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Sample records for pig gastric glands

  1. Characterization of specific /sup 125/I-bolton hunter (BH)-CCK-8 binding in guinea pig stomach muscle membranes - similar to pancreas but different from gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.S.L.; Lotti, V.J.; Chen, T.B.; Kunkel, K.K.

    1986-03-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone which regulates gastric motility. The authors have characterized specific /sup 125/I-BH-CCK-8 binding in guinea pig stomach muscle membranes. The relative potencies of various CCK related peptides to inhibit specific /sup 125/I-CCK-8 binding in stomach muscle membranes resembled their rank order determined for pancreatic CCK receptor binding (CCK-8>> CCK-8-desulfate = gastrin CCK-4). The specific peripheral CCK antagonist, asperlicin and other non- selective CCK antagonists including proglumide, CBZ-CCK (26-32) amide, dibutyrylcyclic GMP and benzotript effectively inhibited /sup 125/I-CCK-8 binding in gastric muscle membranes with IC/sub 50/'s comparable to those for pancreatic CCK receptors. In contrast, specific /sup 125/I-CCK-8 binding in guinea pig gastric glands was inhibited equally well by gastrin and CCK-8. Moreover, asperlicin did not inhibit /sup 125/I-CCK-8 binding in guinea gastric glands. These results indicate CCK receptors in the stomach muscle membranes are similar to pancreatic CCK receptors but different from brain CCK or gastrin receptors.

  2. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P < 0.05) submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild. PMID:23093914

  3. Gastric zygomycosis (mucormycosis) in 4 suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanford, S E

    1985-02-15

    Acute gastric zygomycosis (mucormycosis) was diagnosed in four 6- to 7-day-old pigs with large venous infarcts in the gastric fundus. Two pigs were from one farm where several dams had developed fever at parturition and most of their litters had died. The other 2 pigs, from separate farms, had diarrhea that was unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Histologically there was severe hemorrhagic, ulcerative gastritis associated with numerous transmurally invading, mucoraceous fungi. The discussion includes speculation on the pathogenesis of this lesion in neonatal pigs.

  4. Luminal perfusion of isolated gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, S J; Geibel, J; Boron, W F; Modlin, I M

    1994-04-01

    We have extended to rabbit gastric glands the technique for perfusing single isolated renal tubules. We isolated glands by hand dissection and used concentric glass pipettes to hold them and perfuse their lumina. Parietal cells (PCs), which tended to be located toward the gland opening, were identified by their pyramidal shape, large size, and autofluorescence. Chief cells (CCs) were identified by their round shape and smaller size. In some experiments, we perfused the lumen with hydroxypyrenetrisulfonate, a pH-sensitive fluorophore, at pH 7.4 and used digital image processing to monitor luminal pH (pH1). Solutions were buffered with N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid to pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. With fast perfusion, we found no evidence of decreased pH1, even with stimulation by 10 microM carbachol. With slow perfusion, pH1 often fell below the dye's sensitive range (pH < 5), especially at low perfusate buffering power. In other experiments, we loaded cells with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and monitored intracellular pH (pHi) in multiple individual PCs and CCs in a single gland. Mean pHi was 7.21 +/- 0.02 (n = 136 cells) for PCs and 7.27 +/- 0.03 (n = 103) for CCs. To examine the response to decreased pH1 and basolateral pH (pHb), we lowered pHb to 6.4 or lowered pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4. Lowering pHb to 6.4 for approximately 1 min caused pHi to fall reversibly by 0.39 +/- 0.05 (n = 53) in PCs and 0.58 +/- 0.03 (n = 50) in CCs. Lowering pH1 to 3.4 or 1.4 caused no significant pHi changes in PCs (n = 38 and 82) or in CCs (n = 44 and 77). Carbachol did not affect the response to changes in pH1 or pHb. We conclude that the apical surfaces of PCs and CCs are unusually resistant to extreme pH gradients.

  5. Supplemental sodium butyrate stimulates different gastric cells in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Maurizio; Le Gall, Maud; De Filippi, Sara; Minieri, Laura; Trevisi, Paolo; Wolinski, Jaroslaw; Lalatta-Costerbosa, Giovanna; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Guilloteau, Paul; Bosi, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) is used as an acidifier in animal feed. We hypothesized that supplemental SB impacts gastric morphology and function, depending on the period of SB provision. The effect of SB on the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa was studied in 4 groups of 8 pigs, each supplemented with SB either during the suckling period (d 4-28 of age), after weaning (d 29 to 39-40 of age) or both, or never. We assessed the number of parietal cells immunostained for H+/K+-ATPase, gastric endocrine cells immunostained for chromogranin A and somatostatin (SST) in the oxyntic mucosa, and gastrin-secreting cells in the pyloric mucosa. Gastric muscularis and mucosa thickness were measured. Expressions of the H+/K+-ATPase and SST type 2 receptor (SSTR2) genes in the oxyntic mucosa and of the gastrin gene in the pyloric mucosa were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. SB increased the number of parietal cells per gland regardless of the period of administration (P < 0.05). SB addition after, but not before, weaning increased the number of enteroendocrine and SST-positive cells (P < 0.01) and tended to increase gastrin mRNA (P = 0.09). There was an interaction between the 2 periods of SB treatment for the expression of H/K-ATPase and SSTR2 genes (P < 0.05). Butyrate intake after weaning increased gastric mucosa thickness (P < 0.05) but not muscularis. SB used orally at a low dose affected gastric morphology and function, presumably in relationship with its action on mucosal maturation and differentiation.

  6. Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Liebelt, A.G.; Congdon, C.C.; Stewart, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors.

  7. Lectin histochemistry of the gastric mucosa in normal and Helicobacter pylori infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Lueth, M; Sturegård, E; Sjunnesson, H; Wadström, T; Schumacher, U

    2005-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori attaches via lectins, carbohydrate binding proteins, to the carbohydrate residues of gastric mucins. Guinea-pigs are a suitable model for a H. pylori infection and thus the carbohydrate composition of normal and H. pylori infected gastric mucosa was investigated by lectin histochemistry. The stomach of all infected animals showed signs of an active chronic gastritis in their mucosa, whereas no inflammation was present in the control animals. The corpus-fundus regions of the controls showed heterogeneous WGA, SNA-I, UEA-I and HPA binding in almost all parts of the gastric glands. While these lectins labelled the superficial mucous cells and chief cells heterogeneously, the staining of the parietal cells was limited to WGA and PHA-L. Mucous neck cells reacted heterogeneously with UEA-I, HPA, WGA and PHA-L. In the antrum, the superficial mucous cells and glands were stained by WGA, UEA-I, HPA, SNA-I or PHA-L. WGA, UEA-I, SNA-I and HPA labelled the surface lining cells strongly. The mucoid glands reacted heterogeneously with WGA, UEA-I, HPA, SNA-I and PHA-L. In both regions, the H. pylori infected animals showed similar lectin binding pattern as the controls. No significant differences in the lectin binding pattern and thus in the carbohydrate composition between normal and H. pylori infected mucosa could be detected, hence H. pylori does not induce any changes in the glycosylation of the mucosa of the guinea-pig. This unaltered glycosylation is of particular relevance for the sialic acid binding lectin SNA-I as H. pylori uses sialic acid binding adhesin for its attachment to the mucosa. As sialic acid binding sites are already expressed in the normal mucosa H. pylori can immediately attach via its sialic acid binding adhesin to the mucosa making the guinea-pig particularly useful as a model organism.

