevated, but the level of TNF-alpha had no significant difference. On day 8, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-alpha were still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-alpha level. The level of IL-10 was still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore, histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Administration of 20% acetic acid can induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-alpha level and reduce

  7. Morphological, morphometric and histochemical characterization of the gastric mucosa of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Magied, E M; Taha, A A M

    2003-02-01

    Mucosal morphology, morphometry and mucin histochemistry of the stomach were studied in the one-humped camel. The lining of the stomach was divided into eight grossly identifiable regions. The first region was non-glandular, occupied the body of the first compartment of the stomach and constituted 53.2% of the gastric mucosa. The other seven regions were lined by a glandular mucosa. Histological, histochemical and morphometric investigations have shown that glandular mucosa comprises pseudo-cardiac, cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. The pseudo-cardiac region was characterized by widely separated short tubular serous glands. It constituted 36.2% of the gastric mucosa; it extended over the entire lining of the second compartment and parts of the first and third compartments. The cardiac region was confined to the initial zone of the third compartment amidst the psuedo-cardiac region but contiguous with the distal end of the gastric groove. It constituted 3.4% of the gastric mucosa and was characterized by neutral and acid mucin positive glands. The fundic and pyloric regions occupied the distal distended part of the third compartment. The fundic region constituted 4.3% of the gastric mucosa. It was packed with typical fundic glands characterized by chief cells, parietal cells and acid mucin positive neck cells. The pyloric region constituted 2.9% of the gastric mucosa. Its glands were positive to acid mucins except for their bases that were positive to neutral mucins. Differences in volume densities of the mucosal components and reactivity of the surface epithelium and gastric pits to mucin stains were noted in the different regions of the stomach.

  8. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  9. A comparison between the gastric and salivary concentration of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide in man

    PubMed Central

    Harden, R. McG.; Alexander, W. D.; Shimmins, J.; Chisholm, D.

    1969-01-01

    The concentration of iodide (I−) and pertechnetate (TcO4−) and bromide (Br−) has been measured simultaneously in gastric juice and parotid saliva. The combined gastric and salivary clearance for iodide and pertechnetate is more than twice the clearance of these ions by the thyroid gland. The concentration of the ions was in the order I−>TcO4−>Br− in both gastric juice and saliva. Differences exist between the secretion of iodide, pertechnetate, and bromide. Bromide, in contrast to iodide and pertechnetate, was found to be more concentrated in gastric juice than in saliva. The ratio of the iodide to pertechnetate clearance was greater in gastric juice than in saliva. PMID:5358585

  10. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  12. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  13. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Alén, Begoña O; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-02-02

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  14. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Alén, Begoña O.; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S.; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer. PMID:26716511

  15. Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral gastrin cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Ghrelin and coffee also stimulate acid secretion whereas somatostatin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and atrial natriuretic peptide inhibit acid secretion. Although 95% of parietal cells are contained within the oxyntic mucosa (fundus and body), 50% of human antral glands contain parietal cells. Proton pump inhibitors are considered well tolerated drugs, but concerns have been raised regarding dysbiosis, atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia, hypomagnesemia, and enteritis/colitis. Our understanding of the functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved management of acid-peptic disorders, prevention and management of neoplasia, and the development of novel medications.

  16. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  17. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2(+) cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5(+) stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5(+) stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2(+) cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2(+) cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program.

  18. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2+ cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5+ stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5+ stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2+ cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2+ cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program. PMID:26989172

  19. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  20. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  1. [A family with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis identified because of fundic gland polyposis].

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Iwamoto, Fumihiko; Miura, Mika; Matsui, Akira; Shindo, Hiroko; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Yasunori; Yasuda, Shinichiro

    2011-06-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman who had fundic gland polyposis without a colorectal polyp. Because her father had colon cancer, multiple colorectal polyps and the gastric polyposis, we suspected AFAP and researched the APC gene. There was 1 base pair deletion of guanine at codon 99-100 in exon 3 of the APC gene, and its frame shift mutation made stop codon at codon 124. It was proved that the gene carrier of AFAP can be discovered based on the family-history and the presence of fundic gland polyposis, even when no colorectal polyps exist.

  2. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  3. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  4. Relationship between parotid amylase secretion and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between parotid amylase secretion and the osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet was investigated. In sham-operated rats fed a pelleted diet, amylase activity in the parotid glands decreased, amylase activity in the plasma increased, and there was strong amylase activity in the gastric contents. As a result, both reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents increased. In parotid duct-ligated rats, the feeding of a pelleted diet affected neither parotid nor plasma amylase activity and there was little amylase activity in the gastric contents; this resulted in decreased starch digestion. The amylase activity in the gastric contents of rats fed a liquid diet was lower than that of rats fed the pelleted diet. Both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were lower than those of rats fed the pelleted diet. However, both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were higher than those in the liquid diet itself. A small quantity of parotid amylase seems to effectively digest a large part of the starch in the stomaches of rats fed the liquid diet. These findings suggest that amylase secreted from parotid glands increases osmolality in the gastric contents via the production of reducing sugars from starch in rats when fed either pelleted or liquid diets.

  5. Obesity and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is an important public health problem worldwide. It increases the risk of many chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, obesity is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. Possible mechanisms linking obesity with gastric cancer may include obesity associated gastro-oesophageal reflux, insulin resistance, altered levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and an abnormally increased blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have revealed an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese patients, providing another clue for the increased incidence of gastric cancer in obese population. If this connection can be confirmed in animal models and a large cohort of patients, then eradicating H. pylori together with life style modification in obese individuals may help prevent the development of gastric cancer in the increasingly obese population.

  6. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  7. [Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zverkov, I V; Vinogradov, V A; Smagin, V G

    1983-10-01

    Immunohistochemical staining with the use of peroxidase-antiperoxidase was applied to study cells producing gamma- and alpha-endorphines in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer. The cells producing gamma-endorphines were discovered to be mainly located in the epithelium of the cervical and upper third of the pyloric glands and to be alike G-cells producing gastrin. The cells producing alpha-endorphine were found both in the epithelium of the upper third of the gastric pyloric glands and in the gastric mucosa lamina proper. In peptic ulcer, there was an almost two-fold increase in the amount of gamma-endorphine-producing cells and diminution of epithelial endocrine cells producing alpha-endorphine.

  8. Synergistic airway gland mucus secretion in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide and carbachol is lost in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Wu, Jin V.; Robbins, Robert C.; Ianowski, Juan P.; Hanrahan, John W.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel whose dysfunction leads to chronic bacterial and fungal airway infections via a pathophysiological cascade that is incompletely understood. Airway glands, which produce most airway mucus, do so in response to both acetylcholine (ACh) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). CF glands fail to secrete mucus in response to VIP, but do so in response to ACh. Because vagal cholinergic pathways still elicit strong gland mucus secretion in CF subjects, it is unclear whether VIP-stimulated, CFTR-dependent gland secretion participates in innate defense. It was recently hypothesized that airway intrinsic neurons, which express abundant VIP and ACh, are normally active and stimulate low-level gland mucus secretion that is a component of innate mucosal defenses. Here we show that low levels of VIP and ACh produced significant mucus secretion in human glands via strong synergistic interactions; synergy was lost in glands of CF patients. VIP/ACh synergy also existed in pig glands, where it was CFTR dependent, mediated by both Cl– and HCO3–, and clotrimazole sensitive. Loss of “housekeeping” gland mucus secretion in CF, in combination with demonstrated defects in surface epithelia, may play a role in the vulnerability of CF airways to bacterial infections. PMID:17853942

  9. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

  10. Innervation of the human gastric wall.

    PubMed Central

    Kyösola, K; Rechardt, L; Veijola, L; Waris, T; Penttilä, O

    1980-01-01

    The intrinsic innervation of the human gastric wall was studied by means of (1) demonstration of the acetylcholinesterase activity, (2) fluorescence microscopy, and (3) electron microscopy. The cholinergic innervation was rich: in the mucosa, a dense three dimensional network consisting of single delicate varicose acetylcholinesterase-positive axons and small nerve fascicles was observed in close relation to the gastric glands. In the submucosa, large nerve trunks and densely woven plexuses mainly consisting of single varicose axons (obviously perivascular plexuses)) were seen. In the muscularis external, a small-meshed net consisting of single varicose axons and nerve fascicles was observed. The ganglia of the myenteric plexus were small and scattered irregularly between and within the muscle layers. Most of the nerve cells exhibited moderate to intense acetylcholinesterase activity. In the serosa, only a few nerves were observed. By fluorescence microscopy, an abundance of brightly yellow fluorescing irregularly fusiform enterochromaffin cells was observed in the epithelial lining of the antral glands. The parietal cells of the fundic glands exhibited a granular, yellow to orange autofluorescence. Fluorescing axons were seen in intimate relation to some enterochromaffin cells, whereas most enterochromaffin cells and parietal cells did not receive any direct functional adrenergic innervation. In the other tissue layers, only a few fluorescing nerves were seen. The main ultrastructural characteristics of the intrinsic innervation of the mucosa were: (1) 'Innervation fasciculée'; (2) the axons were unmyelinated; (3) two main types of nerve terminals were identified according to their vesicle population(s): (a) nerve terminals containing only clear vesicles, (b) nerve terminals containing clear vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles. Most of the axons and nerve terminals within the nerve fascicles were acetylcholinesterase-positive. The nerve terminals were

  11. Pipeline caliper pig

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.S.; Lockyear, K.W.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes an improved pipeline caliper pig for providing indications of the deviations of an inner wall of a pipeline from a nominal cross-sectional configuration. It comprises: a pig body assembly having a longitudinal axis and means for supporting the pig body assembly in a pipeline and for impeding the flow of fluid therepast so that the pig body is propelled by such fluid along the pipeline; an integrator plate carried by the pig body assembly; means for deflecting the integrator plate in response to deviations in the internal pipeline wall; means for axial oriented detection of the deflection of the integrator plate and for recording the detected deflections; and means for simultaneously determining and recording the orientation of the pig body assembly about its longitudinal axis relative to the vertical whereby the axial orientation of detected deviations is determinable.

  12. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  13. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

    1998-06-01

    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens.

  14. Black Spot, a Novel Gastric Finding Potentially Induced by Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Yu; Haruma, Ken; Ayaki, Maki; Kamada, Tomoari; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Murao, Takahisa; Manabe, Noriaki; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Shiotani, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective We have recently discovered new gastric lesions with black spots. There have been no reports about black spots and their clinicopathological features. We therefore report the clinicopathological features of black spots and assess their causes and mechanisms. Methods Sixty-four patients with black spots among 26,620 Japanese patients that underwent endoscopy between May 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled. Endoscopic findings of black spots were defined as black pigmentations in the gastric mucosa by conventional endoscopy. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, including gender, age, underlying diseases and medications, endoscopic and pathologic findings of patients with black spots. Results The prevalence of patients with black spots was 0.24%. Of sixty-four cases, 44 (68.8%) were taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Eight (12.5%) were taking corticosteroids. There were 10 cases (15.6%) with decreased renal function. All black spots were identified only in the fundic gland region. Forty-one (64.1%) patients had multiple (more than ten) black spots. There were two different types: black spots on the flat mucosa and black spots on fundic gland polyps. Pathologically, parietal cell protrusions, fundic gland cysts and brownish pigmentation in fundic gland cysts were seen in 26 (76.5%), 23 (67.6%) and 6 (17.6%) patients, respectively. Conclusion We herein describe gastric black spots as a new gastric mucosal finding that arises only in the fundic gland region. The black spots are pathologically brownish pigmentations in fundic gland cysts. Adverse events of PPIs and parietal cell protrusion caused by PPI use are strongly considered to be one of the etiologies of black spots. PMID:27803398

  15. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... into or spread to the salivary glands. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas start in lymph nodes. Rarely, these cancers ... cells). For more information on lymphomas, see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Sarcomas: The salivary glands contain blood vessels, ...

  16. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  17. Native and bone marrow-derived cell mosaicism in gastric carcinoma in H. pylori-infected p27-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Songhua; Kim, Woojin; Pham, Tu T.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Houghton, Jean Marie; Moss, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection promotes non-cardia gastric cancer. Some mouse models suggest that bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) contribute to Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We determined whether this increased susceptibility to Helicobacter-induced gastric carcinogenesis of p27-deficient mice is dependent upon their p27-null BMDC or their p27-null gastric epithelial cells. Design Female mice (recipients) were irradiated and transplanted with BMDC from male donors. Wild type (WT) mice in group 1 (control) received BMDC from male GFP-transgenic mice. Female WT and p27 KO mice were engrafted with male p27KO mice BMDC (Group 2) or GFP-transgenic WT BMDC (Group 3). Recipients were infected with H. pylori SS1 for one year. Results Mice lacking p27 in either the BM pool or gastric epithelium developed significantly more advanced gastric pathology, including high-grade dysplasia. Co-staining of donor BMDC in dysplastic gastric glands was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Gastric expression of IL-1 beta protein was reduced in groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05 vs control) whereas expression of IFN-γ and chemokines MIP-1 beta, MIG, IP-10 and RANTES in group 2 were significantly higher than group 3. Conclusions Both bone marrow-derived and gastric epithelial cells contribute to the increased gastric cancer susceptibility of p27-deficient H. pylori-infected mice. PMID:27655701

  18. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Kim, J H; Lee, J K; Lim, S C

    2017-10-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common site of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland, and the minor salivary glands. Here we report the first case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Clinicians should consider sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm. Surgical excision with clear margins seems to be a sufficient initial treatment option for sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Empirical study in the relation of gastric mucosal lesion with gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-feng; Xue, Ying-wei

    2008-09-01

    To study the precise cause and the specific procedure about gastric mucosal lesion in rats with water immersion-restraint stress(WRS). One hundred and forty-four Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups randomly: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I group. There were 16 rats in each group. A, B and C groups underwent gastric emptying determination. Emptying rate of gastric fluid was determined with radiate nuclide (99m)Tc. D, E and F groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after cleaning gastric contents and pylorus ligation. G, H and I groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after pylorus ligation without cleaning gastric contents. Gastric mucosal lesion ulcer index(UI) was evaluated. The relationship between of gastric mucosal lesion and gastric emptying rate and gastric acid secretion were examined. Gastric emptying rate decreased obviously when the WRS time was prolonged. There were significant differences among B (WRS 2 h), C group (WRS 4 h) and A group (controlled group) (P<0.01). There was also significant difference between B and C group (P<0.01).The rats' gastric acid secretion was inhibited significantly. The differences among E (WRS 2 h), F (WRS 4 h) and D groups (controlled group) were significant (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between F and E groups (P>0.05). The gastric mucosal lesions were aggravated with time of stress. Gastric contents cleaning could effectively prevent gastric mucosal lesions originated by stress .The operation had no influence on this test. There were significant gastric mucosal lesion UI in B and C groups compared with A group (P<0.01). The difference between B and C group was significant (P<0.01).There were no gastric mucosal lesions in A, D, E, F and G groups. However, There was significant difference between I and F group (P<0.01). No significant difference were found among A, D, E, F and G groups (P>0.05). There were significant difference between H and B group and also between I and C group

  20. Modelling human development and disease in pluripotent stem-cell-derived gastric organoids.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kyle W; Catá, Emily M; Crawford, Calyn M; Sinagoga, Katie L; Schumacher, Michael; Rockich, Briana E; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Mayhew, Christopher N; Spence, Jason R; Zavros, Yana; Wells, James M

    2014-12-18

    Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world's population and are largely due to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis, and there is no experimental model of normal human gastric mucosa. Here we report the de novo generation of three-dimensional human gastric tissue in vitro through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. We show that temporal manipulation of the FGF, WNT, BMP, retinoic acid and EGF signalling pathways and three-dimensional growth are sufficient to generate human gastric organoids (hGOs). Developing hGOs progressed through molecular and morphogenetic stages that were nearly identical to the developing antrum of the mouse stomach. Organoids formed primitive gastric gland- and pit-like domains, proliferative zones containing LGR5-expressing cells, surface and antral mucous cells, and a diversity of gastric endocrine cells. We used hGO cultures to identify novel signalling mechanisms that regulate early endoderm patterning and gastric endocrine cell differentiation upstream of the transcription factor NEUROG3. Using hGOs to model pathogenesis of human disease, we found that H. pylori infection resulted in rapid association of the virulence factor CagA with the c-Met receptor, activation of signalling and induction of epithelial proliferation. Together, these studies describe a new and robust in vitro system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying human stomach development and disease.

  1. Pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. Histology, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlations of 101 cases.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Laurino, L; Dei Tos, A P; De Boni, M; Franzin, G; Braidotti, P; Viale, G

    1993-11-01

    The occasional finding within the gastric mucosa of unidentified epithelial cells with morphological features closely resembling those of pancreatic acinar cells has prompted us to investigate a retrospective series of 8,430 consecutive gastric biopsies and of 126 surgical specimens of gastric resection and total gastrectomy. The aims of the study were to morphologically and immunocytochemically characterize these cells, to define their actual prevalence in a large series of unselected cases, and to assess the clinicopathologic correlates of their occurrence. Pancreatic acinar-like cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm, which was acidophilic and finely granular in the apical and middle portions and basophilic in the basal compartment, have been identified in 101 cases (84 gastric biopsies and 17 gastrectomies). These cells, arranged in nests or in variably sized lobules among the gastric glands, were morphologically indistinguishable from pancreatic acinar cells, both by light and by electron microscopy. Furthermore, they were consistently immunoreactive for pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen and, in 75% of the cases, for pancreatic alpha-amylase. The appearance of these cells within the gastric mucosa was correlated significantly with chronic gastritis (p = 0.032) and with the simultaneous occurrence of intestinal and pyloric types of gastric metaplasia (p = 0.021). The findings indicate that this is a previously unrecognized pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, clinically and morphologically distinct from pancreatic heterotopia.