  8. Gastritis and gastric blood flow in hyperdynamic septic pigs.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C E; Ravikant, T; Walt, A J

    1976-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the gastric hemodynamics in a septic model that causes both a hyperdynamic state and acute erosive gastritis. Sepsis was established in twelve pigs by the intramuscular shank injection of Pastuerella multocida (42 X 10(8) colonies) in triptose phosphate broth; four pigs received sterile broth injections (shams) and eight received sterile saline injections (controls). After 18 hours, cardiac output was measured by both the cardiogreen dilution technic and the radioactive microsphere dilution technic; cardiac output was then compared to total and regional gastric blood flow measured by the raioactive microsphere entrapment technic. Acute erosive gastritis developed in septic pigs in the fundus and body of the stomach; the antrum was spared. Cardiac output was significantly increased in septic pigs compared with sham and control pigs. Total gastric blood flow and regional blood flow to the fundus, body, and antrum were also increased in direct proportion to the increase in cardiac output. These data suggest that acute erosive gastritis is primarily due to an end-organ cellular insult from sepsis and is not primarily due to a decrease or redistribution in gastric blood flow.

  9. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  10. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Takeshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Ando, Takashi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rare case of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) that was safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected a submucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on the lesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumor could not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Local resection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis. Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal well differentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negative lateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanese treatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a less invasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT, even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the HSG. PMID:26306144

  11. [STUDYING OF MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS AFTER GASTRIC RESECTION IN EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Usenko, A Yu; Kosenko, K; Savitskaya, I M

    2016-03-01

    The impact of gastric resection on the submandibular salivary gland (SSG) state, using histological and histochemical methods of investigation in experiment, was studied up. A relative mass of a SSG after gastric resection conduction have had reduced, and the accompanying changes in stroma were revealed with the gland's secretion enhancement. Essential dystrophic changes in the SSG parenchyma and stroma after gastric resection conduction may cause a pronounced disorders of their function. PMID:27514096

  12. Age-Related Expression of the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in the Gastric Mucosa of Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Priori, Davide; Messori, Stefano; Colombo, Michela; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Bosi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To date few studies have addressed the development and function of the porcine gastric mucosal immune system and this is a major limitation to understanding the immunopathogenesis of infections occurring in young pigs. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) mediates the transport of secretory immunoglobulins until luminal surface of the gut mucosa and the aim of this study was to investigate the time course of pIgR expression and to determine its localization in three functionally different porcine gastric sites during the suckling period and after weaning. An additional goal was to investigate the time course expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in relation to pIgR expression. Gastric samples were collected from the cardiac-to-oxyntic transition (Cd), the oxyntic (Ox), and the pyloric (Py) regions in 84 pigs, slaughtered before weaning (14, 21 and 28 days of age; 23, 23 and 19 pigs, respectively) and 14 days post-weaning (42 days of age, 23 pigs). PIgR was expressed in the mucosa of all the three gastric sites, and its transcript levels were modulated during suckling and after weaning, with regional differences. PIgR expression increased linearly during suckling (P=0.019) and also increased post-weaning (P=0.001) in Cd, it increased post-weaning in Py (P=0.049) and increased linearly during suckling in Ox (P=0.036). TLRs expression was also modulated during development: in Cd, TLR2 increased linearly during suckling (P=0.003); in Ox, TLR2 decreased after weaning (P=0.038) while TLR4 increased linearly during suckling(P=0.008). The expression of TLR2, 3 and 4 in Ox was positively correlated with pIgR expression (P<0.001). Importantly, both pIgR protein and mRNA were localized, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively, in the gastric glands of the lamina propria. These results indicate that pIgR is actively synthesized in the gastric mucosa and suggest that pIgR could play a crucial role in gastric mucosal immune defense of growing

  13. Study on the role of gastric Helicobacter infection in gross pathological and histological lesions of the stomach in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, L; Palkovics, G; Solymosi, N; Tekes, L; Méhesfalvi, J

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter infection in finishing pigs and the influence of this infection on gastric lesions was studied. Stomachs of 89 finishing pigs from 27 randomly selected herds were sampled at the slaughterhouse. Forty cases (Group A) were selected based upon the presence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea, and further 49 cases were obtained at random (Group B). Three samples of gastric tissue (junction of pars oesophagea and pars cardiaca, fundic area, and pyloric area) were collected from each stomach for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Helicobacter antigen was detected in 76 cases (85.4%). No association was found between the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach and the occurrence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea or gastritis detected on histological examination. However, a significant association was found between the occurrence of Helicobacter in the pyloric area and the presence of erosions/ulcers in the pars oesophagea (OR: 7.01, p = 0.022) in Group B. A significant association was also evident between the presence of Helicobacter and glandular lesions (dilatation of the glands + glandular abscess + degeneration of glandular epithelial cells). In conclusion, Helicobacter infection seems to be a contributing factor to pathological changes in the stomach of finishing pigs.

  14. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach. PMID:27283660

  15. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig.

  16. Interleukin-18 expression in pig salivary glands and salivary content changes during acute immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Y; Minagawa, Y; Nakane, T; Shibahara, T; Yoshikawa, T; Omata, Y

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been considered a promising marker of stress responses. In this study, to evaluate IL-18 as a noninvasive stress marker in pigs, we investigated the expression of IL-18 in porcine salivary glands and its presence in saliva, and its dynamics during acute immobilization stress in pigs. IL-18 mRNA was detected robustly in the pig salivary glands by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of IL-18 protein expression revealed that the expression patterns differed among the three types of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland). IL-18 was also detected in pig saliva by ELISA, and a diurnal rhythm with a peak in the afternoon was observed. The IL-18 concentration in saliva was significantly increased during a 60-min acute immobilization stress in thirteen 5-month-old pigs. These results are the first evidence of a stress-related change of IL-18 in pig saliva. Salivary IL-18 may thus become a useful noninvasive marker for the evaluation of acute stress in pigs.

  17. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  18. Distribution of calcified concretions and calcium ions in the pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, B; Przybylska, B; Wyrzykowski, Z

    1994-01-01

    Serial sections of pig pineal glands were stained with von Kossa's and Alizarin red S methods to determine the occurrence and localization of calcified concretions. In the pineal glands of pigs aged eight months, concretions were not found. A small number of concretions was observed in all investigated pineal glands of three years old pigs. The concretions were distributed in the connective tissue of the pineal capsule and septa. The potassium pyroantimonate method was used for ultracytochemical localization of calcium ions. In pinealocytes, precipitates were observed in nuclei, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic matrix. Single precipitates were found on the outer membranes of dense bodies, multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. There were no differences in the amount or the localization of precipitates between dark and light pinealocytes and between pinealocytes of animals aged both eight months and three years. The results suggest that: (1) the calcified concretions in the pig pineal gland are formed by the leptomeningeal tissue without participation of the pinealocytes, (2) cytoplasmic dense bodies, specific components of the pig pineal gland, are only slightly involved in calcium turnover in the pinealocytes. PMID:7758619

  19. A model of the gastric gland ejection cycle: low ejection fractions require reduction of the glandular dead space.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, S; Kurbel, B; Dmitrović, B; Vcev, A

    2001-06-01

    This paper was inspired by the reported results of authors from Uppsala and Lund that gastric glands in rats rhythmically contract 3-7 cycles per minute and develop luminal pressures more than 10 mmHg. To ensure that pepsinogen is not retained in the acid-rich section of the gland, ejection fractions would need to be more than 50% of the gland volume. We have tried to calculate the ejection fraction of such contractions. Dimensions of human gastric glands were measured on the fresh frozen samples of macroscopically and histologically normal gastric mucosa. In total, 18 specimens (from nine persons) were measured under the microscope. The density of glands was 135 +/- 11 (mean +/- S.D.) glands per mm( 2) of gastric mucosa. A typical gastric gland is a tubular structure 1.2 +/- 0.22 mm long and 0.03-0.05 mm wide. We have used 1 mm for length and 0.03 mm for the gland diameter to calculate that each gland approximates a volume of 707 pl, suggesting that the total glandular volume for 15 million glands reaches 10.6 ml. Further calculations based on one to five contractions per minute on an average and on the total volume of gastric glands of 10 ml showed that only ejection fractions less than 10% deliver daily volumes less than 3 l. The presented model of the gastric gland activity is based on the idea that the low ejection fractions require a reduction of the glandular dead space. The reduced luminal pressure during the gland relaxation might cause backflux of hydrophobic viscoelastic mucus through the gland aperture. Repeated glandular contractions and relaxations would move the mucus all the way to the gland bottom, filling the gland cavity below the neck with an axial semisolid mucous cylinder. This filling would reduce the gland dead space. During contractions, the gland would eject mainly the peripheral, the more liquid part of its content. The decreasing luminal pressure in the relaxing gland would pull the outlet mucus inside, protecting gland apertures from

  20. [Prevalence of gastric lesions in the pars proventricularis in finishing pigs at slaughter in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A; Brülisauer, F; Regula, G

    2005-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at two large abattoirs in the winter 2003/04 to determine the prevalence of gastric lesions in Swiss finishing pigs. The stomachs of 1897 pigs from 107 slaughter groups were examined for macroscopic epithelial lesion of the pars proventricularis. Severe hyperceratosis, erosion, ulceration and constriction at the transition between oesophagus and stomach were described as gastric lesions. Lesions were observed in 36% of all animals, with slaughter group prevalence ranging from 0% to 94%. Ulceration or constriction was present in four percent of the examined pigs. Associations between gastric lesions, farm management data, and data obtained at ante and post mortem examinations conducted at the slaughterhouse were analysed. A significantly higher prevalence of gastric lesions was found in pigs originating from conventional housing systems compared to pigs raised on farms with 'animal-friendly' housing systems providing straw bedding and outdoor exercise to pigs. In addition, significantly higher prevalence was observed in pigs originating from herds with clinical signs of tail biting and peritarsitis. PMID:16041976

  1. Peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy accelerates gastric emptying in healthy pigs: proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Geyl, Sophie; Legros, Romain; Charissou, Aurélie; Mesturoux, Laura; Couquet, Claude-Yves; Carrier, Paul; Brayette, Anaïs; El-Ouafi, Zora; Loustaud-Ratti, Veronique; Sautereau, Denis; Monteil, Jacques; Jacques, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, can be diagnosed with gastric emptying scintigraphy. Manometric studies of patients with gastroparesis show increased pyloric tone (pylorospasm). Among the recent endoscopic therapies for pylorospasm is peroral endoscopic pylorotomy (POP). In this study, we explored the effect of POP on gastric emptying in healthy pigs. Material and methods: Four mini-pigs underwent POP following general anaesthesia. The mucosal entrance was situated 5 cm above the pylorus. POP was performed through a submucosal tunnel dissection. The duration of gastric emptying was assessed by scintigraphy before and after the procedure. The pigs were then euthanised for necropsy and pathologic assessment of the pylorus. Results: The mean duration of the procedure was 55 (± 4 SD) min. All surgeries were performed in their entirety with 100 % feasibility. There were no cases of bleeding. The one case of perforation had no clinical significance. The duration of gastric emptying was 2.22-fold shorter after POP compared with before POP (T½ post-POP = 84.5 [± 35.7 SD] min vs. T½ pre-POP = 188.4 [± 87.3 SD] min; P = 0.029). In agreement with the endoscopic observations, sectioning of the pyloric muscle in each pig was histologically complete. Conclusion: The efficacy of the procedure provides indirect proof of the involvement of the pyloric ring in delayed gastric emptying and suggests new therapies for patients with gastroparesis. Our protocol combining gastric emptying scintigraphy and POP validated the use of anaesthetised mini-pigs as a learning and training model for POP or other endoscopic/surgical procedures related to gastric emptying. PMID:27556100

  2. Effect of Irradiation on Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Parotid Glands in the Miniature Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Junji; Yan Xing; Gao Runtao; Mao Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng Changyu; Zhang Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials: A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg{sup 2+}-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results: Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions: Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.

  3. Radiologic observations of gastric and small intestinal motility in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Wood, A K

    1982-01-01

    The passage of a single oral dose of barium sulfate through the stomach and small intestine of 18 pigs (1 to 21 days of age) was studied. In a series of lateral radiographs, the stomach had a smooth oval appearance, filling the cranial third of the abdomen. Barium mixed rapidly with the milk clot in the stomach immediately after swallowing and became distributed throughout the stomach (except for the diverticulum, which contained gas). Barium passed into the duodenum by postdosing minute (PDM) 3 in 1 pig, and by PDM 10 in 11 pigs. In 32 experiments in 17 pigs, gastric emptying of barium was complete by PDM 100 in 91% of the experiments, whether or not the pigs had suckled the sow. Suckling also did not influence the time taken for barium to reach the large intestine (by PDM 360 in 12 pigs). When a hyperosmolar contrast medium (diatrizoate meglumine) was given instead of barium sulfate to 10 pigs, gastric emptying was delayed (it was not complete by up to PDM 218), but the small intestine filled rapidly (the contrast medium reached the cecum by PDM 218).

  4. Electron microscopy of the oxyntic cell in the gastric glands of the bullfrog, Rana catesbiana. II. The acid-secreting gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    SEDAR, A W

    1961-05-01

    The oxyntic cell in the gastric glands of the bullfrog was examined in lead hydroxide-stained sections of gastric mucosae fixed in buffered osmium tetroxide and embedded in n-butyl methacrylate. During gastric acid secretion (pH 1-2) induced by histamine administration in cannulated frogs, the pattern of fine structure in the oxyntic cell differs strikingly from that in the oxyntic cell of the non-acid-secreting stomach. The relative number of smooth surfaced profiles decreases and a greater concentration of these elements is associated with the apical region of the oxyntic cell facing the lumen of the gastric gland. Similar concentrations of these elements are found in those regions of cytoplasm surrounding intercellular canaliculi which lie between adjacent cells and communicate with the lumen of a gastric gland. In these regions, the smooth surfaced profiles (35 to 65 mmicro in width) characteristically form a tubular network. The membrane-bounded contents appear to be continuous with the extracellular medium, both on the capillary side and at the apical surface of the cell adjoining the lumen of the gastric gland. Mitochondria are distributed randomly in the cytoplasmic matrix of the oxyntic cell. PMID:13749582

  5. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  6. Endogenous histamine and promethazine-induced gastric ulcers in the guinea pig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djahanguiri, B.; Hemmati, M.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments performed with an inhibitor of diaminoxydase, aminoguanidine and an inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, NSD 1055, showed that the frequency of gastric ulcers induced by promethazine was increased with the first inhibitor and decreased with the second. It is suggested that ulcers induced by promethazine in guinea pigs might be due to histamino-liberator effect of the antihistaminio compound.

  7. Continuous straw provision reduces prevalence of oesophago-gastric ulcer in pigs slaughtered at 170 kg (heavy pigs).

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Rampin, Fabio; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2013-12-01

    Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare.