  2. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, B.; Montero, M. J.; Sevilla, M. A.; Román, L. S.

    1995-01-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:7647984

  3. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; Román, L S

    1995-05-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  4. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  5. Gland ducts and multilayered epithelium in mucosal biopsies from gastroesophageal-junction region are useful in characterizing esophageal location.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Der, R; Ma, Y; Peters, J; Demeester, T; Chandrasoma, P

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY. There is controversy as to whether oxynto-cardiac mucosa (OCM), cardiac mucosa (CM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) found in the gastroesophageal-junction region line the anatomic stomach, esophagus or both. A total of 785 retroflex biopsies taken at the endoscopic gastroesophageal junction in 244 patients were evaluated for the presence of gland ducts and multilayered epithelium which are two recognized markers of esophageal mucosa. Oxyntic mucosa was found in 287 biopsies, OCM in 283, CM in 158, IM in 30 and squamous epithelium in 53 (some biopsies had more than one epithelial type). Esophageal gland ducts and multilayered epithelium were absent in all biopsies with oxyntic mucosa. Sixty-four (13.6%) of 471 biopsies with OCM, CM and IM contained esophageal gland ducts, and 68 of 471 (14.4%) contained multilayered epithelium. Ninety-eight of 471 (20.8%) biopsies contained either gland ducts or multilayered epithelium. This study shows that 20.8% of biopsies at the gastroesophageal junction with OCM, CM and IM can be definitively characterized as lining the anatomic esophagus by the finding of gland ducts and multilayered epithelium. The absence of these markers in oxyntic mucosa confirms this epithelium as gastric. The presence of gland ducts and multilayered epithelium can be used by pathologists to objectively ascribe an esophageal or gastric location to a biopsy from the gastroesophageal junction.

  6. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  7. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  8. [Thyroid gland and sleep].

    PubMed

    Steiger, A

    1999-01-01

    A set of data suggests that the thyroid gland plays a role in the bi-directional interaction between the electrophysiological and the endocrine components of sleep, e.g. the nonREM-REM-cycle and the patterns of nocturnal hormone secretion, respectively. In detail thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxin (T4) show circadian rhythms. A specific relationship was observed between TSH and REM sleep. Blunted TSH levels were found in healthy elderly subjects and, probably due to overactivity of corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with depression in comparison to young normal controls. Pulsatile administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced a decrease of sleep efficiency and an earlier occurrence of the cortisol rise in normal controls. Slow wave sleep was reduced in patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to normal controls. The sleep EEG normalised after therapy.

  9. Cryopreservation of parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Marlon A

    2010-01-01

    The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  10. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Marlon A.

    2010-01-01

    The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. PMID:21197072

  11. The Glands of the Stomach in Relation to Pernicious Anæmia; with Special Reference to the Glands in the Pyloric Region

    PubMed Central

    Meulengracht, E.

    1935-01-01

    The researches have had in view the anatomical localization of the anti-anæmic factor (Castle's “intrinsic factor”) in the stomach. As the pig's stomach is peculiarly constructed, having a so-called cardiac-gland region, a fundus-gland region and a pyloric gland region continued in the glands of Brunner in the duodenum, preparations have been made from each of these regions, and tests of the effectiveness of each of these separate portions have been made in cases of pernicious anæmia. It has previously been pointed out (Meulengracht and Schiødt) that the production of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and rennin was confined to the glands of the fundus region (peptic glands) with their oxyntic cells and chief cells. The experiments showed that the extract of the fundus-gland portion was inactive in cases of pernicious anæmia, that of the so-called cardiac-gland portion was mildly active, that of the pyloric-gland portion was strongly active, and that of the duodenal portion was also strongly active. The feebler activity of the cardiac portion might be shown to be a result of the smaller number of glands to the unit area in that region. The conclusion drawn from the experiments is that the so-called cardiac glands, the pyloric glands and the Brunner glands in the duodenum, which anatomically may be said to be very nearly identical, may also be taken to be functionally identical, at any rate with regard to the production of the anti-anæmic factor. This collective gland region, which it is proposed to call the pyloric-gland region, is the site of the production of the anti-anæmic factor. There is thus attributed to these glands a definite, well-defined and vitally important function. It is further concluded from the experiments that pernicious anæmia in human beings is due to atrophy and inactivity of that part of the stomach which comprises the pyloric-gland region. The experiments may thus be said to have anatomically localized pernicious anæmia in human beings

  12. Role of gastric blood flow, neutrophil infiltration, and mucosal cell proliferation in gastric adaptation to aspirin in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Stachura, J; Dembinski, A; Majka, J

    1994-01-01

    Gastric mucosa exhibits the ability to adapt to ulcerogenic action of aspirin but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. In this study, acute gastric lesions were produced by single or repeated doses of acidified aspirin in rats with intact or resected salivary glands and with intact or suppressed synthase of nitric oxide. A single oral dose of aspirin produced a dose dependent increase in gastric lesions accompanied by considerable blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, significant reduction in gastric blood flow, and almost complete suppression of biosynthesis of prostaglandins. After rechallenge with aspirin, the mucosal damage became smaller and progressively declined with repeated aspirin insults. Gastric adaptation to aspirin was accompanied by a significant rise in gastric blood flow, reduction in both blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, and a remarkable increase in mucosal cell regeneration and mucosal content of epidermal growth factor. Salivectomy, which reduced the mucosal content of epidermal growth factor, aggravated the initial mucosal damage induced by the first exposure to acidified aspirin but did not prevent the adaptation of this mucosa to repeated aspirin insults. Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, eliminated the hyperaemic response to repeated aspirin but did not abolish the development of adaptation to aspirin showing that the maintenance of the gastric blood flow plays little part in this adaptation. In conclusion, the stomach adapts readily to repeated aspirin insults and this is accompanied by a considerable reduction in blood neutrophilia and the severity of neutrophil infiltration and by an extensive proliferation of mucosal cells possibly involving epidermal growth factor. PMID:7525421

  13. Gastric carcinogenesis by duodenal reflux through gut regenerative cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Mukaisho, Ken-Ichi; Miwa, Koichi; Kumagai, Hitomi; Bamba, Masamichi; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Takanori

    2003-11-01

    To elucidate the histogenesis of gastric stump cancer, we performed an operation in rats to make all duodenal contents flow back into the glandular stomach. The subjects were 41 rats, and sequential morphological changes of the duodenogastric stoma and the incidence of stump cancers were studied. Serial sections around the stoma were studied with mucin stains such as paradoxical concanavalin A (Con A), galactose oxidase Schiff (GOS), and high-iron diamine-Alcian blue (HID-AB). An immunohistochemical study on cell proliferation with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was also done. At week 30, pyloric gland type cells positive for Con A first appeared at the base of the intestinal crypts and the fundic glands adjacent to the anastomosis. These glands became large with time, resulting in formation of cystically dilated glands. These gland cells were partially stained with GOS, and then they retained a proliferative activity. These changes seemed to resemble "gastritis cystica profunda" in human remnant stomachs. At 50 and 80 weeks, adenocarcinomas were observed in 4 of 10 rats (40.0%) and in 16 of 21 rats (76.2%), respectively. We have noted that the early change of cystic proliferation of mucous glands resembled the so-called "ulcer associated cell lineage (UACL)" described by others, but our characteristic finding was not only pyloric but also foveolar metaplasia. This pyloric-foveolar metaplasia subsequently led to development of glands with intestinal-type goblet cells, which looked like incomplete intestinal metaplasia. This sequence was different from UACL, and very recently, we proposed a concept of "gut regenerative cell lineage (GRCL); from pyloric-foveolar to with goblet cell metaplasia in regeneration," common to all parts of the gut, and the stump cancer appeared to arise from GRCL.

  14. Enhancement by tetragastrin of experimental induction of gastric epithelium in the duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Yamamura, H; Yamamoto, R; Taniguchi, H

    1989-01-01

    The effects of tetragastrin and truncal vagotomy on the incidence of gastric type epithelium in the duodenum by intraduodenal instillation of 5% NaOH solution were investigated in Wistar rats. Prolonged administration of 1 mg tetragastrin/kg body weight in depot form starting one week after NaOH treatment resulted in a significant increase in gastric acid secretion and the incidence and number of villi with gastric epithelium in the duodenum in experimental week 10. Villi with gastric epithelium were found in five (23%) of 22 rats in control group, whereas abnormal villi were found in 13 (59%) of 22 rats in the tetragastrin treated group (p less than 0.05). The average number of villi with gastric epithelium rose from 0.6 (0.4) per 100 villi in control rats to 2.4 (0.6) per 100 villi in tetragastrin treated rats (p less than 0.01). On histological examination, gastric type epithelium was most often found on stunted or flattened villi, and was always within the boundaries of the area of Brunner's glands. These mucosal changes reverted toward normal with time. In week 35, the incidence of gastric epithelium was significantly less than at week 10 (p less than 0.05). In contrast, no villi with gastric epithelium were found in vagotomised rats in week 10 (p less than 0.05). Vagotomy also caused a significant decrease in gastric acid secretion. These results show that exposure of the duodenal mucosa to high levels of gastric acid enhance the induction of gastric eithelium in the duodenum. Images Figure PMID:2707631

  15. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  16. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  17. Gastric Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... much you can eat or by reducing the absorption of nutrients, or both. Gastric bypass and other ... you can eat at one sitting and reducing absorption of nutrients. The surgeon cuts across the top ...

  18. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  19. Dermatoglyphs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zivanović-Posilović, Gordana; Milicić, Jasna; Bozicević, Dubravko

    2003-06-01

    Gastric cancer is very common malignant disease, etiology of which is still unknown. Some studies consider that it is caused by a joint activity of both genetic and environmental factors. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of some malignant diseases (breast, lung and colorectal cancer) and it was the reason for investigations of the correlation of their quantity features at patients with gastric cancer (36 males and 32 females) and the control groups of phenotypically healthy persons (50 males and 50 females). By performing statistical data processing of the multivariate and univariate analysis, as well as of discriminant ones, it was possible to prove the existence of heterogeneity between the investigated groups. Higher incidence of gastric cancer and the blood group A could be confirmed, as well. From the obtained findings can be concluded, that the results of quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphs affirm the existence of genetic predisposition for development of gastric cancer.

  20. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  1. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  2. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  3. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  4. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.

  5. Evidence for a primate origin of zoonotic Helicobacter suis colonizing domesticated pigs.

    PubMed

    Flahou, Bram; Rossi, Mirko; Bakker, Jaco; Langermans, Jan Am; Heuvelman, Edwin; Solnick, Jay V; Martin, Miriam E; O'Rourke, Jani; Ngoan, Le Duc; Hoa, Nguyen Xuan; Nakamura, Masahiko; Øverby, Anders; Matsui, Hidenori; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Foss, Dennis L; Kopta, Laurice A; Omotosho, Oladipo; Franciosini, Maria Pia; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Guo, Aizhen; Liu, Han; Borilova, Gabriela; Bracarense, Ana Paula; Lindén, Sara K; De Bruyckere, Sofie; Zhang, Guangzhi; De Witte, Chloë; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Corander, Jukka; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2017-09-08

    Helicobacter suis is the second most prevalent Helicobacter species in the stomach of humans suffering from gastric disease. This bacterium mainly inhabits the stomach of domesticated pigs, in which it causes gastric disease, but it appears to be absent in wild boars. Interestingly, it also colonizes the stomach of asymptomatic rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. The origin of modern human-, pig- or non-human primate-associated H. suis strains in these respective host populations was hitherto unknown. Here we show that H. suis in pigs possibly originates from non-human primates. Our data suggest that a host jump from macaques to pigs happened between 100 000 and 15 000 years ago and that pig domestication has had a significant impact on the spread of H. suis in the pig population, from where this pathogen occasionally infects humans. Thus, in contrast to our expectations, H. suis appears to have evolved in its main host in a completely different way than its close relative Helicobacter pylori in humans.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 8 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.145.

  6. Effect of D-002 on gastric mucus composition in ethanol-induced ulcer.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Noa, M; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Aguilar, C; Más, R

    2000-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of D-002, a natural product isolated and purified from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on gastric mucus composition on ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The morphology of the lesions was analysed histologically, and morphometric analysis of gastric-gland content in total glycoprotein and sulphated macromolecules were done. Oral pretreatment with D-002 at 5 and 25 mgkg(-1)1 before oral administration of ethanol at 60%, produced a significant increase in the amount of gastric mucus and total protein. The histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage at the same doses showed a significant increase in neutral glycoproteins and sulfated macromolecules. It is concluded that enhancement of the quantity and quality of the mucus could partly explain the gastroprotective effect of D-002.

  7. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  8. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  9. Hip1r is expressed in gastric parietal cells and is required for tubulovesicle formation and cell survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Renu N.; Al-Menhali, Asma A.; Keeley, Theresa M.; Ren, Jianhua; El-Zaatari, Mohammed; Chen, Xunsheng; Merchant, Juanita L.; Ross, Theodora S.; Chew, Catherine S.; Samuelson, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    Huntingtin interacting protein 1 related (Hip1r) is an F-actin– and clathrin-binding protein involved in vesicular trafficking. In this study, we demonstrate that Hip1r is abundantly expressed in the gastric parietal cell, predominantly localizing with F-actin to canalicular membranes. Hip1r may provide a critical function in vivo, as demonstrated by extensive changes to parietal cells and the gastric epithelium in Hip1r-deficient mice. Electron microscopy revealed abnormal apical canalicular membranes and loss of tubulovesicles in mutant parietal cells, suggesting that Hip1r is necessary for the normal trafficking of these secretory membranes. Accordingly, acid secretory dynamics were altered in mutant parietal cells, with enhanced activation and acid trapping, as measured in isolated gastric glands. At the whole-organ level, gastric acidity was reduced in Hip1r-deficient mice, and the gastric mucosa was grossly transformed, with fewer parietal cells due to enhanced apoptotic cell death and glandular hypertrophy associated with cellular transformation. Hip1r-deficient mice had increased expression of the gastric growth factor gastrin, and mice mutant for both gastrin and Hip1r exhibited normalization of both proliferation and gland height. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Hip1r plays a significant role in gastric physiology, mucosal architecture, and secretory membrane dynamics in parietal cells. PMID:18535670

  10. Ulcer-protecting effects of naringenin on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat: role of endogenous prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Motilva, V; Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Martín, M J

    1994-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the cytoprotective properties of naringenin and the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins on mucosal injury produced by absolute ethanol. Gastric glands were also histologically analysed. Oral pretreatment with the highest dose of naringenin (200 mg kg-1), 240 min before absolute ethanol, was the most effective in ulcer prevention. Subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg kg-1) to the animals treated with naringenin (200 mg kg-1) partially inhibited the gastric protection but there was no increase in prostaglandin E2. All treated groups showed a marked increase in gastric mucus, although this increase was less in animals pretreated with indomethacin. Total proteins and hexosamine content decreased in the groups receiving indomethacin. Histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage, with the highest dose of naringenin (200 mg kg-1), confirmed a significant increase of mucus production accompanied by a parallel reduction of gastric lesion.

  11. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line.

  12. Histological and biochemical characterization of von Ebner's glands in the Syrian hamster; comparison with rat von Ebner's glands.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, A; Srikantan, S; De, P K; Hand, A R; Redman, R S

    2006-01-01

    We report here for the first time a morphological description and observations on some of the secretory proteins of the von Ebner's lingual salivary glands (VEG) of the Syrian hamster. Hamster VEG were macroscopically less distinct, but histologically similar to rat VEG. VEG extracts of hamster and rat were assayed for lipase, alpha-amylase and peroxidase activities. Unlike rat VEG, which is rich in lipase activity, hamster VEG extract had no detectable lipase activity and did not react with antibodies to either rat lingual lipase or human gastric lipase in Western blots. Immunohistochemical reactions with the anti-rat lingual lipase antibody were very weak in hamster VEG and strong in rat VEG. Moderate alpha-amylase enzyme activities and immunohistochemical reactions were demonstrated in both hamster and rat VEG. Peroxidase activity was negligible in the VEG, unlike the high activity in the submandibular glands of both species. An 18 kDa von Ebner's gland protein (VEGP), a member of the lipocalin superfamily of hydrophobic ligandbinding proteins, was abundant in rat VEG, but not detected in hamster VEG. Thus, hamster VEG differs from rat VEG in macroscopic appearance and the absence of lipase and VEGP. It is similar to rat VEG histologically and with regard to the presence of alpha-amylase and absence of peroxidase.

  13. [Inhibitory action of E3810 on H+,K(+)-ATPase and gastric acid secretion in vitro].