  8. Properties of kallikrein-containing granules isolated from the submaxillary gland of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Bhoola, K D; Heap, P F

    1970-09-01

    1. Granular fractions of high purity consisting of subcellular kallikrein- and amylase-storing organelles have been isolated from homogenates of guinea-pig submaxillary gland.2. The isolated kallikrein- and amylase-containing granules closely resembled secretory granules observed in situ in serous acinar cells in intra-granular appearance, size and histochemical reaction.3. The subcellular, histochemical and ultrastructural studies indicate that the serine protease, kallikrein, is like amylase an exocrine enzyme with a functional role in saliva. PMID:5501268

  9. Effects of epidermal growth factor on acid secretion from guinea pig gastric mucosa: in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Finke, U; Rutten, M; Murphy, R A; Silen, W

    1985-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been tested on guinea pig gastric mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers to investigate the suitability of using in vitro methods for examining EGF's effects on acid secretion. Epidermal growth factor reduced the rate of histamine-induced acid secretion to near basal levels when applied to the serosal gastric surface at nanomolar concentrations. Inhibitory effects were evident 10-15 min after EGF treatment and were maximal by 40 min. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced secretion was also reduced by EGF, although the effect occurred more slowly than in histamine-treated tissues. Epidermal growth factor increased transmucosal resistance in histamine-treated, but not cyclic adenosine monophosphate-treated mucosa; potential difference was unaffected. Nerve growth factor had no effect when tested in the in vitro system. The EGF binding protein was found to enhance slightly the inhibitory activity of EGF on acid secretion. When applied to the luminal (mucosal) gastric surface, EGF inhibited secretion marginally but only at micromolar concentrations. These results indicate that EGF acts directly upon cells within the gastric mucosa, and is most effective when applied to the serosal gastric surface. They further suggest that in vitro preparations of intact gastric mucosa can be used for analyzing the inhibitory effects of EGF on gastric acid secretion. PMID:2984079

  10. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E; Jespersen, Anna; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Margit B; Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Lene J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined effects of the amount of straw offered on occurrence and severity of gastric lesions in pigs kept in pens (18 pigs, 0.7 m(2)/pig) with partly slatted flooring and 10, 500 or 1000 g straw/pig/day from 30 kg live weight. The pigs had ad libitum access to dry feed. Forty-five pigs were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled as 'permanent access'. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P<0.05), suggesting that permanent access to straw may improve animal health, and be considered as one possible strategy to limit gastric ulceration in pigs. PMID:26850561

  11. Occurrence of gustducin-immunoreactive cells in von Ebner's glands of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ibira, Yuki; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Yoshie, Sumio

    2013-11-01

    An immunohistochemical examination of guinea-pig taste buds in vallate papillae revealed gustducin-immunoreactive cells in the area of von Ebner's glands, minor salivary glands. Since there have been no reports describing those cells in these locations for other species, we investigated these glands in order both to localize the cells and compare their immunoreactive characteristics with corresponding cells in the vallate taste buds. The gustducin-immunoreactive cells coincided with cells containing no secretory granules in the end portion of the glands, which was supported by the electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. Double immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed these cells to be entirely immunopositive to type III inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R-3), phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), and villin and also partly immunopositive to neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and calbindin D-28K. The gustducin-immunoreactive cells in the vallate taste buds exhibited completely the same immunoreactivities for these five molecules. Accordingly, the present results give credence to a consideration that the gustducin-immunnoreactive cells in both locations are identical in function(s) e.g., chemo-reception. PMID:23604549

  12. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  13. Prevalence, distribution and pattern of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotosho, Oladipo O; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Lasisi, Olalekan T; Jarikre, Theophilus A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric lesions, especially ulceration, cause significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The study was designed to assess its prevalence, distribution and pattern in pigs in south-western Nigeria. Slaughter house surveys were conducted on three government-established abattoirs in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states. Stomachs from 480 pigs were assessed for gross lesions, which were graded using a modification of a standard technique. Tissues from different regions of the stomach were routinely stained to assess histopathologic changes. Data were presented as frequency counts and analysed using analysis of variance and chi-square technique. Significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Gastric lesions were encountered across the four regions of the stomach with a point prevalence of 57.29%. The prevalence of lesions in the non-glandular region was 32.9%, with severe hyperkeratosis (13.13%) being most frequently observed (p < 0.05). Erosions were significantly higher in the cardia (8.54%) (p < 0.05), followed by fundus (8.33%). Gastric ulcers were significantly higher in the fundus (19.58%) (p < 0.05). Scars of healed ulcers and lacerations were also observed in the fundus (5.42%) (p < 0.05). The gastric lesion distribution across the four regions of the stomach and the occurrence of ulceration in the fundus showed an unusual pattern, which is rarely reported in other parts of the world. The reason for these findings in pigs in Nigeria is not fully understood; therefore, further studies are required to identify and manage these factors for increased productivity, improved animal welfare and enhanced food security. PMID:27247073

  14. Correlated histological and morphometric study of kidney and adrenal gland from Guinea pig exposed to hyperbaric-hyperoxic environment.

    PubMed

    Hîncu, Mihaela; Petcu, L C; Mehedinţi, Rodica; Mehedinţi, T

    2006-01-01

    Our study revealed morphological changes in the two organs of Guinea pig kidney and suprarenal gland exposed to hyperbaric-hyperoxic environment. Proceeding from these data and knowing that in hyperbaric-hyperoxic environment the production of free oxygen radicals is increased, while the afferent arterioles undergo vasoconstriction, with direct implications on the cellular metabolism, our study puts forth the survey of the influence of hyperoxic environment on kidneys and adrenal gland - complex organs which are exposed to stress.

  15. Exogenous nitric oxide inhibits apoptosis in guinea pig gastric mucous cells

    PubMed Central

    Potter, C; Hanson, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity and enhanced apoptosis are features of gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori and a causative relation has been suggested. However, although NO can promote apoptosis, its actions vary with cell type.
AIMS—To determine whether exogenous NO, derived from an NO donor, might promote or counteract apoptosis in gastric mucous epithelial cells.
METHODS—Primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells were exposed to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) for 24 hours. Apoptosis was detected from nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258, in situ nick end labelling of DNA, and the presence of DNA "ladders" in cell extracts. Cyclic GMP content and caspase activity were determined by immunoassay and fluorimetric assay respectively.
RESULTS—SNAP 1 mM did not alter the small proportion of cells on the culture plate (3-6%) which exhibited features of apoptosis. However, SNAP produced an inhibition of apoptosis, and of caspase 3 like activity, when enhanced by 25 µM N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine (C6-ceramide), or by detachment of cells from the culture plate. The guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-1, 2, 4-oxadiazole-4, 3-a-quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), prevented the stimulation of cyclic GMP by SNAP, but not the anti- apoptotic effects of the NO donor. The cyclic GMP analogues 8-bromo-cyclic GMP and 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) guanosine-3',5'- cyclic monophosphate did not significantly inhibit apoptosis in the mucosal cells.
CONCLUSIONS—Exogenous NO inhibited apoptosis in guinea pig gastric mucous cells by a mechanism which did not involve elevation of cyclic GMP. NO, if produced from NO synthase during infection with H pylori, may therefore counter the proapoptotic effects of this pathogen.