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, H; Oketani, K; Shibata, H; Murakami, M; Fujimoto, M; Wakabayashi, T; Yamatsu, I; Takeguchi, N

    1993-12-01

    The inhibitory action of (+-)-sodium 2-[(4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridine-2-yl) methylsulfinyl]-1H- benzimidazole (E3810) on H+,K(+)-ATPase and gastric acid secretion in vitro was investigated, and it was compared with those of omeprazole (OPZ). E3810 concentration-dependently inhibited the H+,K(+)-ATPase activity of hog gastric vesicles. Its IC50 was 0.26 microM at pH 6.1. The inhibition was irreversible in nature and reversed by dithiothreitol. The potency of E3810 was 10-times that of omeprazole. Acidification of the intravesicular (luminal) space increased 1000-fold the potency of E3810, indicating that E3810 is a specific inhibitor which binds to the luminal cysteine residue of H+,K(+)-ATPase. Prolonged incubation of up to 180 min in the absence of thiol reagents of rabbit gastric glands which had been inhibited by a low concentration of E3810 (0.3 and 0.5 microM) time-dependently and completely reversed the inhibition, as determined by aminopyrine uptake, whereas it did not recover the acid secretion in omeprazole-treated glands. These results suggest that the acid-activated E3810 is a potent specific inhibitor of H+,K(+)-ATPase, and that the duration of the inhibitory action of E3810 is much shorter than that of omeprazole in isolated gastric glands.

  14. FAP, gastric cancer, and genetic counseling featuring children and young adults: a family study and review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Snyder, Carrie; Davies, Janine M; Lanspa, Stephen; Lynch, Jane; Gatalica, Zoran; Graeve, Victoria; Foster, Jason

    2010-12-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is a highly complex and multifaceted colorectal cancer prone disorder which is often significantly confounded by extracolonic cancers inclusive of gastric cancer, a significant problem in the Orient. Gastric cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis is heavily influenced by fundic gland polyps which are often so voluminous as to defy effective endoscopic surveillance. This study involves more than two decades of investigation of an attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis family where gastric cancer posed an early diagnostic problem because it was obscured by multiple fundic gland polyps. Fundic gland polyps are common in familial adenomatous polyposis and attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and, if voluminous, may interfere with effective endoscopic gastric cancer surveillance. This family is believed to be the first of its type reported with focus upon education and genetic counseling in the setting of a family information service. Cancer control in familial adenomatous polyposis may be partially resolved through use of familial colorectal cancer registries, with greater attention to family history and its interpretation, genetic counseling, and clinical translation for diagnosis and management.

  15. Developmental aspects and factors influencing the synthesis and status of ascorbic Acid in the pig.

    PubMed

    Mahan, D C; Ching, S; Dabrowski, K

    2004-01-01

    Ascorbic acid synthesis in the pig occurs at mid-pregnancy, but activity of the enzyme l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GLO) declines thereafter during gestation and remains low when the pig nurses the sow. During late gestation the ascorbic acid concentration in the fetus increases, but serum and liver ascorbic acid concentration in the sow declines without affecting the dam's liver GLO activity. It is presumed that as gestation progresses an increased amount of maternal ascorbic acid is transferred to the fetus and to the mammary gland. Colostrum and milk are rich sources of the vitamin and supply the nursing pig with ascorbic acid. The available data suggest that high amounts of ascorbic acid appear to suppress liver GLO activity in the pig. Upon weaning, when exogenous vitamin C is generally not provided, liver GLO activity and serum ascorbic acid increases. During the initial periods postweaning, some reports have indicated growth benefits of supplemental vitamin C. Body tissues differ in their concentrations of ascorbic acid, but tissues of high metabolic need generally have greater concentrations. The corpus luteum in the female, the testis in the male, and the adrenal glands in all pigs contain greater concentrations of the vitamin. Knockout genes preventing ascorbic acid synthesis in pigs have demonstrated poor skeletal and collagen formation and poor antioxidant protection. Under periods of stress ascorbic acid declines in the adrenal, but the pig rapidly recovers to its resting state once the stressor agent is removed. Although there are periods when supplemental vitamin C has been shown to promote pig performance (e.g., during high environmental stress and early postweaning), supplemental vitamin C has not been shown to routinely enhance pig performance.

  16. The fundamental hemodynamic mechanism underlying gastric "stress ulceration" in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, R W; Bulkley, G B; Hamilton, S R; Morris, J B; Haglund, U H; Meilahn, J E

    1987-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic ulceration of the gastric mucosa is seen frequently in patients with hypovolemic or cardiogenic shock. Although such lesions clearly are related to regional gastric ischemia, little attention has been directed at the underlying mechanism(s) mediating the ischemia itself. To this end, anesthetized pigs were subjected to sustained cardiogenic shock (mild hemorrhage and pericardial tamponade) such that cardiac output was reduced to 38 +/- 1% of the baseline level for 4 hours, followed by release of the tamponade, reinfusion of the shed blood, and resuscitation for 2 hours. During the period of shock, there was profound regional gastric ischemia, resulting from severe and disproportionate gastric vasoconstriction. "Blinded" gross and microscopic evaluation of the stomachs removed after the experiment revealed severe mucosal ischemic necrosis, hemorrhage, and ulceration, whereas sham-operated pigs showed no lesions. The characteristics of this model therefore mimic the essential features of the gastric "stress ulceration" syndrome. Prior confirmed total alpha-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine failed to alter these features significantly. In contrast, prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis, whether by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with teprotide or by bilateral nephrectomy, significantly and substantially ameliorated the ischemia, vasospasm, and mucosal injury. In this model of cardiogenic shock, acute gastric mucosal "stress ulceration" is caused by a disproportionately severe regional gastric ischemia resulting from selective splanchnic vasospasm that is unaffected by sympathetic blockade but abolished by prior ablation of the renin-angiotensin axis. Like nonocclusive small bowel ischemia, ischemic colitis, and the "shock liver" syndrome, gastric "stress ulceration" is yet another component of the multiple splanchnic organ failure syndrome that appears to be mediated primarily by the remarkable sensitivity of the splanchnic

  17. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  18. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. Diffusion through Pig Gastric Mucin: Effect of Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Runnsjö, Anna; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Sparr, Emma; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Arnebrant, Thomas; Engblom, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Mucus covers the epithelium found in all intestinal tracts, where it serves as an important protecting barrier, and pharmaceutical drugs administrated by the oral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, or nasal route need to penetrate the mucus in order to reach their targets. Furthermore, the diffusion in mucus as well as the viscosity of mucus in the eyes, nose and throat can change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this study we have investigated how diffusion through gels of mucin, the main protein in mucus, is affected by changes in ambient relative humidity (i.e. water activity). Already a small decrease in water activity was found to give rise to a significant decrease in penetration rate through the mucin gel of the antibacterial drug metronidazole. We also show that a decrease in water activity leads to decreased diffusion rate in the mucin gel for the fluorophore fluorescein. This study shows that it is possible to alter transport rates of molecules through mucus by changing the water activity in the gel. It furthermore illustrates the importance of considering effects of the water activity in the mucosa during development of potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:27336158

  20. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  1. Histopathological study using computer database of 10 000 consecutive gastric specimens: (1) benign conditions.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    Using a computer database, the author investigated the histopathology of 10 000 consecutive gastric specimens, taken in the last 12 years (2002-2013) at the pathology laboratory of a Japanese hospital. Re-observation of the already examined histological sections was done when the histological diagnosis and findings on the computer data base were not very obvious. The gastric specimens were identified as 8579 benign conditions and 1421 malignant lesions. The 8579 benign conditions were comprised almost normal stomach in 74 cases (0.9%), chronic gastritis in 4374 (51.0%), benign gastric peptic ulcer in 2195 (25.6%), foveolar hyperplastic polyp in 1004 (11.7%), fundic gland polyp in 421 (4.9%), adenoma in 487 (5.6%), heterotopic pancreas in 9 (0.1%), pancreatic acinar metaplasia (PAM) in 8 (0.1%), and amyloidosis in 7 (0.1%). Chronic gastritis showed lymphocytic infiltration and frequently showed erosions and intestinal metaplasia. Gastric peptic ulcer showed exudate, necrosis, active inflammation, and regenerative atypia of the epithelium. Foveolar hyperplastic polyp revealed 23 malignant changes and frequently showed dysplastic glands and intestinal metaplasia. Fundic gland polyp demonstrated cystic dilations of fundic gland ducts. Gastric adenoma showed adenomatous proliferation in the superficial mucosa and cystic dilation of the epithelium under the adenoma. Heterotopic pancreas was located in the submucosa and consisted of acinar cells, ducts, and occasionally islets. PAM was a tiny lesion in the mucosa and consisted of only pancreatic acinar cells. Amyloidosis was primary amyloidosis with positive reaction with Congo-red stain. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  2. Autophagy in the endocrine glands.

    PubMed

    Weckman, Andrea; Di Ieva, Antonio; Rotondo, Fabio; Syro, Luis V; Ortiz, Leon D; Kovacs, Kalman; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular process involving the degradation of intracellular components. Its regulation is complex and while there are many methods available, there is currently no single effective way of detecting and monitoring autophagy. It has several cellular functions that are conserved throughout the body, as well as a variety of different physiological roles depending on the context of its occurrence in the body. Autophagy is also involved in the pathology of a wide range of diseases. Within the endocrine system, autophagy has both its traditional conserved functions and specific functions. In the endocrine glands, autophagy plays a critical role in controlling intracellular hormone levels. In peptide-secreting cells of glands such as the pituitary gland, crinophagy, a specific form of autophagy, targets the secretory granules to control the levels of stored hormone. In steroid-secreting cells of glands such as the testes and adrenal gland, autophagy targets the steroid-producing organelles. The dysregulation of autophagy in the endocrine glands leads to several different endocrine diseases such as diabetes and infertility. This review aims to clarify the known roles of autophagy in the physiology of the endocrine system, as well as in various endocrine diseases.

  3. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  4. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  5. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  6. Surgical Elimination of the Gastric Digestion by Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Impacts on Food Sensitisation-a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Shakeri-Leidenmühler, Soheila; Lukschal, Anna; Schultz, Cornelia; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix; Birsan, Tudor; Diesner, Susanne C; Greisenegger, Elli K; Scheiner, Otto; Kopp, Tamara; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Prager, Gerhard; Untersmayr, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of gastric digestion due to pH elevation increases the risk for food allergy induction. As patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery have lower gastric acidity and less gastric gland secretion, we aimed to analyse in a prospective study the effect of limiting gastric digestion capacity by surgical intervention on the immune response towards allergens. Nine patients undergoing RYGB surgery for morbid obesity and one control patient having undergone surgery for treatment of an incisional hernia were enrolled in the study. Before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery, blood was collected for analysis of specific IgE antibodies, and patients were subjected to skin prick testing with 16 food and 18 aeroallergens. Skin prick test results revealed an increase of positive reactions indicating sensitisations towards the tested food and aeroallergens in 77.8 and 88.9 % of the patients, respectively, after surgical elimination of gastric digestion. These results were in line with elevated titers of food- and aeroallergen-specific IgE antibodies in 7 out of 9 (7/9) and 5/9 patients, respectively, after RYGB surgery. Serum cytokine levels revealed a mixed response for IFN-γ and were mostly beneath detection limit for IL-4. A change of IgE reactivity pattern occurred after impairment of gastric digestion due to surgical elimination underlining the important gastric gatekeeping function during oral sensitisation. Even though this study indicates an increased allergy risk for gastric bypass patients, further studies are needed to investigate in-depth the immunological changes associated with RYGB surgery.

  7. Identification of ezrin as a target of gastrin in immature mouse gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Pagliocca, Adelina; Hegyi, Peter; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Khan, Zara; Burdyga, Galina; Wang, Timothy C; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2008-11-01

    The gastric acid-secreting parietal cell exhibits profound morphological changes on stimulation. Studies in gastrin null (Gas-KO) mice indicate that maturation of parietal cell function depends on the hormone gastrin acting at the G-protein-coupled cholecystokinin 2 receptor. The relevant cellular mechanisms are unknown. The application of differential mRNA display to samples of the gastric corpus of wild-type (C57BL/6) and Gas-KO mice identified the cytoskeletal linker protein, ezrin, as a previously unsuspected target of gastrin. Gastrin administered in vivo or added to gastric glands in vitro increased ezrin abundance in Gas-KO parietal cells. In parietal cells of cultured gastric glands from wild-type mice treated with gastrin, histamine or carbachol, ezrin was localized to vesicular structures resembling secretory canaliculi. In contrast, in cultured parietal cells from Gas-KO mice, ezrin was typically distributed in the cytosol, and this did not change after incubation with gastrin, histamine or carbachol. However, priming with gastrin for approximately 24 h, either in vivo prior to cell culture or by addition to cultured gastric glands, induced the capacity for secretagogue-stimulated localization of ezrin to large vesicular structures in Gas-KO mice. Similarly, in a functional assay based on measurement of intracellular pH, cultured parietal cells from Gas-KO mice were refractory to gastrin unless primed. The priming effect of gastrin was not attributable to the paracrine mediator histamine, but was prevented by inhibitors of protein kinase C and transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. We conclude that in gastrin null mice there is reduced ezrin expression and a defect in ezrin subcellular distribution in gastric parietal cells, and that both can be reversed by priming with gastrin.

  8. KLF4 deletion alters gastric cell lineage and induces MUC2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Lin, T; Liu, J; Li, M; Zhang, W; Xu, X; Zhao, W; Liu, M; Napier, D L; Wang, C; Evers, B M; Liu, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The mechanism of gastric cancer is less understood compared with other types of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger transcription factor and is a potential tumor suppressor in GI cancers. In this study, we have generated two mouse models, Rosa-Cre;Klf4fl/fl and Lgr5-Cre;Klf4fl/fl. KLF4 was deleted by Rosa-Cre in the gastric epithelia cells or by Lgr5-Cre in the antral stem cells in the adult mice. KLF4 deletion resulted in increased proliferating cells and decreased pit mucous cells. Surprisingly, the intestinal goblet cell marker, MUC2, which is not expressed in normal gastric tissues, was strongly induced at the base of the KLF4-deleted antral glands. To understand the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression of KLF4 and MUC2 in human gastric cancer. In a subset of human gastric cancer, the expression of KLF4 is negatively associated with MUC2 expression. In conclusion, KLF4 is essential for normal homeostasis of antral stem cells; loss of KLF4 and expression of MUC2 could be important markers for gastric cancer diagnosis. PMID:27277677

  9. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  10. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  11. Drugs and gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Cooke, A R

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aspirin, salicylate formulations and substitutes, smoking (nicotine), indomethacin, corticosteroids, phenylbutazone, ethanol, caffeine and reserpine on the gastric mucosa are discussed. The damaging effects of the drugs are considered in terms of the gastric mucosal barrier, gastric erosions, microbleeding and haematemesis and melaena and finally whether they cause peptic ulcer. There is suggestive evidence that unbuffered aspirin is a cause of haematemesis and melaena and of gastric ulcer but the incidence rates for hospital admission are low, being 10 to 15 per 100,000 heavy users per year. Aspirin in solution as acetylsalicylate buffered to maintain a neutral pH protects against gastric damage. Newer aspirin substitutes (mefenamic acid, fenoprofen, naproxen, tolmetin and ibuprofen) appear to cause less faecal blood loss than aspirin but their long-term effects have not been fully evaluated. Smoking is definitely associated with peptic ucler but the mechanism is unknown. Corticosteroids are probably not ulcerogenic despite clinical bias that they are. Indomethacin and phenylbutazone may be ulcerogenic but there is insufficient evidence to make firm judgements. Ethanol, caffeine and reserpine, on available evidence, are probably not ulcerogenic.

  12. Swine dysentery: inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with Treponema hyodysenteriae and Vibrio coli and a Peptostreptococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, A C; Miniats, O P; Geissinger, H D; Ewert, E

    1977-01-01

    Pure cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae given orally to conventional pigs resulted in the development of swine dysentery, whereas identical cultures given to gnotobiotic pigs did not produce the disease. Oral inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with Vibrio coli and/or a peptostreptococcus in addition to T. hyodysenteriae did not result in dysentery. Neutralization of gastric secretions with NaHCO3 immediately prior to inoculation with T. hyodysenteriae increased the period during which treponemes were evident in the feces, as did the inoculation of this organism via the intracecal route. None of the gnotobiotic pigs with a persistent fecal Treponema population developed signs of dysentery. Factors other than those investigated in this work must play a part in the etiology of swine dysentery. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:907906

  13. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  14. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  15. Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index

    SciTech Connect

    Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

  16. Traffic Noise Exposure Increases Gastric Pepsin Secretion in Rat.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Azam; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Rouhbakhsh, Nematollah; Sotudeh, Masoud; Salimi, Ehsan; Barzegar Behrooz, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Noise is considered as one of the most severe sources of environmental and workplace constraints. Many noise effects are well known on immune function, hormonal levels, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise exposure on basal and stimulated gastric pepsin secretion. 48 male rats were exposed to traffic noise (86 dB) for a short term of (8h/day for 1 day) and a long term of (8h/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) as well as a control group. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out technique. Pepsin secretion was measured by employing the Anson method. Histological studies were carried out on the epithelial layer. The corticosteroid hormone was measured in the serum for the stress augmentation. The present finding indicated no changes in pepsin secretion content in the short term, but in the 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal gastric pepsin secretion increased markedly compared to the control group. Histological results showed that the number of oxyntic glands and cell nuclei decreased in comparison with the control group while the thickness of the epithelial layer increases. In addition, the corticosterone levels increase in all groups in comparison with the control. It seems that the increase of gastric pepsin secretion is due to the description and translation processes in the peptic cells and needs enough time for completion.

  17. Type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor: report of one case

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanliang; Su, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this article we reported a female patient with type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET). The patient developed upper abdominal pain, acid reflux, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting without obvious cause 16 years ago. Later, a tumor was found in her stomach. Two years ago, a solid mass was found at the pancreatic head. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy showed positive result. Puncture biopsy showed the presence of a NET. The serum gastrin level was significantly increased (3,527 pg/mL) at presentation. A second gastroscopy showed polypoid uplifts in gastric body. Puncture biopsy confirmed the presence of a G2 NET in gastric body. The patient previously had received a pituitary tumor surgery and thyroid gland resection. The diagnosis was multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). The treatments included sutent, lanreotide, and traditional Chinese herbs. In this article we described the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with MEN-1 accompanied with type 2 gastric NET, which may be clinically informative. PMID:28138653

  18. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries.

  19. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  20. The thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Hellman, D E

    1980-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are frequently unrecognized and untreated by the attending physician and present the anesthesiologist with a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Very large goiters distort and compress the larynx and require an experienced anesthesiologist for safe intubation. If surgery is elective and can be postponed in patients suspected of being hypo- or hyperthyroid, there is sufficient time to permit the anesthesiologist and the attending physician to obtain appropriate tests of thyroid function and institute appropriate therapeutic measures to restore the metabolic rate to normal. When there is insufficient time to confirm a clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease, the anesthesiologist is faced with important therapeutic decisions. It is the author's opinion that therapeutic intervention is, in most instances, preferable to therapeutic nihilism. In the case of a patient suspected of hypothyroidism, it is usually safe to administer a physiologic replacement dose of thyroxine to support the patient intraoperatively or postoperatively. If hypothyroidism is associated with cardiovascular disease, other debilitating illness, or advanced age, thyroxine must be given with extreme caution in order to avoid dangerous tachyarrhythmias or too rapid acceleration of the metabolic rate. The hyperthyroid patient facing nonelective surgery represents a very serious challenge to the anesthesiologist, since marked accentuation of clinical hyperthyroidism (thyroid storm) is a major risk of such surgery. In such a situation, intravenous propranolol and intravenous iodine are the optimal drugs for a safe and uncomplicated clinical course during and following surgery. In both instances, the anesthesiologist must use skillful clinical judgment in making the appropriate diagnosis and selecting appropriate therapy. Careful and continuous supervision of the patient is necessary during and following surgery and appropriate treatment and support of the patient should be

  1. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  2. Noise and gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F; Papaleo, B; Baccolo, T P; Persechino, B; Spanò, G; Rosati, M V

    1994-09-01

    In view of the increasing incidence of diseases such as gastritis and ulcers in workers exposed to noise, we assessed whether noise does in fact affect gastric secretion. Then, considering the conflicting findings published on the effects of noise on gastric secretion, we also investigated whether the response was related to differences in baseline secretion, and whether it was further modified by a hydroalcoholic meal. We studied 50 dyspeptic subjects engaged in various types of work but not occupationally exposed to noise. They were exposed to a "pink noise" stimulus of 95 dB administered through earphones, lasting 15 minutes. Gastric secretion sometimes remained unchanged, sometimes increased, or sometimes even decreased in relation to the baseline hydrochloric acid secretion. The hydroalcoholic meal did not generally modify the effects of noise. These findings might help explain the differences in previous reports on this question.

  3. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the (Ca)i transient.

  4. Role of fucosyltransferases in the association between apomucin and Lewis antigen expression in normal and malignant gastric epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ferrer, A; de Bolos, C; Barranco, C; Garrido, M; Isern, J; Carlstedt, I; Reis, C; Torrado, J; Real, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In normal gastric epithelium, MUC5AC is detected in superficial epithelium associated with Lewis type 1 antigens and MUC6 is detected in antral glands with Lewis type 2. Therefore, the stomach constitutes an excellent model to examine the role of glycosyltransferases in determining the specificity of apomucin glycosylation.
AIMS—To determine the molecular basis of this association and to examine changes in expression of gastric and intestinal apomucins and their association with Lewis antigens during the gastric carcinogenesis process.
METHODS—Fucosyltransferase (FUT1, FUT2, FUT3) and mucin (MUC5AC, MUC6) transcripts were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Apomucin (MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6) and Lewis antigen (types 1 and 2) expression were analysed using single and double immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
RESULTS—In the normal stomach, FUT1 is exclusively detected associated with MUC6; FUT2 is only detected when MUC5AC is present. This co-regulation is lost in gastric tumours, as is differential expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 in normal gastric epithelial cells. In gastric tumours, especially those with the intestinal phenotype, MUC2 and MUC4 genes are upregulated, and gastric-type and intestinal-type mucins are coexpressed. These changes are early events in the gastric carcinogenesis process, as they are detected in intestinal metaplasia.
CONCLUSIONS—The glycosylation pattern found in normal gastric epithelium is dictated by the specific set of fucosyltranferases expressed by the cells rather than by the apomucin sequence. The development of intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer is associated with the appearance of cellular phenotypes that are absent from normal epithelium.


Keywords: fucosyltransferases; gastric carcinogenesis; gastric mucins; Lewis antigens PMID:10940270

  5. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  6. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  7. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  8. Exposure of the Pig CNS for Histological Analysis: A Manual for Decapitation, Skull Opening, and Brain Removal.

    PubMed

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; Orlowski, Dariusz; Tvilling, Laura; Bech, Johannes; Glud, Andreas N; Sørensen, Jens-Christian H

    2017-04-13

    Pigs have become increasingly popular in large-animal translational neuroscience research as an economically and ethically feasible substitute to non-human primates. The large brain size of the pig allows the use of conventional clinical brain imagers and the direct use and testing of neurosurgical procedures and equipment from the human clinic. Further macroscopic and histological analysis, however, requires postmortem exposure of the pig central nervous system (CNS) and subsequent brain removal. This is not an easy task, as the pig CNS is encapsulated by a thick, bony skull and spinal column. The goal of this paper and instructional video is to describe how to expose and remove the postmortem pig brain and the pituitary gland in an intact state, suitable for subsequent macroscopic and histological analysis.

  9. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  10. Dysplasia of nonmetaplastic gastric mucosa. A proposal for its classification and its possible relationship to diffuse-type gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L; Paz, J; Roldan, E; Cassady, J

    1988-02-01

    In a review of 192 gastric resections, histological changes believed to represent dysplasia of nonmetaplastic gastric epithelium were observed. This paper presents a proposal for their classification. The main feature of this dysplasia is replacement of the differentiated cells lining the glands by undifferentiated cells with varying degrees of cytological abnormalities and cellular pleomorphism, but with absence of architectural glandular derangement. The classification is justified by cytokinetic and histologic observations in experimental gastric carcinogenesis and early human gastric carcinoma. The severity of the changes is graded, first, by the extent of involvement of the gland (crypt) as measured from the proliferative zone (PZ), and, second, by the degree of cytological abnormality. It utilizes a modification of the terminology of Riddell et al. (45) for dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease wherein the term "dysplasia" denotes intraepithelial neoplasia. The changes are classified into (a) negative for dysplasia, (b) atypical, i.e., indefinite for dysplasia, and (c) positive for dysplasia. Changes negative for dysplasia are considered regenerative and consist of enlargement and vesicular transformation of the nucleus in the cells of the PZ and adjacent part of the crypt. Atypical changes consist of equivocal lesions difficult to classify as definitely regenerative or definitely dysplastic, and are hence called indefinite for dysplasia. They consist of loss of cytoplasmic differentiation of the cells lining the glands (i.e., mucus production and parietal and chief cell differentiation) with increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and moderate cytological atypicality. Based on the extent of gland involvement, the group with atypical mucosa is subdivided into two categories--atypical, probably negative for dysplasia (AtN) and atypical, probably positive for dysplasia (AtP). Mucosa exhibiting unequivocal cytological features of neoplasia with cellular and

  11. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  13. Innervation of eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1980-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown on the example of primate skin that in addition to abundant cholinergic innervation, the eccrine glands are also supplied by adrenergic fibers, containing catecholamines. The presence of an adrenergic component of the innervation is demonstrated on the plantar eccrine sweat glands of a number of rodents and the cat by the detection of monoamine oxidase in it. The myelin nerve trunks, the short unmyelinated varicose terminals in direct contact with the secretory cells, as well as the mitochondria of cells of the eccrine sweat glands are rich in monoamine oxidase. Specific and nonspecific cholinesterases are localized in the dense network of nerves in lacing the secretory portions of the glands; individual fibers accompany the excretory ducts. The acetylcholinesterase concentration is lower than the concentration of nonspecific cholinesterase. In rats with chemical sympathectomy, induced by four-week administration of 25 mg/kg guanethidine from the first day of birth, in which 99% of the neurons in the stellate ganglia die, the monoamine oxidase concentration in the myelin nerves and in the mitochondria of the secretory cells drops very sharply, and acetylcholinesterase disappears from the nerves surrounding the glands.

  14. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  15. Case report: Helicobacter suis infection in a pig veterinarian.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Myrthe; Flahou, Bram; Meyns, Tom; Smet, Annemieke; Arts, Joris; De Cooman, Lien; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2013-10-01

    This study describes a non-Helicobacter (H.) pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) infection in a pig veterinarian. The patient suffered from reflux esophagitis and general dyspeptic symptoms and was referred to the hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histologic examination of corpus and antrum biopsies revealed a chronic gastritis. Large spiral-shaped non-H. pylori helicobacters could be visualized and were identified as H. suis by PCR. The patient was treated with a triple therapy, consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 10 days. Successful eradication was confirmed after a follow-up gastrointestinal endoscopy and PCR 10 weeks after treatment. A mild chronic gastritis was, however, still observed at this point in time. This case report associates porcine H. suis strains with gastric disease in humans, thus emphasizing the zoonotic importance of H. suis bacteria from pigs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Intravascular lymphoma and thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Darko; Valković, Toni; Lucin, Ksenija; Rudez, Josip

    2006-03-01

    Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic cells in the small blood vessels that frequently goes undiagnosed until the time of autopsy. The neoplastic cells are usually of B-cell origin. The clinical course was examined to determine factors that would facilitate antemortem diagnosis. IVL is observed with clinical, histopathological and immunohystochemical methods. This is a unique case because the thyroid gland is a rare place for IVL. Accent is given on immunohystochemical methods and tissue biopsy in the differential diagnosis of IVL when nervous system and thyroid gland dysfunction occur This report indicates that micro-ecosystem of multinodular goitrous might influence the expression of chemokines and/or adhesion moleculs on endothelial and lymphoma cells, leading to heavy infiltration of thyroid gland. Concurrently, that may guide the physician to tissue biopsy facilitating antemortem diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy.

  17. Adrenal gland disease in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal gland disease in ferrets is unique to this species, with clinical signs and pathophysiology different from those seen in the dog. Its prevalence is increasing; 70% of pet ferrets in the United States were affected in 2003. The exact causes of the adrenal gland changes that lead to the disease are not known. Early oophorohysterectomies and neutering, combined with the artificially prolonged photoperiod experienced by indoor pet ferrets, and a possible genetic component, may be contributing factors. Signs of adrenal gland disease include progressive hair loss, pruritus, lethargy, atrophy, and, in female ferrets, vulvar swelling. An understanding of the signs and physiologic changes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. A review of anatomy, physiology, and current surgical and medical options is presented.

  18. [Phosphate sensing and parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Masahide; Suzuki, Taihei

    2012-10-01

    In the latter 1990s, phosphate, as well as calcium, has been shown to have a direct action on parathyroid function. Since then although many researchers have tried to detect the phosphate sensor in parathyroid gland, none has found it yet. In 2000s, the importance of FGF23 was revealed in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and then investigating the role of FGF23 in mineral metabolism has spread. FGF23 target organs comprise those that express coreceptor Klotho, such as kidney and parathyroid glands. While associations of calcium sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor with parathyroid function have been mainly investigated for parathyroid dysfunction, many efforts recently have made to study the effects of FGF23 on parathyroid glands.

  19. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  20. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  1. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Polo, C. M.; Moraes, T. M.; Pellizzon, C. H.; Marques, M. O.; Rocha, L. R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC) on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76%) within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P < .05) the height of regenerated mucosa (59%) when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions. PMID:23243451

  2. Interferon-inducer polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid: a potent anti-gastric ulcer agent and inhibitor of the gastric proton pump in rats.

    PubMed

    Nath, C; Rastogi, L; Dikshit, M; Patnaik, G K; Saxena, R C; Gupta, M B

    1998-01-01

    1. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:Poly C), an interferon inducer was studied for its effect on gastric ulceration in rats. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, i.m.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric ulcers induced by aspirin, cold restraint stress and pylorus ligation (Shay's model). Protective dose (PD50) +/- SEM values of Poly I:Poly C on these models of ulcers were 1.9 +/- 0.2, 2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 (mg/kg, i.m.) respectively. 2. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (10-60 micrograms) produced dose-dependent inhibition of gastric proton pump (H+/K(+)-ATPase) activity in the gastric parietal microsomal fraction. The concentration of Poly I:Poly C causing a 50% inhibition (IC50) +/- SEM was found to be 17.6 +/- 1.2 micrograms. 3. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid caused a significant decrease in free and total acid and pepsin and an increase in mucin content in Shay (pylorus-ligated) rat. 4. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid did not exert a significant influence on isolated tissue preparations for anti-cholinergic (acetylcholine-induced contraction of guinea-pig ileum) and H2-anti-histaminic (histamine-induced contraction of rat uterus and guinea-pig auricle) activities. 5. Thus, the present study indicates that Poly I:Poly C may possess anti-gastric ulcer activity as a result of inhibition of the gastric proton pump.

  3. A transcriptional switch between the Pig-1 and Sgs-4 genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Mougneau, E; von Seggern, D; Fowler, T; Rosenblatt, J; Jongens, T; Rogers, B; Gietzen, D; Beckendorf, S K

    1993-01-01

    Pig-1 and Sgs-4 are a pair of closely linked and divergently transcribed Drosophila melanogaster genes, which are both expressed in larval salivary glands but at different times during development. While Sgs-4 is expressed at high levels only at the end of the third instar, Pig-1 exhibits a major peak of expression during late second and early third instar. Thus, Pig-1 expression declines as Sgs-4 expression is induced. In this paper, we show that three adjacent elements located within the short region between these genes can account for the switch from Pig-1 to Sgs-4 expression. A 170-bp segment acts as an enhancer to direct Sgs-4 expression in late-third-instar salivary glands. A 64-bp sequence located just upstream from the enhancer can modify its temporal specificity so that it works throughout the third instar. Expression induced at mid-third instar by a combination of these two elements can be repressed by a negative regulatory sequence located still further upstream. We present evidence suggesting that the changing interactions between these regulatory elements and the Sgs-4 and Pig-1 promoters lead to the correct pattern of expression of the two genes. Images PMID:8417325

  4. Bilateral isolated submandibular gland mumps.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Linnea; Henderson, Arthur Harry; Banfield, Graham; Carswell, Andrew

    2017-06-05

    Isolated submandibular swellings pose a diagnostic challenge to the practising otolaryngologist. We report an unusual case of mumps isolated to bilateral submandibular glands. We discuss the case and the literature surrounding this condition and remind clinicians that mumps should be considered as a diagnosis in the presence of submandibular gland swelling in the absence of typical parotid swelling associated with mumps. Early consideration of this differential diagnosis, serological testing and a multidisciplinary approach may help to clinch the diagnosis earlier and prevent spread of the virus. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Nighot, Meghali P; Nighot, Prashant K; Ma, Thomas Y; Malinowska, Danuta H; Shull, Gary E; Cuppoletti, John; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05) and 53% (P<0.001) respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025) lower by 9.4 fold (89%) in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84-95%, P<0.005) in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion.

  6. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nighot, Meghali P.; Nighot, Prashant K.; Ma, Thomas Y.; Malinowska, Danuta H.; Shull, Gary E.; Cuppoletti, John; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05) and 53% (P<0.001) respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025) lower by 9.4 fold (89%) in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84–95%, P<0.005) in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion. PMID:26378782

  7. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 – 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes. PMID:28271094

  8. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: the mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-04-28

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-"aging gastropathy"-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-α-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older

  9. Clinical outcomes of gastric polyps and neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Nonaka, Satoru; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yachida, Tatsuo; Abe, Seiichiro; Sakamoto, Taku; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Oda, Ichiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Sekine, Shigeki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Katai, Hitoshi; Saito, Yutaka; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-03-01

    Background and study aims Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, characterized by the presence of more than 100 adenomatous polyps in the colorectum. The upper gastrointestinal tract is an extracolonic site for malignancy in patients with FAP. The frequency of death in Japanese patients with FAP because of gastric cancer is 2.8 % and that because of colon cancer is 60.6 %. Few studies have reported upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients with FAP. In the present study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with FAP diagnosed with gastric neoplasms. Patients and methods We enrolled 80 patients with FAP who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from October 1997 to December 2011. We investigated patient characteristics, endoscopic findings of gastric lesions, treatment outcomes, and long-term courses. Results Fundic gland polyposis was observed in 51 patients (64 %) and gastric neoplasms in 22 patients (28 %), including 20 with non-invasive and 2 with invasive neoplasm. Of the 26 neoplasms, 11 were treated by endoscopic resection (ER) and 4 by surgical resection. Metachronous gastric neoplasms were observed in 7 patients (15 lesions) and treated by ER, except for in 1 patient. No patients died of gastric lesions during a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (range, 0 - 14). Conclusion Because gastric lesions including gastric cancers in patients with FAP did not cause any deaths, they can be considered to have favorable prognoses. Early detection of gastric neoplasms through an appropriate follow-up interval may have contributed to these good outcomes.