Keywords: nitric oxide; gastric mucosa; stomach; apoptosis PMID:10644307

  16. Effect of free thymol on differential gene expression in gastric mucosa of the young pig.

    PubMed

    Colombo, M; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Boatto, G; Nieddu, M; Bosi, P; Trevisi, P

    2014-05-01

    Thymol is the most common molecule in thyme and has been proposed as an oral alternative to antibiotics in the feed of pigs and broilers. The knowledge of the in vivo physiological effects of thymol on tissues is limited, particularly its impact on the gastric mucosa, where it is primarily absorbed when it is orally supplied. In this study, thymol (TH, 50 mg/ kg BW) or a placebo (CO) was introduced directly into the stomach of 8 weaned pigs that were slaughtered 12 h later and sampled for gastric oxyntic and pyloric mucosa. The analysis of whole transcript expression was performed using Affymetrix© Porcine Gene 1.1 ST array strips. Affymetrix Transcripts IDs were associated with 13 406 human gene names based on Sus scrofa Ensemble. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed, comparing TH and CO pigs. For each gene set, the normalized enrichment score (NES) was defined as significant when the false discovery rate % was <25 and the P-value of NES was <0.05. In response to TH, 72 and 19 gene sets were significantly enriched in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets involved in mitosis and its regulation ranked near the top, primarily in the oxyntic mucosa; the gene set DIGESTION ranked first and ninth in the pyloric and oxyntic mucosa, respectively. Within this group, somatostatin (SST), SST receptors, peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1) and calpain 9 (gastrointestinal tract-specific calpain) were the most strongly upregulated genes. Thymol reduced the enrichment of 120 and 59 gene sets in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets related to ion transport and channeling and aqueous pores across membranes, including short transient receptor potential (TRP) channel 4, potassium voltage-gated channel members 1 and 2, and ryanodine receptors 2 and 3, were less enriched. The downregulation of these genes sensitive to thymol in vitro could depend on the thymol dose and contact with the gastric tissues that causes an adaptive

  17. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter from guinea-pig parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Koo, Na-Youn; Li, Jingchao; Hwang, Sung Min; Choi, Se-Young; Lee, Sung Joong; Oh, Seog-Bae; Kim, Joong-Soo; Lee, Jong Heun; Park, Kyungpyo

    2006-04-21

    We recently found that the concentration of HCO3- in guinea-pig saliva is very similar to that of human saliva; however, the entity that regulates HCO3- transport has not yet been fully characterized. In order to investigate the mechanism of HCO3- transport, we identified, cloned, and characterized a sodium bicarbonate (Na(+)/HCO3- cotransporter found in guinea-pig parotid glands (gpNBC1). The gpNBC1 gene encodes a 1079-amino acid protein that has 95% and 96% homology with human and mouse parotid NBC1, respectively. Oocytes expressing gpNBC1 were exposed to HCO3- or Na(+)-free solutions, which resulted in a marked change in membrane potentials (V(m)), suggesting that gpNBC1 is electrogenic. Likewise, a gpNBC1-mediated pH recovery was observed in gpNBC1 transfected human hepatoma cells; however, in the presence of 4, 4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, a specific NBC1 inhibitor, such changes in V(m) and pH(i) were not observed. Together, the data show that the cloned guinea-pig gene is a functional, as well as sequence homologue of human NBC1. PMID:16513089

  18. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. PMID:27504455

  19. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V.; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. PMID:27504455

  20. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.

  1. Concurrent Gastric Adenocarcinoma of Fundic Gland Type and Carcinoma with Lymphoid Stroma: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hee Jeong; Kim, Kyungbin; Kim, Misung; Choi, Hyejeong; Kim, Young Min; Suh, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Both gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type (ADC-FG) and carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, LELC) are relatively rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of LELC. However, the pathogenesis of ADC-FG, as well as the role of EBV in the carcinogenesis of LELC, remain unclear and under debate. The current study presents a case of concurrent ADC-FG and LELC in the stomach in a 69-year-old man. Total gastrectomy was performed, and two separate masses were identified. Upon histological and immunohistochemical examination, the mass located in the lower body was determined to be LELC and the mass in the upper body was diagnosed as ADC-FG. The lesions were characterized by different mucin phenotypes and EBV in situ results. In the lower-body mass, EBV in situ hybridization expression was diffusely strongly positive, but MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and CD10 were all negative. On the other hand, in the upper-body mass, the results were positive for MUC6 but negative for MUC2, MUC5AC, CD10, and EBV by in situ hybridization. The remaining gastric tissue was unremarkable, and perigastric lymph node metastases were absent. Seven months after the gastrectomy, a postoperative computed tomography scan revealed no recurrence or metastasis. PMID:27462199

  2. Electron microscopy of the oxyntic cell in the gastric glands of the bullfrog (Rana catesbiana). I. The non-acid-secreting gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    SEDAR, A W

    1961-01-01

    The fine structure of the oxyntic cell from the gastric glands of the bullfrog was studied in lead hydroxide-stained sections of gastric mucosa fixed in buffered osmium tetroxide and embedded in n-butyl methacrylate. The oxyntic cell in non-acid-secreting stomachs (gastric juice pH, 7.4-7.8) is characterized by: (a) numerous closely packed smooth surfaced vesicular and tubular profiles disposed randomly in the cell; some of these elements show interconnections making it possible to identify this component with smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticula of certain other cell types, (b) a small percentage of rough surfaced profiles characteristic of endoplasmic reticula possessing RNP particles on the outer membrane surfaces, (c) a Golgi complex consisting of multiple isolated non-polarized arrays of smooth surfaced parallel elongated profiles and associated vesicular elements, (d) a sparse granular component (140 A) scattered freely in the cytoplasmic matrix, (e) numerous mitochondria with a dense matrix and containing an unusually large number of closely approximated cristae, (f) a number of zymogen granules consisting of either a dense body limited by a membrane or surrounded by a halo of less dense material which is in turn limited by a membrane, and (g) a number of granules ( approximately 260 A) containing several smaller granules ( approximately 80 A) identified presumably as glycogen. Intracellular canaliculi were not observed. Instead the free surface of the oxyntic cell facing the lumen of the gastric gland shows a complicated plication of the plasma membrane. Intercellular canaliculi are seen frequently between adjacent oxyntic cells. The walls of these canaliculi are made up of folded and ruffled cell membranes. The basal surface of the cell also exhibited this type of configuration. Occasional smooth surfaced profiles are seen communicating with the free surface, the wall of an intercellular canaliculus, or the basal surface of the cell. Although nerve endings

  3. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland. PMID:10620372

  4. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland.

  5. Gastric zygomycosis in a pig affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome--case report.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Szentirmai, Csaba

    2008-06-01

    A postweaning pig died in spite of antibiotic therapy showing wasting in a small herd. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was diagnosed on the basis of gross pathological and histological lesions and the presence of moderate amounts of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) antigen in tissue samples. Mycotic gastritis caused by Zygomycetes spp. was found on round areas with a diameter of 1 to 3 cm in the glandular mucosa of the stomach. Moderate amount of PCV2 viral antigen was detected almost evenly in the stomach and mostly in the macrophages. In addition, acute uraemia, revealed by an ammonia-like stink of the gastric mucosa and the presence of acute erosions on the glandular mucosa of the stomach, was observed as a consequence of PCV2-induced interstitial nephritis. Only PCV2 infection could be identified as a cause of secondary mycotic gastritis. The results further support the immunosuppressive ability of PCV2 infection in PMWS-affected pigs.

  6. Experimental Helicobacter pylori infection induces antral gastritis and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shomer, N H; Dangler, C A; Whary, M T; Fox, J G

    1998-06-01

    Humans infected with Helicobacter pylori have abnormally low levels of the antioxidant vitamin C, which protects against the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, in gastric juice. Guinea pigs, like humans and nonhuman primates, have a dietary requirement for vitamin C. As such, these species have gastrointestinal vitamin C transport systems not found in other animals. We have developed and characterized a guinea pig model of chronic gastric H. pylori infection with the rodent-adapted Sydney strain of H. pylori. At 4 weeks postinfection, five of six animals of the infected group and zero of two animals of the control group were positive for H. pylori as determined by culture or PCR. At 15 weeks, six of six animals of the infected group and zero of two animals of the control group were positive. H. pylori-specific seroconversion was observed among infected animals. There were no histologic abnormalities in the gastric antra or fundi of control guinea pigs. In contrast, there was multifocal, mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic antral gastritis and formation of antral lymphoid follicles in H. pylori-infected animals. The lesion distribution in the gastric antra paralleled that observed in H. pylori-infected humans. The H. pylori-infected guinea pig should prove useful in modeling the interaction of helicobacter and vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis.