  10. Impacts of human lysozyme transgene on the microflora of pig feces and the surrounding soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Jianxiang; Wang, Jianwu; Zhao, Yaofeng; Zhang, Lei; He, Jin; Chu, Mingxing; Li, Ning

    2012-11-15

    The rapid development of genetic engineering and extensive applications of genetically engineered (GE) animals have provided many research benefits, but concerns have been raised over the potential environmental impact of transgenic animals. We investigated the effects of human lysozyme (hLZ) transgenic pigs which can express hLZ in their mammary glands on the surrounding environment from the angle of the changes of pig feces and the surrounding soil, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the impact on microbial communities in pig gastrointestinal (GI) tracts and soil, and the influence on the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) content of pig excrement and surrounding soil. Results showed that hLZ gene was not detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) in gut microbial DNA extracts of manure or microbial DNA extracts of topsoil. PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that hLZ gene had no impact on the microflora structure of pig guts or soil. Finally, TN and TP contents were not significantly different in pig manure or soils taken at different distances from the pig site (P>0.25). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of gastric H,K-ATPase activity and gastric epithelial cell IL-8 secretion by the pyrrolizine derivative ML 3000

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Adam J; Goldenring, James R; Gupta, Sandeep; Hammond, Charles E

    2004-01-01

    Background ML 3000 ([2,2-dimethyl-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-yl]-acetic acid) is an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase in vitro, and shows promise as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Unlike conventional NSAIDs which are associated with gastric ulcerogenic effects, ML 3000 causes little or no damage to the gastric mucosa, even though it significantly depresses gastric prostaglandin synthesis. Methods As part of an effort to clarify mechanisms underlying the gastric sparing properties of ML 3000, we studied the effects of ML 3000 on H,K-ATPase activity in vitro, on acid accumulation in isolated gastric parietal cells, and on IL-8 secretion by gastric epithelial cells in culture. Results SCH28080-sensitive H,K-ATPase activity in highly-purified pig gastric microsomes was dose-dependently inhibited by ML 3000 (IC50 = 16.4 μM). Inhibition was reversible, and insensitive to ML 3000 acidification in the pH range 2.0–8.0. In rabbit gastric parietal cells, ML 3000 dose-dependently inhibited histamine-stimulated acid accumulation (IC50 = 40 μM) and forskolin-stimulated acid accumulation (IC50 = 45 μM). Lastly, in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells, ML 3000 dose-dependently inhibited both baseline and IL-1β-stimulated (20 ng/ml) IL-8 secretion with IC50s of 0.46 μM and 1.1 μM respectively. Conclusion The data indicate that ML 3000 affects acid-secretory mechanisms downstream of cAMP mobilization induced by histamine H2 receptor activation, that it directly inhibits H,K-ATPase specific activity, and that baseline gastric epithelial cell IL-8 secretory inhibition may be mediated by ML 3000 inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity. We conclude that these gastric function inhibitory data may underlie the gastric sparing properties of ML 3000. PMID:15028114

  12. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Morphogenesis and growth of the soft tissue and cartilage of the vomeronasal organ in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ignacio; Lombardero, Matilde; Cifuentes, José M; Quinteiro, Pablo Sánchez; Alemañ, Nuria

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of the soft tissue and supporting cartilage of the vomeronasal organ of the fetal pig was studied from early stages to term. Specimens obtained from an abattoir were aged by crown-to-rump distance. Series of transverse sections show that some time before birth all structures – cartilage, connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, glands and epithelia – are well developed and very similar in appearance to those of the adult. Furthermore, in transmission electron microscopy photomicrographs obtained at this stage the vomeronasal glands exhibit secretory activity. PMID:12846472

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in pigs infected experimentally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Andrada, M; Quesada-Canales, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Paz-Sánchez, Y; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia, primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), is a contagious disease characterized by catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Previous studies have evaluated immunohistochemically the distribution of Mh, different cellular populations and cytokines during Mh-induced pneumonia. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is overexpressed during inflammatory responses by different cell types in the lung. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of porcine enzootic pneumonia. COX-2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissues from 10 pigs infected experimentally with Mh. Ten pigs were inoculated intranasally with Mh and killed in pairs weekly from 1 to 5 weeks post inoculation. Three Mh-free pigs were taken as controls. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, bronchial submucosal glands and a small number of macrophages in the bronchoalveolar exudate expressed COX-2. COX-2 protein was always associated with areas of pneumonia and expression was minimal in lungs from control pigs. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of Mh-infection.

  15. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  16. Effect of flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis and metabolism in the pig.

    PubMed

    Odensvik, K; Cort, N; Basu, S; Kindahl, H

    1989-09-01

    The effect of flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin synthesis and metabolism was evaluated in the pig in vivo. It was found that the prostaglandin metabolite, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha, was decreased in the peripheral circulation within 20 min of injection of the drug. In therapeutic doses in the pig the drug had no effect on the metabolism of PGF2 alpha. Flunixin was compared with some other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an in vitro test system utilizing sheep vesicular gland microsomes. It was concluded that this drug is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.

  17. Adrenal glands transabdominal ultrasonography - pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Chira, Romeo Ioan; Chira, Alexandra; Manzat-Saplacan, Roberta Maria; Nagy, Georgiana; Valea, Ana; Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Valean, Simona

    2017-05-03

    Adrenal gland ultrasonography is one of the corner stones of the abdominal ultrasonography examination for many medical specialties. The adrenal areas can be easily overlooked though adrenal gland pathology is diverse. We present the normal aspects and various transabdominal ultrasonography findings of the adrenal glands, both common and rare. Even though ultrasound examination is operator and patient dependent, we consider the examination of the adrenal glands very important, due to relatively frequent incidental detection of an adrenal mass.

  18. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  19. [Unilateral congenital aplasia of the submandibular gland].

    PubMed

    Damar, Murat; Kalaycı, Cem Burak; Bekar, Ulkü; Turhan, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Aplasia of the major salivary glands is very uncommon, whereas isolated aplasia of unilateral submandibular gland is even rarer. In this article, we report a 55-year-old female case in whom unilateral aplasia of the left submandibular gland was detected incidentally by ultrasonography with no other congenital comorbidities in the light of literature data.

  20. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  1. Congenital deficiency of meibomian glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, A J; Mengher, L S

    1987-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with contact lens intolerance. She was found to have a marked deficiency of meibomian glands in the upper lids and almost total absence in the lower lids. Evidence of tear film instability was found and attributed to deficient lid oil production. A daily wear soft contact lens was later fitted and tolerated. PMID:3580344

  2. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  3. Cyst of accessory lacrimal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Durán, J. A.; Cuevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    We present a case of an epithelial cyst of the conjunctiva caused by the dilatation of an accessory lacrimal gland. The case is peculiar in regard to the size of the cyst and the absence of traumatic or inflammatory factors to explain the retention of fluid. Images PMID:6860616

  4. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  5. Schlafen 4-expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-08-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori-infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype.

  6. Schlafen 4–expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M.; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori–infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  7. The use of murine-derived fundic organoids in studies of gastric physiology

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Michael A; Aihara, Eitaro; Feng, Rui; Engevik, Amy; Shroyer, Noah F; Ottemann, Karen M; Worrell, Roger T; Montrose, Marshall H; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Zavros, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gastric function and disease have been limited by the lack of extended primary cultures of the epithelium. An in vitro approach to study gastric development is primary mouse-derived antral epithelium cultured as three-dimensional spheroids known as organoids. There have been no reports on the use of organoids for gastric function. We have devised two unique gastric fundic-derived organoid cultures: model 1 for the expansion of gastric fundic stem cells, and model 2 for the maintenance of mature cell lineages. Both models were generated from single glands dissociated from whole fundic tissue and grown in basement membrane matrix (Matrigel) and organoid growth medium. Model 1 enriches for a stem cell-like niche via simple passage of the organoids. Maintained in Matrigel and growth medium, proliferating organoids expressed high levels of stem cell markers CD44 and Lgr5. Model 2 is a system of gastric organoids co-cultured with immortalized stomach mesenchymal cells (ISMCs). Organoids maintained in co-culture with ISMCs express robust numbers of surface pit, mucous neck, chief, endocrine and parietal cells. Histamine induced a significant decrease in intraluminal pH that was reversed by omeprazole in fundic organoids and indicated functional activity and regulation of parietal cells. Localized photodamage resulted in rapid cell exfoliation coincident with migration of neighbouring cells to the damaged area, sustaining epithelial continuity. Thus, we report the use of these models for studies of epithelial cell biology and cell damage and repair. PMID:25605613

  8. Are gastric hyperplastic polyps an additional manifestation in celiac disease?: Results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Rocchi, Chiara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Soro, Sara; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2017-02-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently reported in patients undergoing upper endoscopic procedures. In this retrospective study, the association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease in Northern Sardinia was estimated.Age, gender, body mass index, and medications taken in the 2 preceding months, including proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), H2 receptor blockers (anti-H2), Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings, and histology from charts of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy were reviewed. Polyps were classified as hyperplastic, fundic gland, inflammatory, and adenomatous.3.7% (423/11379) patients had celiac disease. Prevalence of gastric polyps was 4.2% (3.8% among celiac vs 4.2% nonceliac patients). Inflammatory polyp was the most common histotype (55.8% and 56.2%) followed by fundic gland polyps (31.4% and 43.7%), hyperplastic (8.7% and 0%), and adenomas, in celiac and nonceliac patients, respectively. Fundic gland polyps were more common in PPI users (odds ratio: 4.06) than in nonusers (2.65, P = 0.001) among celiac and nonceliac patients. Age older than 50, female gender, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy year, and PPI use were associated with the presence of polyps, whereas active H pylori infection was not.Gastric polyps were common in Sardinian patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. However, the previously reported association between hyperplastic polyps and celiac disease was not confirmed in our study.

  9. Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Labelle, P; De Cock, H E V

    2005-01-01

    Although metastases to the adrenals are common in humans, they have not been thoroughly studied in animals. The purpose of this retrospective study was to document the types of malignant tumors that metastasize to canine, feline, equine, and bovine adrenals, and the rate at which they do so. The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle. In dogs, 26 different tumor types metastasized to the adrenals. Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs. Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses. In cats and cattle, relevant data were only available for lymphoma. Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease. One dog had developed Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) secondary to lymphoma. Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms. This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.

  10. Laparoscopic partial gastric transection and devascularization in order to enhance its flow

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Abente, Federico; Assalia, Ahmad; del Genio, Gianmattia; Rogula, Tomasz; Nocca, David; Ueda, Kazuki; Gagner, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background Esophagogastric fistula following an esophagectomy for cancer is very common. One of the most important factors that leads to its development is gastric isquemia. We hypothesize that laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe operation that will enhance the vascular flow of the fundus of the stomach. Method Our study included eight pigs. Each animal had two operations. In the first one, a laparoscopic gastric devascularization and mobilization took place. Vascular flow was measured previous to the procedure and immediately after it with a laser doppler (endoscopic probe). After three weeks, a second operation took place. We re-measured the vascular flow and sent a sample of gastric fundus for histopathologic evaluation. Results The gastric fundus showed signs of neovascularization after both macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. These findings correlated with laser doppler measurements. Conclusion Laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe procedure that increases the vascular flow of the stomach in a three week period. This finding can have a positive impact in terms of decreasing fistula formation. PMID:18606017

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder ...

  12. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Stasko, Judi; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-04-01

    Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described.

  13. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

  14. Metamorphosis of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus: cell proliferation and differentiation of the gastric mucosa and developmental effects of altered thyroidal status.

    PubMed

    Soffientino, B; Specker, J L

    2001-06-15

    Summer flounder, like most marine fishes studied to date, are stomachless at first feeding, and subsequently acquire gastric function during the process of metamorphosis. Stomach formation is controlled largely by thyroxine (T4). In the present work we sought to understand gastric organogenesis in terms of cell proliferation and its relationship to histological differentiation. The objectives of the study were (1) to obtain a developmental pattern of cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa and to relate that pattern to the progress of gastric differentiation; and (2) to understand the regulatory role of T4 on cell proliferation and histological differentiation by altering the thyroidal status of the developing larvae. We observed that (1) in normally developing larvae, cell proliferation increased by early metamorphic climax (MC), remained high until mid-MC, and decreased to basal levels by late MC; concomitantly, the gastric glands appeared and differentiated in the fundic mucosa, and were complete by late MC; (2) T4 accelerated the differentiation of gastric glands and mucus neck cells, while inhibiting the concomitant increase in cell proliferation observed in controls; and (3) the goitrogen thiourea inhibited both cell proliferation and gastric differentiation compared to controls. These results indicate that T(4) is necessary for the three-fold increase in cell proliferation that occurs in early metamorphic climax, but that high T4 levels promote differentiation at the expense of proliferation. The observed effects would be consistent with the normal, metamorphosis-related increase in whole body T4.

  15. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  16. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  17. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients.

  18. Microvascular injury in persistent gastric ulcers after yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization for liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Belinda; Lapetino, Shawn R; Diffalha, Sameer A L; Yong, Sherri; Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Koppe, Sean; Garzon, Steven; Guzman, Grace

    2016-04-01

    Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization ((90)Y MRE) is a therapy for liver malignancies by permanently implanting (90)Y-containing microspheres into tumors via hepatic artery. The etiology of persistent gastric ulcerations in patients presenting months after treatment remains unclear. Three patients who presented with gastric ulceration 4 to 13 months after (90)Y MRE were examined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsies. Pathological examinations showed multiple (90)Y microspheres scattered within the lamina propria and submucosa. Most of the microspheres were distributed in a linear fashion, consistent with an intravascular location; however, the vascular lumen and endothelial cells were not present. The microspheres were surrounded by fibrotic tissue infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells and rare neutrophils. Epithelial granulation without pititis and miniaturized glands with intervening fibrosis were noted, compatible with chronic ischemic changes. These findings suggest that the persistent gastric ulceration is a result of localized ischemic injury in response to (90)Y MRE-induced vascular damage.

  19. Lipocalins of boar salivary glands binding odours and pheromones.

    PubMed

    Marchese, S; Pes, D; Scaloni, A; Carbone, V; Pelosi, P

    1998-03-15

    Large amounts of an odorant-binding protein have been isolated from submaxillary glands of mature male pig. This polypeptide molecule is sex-specific, being absent in females. On electrophoretic gels under denaturing conditions it migrated as a broad band with an apparent molecular mass of around 20 kDa. Electrospray mass spectrometry revealed the presence of three main components, whose mass differences are not interpretable as result of any common post-translational modifications, indicating the presence of distinct polypeptide chains. N-terminal Edman degradation yielded a single sequence of 29 amino acids. It includes the lipocalin signature (-G-X-W-) and shows clear homology with a subclass of odorant-binding proteins present in mouse saliva, nasal mucus and urine. The purified protein still retained small ligands tightly bound; among them 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol, both known sex pheromones for the pig, were identified. The protein also binds 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, a good ligand for most odorant-binding proteins, with a dissociation constant of 5 microM.

  20. The reptilian thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Sam; Lock, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The field of reptilian clinical endocrinology is still in its infancy. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are intimately involved with many basic metabolic functions. These glands have been the subject of extensive research studies in reptilian species; however, the effects of abnormal gland function have been poorly documented in clinical cases. These glands play a major role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in all vertebrates. With the advent of more sensitive assays, it should be possible to measure the small amounts of hormones found in reptilian species. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding clinical endocrinology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in reptiles.

  1. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  2. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  3. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  4. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  5. Neuropeptidergic control of Octopus oviducal gland.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The oviducal gland of the female of Octopus vulgaris lies about halfway along the oviduct. Progesterone and 17beta-estradiol receptors have been immunolocalized in the nuclei of the cells of the glandular compartment of previtellogenic glands. We also have evidence of FMRFamide-like and cGnRH-I-like immunoreactivity in the nerve endings that reach the oviducal gland. Moreover, we have recently shown APGWamide immunoreactivity in the glandular cells of the inner part of the oviducal gland. Here we report a review on these findings as well as our latest studies on the effect that neuropeptides may exert on the secretory activity of the oviducal gland. cAMP seems to be a possible second messenger involved in such a process. We discuss the findings of a neuropeptidergic action on the glandular cells of oviducal gland in a more complex frame of molecules, such as steroids, biogenic amines and neuromodulators, controlling the activity of the gland.

  6. De-regulation of the sonic hedgehog pathway in the InsGas mouse model of gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, M; Tobias, A; Grabowska, A M; Kumari, R; Scotting, P J; Kaye, P; Atherton, J; Clarke, P A; Powe, D G; Watson, S A

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling in gastric metaplasia in the insulin-gastrin (InsGas) hypergastrinaemic mouse +/− Helicobacter felis (H. felis) infection. Sonic hedgehog gene and protein expression was reduced in pre-metaplastic lesions from non-infected mice (90% gene reduction, P<0.01) compared to normal mucosa. Sonic hedgehog was reactivated in gastric metaplasia of H. felis-infected mice (3.5-fold increase, P<0.01) compared to pre-metaplastic lesions. Additionally, the Shh target gene, glioma-associated oncogene (Gli)-1, was significantly reduced in the gastric glands of InsGas mice (75% reduction, P<0.05) and reactivated with H. felis infection (P<0.05, base of glands, P<0.01 stroma of metaplastic glands). The ability of H. felis to activate the Shh pathway was investigated by measuring the effect of target cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), on Shh expression in AGS and MGLVA1 cells, which was shown to induce Shh expression at physiological concentrations. H. felis induced the expression of NF-κB in inflammatory infiltrates in vivo, and the expression of the IL-8 mouse homologue, protein KC, in inflammatory infiltrates and metaplastic lesions. Sonic hedgehog pathway reactivation was paralleled with an increase in proliferation of metaplastic lesions (15.75 vs 4.39% in infected vs non-infected mice, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, Shh overexpression increased the growth rate of the gastric cancer cell line, AGS. The antiapoptotic protein, bcl-2, was expressed in the stroma of infected mice, along with a second Shh target gene, patched-1 (P=0.0001, stroma of metaplastic gland). This study provides evidence suggesting reactivation of Shh signalling from pre-metaplastic to advanced metaplastic lesions of the stomach and outlines the importance of the Shh pathway as a potential chemoprophylactic target for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:17505514

  7. Non-invasive exploration of neonatal gastric epithelium by using exfoliated epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kaeffer, Bertrand; Legrand, Arnaud; Moyon, Thomas; Frondas-Chauty, Anne; Billard, Hélène; Guzman-Quevedo, Omar; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In preterm infants, exfoliated gastric epithelial cells can be retrieved from aspirates sampled through the naso-gastric feeding tube. Our aims were to determine (1) whether the recovery of exfoliated cells is feasible at any time from birth through the removal of the nasogastric tube, (2) whether they can be grown in culture in vitro, and (3) whether the physiological state of exfoliated cells expressing H+/K+ -ATPases reflects that of their counterparts remaining in situ at the surface of the gastric epithelium in neonatal rat pups. In infants, gastric fluid aspirates were collected weekly after birth or every 3 hours over 24-h periods, and related to clinical parameters (Biocollection PROG/09/18). In rat pups submitted to a single fasting/refeeding cycle, we explored circadian exfoliation with the cellular counter-parts in the gland. All samples were analyzed by confocal imaging and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Epithelial cells were identified by microscopy using membrane-bound anti-H+/K+ ATPases antibody, assessed for nucleus integrity, and the expression of selected proteins (autophagy, circadian clock). On 34 infants, the H+/K+-ATPase-positive cells were consistently found quiescent, regardless of gestational age and feeding schedule from day-5 of life to the day of removal of the naso-gastric tube. By logistic regression analysis, we did find a positive correlation between the intensity of exfoliation (cellular loss per sample) and the postnatal age (p<0.001). The H+/K+ ATPase-positive cells established in culture retained the expression of a biomarker of progenitor status (Pouf5F1-Oct4). In rat pups, the expression pattern of Survivin in H+/K+ ATPase-positive exfoliated cells paralleled that observed in cells remaining at the surface of the gastric gland. Tracking parietal cells can improve clinical monitoring and understanding of the autophagic death via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/survivin pathway.

  8. Galectin-3 Plays an Important Role in Innate Immunity to Gastric Infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah-Mee; Hagiwara, Satoru; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Yoshie, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    We studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal3) in gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori We first demonstrated that Gal3 was selectively expressed by gastric surface epithelial cells and abundantly secreted into the surface mucus layer. We next inoculated H. pylori Sydney strain 1 into wild-type (WT) and Gal3-deficient mice using a stomach tube. At 2 weeks postinoculation, the bacterial cells were mostly trapped within the surface mucus layer in WT mice. In sharp contrast, they infiltrated deep into the gastric glands in Gal3-deficient mice. Bacterial loads in the gastric tissues were also much higher in Gal3-deficient mice than in WT mice. At 6 months postinoculation,H. pylori had successfully colonized within the gastric glands of both WT and Gal3-deficient mice, although the bacterial loads were still higher in the latter. Furthermore, large lymphoid clusters mostly consisting of B cells were frequently observed in the gastric submucosa of Gal3-deficient mice.In vitro, peritoneal macrophages from Gal3-deficient mice were inefficient in killing engulfed H. pylori Furthermore, recombinant Gal3 not only induced rapid aggregation of H. pylori but also exerted a potent bactericidal effect on H. pylori as revealed by propidium iodide uptake and a morphological shift from spiral to coccoid form. However, a minor fraction of bacterial cells, probably transient phase variants of Gal3-binding sugar moieties, escaped killing by Gal3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Gal3 plays an important role in innate immunity to infection and colonization of H. pylori.

  9. Epithelial BMP signaling is required for proper specification of epithelial cell lineages and gastric endocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Maloum, Faïza; Allaire, Joannie M.; Gagné-Sansfaçon, Jessica; Roy, Evelyne; Belleville, Karine; Sarret, Philippe; Morisset, Jean; Carrier, Julie C.; Mishina, Yuji; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling within the gastrointestinal tract is complex. BMP ligands and their receptors are expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal compartments, suggesting bidirectional signaling between these two entities. Despite an increasing interest in BMP signaling in gut physiology and pathologies, the distinct contribution of BMP signaling in the epithelium vs. the mesenchyme in gastrointestinal homeostasis remains to be established. We aimed to investigate the role of epithelial BMP signaling in gastric organogenesis, gland morphogenesis, and maintenance of epithelial cell functions. Using the Cre/loxP system, we generated a mouse model with an early deletion during development of BMP receptor 1A (Bmpr1a) exclusively in the foregut endoderm. Bmpr1aΔGEC mice showed no severe abnormalities in gastric organogenesis, gland epithelial proliferation, or morphogenesis, suggesting only a minor role for epithelial BMP signaling in these processes. However, early loss of BMP signaling in foregut endoderm did impact on gastric patterning, leading to an anteriorization of the stomach. In addition, numbers of parietal cells were reduced in Bmpr1aΔGEC mice. Epithelial BMP deletion significantly increased the numbers of chromogranin A-, ghrelin-, somatostatin-, gastrin-, and serotonin-expressing gastric endocrine cells. Cancer never developed in young adult (<100 days) Bmpr1a-inactivated mice although a marker of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia was upregulated. Using this model, we have uncovered that BMP signaling negatively regulates the proliferation and commitment of endocrine precursor cells. Our data also indicate that loss of BMP signaling in epithelial gastric cells alone is not sufficient to induce gastric neoplasia. PMID:21415412

  10. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A baby pig stands in the underbrush near a bog at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  11. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  12. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    Two baby pigs dig in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  13. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A wild pig finds food in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  14. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A baby pig digs in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  15. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  16. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  17. [Guinea pigs and dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Khettar, L; Contet-Audonneau, N

    2012-10-01

    The current trend of keeping "exotic" pets has led to the emergence of new types of fungal species that may be transmitted to humans [1]. We describe a form of dermatophytosis transmitted by a Guinea pig and caused by a new variety of dermatophyte. A 13-year-old girl developed multiple erythematosquamous and vesicular lesions with a highly inflammatory edge several weeks after acquiring a Guinea pig of apparently healthy appearance. Direct examination and culture tests demonstrated the presence of a dermatophyte closely related to the erinacei variant of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, from which it differed in terms of microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. The condition resolved on therapy with topical imidazole. This new type of dermatophyte has been identified in many patients coming into close contact with Guinea pigs in the region of Nancy. We would suggest the emergence of a novel variety of T. mentagrophytes, which has adapted to its new host following transmission to Guineas pigs from hedgehogs. We propose that it be named T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sokosi Aliah = Little Pigs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Deborah; And Others

    Written in Choctaw and English, the illustrated booklet presents a Choctaw version of "This Little Pig Went to Market." The finger play activity emphasizes Choctaw values and cultural information such as generosity, humor, traditional clothing, designs, food, sports and art. The last page provides a teacher's guide with objectives and…

  19. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  20. G-cell hyperplasia of the stomach induces ECL-cell proliferation in the pyloric glands in a paracrinal manner.

    PubMed

    Kasajima, Atsuko; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takanori; Kawasaki, Shuhei; Konosu-Fukaya, Sachiko; Shibahara, Yukiko; Nakamura, Tadaho; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Mika; Shibata, Chikashi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-05-01

    An inhibitory mechanism toward gastrin hypersecretion is significantly different between G-cell hyperplasia and gastrinoma despite the common clinical manifestations; hypergastrinemia and its related persistent gastric ulcers. We recenlty studied the G-cell, d-cell and ECL-cell density in a case of G-cell hyperplasia. The 70-year-old patient has been treated for persistent gastric ulcers with a markedly increased plasma gastrin (5600 pg/mL). The stomach was surgically resected because of the obstruction associated with ulcer scars. The number of G-cells in the pyloric glands was quantified on the surgical specimens and G-cell hyperplasia was histolopathologically identified. Immunostainig of histidine decarboxylate revealed the presence of ECL-cell hyperplasia in the pyloric glands and its density was significantly and positively correlated with G-cell density. Somatostatin immunoreactive cells (D-cells) increased in their number in the oxyntic glands. These results all indicated that hypersecretion of gastrin in G-cell hyperplasia could induce ECL-cell proliferation in a paracrinal manner. In addition, relatively non-prominent endocrinological features in the G-cell hyperplasia compared to gastrinoma could be also related to the paracrinal somatostatin inhibitory effects upon ECL-cells in the pyloric glands. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  2. Pheromaxein, the pheromonal steroid-binding protein, is a major protein synthesized in porcine submaxillary salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Booth, W D; von Glos, K I

    1991-02-01

    Submaxillary salivary gland tissue from large White, Göttingen miniature and Meishan (Chinese) breeds of pig, and European wild boars, was incubated with [35S]methionine. The radiolabelled amino acid was incorporated into protein in all incubations as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Specifically [35S]methionine was predominantly incorporated into the alpha- and beta-charge isomers of pheromaxein, a 16-androstene steroid-binding protein, as shown by SDS-PAGE in combination with vertical isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide slab gels. The synthesis of pheromaxein occurred in submaxillary gland tissue from both sexes, including tissues stored frozen at -70 degrees C for long periods. There was little evidence for pheromaxein synthesis in parotid gland tissue or skeletal muscle. Total protein, pheromaxein and total 16-androstenes were determined in the submaxillary gland cytosols of six mature Göttingen miniature boars and a positive correlation was found between these glandular constituents. The amounts of endogenous pheromaxein relative to total protein in the submaxillary gland cytosols (range 10.3-18.0%), together with the predominant synthesis of this protein in vitro, indicate that pheromaxein is a major protein produced in porcine submaxillary glands, particularly in those of the male.

  3. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  4. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  5. [Cytology by gastric washing in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasms].

    PubMed

    González Espínola, G; Esquivel López, A; García Garduño, J R; Valenzuela Tamariz, J; Guerrero Hernández, M

    1980-01-01

    A prospective and comparative study between the citology obtained through gastric washing and endoscopic (biopsy and brushing) for the diagnostic of the gastric neoplasias was carried at the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico La Raza. Twenty one patients with benign gastric ulcer and 18 patients with gastric neoplasia (Two lymphomas and 16 adenocarcinomas) which we checked through surgery, necropsy or clinic evolution were studied. From 21 cases of gastric ulcer, the washing produced enough material for diagnosis in 17 of them (81%); in 16 of these neoplasia was excluded (94.1%) with false positive (5.9%). The endoscopic regained 100% of useful material and in a 100% ignored neoplasia. From 18 neoplasia cases, gastric washing produced material for 14 of them (77.8%); in 10 of these (71.4%) it made a diagnostic with 4 false negatives (28.6%); Endoscopic collected material in a 100% and the accuracy diagnostic was of 17 (94.4%) with one false negative (5.6%). Gastric washing has a high index of uselless for diagnostic from 39 samples, 8 were useless and from these, autolisis was the mein cause. Citology through gastric washing is usefull for neoplasm diagnosis in those cases in which endoscopy would be contraindicated or in those in which it is absent.

  6. Modeling human development and disease in pluripotent stem cell-derived gastric organoids

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kyle W.; Catá, Emily M.; Crawford, Calyn M.; Sinagoga, Katie L.; Schumacher, Michael; Rockich, Briana E.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Mayhew, Christopher N.; Spence, Jason R.; Zavros, Yana; Wells, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world’s population and are largely due to chronic H. pylori infection1–3. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis4, and there is no experimental model of normal human gastric mucosa. Here we report the de novo generation of three-dimensional human gastric tissue in vitro through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We identified that temporal manipulation of the FGF, WNT, BMP, retinoic acid and EGF signaling pathways and three-dimensional growth are sufficient to generate human gastric organoids (hGOs). Developing hGOs progressed through molecular and morphogenetic stages that were nearly identical to the developing antrum of the mouse stomach. Organoids formed primitive gastric gland- and pit-like domains, proliferative zones containing LGR5-expressing cells, surface and antral mucous cells, and a diversity of gastric endocrine cells. We used hGO cultures to identify novel signaling mechanisms that regulate early endoderm patterning and gastric endocrine cell differentiation upstream of the transcription factor NEUROG3. Using hGOs to model pathogenesis of human disease, we found that H. pylori infection resulted in rapid association of the virulence factor CagA with the c-Met receptor, activation of signaling and induction of epithelial proliferation. Together, these studies describe a novel and robust in vitro system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying human stomach development and disease. PMID:25363776

  7. [Melatonin as a therapeutic factor in gastric ulcer healing under experimental diabetes].

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Brzozowska, Iwona; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Nawrot, Elizbieta; Szczyrk, Urszula; Kwiecień, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormon secreted mostly by the pineal gland in the brain which maintains the body's circadian rhythm. Interestingly, this indol derivative is produced by enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in amount about 400 fold greater than detected in the pinealocytes. Previous studies revealed that melatonin exerts beneficial action against acute gastric damage induced by stress ethanol, aspirin and ischemia-reperfusion. Hyperglycemia, which is the main symptom of diabetes mellitus, is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, both promoting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS were shown to exhibit higher activity than molecular oxygen under basal conditions due to unpaired electron in its outermost shell of electrons. ROS lead to damage of cellular proteins, nucleic acids and membrane polyunsaturated fatty lipids. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus by the application of strep. tozocin in presence of gastric ulcers. Male Wistar rats were used in this model. 9 days after gastric ulcers and diabetes mellitus induction, groups of rats were treated with saline or melatonin (20 mg/kg i.g.). At the termination of the experiment, rats were anesthetized, abdomen was opened and gastric blood flow (GBF) was measured. Stomachs were removed for determination of gastric ulcers area by planimetry. Tissue samples were collected for biochemical assays. We demonstrated that melatonin significantly accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without coexistence of diabetes mellitus. This effect was accompanied by increase of GBF level. Moreover, we observed an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an decrease in lipid peroxidation products concentration within gastric tissue homogenates of animals treated with melatonin, as compared with control group. Melatonin application accelerates gastric ulcers healing with and without presence of

  8. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  10. Generation of RUNX3 knockout pigs using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-T; Ryu, J; Cho, B; Lee, E-J; Yun, Y-J; Ahn, S; Lee, J; Ji, D-Y; Lee, K; Park, K-W

    2016-12-01

    Pigs are an attractive animal model to study the progression of cancer because of their anatomical and physiological similarities to human. However, the use of pig models for cancer research has been limited by availability of genetically engineered pigs which can recapitulate human cancer progression. Utilizing genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 system allows us to generate genetically engineered pigs at a higher efficiency. In this study, specific CRISPR/Cas9 systems were used to target RUNX3, a known tumour suppressor gene, to generate a pig model that can induce gastric cancer in human. First, RUNX3 knockout cell lines carrying genetic modification (monoallelic or biallelic) of RUNX3 were generated by introducing engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system specific to RUNX3 into foetal fibroblast cells. Then, the genetically modified foetal fibroblast cells were used as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer, followed by embryo transfer. We successfully obtained four live RUNX3 knockout piglets from two surrogates. The piglets showed the lack of RUNX3 protein in their internal organ system. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is effective in inducing mutations on a specific locus of genome and the RUNX3 knockout pigs can be useful resources for human cancer research and to develop novel cancer therapies.

  11. Microwave thermolysis of sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jessi E; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F; Kim, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and has a significant impact on peoples' lives. This report presents a technical overview of a new noninvasive, microwave-based device for creating thermolysis of sweat glands. The fundamental principles of operation of the device are presented, as well as the design and optimization of the device to target the region where the sweat glands reside. An applicator was designed that consists of an array of four waveguide antennas, a cooling system, and a vacuum acquisition system. Initially, the performance of the antenna array was optimized via computer simulation such that microwave absorption was maximized near the dermal/hypodermal interface. Subsequently, hardware was implemented and utilized in pre-clinical testing on a porcine model to optimize the thermal performance and analyze the ability of the system to create thermally affected zones of varying size yet centered on the target region. Computer simulation results demonstrated absorption profiles at a frequency of 5.8 GHz that had low amounts of absorption at the epidermis and maximal absorption at the dermal/hypodermal interface. The targeted zone was shown to be largely independent of skin thickness. Gross pathological and histological response from pre-clinical testing demonstrated the ability to generate thermally affected zones in the desired target region while providing protection to the upper skin layers. The results demonstrate that microwave technology is well suited for targeting sweat glands while allowing for protection of both the upper skin layers and the structures beneath the subcutaneous fat. Promising initial results from simulation and pre-clinical testing demonstrate the potential of the device as a noninvasive solution for sweat gland thermolysis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  13. Therapeutic strategies in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, J E L; Ito, Y; Correa, P; Peeters, K C M J; van de Velde, C J H; Sasako, M; Macdonald, J

    2003-12-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be a major public health problem and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. These statistics led the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Affairs Committee to choose gastric cancer as the topic for the International Symposium held at the 2003 ASCO Annual Meeting. Dr Yoshiaki Ito will discuss the role of RUNX3 in the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. Dr Pelayo Correa will present a compelling argument on the use of Helicobacter pylori therapy and antioxidants in selected high-risk population as chemoprevention strategies for gastric cancer. The controversy regarding the role of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer will be discussed by Dr Cornelis J.H. Van De Velde and Dr Mitsuru Sasako. Dr Van De Velde will present the European surgical approach to gastric cancer, and Dr Sasako will review the Japanese experience. The issues of whether certain patients benefit from more aggressive surgical dissection and the potential risks compared with benefits will also be discussed. Dr John Macdonald will discuss the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in resected gastric cancer, as well as the role of chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer.