  7. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in α1,2, α1,3, and α1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents.

  8. Helicobacter spp. infection induces changes in epithelial proliferation and E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa of pigs.

    PubMed

    Bracarense, A P F R L; Yamasaki, L; Silva, E O; Oliveira, R L; Alfieri, A A

    2013-11-01

    Gastric disease is common in finishing pigs. Helicobacter spp. infection has been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric neoplasia in man and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Helicobacter spp. infection on gastric morphology in pigs, with emphasis on glandular cell proliferation and E-cadherin expression. Samples of fundus and antrum from 67 finishing pigs were examined microscopically and by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mucosal changes were evaluated and epithelial proliferation was determined by evaluation of the morphometry of nucleolar organizer regions and counting proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and mitotic figures. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by E-cadherin expression. In 47 (70%) pigs, Helicobacter spp. infection was confirmed by PCR. Histological findings associated with the infection included mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria and glandular degeneration. There was a significant association between infection and epithelial proliferation in both regions as well as a decrease in the expression of E-cadherin in the antrum.

  9. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)).

  10. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. The source of pre- and postganglionic nerve fibres to the guinea-pig adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Parker, T L; Mohamed, A A; Coupland, R E

    1990-10-01

    The pre- and postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the guinea-pig adrenal medulla was investigated using the retrograde neuronal tracers Fast Blue and WGA-HRP. Labelled preganglionic cell bodies were located in the intermediolateral horn of spinal segments T3-L2, the majority (73.9%) were found between T6-T12 representing 70.2% of the total number of labelled cells; the segment T10 contained the largest number of labelled neurons. Labelled postganglionic cell bodies were found in the paravertebral ganglia between vertebral levels T3-T12 (representing 22.6% of the total labelled neurons), the maximum number was found at T10. In addition, labelled neurons were found in the suprarenal ganglion (representing 7.2%). No labelled cells were found in the coeliac ganglia. The labelled neurons were found ipsilateral to the site of injection into the left adrenal gland. It is concluded that the guinea-pig adrenal gland receives both a pre- and a significant postganglionic sympathetic innervation. The destination of these nerve fibres within the adrenal gland has yet to be determined.

  11. Characterization of cholecystokinin receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Matozaki, T.; Sakamoto, C.; Nagao, M.; Nishisaki, H.; Konda, Y.; Nakano, O.; Matsuda, K.; Wada, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kasuga, M. )

    1991-02-14

    The binding of cholecystokinin (CCK) to its receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes were characterized by the use of {sup 125}I-CCK-octapeptide (CCK8). At 30{degrees}C optimal binding was obtained at acidic pH in the presence of Mg2+, while Na+ reduced the binding. In contrast to reports on pancreatic and brain CCK receptors, scatchard analysis of CCK binding to chief cell membranes revealed two classes of binding sites. Whereas, in the presence of a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S, only a low affinity site of CCK binding was observed. Chief cell receptors recognized CCK analogs, with an order of potency of: CCK8 greater than gastrin-I greater than CCK4. Although all CCK receptor antagonists tested (dibutyryl cyclic GMP, L-364718 and CR1409) inhibited labeled CCK binding to chief cell membranes, the relative potencies of these antagonists in terms of inhibiting labeled CCK binding were different from those observed in either pancreatic membranes or brain membranes. The results indicate, therefore, that on gastric chief cell membranes there exist specific CCK receptors, which are coupled to G protein. Furthermore, chief cell CCK receptors may be distinct from pancreatic or brain type CCK receptors.

  12. [The histogenesis of interrenal primordium of the adrenal gland in pig (Sus domestica)].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V I; Chumasov, E I; Atagimov, M Z

    2006-01-01

    Using light, electron microscopy and cytochemistry, the early (embryonic week 4-8) stages of adrenal gland (AG) development were studied in domestic pig. The interrelations between the cells of the fetal cortex (FC) and chromaffin cells (CC) were traced. At week 5, AG primordium is represented by FC, which consists of the epithelioid cells, with the ingrowing neural cords containing CC islets. Starting at the early embryonic period and up to fetal period, CC and interrenal cells of FC are closely interrelated with each other and sinusoidal capillaries. Both cellular types are at different stages of differentiation, including the functionally active elements. At weeks 7-8, FC cells undergo involution, while those ones, left at periphery, form definitive cortex. CC are located in the central part of the organ and form suprarenal tissue. Authors hypothesize, that CC, migrating into AG primordium, initially induce the development of interrenal primordium, and later cause the involution of FC. This, possibly, may be explained by the fact that further antenatal and postnatal development of the organism requires more corticosteroids than the amount produced by FC.

  13. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.

  14. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  15. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  16. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  17. Localised calcium release events in cells from the muscle of guinea-pig gastric fundus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, S P; Bolton, T B

    2004-01-01

    After enzymatic dispersion of the muscle of the guinea-pig gastric fundus, single elongated cells were observed which differed from archetypal smooth muscle cells due to their knurled, tuberose or otherwise irregular surface morphology. These, but not archetypal smooth muscle cells, consistently displayed spontaneous localized (i.e. non-propagating) intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) release events. Such calcium events were novel in their magnitude and kinetic profiles. They included short transient events, plateau events and events which coalesced spatially or temporally (compound events). Quantitative analysis of the events with an automatic detection programme showed that their spatio-temporal characteristics (full width and full duration at half-maximum amplitude) were approximately exponentially distributed. Their amplitude distribution suggested the presence of two release modes. Carbachol application caused an initial cell-wide calcium transient followed by an increase in localized calcium release events. Pharmacological analysis suggested that localized calcium release was largely dependent on external calcium entry acting on both inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to release stored calcium. Nominally calcium-free external solution immediately and reversibly abolished all localized calcium release without blocking the initial transient calcium release response to carbachol. This was inhibited by 2-APB (100 μm), ryanodine (10 or 50 μm) or U-73122 (1 μm). 2-APB (100 μm), xestospongin C (XeC, 10 μm) or U-73122 (1 μm) blocked both spontaneous localized calcium release and localized release stimulated by 10 μm carbachol. Ryanodine (50 μm) also inhibited spontaneous release, but enhanced localized release in response to carbachol. This study represents the first characterization of localized calcium release events in cells from the gastric fundus. PMID:14608011

  18. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species.

  19. Atypical slow waves generated in gastric corpus provide dominant pacemaker activity in guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Garcia-Londoño, A Pilar; Hirst, G David S; Edwards, Frank R

    2005-12-01

    When intracellular recordings were made from the circular layer of the intact muscular wall of the isolated guinea pig gastric corpus, an ongoing regular high frequency discharge of slow waves was detected even though this region lacked myenteric interstitial cells. When slow waves were recorded from preparations consisting of both the antrum and the corpus, slow waves of identical frequency, but with different shapes, were generated in the two regions. Corporal slow waves could be distinguished from antral slow waves by their time courses and amplitudes. Corporal slow waves, like antral slow waves, were abolished by buffering the internal concentration of calcium ions, [Ca2+]i, to low levels, or by caffeine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate or the chloride channel blocker DIDS. Corporal preparations demonstrated an ongoing discharge of unitary potentials, as has been found in all other tissues containing interstitial cells. The experiments show that the corpus provides the dominant pacemaker activity which entrains activity in other regions of the stomach and it is suggested that this activity is generated by corporal intramuscular interstitial cells.