  14. Gut microbiota and gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Dolores; Miranda, Agnese; Romano, Lorenzo; Romano, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other. In fact microscopic structures of gastric mucosa (mucus layer and luminal contents) influence local microflora and vice versa. In this article our attention is directed specifically to explain the effects of this "cross-talk" on gastric homeostais. The gastric microbiota grossly consists of two macrogroups: HP and non-HP bacteria. Here, we review the relationship between these two populations and their role in the development of the different gastric disorders: functional dyspepsia, gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and gastric cancer. Moreover we focus on the effects on the gastric microbiota of exogenous interference as diet and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

  15. Supersaturation in human gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Bevernage, Jan; Hens, Bart; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The current study reports on supersaturation, precipitation and excipient mediated precipitation inhibition of five poorly soluble drugs (loviride, glibenclamide, itraconazole, danazol, and etravirine) in human and simulated gastric fluids. Upon induction of supersaturation in human gastric fluids (HGFs), simulated gastric fluid (SGF), and fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) using a solvent shift method, supersaturation and precipitation were assessed as a function of time. In addition, the precipitation inhibitory capacity of three polymers (Eudragit® E PO, HPMC-E5, and PVP K25) was investigated. Supersaturation in human gastric fluids was observed for all model compounds, but proved to be relatively unstable (fast precipitation), except for itraconazole. Only modest excipient-mediated stabilizing effects on supersaturation were observed using HPMC-E5 and Eudragit® E PO whereas PVP K25 exerted no effect. In contrast to SGF, the observed precipitation behavior in FaSSGF was similar to the behavior in human gastric fluids. The present study demonstrates that supersaturation stability of drugs in human gastric fluids is in general inferior to supersaturation stability in intestinal fluids. As the potential for excipient mediated precipitation inhibition in gastric fluids was only limited, our data suggest that supersaturation should preferably be targeted to the intestine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels.

  17. Ectopic sebaceous glands in the oesophagus: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kang, Joon-Koo

    2014-08-01

    Most ectopic sebaceous glands have been reported in the tissues of ectodermal origin. However, there are relatively a few reports of ectopic sebaceous glands in the oesophagus, an organ of endodermal origin. We report the case of an asymptomatic 54-year-old man with ectopic oesophageal sebaceous glands. These lesions were incidentally observed in the distal oesophagus during screening endoscopy of gastric neoplasm and confirmed by histologic analysis. Surveillance or resection with regard to ectopic sebaceous glands in the oesophagus is generally not required since there is no known malignant potential. However, anti-reflux treatment may be sometimes needed, if such symptoms are present in patients. Also, these lesions should be differentiated from other pathologic lesions of oesophagus that need to be treated. Thus, greater attention of endoscopists is required for detection and differential diagnosis of these lesions. The narrow-band imaging mode and/or endoscopic biopsy may be helpful. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. [Hereditary gastric and pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Langner, C

    2017-05-01

    Most cases of gastric and pancreatic cancer are sporadic, but familial clustering can be observed in approximately 10% of cases. Hereditary gastric cancer accounts for a very low percentage of cases (1-3%) and two syndromes have been characterized: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). Gastric and pancreatic cancer can develop in the setting of other hereditary cancer syndromes, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or various hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, including juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis carry an increased risk of cancer (40-55%).

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  20. Studies on Natural Gastric Flora

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Maxine A.; Skoryna, Stanley C.

    1971-01-01

    The present report deals with the survival of micro-organisms in the gastric lumen of fasting human subjects. Studies were carried out on hospitalized adult patients during the day, at night and over a 24-hour period. It is concluded that the survival of bacteria in the gastric lumen depends on the pH of the gastric juice. The duration of survival of the organisms at the pH <3.0 varied; however, at pH> 4.0, when a subsequent rapid drop in pH occurred, the clearing of viable organisms occurred within the hour sampling period in most cases. It is possible that medications which decrease gastric acidity favour an increase in the growth of gastric bacteria, while substances with a low pH may decrease bacterial growth. PMID:5128711

  1. Immunohistochemical demonstration of enkephalin-containing nerve fibers in guinea pig and rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Shimosegawa, T; Foda, H D; Said, S I

    1989-08-01

    Met-enkephalin (Met-Enk) and Leu-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), the opioid peptides originally isolated from the brain, are believed to act as inhibitory neuromodulators at various synaptic sites. In this immunohistochemical study, we have investigated the localization and distribution of Met- and Leu-Enk immunoreactivities in airways and pulmonary vessels of guinea pigs and rats. Immunoreactivities to both peptides were found in nerve fibers and nerve terminals distributed mainly to the trachea and major bronchi, and were especially prevalent in the smooth muscle layer, in the lamina propria, and around tracheal and bronchial glands, but not in the epithelium. Few immunoreactive nerve fibers were detected in smaller bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Enkephalin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were also localized in the walls of pulmonary and bronchial vessels. Within airway microganglia, immunoreactivity was observed in a few nerve terminals, but not in ganglion cell bodies. Met- and Leu-Enk immunoreactive nerve fibers showed similar distribution patterns, though minor differences were noted between the two species: Enk-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the smooth muscle layer were more abundant in guinea pigs than in rats, whereas those in mucous glands were richer in rats than in guinea pigs. These results document the presence of Met- and Leu-Enk immunoreactivity in nerve fibers supplying guinea pig and rat airways and pulmonary vessels, and provide a morphologic basis for the view that enkephalins are likely neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the lung.

  2. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Lactating Mammary Gland in Divergent Phenotype Swine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Zhao, Jun-Sheng; Shen, Yi-Fei; Mao, Hai-Guang; Xu, Ning-Ying

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a key role in development and specific biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Extensive studies of mammary miRNAs have been performed in different species and tissues. However, little is known about porcine mammary gland miRNAs. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the lactating mammary gland in two distinct pig breeds, Jinhua and Yorkshire. Many miRNAs were detected as significantly differentially expressed between the two libraries. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, many are known to be related to mammary gland development and lactation by interacting with putative target genes in previous studies. These findings suggest that miRNA expression patterns may contribute significantly to target mRNA regulation and influence mammary gland development and peak lactation performance. The data we obtained provide useful information about the roles of miRNAs in the biological processes of lactation and the mechanisms of target gene expression and regulation. PMID:25580536

  3. Pig production in subtropical agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-gang; Yin, Yu-long; Fang, Jun; Wang, Qi

    2012-03-30

    Pig production plays an important role in farming systems worldwide, especially in subtropical areas. The past few decades have seen significant changes in swine production in such regions. However, there are regional differences in pig production, and some of these are associated with serious problems which impact production systems, the environment and human health. This review introduces the pig breeds, crops and challenge of pig production that faces subtropical areas. A detailed analysis focuses on the control of production problems that are affected by limitations in management and nutritional strategies. Then, factors that drive the major changes in the pig industry in this area are examined in detail, and some insight into pig production directions is provided. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Pediatric Gastric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

  5. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  6. Simulation of flow in the silk gland.

    PubMed

    Breslauer, David N; Lee, Luke P; Muller, Susan J

    2009-01-12

    Spiders and silkworms employ the complex flow of highly concentrated silk solution as part of silk fiber spinning. To understand the role of fluidic forces in this process, the flow of silk solution in the spider major ampullate and silkworm silk glands was investigated using numerical simulation. Our simulations demonstrate significant differences between flow in the spider and silkworm silk glands. In particular, shear flow effects are shown to be much greater in the spider than the silkworm, the silkworm gland exhibits a much different flow extension profile than the spider gland, and the residence time within the spider gland is eight times greater than in the silkworm gland. Lastly, simulations on the effect of spinning speed on the flow of silk solution suggest that a critical extension rate is the initiating factor for fiber formation from silk solution. These results provide new insight into silk spinning processes and will guide the future development of novel fiber spinning technologies.

  7. [Unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    2003-01-01

    Our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. Large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. These glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi and contain hydrophobic lipids. The available data substantiate revision of the data on the structure of many skin glandular organs with atypical sebaceous glands.

  8. The parathyroid gland in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L.; Cassady, J.; Hajianpour, M. A.; Paz, J.; Reiss, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the parathyroid glands from 100 previously healthy subjects who died suddenly and were admitted to the Dade County Medical Examiner's (ME) morgue and from 66 inpatients who died at Jackson Memorial Hospital (JMH). Parathyroid glands in patients with diseases (JMH series) were heavier than those in healthy persons (ME series), and both groups of glands were significantly heavier than those previously reported. Mean glandular weight in white subjects was 42.6 +/- 20.3 mg, with a range of 22-103 mg. The 95% upper limit of gland weight for healthy white subjects was 73.1 mg and for black subjects, 91.6 mg. The size and weight exhibited a skewed distribution. Gland weight varied with age, increasing to a maximum in the 41-60 year old age group in all subsets except white women, in whom it continued to increase till after age 70. There was slight correlation (r2 = 0.15) of gland weight with body weight within series and race groups; parenchymal content of the glands was not constant but correlated positively with glandular weight. Glands from both series had a comparable fat content. Fat was unevenly distributed throughout the gland, and its amount was highly variable, ranging between 0 and 90%, with a mean of 26% for white subjects and 24% for black subjects in both series. Therefore, percentage fat may not be used as an index of hyperplasia. Healthy back subjects had heavier glands than healthy white subjects, unaccounted for by differences in body weights; this difference was not statistically significant in subjects with disease. Within the black race, glands were not significantly heavier in disease than in health, and in the few cases with serum calcium determinations, the gland weight did not vary inversely with serum calcium levels as in white subjects, suggesting a basic difference in parathyroid calcium metabolism between the two races. PMID:3789088

  9. Thyroid Gland Hematoma After Blunt Neck Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Saylam, Baris; Çomçali, Bülent; Ozer, Mehmet Vasfi; Coskun, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Hemorrhage of a previously normal thyroid gland as a result of blunt trauma is a very rare condition. We report a case of blunt trauma that caused acute hemorrhage into the thyroid gland and presented with hoarseness. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and carotid angiography. The patient was treated conservatively, had a favorable course without further complications, and was discharged four days after admission. PMID:20046242

  10. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  11. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-09-15

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14-16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt(-1)·meal(-1) every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited.

  12. [Surgical treatment for gastric cancer in a specialized service: the Rebagliati Hospital experience].

    PubMed

    Portanova, Michel; Vargas, Fernando; Lombardi, Emilio; Carbajal, Ramiro; Palacios, Nestor; Rodriguez, Cesar; Orrego, Jorge; Ferreyra, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The results of the surgical treatment for gastric cancer within a specialized surgical service in this pathology are described in this work. This system for surgical treatment of gastric cancer is new in our country. The implementation process included prepare a team of surgeons and establish protocols and guides to surgical treatment, based on the recommendations of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Additional training in the Japanese advanced surgical technique was required, as well as a strict documentation of the cases. During 2004, 139 surgical interventions were carried out on 137 patients with tumoral gastric pathology. Surgical mortality was 2.1% and morbidity was 21.8%. The average resected glands was 38.6.t 13.7 (range: 20-87) for distal gastrectomy and 46.6 +/- 16.2 (range: 24-87) for total gastrectomy. The stay in the hospital was 11.7 +/- 6.3 days (range: 5-37) for distal gastrectomy and 14.8 +/- 11.3 days (range: 7-56) for total gastrectomy. The hospital and surgeon volumes are underlined as important factors in determining the short and long term results. Implementation of specialized surgical units in general hospitals, for surgical treatment of gastric cancer, is recommended.

  13. Characterization and species differences in gastric ghrelin cells from mice, rats and hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yabuki, Akira; Ojima, Toshimichi; Kojima, Masayasu; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Mifune, Hiroharu; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kamimura, Ryozo; Masuyama, Taku; Suzuki, Syusaku

    2004-01-01

    Ghrelin is a newly identified gastric peptide hormone that has various important functions, including growth-hormone release and appetite stimulation. Ghrelin-immunoreactive cells (ghrelin cells) are characterized by X-type endocrine cells in the rat stomach. In the present study, we analysed ghrelin cells in fundi of stomach from ICR mice and Syrian hamsters immunohistochemically, immunoelectron microscopically and morphometrically, and compared the results with those from Wistar rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that ghrelin cells were sparsely distributed in the proper gastric glands in all species. The number of ghrelin cells per unit area in hamsters was significantly lower than that in rats. Immunoelectron microscopy detected ghrelin immunolabelling in granules in the X-type endocrine cells. However, the diameter of granules in the hamsters was significantly smaller than that in the mice and rats. Gastric ghrelin contents were determined by radioimmunoassay, and levels in the hamsters were significantly lower than those in mice and rats. The results from mice were identical to those from rats. In conclusion, gastric ghrelin cells in mice and hamsters are characterized by X-type endocrine cells, as has been observed in rats. However, the data indicated that gastric ghrelin production was lower in hamster than in mouse or rat. PMID:15379929

  14. Methyl donor deficiency affects fetal programming of gastric ghrelin cell organization and function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bossenmeyer-Pourié, Carine; Blaise, Sébastien; Pourié, Grégory; Tomasetto, Catherine; Audonnet, Sandra; Ortiou, Sandrine; Koziel, Violette; Rio, Marie-Christine; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Beck, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) during pregnancy influences intrauterine development. Ghrelin is expressed in the stomach of fetuses and influences fetal growth, but MDD influence on gastric ghrelin is unknown. We examined the gastric ghrelin system in MDD-induced intrauterine growth retardation. By using specific markers and approaches (such as periodic acid-Schiff, bromodeoxyuridine, homocysteine, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling, immunostaining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), we studied the gastric oxyntic mucosa cellular organization and ghrelin gene expression in the mucosa in 20-day-old fetuses and weanling pups, and plasma ghrelin concentration in weanling rat pups of dams either normally fed or deprived of choline, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 during gestation and suckling periods. MDD fetuses weighed less than controls; the weight deficit reached 57% at weaning (P < 0.001). Both at the end of gestation and at weaning, they presented with an aberrant gastric oxyntic mucosa formation with loss of cell polarity, anarchic cell migration, abnormal progenitor differentiation, apoptosis, and signs of surface layer erosion. Ghrelin cells were abnormally located in the pit region of oxyntic glands. At weaning, plasma ghrelin levels were decreased (-28%; P < 0.001) despite unchanged mRNA expression in the stomach. This decrease was associated with lower body weight. Taken together, these data indicate that one mechanism through which MDD influences fetal programming is the remodeling of gastric cellular organization, leading to dysfunction of the ghrelin system and dramatic effects on growth.

  15. Contribution of prostanoids to gastric circulatory and metabolic actions of solcoseryl.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, W W; Gustaw, P; Sendur, R; Czarnobilski, K; Konturek, S J

    1990-01-01

    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic properties remain elusive. The present study was designed to determine the effects of solcoseryl on gastric total (GBF) and mucosal (MBF) blood flow, gastric oxygen consumption (GVO2) and mucosal formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in anesthetized dogs. Soloseryl given iv or ia into the oxyntic gland area of canine stomach caused a dose-dependent increase in the GBF, MBF and GVO2, PGE2 and LTC4 contents in the ethanol-treated gastric mucosa showed a 5-12 fold increase over the values in the intact mucosa. The generation of LTC4, but not PGE2, was significantly diminished by solcoseryl. Pre-treatment with indomethacin completely prevented the effects of solcoseryl on mucosal PGE2, but not LTC4 levels, and significantly reduced its circulatory and metabolic actions on the stomach. The results of these studies indicate that solcoseryl causes dilatation of gastric arterioles and precapillary sphincters thereby improving mucosal blood flow and oxygen supply. The results also suggest that endogenous prostaglandins serve as mediators of the vascular and possibly metabolic effects of the drug on the stomach. The observed reduction by solcoseryl in gastric biosynthesis of LTC4 during mucosal injury may be an important factor in the gastroprotective and anti-ulcer effects of solcoseryl.

  16. Cell biology of the harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, G; Baccari, G C; Di Matteo, L; d'Istria, M; Minucci, S; Varriale, B

    1996-01-01

    The harderian gland is an orbital gland of the majority of land vertebrates. It is the only orbital gland in anuran amphibians since the lacrimal gland develops later during phylogenesis in some reptilian species. Perhaps because it is not found in man, little interest was paid to this gland until about four decades ago. In recent years, however, the scientific community has shown new interest in analyzing the ontogenetic and morphofunctional aspects of the harderian gland, particularly in rodents, which are the preferred experimental model for physiologists and pathologists. One of the main characteristics of the gland is the extreme variety not only in its morphology, but also in its biochemical properties. This most likely reflects the versatility of functions related to different adaptations of the species considered. The complexity of the harderian gland is further shown in its control by many exogenous and endogenous factors, which vary from species to species. The information gained so far points to the following functions for the gland: (1) lubrication of the eye and nictitating membrane, (2) a site of immune response, particularly in birds, (3) a source of pheromones, (4) a source of saliva in some chelonians, (5) osmoregulation in some reptiles, (6) photoreception in rodents, (7) thermoregulation in some rodents, and (8) a source of growth factors.

  17. Distribution of calcification within the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J R; Hawkins, T D

    1977-11-01

    The distribution of calcification in the normal pineal gland was investigated by a macroradiographic in vitro technique. The centre of calcification in 72 out of 73 glands studied was within 2 mm of the mid-line of the gland. In one gland it lay 2.6 mm from the mid-line. These findings explain the accepted normal limits for pineal calcification on the standard semi-axial projection of the skull of up to 2 mm to either side of the mid-line and the occasional measurement in excess of this in normal subjects.

  18. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  19. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  20. Effects of Physical Properties of Feed on Microbial Ecology and Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Pig Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Lene Lind; Naughton, Patrick J.; Hedemann, Mette S.; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2004-01-01

    A two-by-two factorial experiment with pigs was conducted to study the effect of feed grinding (fine and coarse) and feed processing (pelleted and nonpelleted) on physicochemical properties, microbial populations, and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Results demonstrated a strong effect of diet on parameters measured in the stomachs of the pigs, whereas the effect was less in the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs fed the coarse nonpelleted (C-NP) diet showed more solid gastric content with higher dry matter content than pigs fed the fine nonpelleted (F-NP), coarse pelleted (C-P), or fine pelleted (F-P) diet. Pigs fed the C-NP diet also showed significantly increased number of anaerobic bacteria (P < 0.05), increased concentrations of organic acids, and reduced pH in the stomach. In addition, pigs fed the C-NP diet showed increased in vitro death rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 in content from the stomach (P < 0.001). Pigs fed the C-NP diet had a significantly higher concentration of undissociated lactic acid in gastric content than pigs fed the other diets (P < 0.001). A strong correlation between the concentration of undissociated lactic acid and the death rate of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 was found. In the distal small intestine, cecum, and midcolon, significantly lower numbers of coliform bacteria were observed in pigs fed the coarse diets than in pigs fed the fine diets (P < 0.01). Pigs fed the C-NP diet showed the lowest number of coliform bacteria in these segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs fed the coarse diets showed increased concentration of butyric acid in the cecum (P < 0.05) and colon (P < 0.10) compared with pigs fed the fine diets. It was concluded that feeding a coarsely ground meal feed to pigs changes the physicochemical and microbial properties of content in the stomach, which decreases the survival of Salmonella during passage through

  1. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  2. Demethylchlortetracycline-binding proteins in uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric carcinoma and gastric ulcer patients. Demonstration of a difference between the uninvolved mucosa of ulcer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lo, E; Thronton, H; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

    1976-01-01

    The uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma patients has been compared in in vitro studies as regards their capacity to bind demethylchlortetracycline (DMCT). Dialysis experiments demonstrated excessive binding of DMCT in gastric cancer. Several electrophoretic fractions were observed that bound DMCT; it was demonstrated that these fractions differed in the uninvolved mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients.

  3. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  5. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on the fate of gastric polyps.

    PubMed

    Nam, Su Youn; Park, Bum Joon; Ryu, Kum Hei; Nam, Ji Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Western guidelines recommend Helicobacter pylori eradication in H. pylori-associated gastric polyps, but Korean medical insurance does not approve its eradication. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on gastric polyps. Participants in a large screening cohort underwent baseline and follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy and H. pylori testing. The association between gastric polyps and H. pylori was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for confounding factors and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effect of H. pylori eradication on the fate of polyps was also evaluated. The screening cohort included 7603 participants (605 gastric polyps: 529 hyperplastic polyps, 63 fundic gland polyps, and 13 adenomas). H. pylori infection showed a positive association with hyperplastic polyps (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.66-2.41), but was inversely related to fundic gland polyps (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.02-0.17). Removed polyps by biopsy or endoscopic resection or tiny polyps less than 3 mm at baseline and positive conversion of H. pylori at follow-up were excluded. A total of 7060 persons were finally included to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on the gastric polyp. Successful H. pylori eradication (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.77) and persistent H. pylori-negative status (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46-0.76) reduced the risk of hyperplastic polyps compared with the persistent H. pylori-positive group. Successful H. pylori eradication markedly induced the disappearance of hyperplastic polyps compared with the persistent H. pylori-positive group (85.0 vs. 29.0%, P=0.001). H. pylori infection increased the risk of hyperplastic polyps in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings, and its eradication induced regression of hyperplastic polyps.

  6. Cysteamine improves growth performance and gastric ghrelin expression in preweaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Du, G; Shi, Z; Xia, D; Wei, X; Zhang, L; Parvizi, N; Zhao, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cysteamine on growth performance of preweaning piglets and gastric expression of ghrelin mRNA in vivo and in vitro. Twelve litters of newborn piglets were allocated randomly to control and treatment groups. From 15 d of age, piglets in the control group were fed basal creep diet, whereas the treatment group received basal diet supplemented with 120 mg cysteamine per kg of diet until weaning on 35 d of age. Body weight gain, creep feed consumption, and diarrhea rates were recorded, and gastric mucosal tissues were collected for quantifying mRNA expression. To evaluate the direct effect of cysteamine on gastric ghrelin expression, primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells isolated from 35-d-old piglets were exposed to cysteamine for 20 h at 0, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Dietary cysteamine increased (P < 0.05) average daily creep feed consumption and BW gain in preweaning pigs, which was accompanied by reduction in diarrhea rates. At 35 d of age, piglets treated with cysteamine showed increased (P < 0.05) ghrelin and gastrin and decreased (P < 0.05) somatostatin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa. Moreover, dietary cysteamine treatment increased serum concentration of gastrin (P < 0.05). In vitro, cysteamine significantly increased ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric mucosal cells at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. In conclusion, dietary cysteamine is effective in improving the growth performance and health condition of preweaning piglets, which is associated with its stimulatory effects on gastric ghrelin mRNA expression both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Neuroimaging of gastric distension and gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Several neuroimaging studies are presented, which derive from prior work on gastric distension. Using a nonsurgical approach, we inserted gastric balloons into rats, which led to a marked decrease in food intake that normalized at 8 weeks. Body weight, however, remained below controls, which encouraged pursuit of studies in humans. A gastric balloon was inserted in obese and lean subjects, and filled through a tube that led behind the subject with water to 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mL, on different days prior to ingestion of a liquid meal. As gastric volume increased, intake decreased by about 40%. Stomach capacity was then investigated using a gastric balloon, by assessing subjective (maximal tolerance) and objective measures (gastric compliance). Obese individuals had a much larger stomach capacity than lean by both measures. Next, in a 2-month study, an indwelling gastric balloon was inflated to 400 mL for 1 month and deflated for 1 month in counterbalanced order. Body weight was reduced during the month when the balloon was inflated within the 2nd and 3rd week. The subsequent study involved fMRI in response to gastric distension of 0, 250, and 500 mL while the subject was in a scanner. Ratings of fullness, but not discomfort, increased at 500 mL. Amygdala and insula activation were associated with gastric distension. The amygdala, as part of the limbic system, is involved in emotion and reward, and the insula in interoception. The right amygdala activation was inversely related to BMI, consistent with greater gastric capacity at a higher BMI. The next fMRI study in obese and lean subjects used visual and auditory stimuli of high energy dense (ED) and low ED foods. Increased activation was observed in the midbrain, putamen, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and superior temporal gyrus in the obese vs. lean group in response to high vs. low ED food cues. Several of these areas lie within the mesolimbic reward pathway, and greater activation to high ED foods in

  8. Neuroimaging of Gastric Distension and Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies are presented, which derived from prior work on gastric distension. Using a nonsurgical approach, we inserted gastric balloons into rats, which led to a marked decrease in food intake that normalized at 8 weeks. Body weight, however, remained below controls, which encouraged pursuit of studies in humans. A gastric balloon was inserted in obese and lean subjects, and filled through a tube that led behind the subject with water to 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mL, on different days prior to ingestion of a liquid meal. As gastric volume increased, intake decreased by about 40%. Stomach capacity was then investigated using a gastric balloon, by assessing subjective (maximal tolerance) and objective measures (gastric compliance). Obese individuals had a much larger stomach capacity than lean by both measures. Next, in a 2-month study, an indwelling gastric balloon was inflated to 400 mL for 1 month and deflated for 1 month in counterbalanced order. Body weight was reduced during the month when the balloon was inflated within the 2nd and 3rd week. The subsequent study involved fMRI in response to gastric distension of 0, 250, and 500 mL while the subject was in a scanner. Ratings of fullness, but not discomfort, increased at 500 mL. Amygdala and insula activation were associated with gastric distension. The amygdala, as part of the limbic system, is involved in emotion and reward, and the insula in interoception. The right amygdala activation was inversely related to BMI, consistent with greater gastric capacity ata higher BMI. The next fMRI study in obese and lean subjects used visual and auditory stimuli of high energy dense (ED) and low ED foods. Increased activation was observed in the midbrain, putamen, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and superior temporal gyrus in the obese vs. lean group in response to high vs. low ED food cues. Several of these areas lie within the mesolimbic reward pathway, and greater activation to high ED foods in

  9. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Disorders > About > Diagnosis Page Content ​ ​How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Methods for diagnosing ... Tumors To diagnose an adrenal gland tumor, a health care provider may order one or more tests. 3 ...

  10. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  11. Duodenal Neoplasms of Gastric Phenotype: An Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study With a Practical Approach to the Classification.

    PubMed

    Hida, Risa; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Hirahashi, Minako; Kumagai, Reiko; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Gi, Toshihiro; Esaki, Motohiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Duodenal neoplasm of gastric phenotype (DNGP) is very rare, and details of its histopathologic, genetic, and biological features are still unclear. Frequent gene mutations in GNAS, KRAS, and APC have been reported in pyloric gland adenomas and fundic gland-type neoplasms (initially reported as low-grade adenocarcinomas) of the stomach. Here we retrospectively analyzed 16 cases of extra-ampullary DNGP (benign to malignant), and we examined the mucin immunoprofile and oncogene mutations (GNAS, KRAS, APC, BRAF, and CTNNB1). The 16 DNGPs were histologically classified into adenomas (5 pyloric gland adenomas and 2 foveolar-type adenomas), neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential (NUMPs, n=6), and invasive adenocarcinomas (n=3). NUMPs consisted of slightly atypical epithelial cells with pale, eosinophilic, or basophilic cytoplasm growing in an anastomosing or branching glandular pattern, often with expansive submucosal extension. In contrast to invasive adenocarcinomas, NUMPs lacked significant nuclear irregularity, desmoplastic stromal reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and metastasis; their features were reminiscent of fundic gland-type neoplasms of the stomach. Immunophenotypically, most of NUMPs were predominantly positive for MUC6 with variable expressions of pepsinogen-I, HKATPase, human gastric mucin, and MUC5AC. Molecular analyses revealed the gene mutations of GNAS in 6 (38%) of 16 DNGPs (4 [57%] adenomas, 1 [16%] NUMP, and 1 [33%] invasive adenocarcinoma) and APC in 4 of 15 (27%) DNGPs: no adenomas, 2 (33%) NUMPs, and 2 (67%) invasive adenocarcinomas. BRAF mutation was present in only 1 (16%) NUMP, and KRAS and CTNNB1 mutations were absent. In conclusion, gastric-phenotype adenomas and NUMPs of the duodenum are similar to their counterparts of the stomach, in terms of histologic, genetic, and clinicopathologic features. We propose the term "NUMP" as an intermediate category between adenoma and definitely invasive adenocarcinoma. Our findings may provide novel

  12. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life.

  13. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  14. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  15. Behavior problems of pet pigs.

    PubMed

    Tynes, V V

    1997-05-01

    Pigs of all kinds can be enjoyable, charming pets, but the reduced size of the Vietnamese potbellied pig makes it an excellent choice for a porcine pet. Their curious, almost childlike behavior, as well as their adaptability and ease of learning, can make them a real pleasure and a great challenge to keep. The author fears that as many as 25% to 50% of potbellied pigs are no longer in their original homes by 1 year of age primarily because of a high incidence of behavior problems. These are, in reality, "people problems," not "pet problems." The environmental and training requirements of the potbellied pig are more complex and require more understanding than those of the average dog or cat. The author's belief is that the potbellied pig's strong drive to be dominant is a unique behavioral characteristic that more people should be made aware of before acquiring a pet pig. With knowledge of normal pig behavior, problems can be avoided through proper socialization and training. If pet owners consult a veterinarian knowledgeable about pig behavior at the first sign of a problem, treatment usually can be successful.

  16. Cathepsin E is a marker of gastric differentiation and signet-ring cell carcinoma of stomach: a novel suggestion on gastric tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Konno-Shimizu, Maki; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Inada, Ken-ichi; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Shiogama, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yu; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Yamamichi-Nishina, Mitsue; Nakayama, Chiemi; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Ichinose, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) presents various histological features, though the mechanism underlying its diversity is seldom elucidated. It is mainly classified into well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1), moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por), signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig), mucinous adenocarcinoma (muc), and papillary adenocarcinoma (pap). By screening, we found cathepsin E (CTSE) expresses universally in sig-type, occasionally in por-type, and rarely in tub1/tub2-type GC cell lines. In surgically-resected specimens, CTSE was immunostained in 50/51 sig-type (98.0%), 3/10 tub1-type (30.0%), 7/18 tub2-type (38.9%), 15/26 por-type (57.7%), 4/10 pap-type (40.0%), and 0/3 muc-type (0.0%) GC. In endoscopically-resected specimens, 6/7 sig-type (85.7%), 7/52 tub1-type (13.7%), 5/12 tub2-type (41.7%), 2/7 pap-type (28.6%) GC and 0/6 adenoma (0.0%) expressed CTSE. For non-malignant tissues, CTSE is universally expressed in normal fundic, pyloric, and cardiac glands of stomach, but hardly in other digestive organs. In the precancerous intestinal metaplasia of stomach, CTSE is mostly observed in mixed gastric-and-intestinal type and deficient in solely-intestinal type. CTSE expression is positively correlated with gastric marker MUC5AC (p<0.0001) and negatively correlated with intestinal marker MUC2 (p = 0.0019). For sig-type GC, in both tumors and background mucosa, expression of MUC5AC and CTSE is high whereas that of MUC2 is low, indicating that sig-type GC reflects the features of background mucosa. For gastric adenoma and tub1/tub2-type GC, more undifferentiated tumors tend to show higher expression of CTSE with MUC5AC and lower expression of MUC2 in tumors, but they tend to present lower expression of CTSE, MUC5AC and MUC2 in background mucosa. These suggest that more malignant gastric adenocarcinoma with stronger gastric and weaker intestinal properties tend to arise from background mucosa with

  17. Cathepsin E Is a Marker of Gastric Differentiation and Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Novel Suggestion on Gastric Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Konno-Shimizu, Maki; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Inada, Ken-ichi; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Shiogama, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yu; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Yamamichi-Nishina, Mitsue; Nakayama, Chiemi; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Ichinose, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) presents various histological features, though the mechanism underlying its diversity is seldom elucidated. It is mainly classified into well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1), moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por), signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig), mucinous adenocarcinoma (muc), and papillary adenocarcinoma (pap). By screening, we found cathepsin E (CTSE) expresses universally in sig-type, occasionally in por-type, and rarely in tub1/tub2-type GC cell lines. In surgically-resected specimens, CTSE was immunostained in 50/51 sig-type (98.0%), 3/10 tub1-type (30.0%), 7/18 tub2-type (38.9%), 15/26 por-type (57.7%), 4/10 pap-type (40.0%), and 0/3 muc-type (0.0%) GC. In endoscopically-resected specimens, 6/7 sig-type (85.7%), 7/52 tub1-type (13.7%), 5/12 tub2-type (41.7%), 2/7 pap-type (28.6%) GC and 0/6 adenoma (0.0%) expressed CTSE. For non-malignant tissues, CTSE is universally expressed in normal fundic, pyloric, and cardiac glands of stomach, but hardly in other digestive organs. In the precancerous intestinal metaplasia of stomach, CTSE is mostly observed in mixed gastric-and-intestinal type and deficient in solely-intestinal type. CTSE expression is positively correlated with gastric marker MUC5AC (p<0.0001) and negatively correlated with intestinal marker MUC2 (p = 0.0019). For sig-type GC, in both tumors and background mucosa, expression of MUC5AC and CTSE is high whereas that of MUC2 is low, indicating that sig-type GC reflects the features of background mucosa. For gastric adenoma and tub1/tub2-type GC, more undifferentiated tumors tend to show higher expression of CTSE with MUC5AC and lower expression of MUC2 in tumors, but they tend to present lower expression of CTSE, MUC5AC and MUC2 in background mucosa. These suggest that more malignant gastric adenocarcinoma with stronger gastric and weaker intestinal properties tend to arise from background mucosa with

  18. Flagelliform or coronata glands of Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Candelas, G C

    1995-07-01

    The flagelliform or coronata glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other silk-producing glands from the organism. The glands, which produce silk for the double filament of the core thread in the sticky spiral, exhibit three distinct morphological areas: tail, sac, and duct. Electrophoretic separation of the solubilized contents of the glands yields an uppermost diffuse band of high molecular size, preceded by a stepladder of well-defined peptides, which have been shown to be products of discontinuous translation in three other sets of glands. The luminal contents do not migrate as a discrete and well-defined band as those of the other glands, but rather as a diffuse area, typical of glycosylated proteins. Fibroin synthesis is stimulated by the mechanical depletion of the organism's stored silks, as in other Nephila glands, judged by the increased intensity of the bands and also by the structural alterations seen in cross sections of the glands' tails.

  19. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  20. Pineal Gland Agenesis: Review and Case Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Marcus A; Voin, Vlad; Shoja, Mohammadali; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of the pineal gland has rarely been reported in the medical literature. Herein, we report a cadaveric specimen found to have agenesis of the pineal gland. The remaining gross examination of the brain was normal. A review of the literature was performed on this unusual finding. PMID:28690948