  20. Effects of tachykinins on the secretion of fluid and glycoproteins from the submandibular glands of rat, mouse, hamster and guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Y; Aoki, C; Masuhara, T

    1989-11-01

    The effects of substance P, neurokinin A, physalamine, and eledoisin on the secretion of fluid and glycoproteins from the submandibular glands of various rodents were investigated. Following i.v. injection of each peptide at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg, the major glycoprotein species secreted from rats and guinea pigs were shown to be electrophoretically identical with those found in the acini. However, saliva was not elicited from the mice and hamsters. These results suggest that in both rats and guinea pigs, tachykinins act on the acinar cells of the submandibular gland only. PMID:2482911

  1. Expression of the Na+-HCO3- cotransporter and its role in pHi regulation in guinea pig salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchao; Koo, Na-Youn; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Se-Young; Lee, Sung J; Oh, Seog B; Kim, Joong-Soo; Park, Kyungpyo

    2006-12-01

    Patterns of salivary HCO(3)(-) secretion vary and depend on species and gland types. However, the identities of the transporters involved in HCO(3)(-) transport and the underlying mechanism of intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in salivary glands still remain unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of the Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) and its role in pH(i) regulation in guinea pig salivary glands, which can serve as an experimental model to study HCO(3)(-) transport in human salivary glands. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and pH(i) measurements from BCECF-AM-loaded cells were performed. The amiloride-sensitive Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) played a putative role in pH(i) regulation in salivary acinar cells and also appeared to be involved in regulation in salivary ducts. In addition to NHE, NBC also played a role in pH(i) regulation in both acini and ducts. In the parotid gland, NBC1 was functionally expressed in the basolateral membrane (BLM) of acinar cells and the luminal membrane (LM) of ducts. In the submandibular gland, NBC1 was expressed only in the BLM of ducts. NBC1 expressed in these two types of salivary glands takes up HCO(3)(-) and is involved in pH(i) regulation. Although NBC3 immunoreactivity was also detected in submandibular gland acinar cells and in the ducts of both glands, it is unlikely that NBC3 plays any role in pH(i) regulation. We conclude that NBC1 is functionally expressed and plays a role in pH(i) regulation in guinea pig salivary glands but that its localization and role are different depending on the type of salivary glands. PMID:16782694

  2. Ascorbate deficiency impairs the muscarinic-cholinergic and ss-adrenergic receptor signaling systems in the guinea pig submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Sawiris, P G; Enwonwu, C O

    2000-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is preferentially concentrated in the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands. Its level in the acini of salivary glands is relatively high. We therefore hypothesized that ascorbate may have a role in salivary gland function. Ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs had lower stimulated whole salivary flow rates than well-fed, age-matched controls (P: < 0.005). Total salivary protein concentration was also markedly (P: < 0.005) reduced in the deficient guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE and densitometric quantification of protein bands confirmed significant reduction in specific salivary proteins (e.g., amylase, proline-rich proteins) in the saliva samples of malnourished guinea pigs. Some protein bands not seen in control saliva were detected in the saliva of malnourished guinea pigs. Ascorbate deficiency also produced a significant (P: < 0.005) reduction in the ss-adrenergic receptor density (subtype 1; 95 +/- 19 fmol/mg protein compared with 179 +/- 27 fmol/mg protein for the controls). No significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the ss-adrenergic receptor subtype 2. Additionally, ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs had significantly lower muscarinic-cholinergic receptor densities (50 +/- 5 vs. 74 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein for controls). Our data support the conclusion that diminished membrane receptors might impair the capacity of the transmembrane signaling system, resulting in salivary gland hypofunction in ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs. Without implying extrapolation of our findings in experimental animals to humans, it is perhaps relevant that many conditions often associated with salivary gland hypofunction in humans (e.g., smoking or drug ingestion) deplete cellular ascorbate. PMID:11110840

  3. Detection of novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the human epidermis and serum and pig adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Li, Wei; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Tieu, Elaine W; Tang, Edith K Y; Tuckey, Robert C

    2015-10-08

    To investigate whether novel pathways of vitamin D3 (D3) and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and previously characterized in vitro, occur in vivo, we analyzed samples of human serum and epidermis, and pig adrenals for the presence of intermediates and products of these pathways. We extracted human epidermis from 13 individuals and sera from 13 individuals and analyzed them by LC/qTOF-MS alongside the corresponding standards. Pig adrenal glands were also analyzed for these steroids and secosteroids. Epidermal, serum and adrenal samples showed the presence of D3 hydroxy-derivatives corresponding to 20(OH)D3, 22(OH)D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,24(OH)2D3, 20,25(OH)2D3, 20,26(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3, plus 1,20(OH)2D3 which was detectable only in the epidermis. Serum concentrations of 20(OH)D3 and 22(OH)D3 were only 30- and 15-fold lower than 25(OH)D3, respectively, and at levels above those required for biological activity as measured in vitro. We also detected 1,20,24(OH)3D3, 1,20,25(OH)3D3 and 1,20,26(OH)3D3 in the adrenals. Products of CYP11A1 action on 7DHC, namely 22(OH)7DHC, 20,22(OH)27DHC and 7-dehydropregnenolone were also detected in serum, epidermis and the adrenal. Thus, we have detected novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the skin, serum and adrenal gland and based on their concentrations and biological activity suggest that they act as hormones in vivo.

  4. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs.

  5. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing-which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts-the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism.

  6. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  7. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P< 0·05): the half gastric emptying time of DM was 137 v. 172 min ( ± 7·4 min pooled standard error) for the diets with and without actinidin, respectively. The presence of dietary actinidin in the stomach chyme increased the digestion of beef muscle protein (P< 0·05) and, more specifically, those proteins with a high molecular weight (>34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  8. Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of NIS gene transcripts was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland.

  9. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs.

  10. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using /sup 3/H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined.

  11. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica)—Neuronal Tracing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zalecki, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6) and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6). Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle). After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV – 7.5cm) starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV

  12. Endoscopic biopsy of islet transplants in the gastric submucosal space provides evidence of islet graft rejection in diabetic pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Fujita, Minoru; Bottino, Rita; Piganelli, Jon D; McGrath, Kevin; Li, Jiang; Lee, Whayoung; Iwase, Hayato; Wijkstrom, Martin; Bertera, Suzanne; Long, Cassandra; Landsittel, Douglas; Haruma, Ken; Cooper, David K C; Hara, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of islets into the gastric submucosal space (GSMS) has several advantages (e.g., avoidance of the instant blood-mediated inflammatory response [IBMIR], ability to biopsy). The aim of this study was to determine whether endoscopic biopsy of islet allografts transplanted into the GSMS in diabetic pigs can provide histopathological and immunohistochemical information that correlates with the clinical course (e.g.,, blood glucose level, insulin requirement). Islet allografts (Group1: 10,000 kIEq /kg [n = 4]; Group2: 15,000 kIEq /kg [n = 2]) were transplanted into the GSMS of diabetic pigs under immunosuppression. In Group2, the anti-oxidant, BMX-001 was applied during preservation, isolation, and culture of the islets, and at the time of transplantation. Endoscopic biopsies of the islet grafts were obtained one or 2 weeks after transplantation, and histopathological features were compared with the clinical course (e.g., blood glucose, insulin requirement). In Group1, in the absence of anti-oxidant therapy, most of the islets became fragmented, and there was no reduction in exogenous insulin requirement. In Group2, with an increased number of transplanted islets in the presence of BMX-001, more healthy insulin-positive islet masses were obtained at biopsy and necropsy (4 weeks), and these correlated with reductions in both blood glucose level and insulin requirement. In all cases, inflammatory cell infiltrates were present. After islet transplantation into the GSMS, endoscopic biopsy can provide information on graft rejection, which would be an immense advantage in clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26857703

  13. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing-which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts-the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism. PMID:27409639

  14. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing—which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts—the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism. PMID:27409639

  15. Functional selectivity of muscarinic receptor antagonists for inhibition of M3-mediated phosphoinositide responses in guinea pig urinary bladder and submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carl P; Gupta, Paul; Napier, Carolyn M; Nahorski, Stefan R; Challiss, R A John

    2004-09-01

    Binding and functional affinities of the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists darifenacin, tolterodine, oxybutynin, and atropine were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human recombinant M2 (CHO-m2) or M3 (CHO-m3) receptors, and in guinea pig bladder and submandibular gland. In [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride binding studies in CHO cells, darifenacin displayed selectivity (14.8-fold) for the M3 versus M2 mACh receptor subtype. Oxybutynin was nonselective, whereas atropine and tolterodine were weakly M2-selective (5.1- and 6.6-fold, respectively). Antagonist functional affinity estimates were determined by the inhibition of agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in CHO-m3 cells and antagonism of the agonist-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in CHO-m2 cells. Darifenacin was the most M3-selective antagonist (32.4-fold), whereas oxybutynin, atropine, and tolterodine exhibited lesser selectivity. Functional affinity estimates in guinea pig urinary bladder and submandibular salivary gland using indices of phosphoinositide turnover revealed that oxybutynin, darifenacin, and tolterodine each displayed selectivity for the response in the bladder, relative to that seen in the submandibular gland (9.3-, 7.9-, and 7.4-fold, respectively). In contrast, atropine displayed a similar affinity in both tissues. These data demonstrate that in bladder, compared with submandibular gland from a single species, the mACh receptor antagonists darifenacin, tolterodine, and oxybutynin display selectivity to inhibit agonist-mediated phosphoinositide responses. It is proposed that both responses are mediated via M3 mACh receptor activation and that differential functional affinities displayed by some, but not all, antagonists are indicative of the influence of cell background upon the pharmacology of the M3 mACh receptor. PMID:15140916

  16. Helicobacter suis KB1 derived from pig gastric lymphoid follicles induces the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles in mice through the activation of B cells and CD4 positive cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nishitani, Yosuke; Nishiumi, Shin; Miki, Ikuya; Takenaka, Mamoru; Nobutani, Kentaro; Mimura, Takuya; Ben Suleiman, Yahaya; Mizuno, Shigeto; Kawai, Mikihiko; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    "Helicobacter heilmannii" ("H. heilmannii"), which belongs to the genus Helicobacter, is a group of bacterial species that display a long spiral-shaped morphology. Recent studies have demonstrated that "H. heilmannii" type 1 is actually H. suis, which mainly colonizes the stomachs of various animals and humans. However, the influence of H. suis on gastric diseases remains to be fully elucidated. In this report, we revealed the relationship between natural H. suis infection and follicular gastritis in the pig stomachs. From sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, urease A, and urease B genes, the presence of H. suis was confirmed in pig gastric lymphoid follicles, and this bacterium was named H. suis KB1. In addition, H. suis KB1 was inoculated into C57BL/6J mice, and the following mouse model of the pathogenesis of follicular gastritis by H. suis infection was established: H. suis KB1 colonizes the mouse stomach, and moreover, induces the development of lymphoid follicles and acquired immune responses characterized by the activation of B cells and CD4 positive cells. These results may lead to better understanding of the relationship between H. suis and gastric diseases, especially follicular gastritis; and furthermore, our findings emphasize the zoonotic aspects of animal-human infection by H. suis.

  17. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type resected by combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET).

    PubMed

    Kato, Motohiko; Uraoka, Toshio; Isobe, Yoh; Abe, Keiichiro; Hirata, Tetsu; Takada, Yoshiaki; Wada, Michiko; Takatori, Yusaku; Takabayashi, Kaoru; Fujiyama, Yoichi; Sekiya, Kousuke; Kawaguchi, Yoshiki; Sukeda, Aoi; Shiraishi, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    A male in his eighties attended our hospital for further evaluation of gastric cancer. A gastroscopy revealed a whitish flat elevated lesion (Paris, 0-IIa) of 15 mm in diameter on the greater curvature of the proximal fornix. The preoperative diagnosis was intra-mucosal differentiated gastric cancer, and a novel therapeutic approach, combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET) was applied and the lesion was resected in a single piece without any complications. Histopathological findings revealed atypical glandular epithelium proliferated in the mucosa and shallow layer (300 μm) of submucosa. These cells stained positive for pepsinogen-I and the final diagnosis was gastric cancer of fundic gland type (GAFT). There was no lymph-vascular involvement and free horizontal and vertical margins were confirmed. CLEAN-NET could be a therapeutic option for GAFT at low risk of lymph node metastasis because it prevents excess wall defect and exposure of cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity.

  18. The effect of gastric loads of sugars and amino acids on milk intake of suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A; Houpt, T R; Pond, W G

    1983-08-01

    A 3 h fast of suckling pigs less than a week of age decreased plasma glucose (P less than .005), but did not affect plasma protein, osmolality or hematocrit. After fasting, solutions (40 ml/kg body weight) of 5% glucose, 5% fructose, 5% xylose, 5% mannitol, 5% sorbitol, 2.5% leucine, 2.5% phenylalanine (50 ml/kg), .9% NaCl, 5% lactose, 5% sucrose and a 50% egg yolk-distilled water mixture were administered by stomach tube and the piglet then returned to the sow. Weight gain was used as a measure of sow's milk intake. Milk consumption during the first 3 h after fasting was lower (P less than .05) for pigs given glucose than for sham-loaded controls, but no differences were observed between glucose and mannitol or sorbitol for the same period. Mannitol and sorbitol were more effective than NaCl (P less than .01) in lowering consumption for the 3 h after loading. Also during the first hour after loading, xylose caused lower (P less than .001) food intake than glucose. Egg yolk suppressed intake in comparison to sham-loaded controls (P less than .05). D-phenylalanine suppressed intake more than L-phenylalanine (P less than .05), but no differences were observed between the D and L isomers of leucine.

  19. Isolated guinea pig gastric chief cells express tumour necrosis factor receptors coupled with the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed

    Fiorucci, S; Santucci, L; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Amorosi, A; Mancini, A; Roberti, R; Morelli, A

    1996-02-01

    The tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis. Both conditions are characterised by high plasma pepsinogen concentrations, which are thought to reflect an increased rate of enzyme release by the pepsinogen secreting (chief) cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cell dysfunction are unknown. This study investigates whether chief cells express TNF receptors and, if so, whether their activation results in cell death. Immunohistochemical studies conducted with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two TNF receptor associated proteins of 55 kDa (TNF-R1) and 75 kDa (TNF-R2) showed that TNF binding sites were expressed in approximately 100% gastric chief cells. Western blot analysis of whole chief cell lysates probed with the TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 mAbs gave two distinct bands of 55 and 75 kDa in the immunoprecipitate. Incubating chief cells with TNF caused concentration and time dependent cell death, which was prevented by pretreating the cells with anti-TNF receptor mAbs. Exposing the cells to TNF reduced sphingomyelin content by 25%. Sphingomyelinase (10(-6) to 10(-2) IU/ml) mimicked the effect of TNF in that it provoked a concentration and time dependent reduction in chief cell viability and increased pepsinogen release. In conclusion, gastric chief cells express two TNF receptors partially linked to the sphingomyelin pathway. TNF induced chief cell dysfunction might be responsible for the high plasma pepsinogen concentrations seen in patients with NSAID gastropathy or H pylori induced gastritis.

  20. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (P<0.05 in all cases). The increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001) and an elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (P<0.01), the other indices reflecting HF severity. There was a positive relationship between the increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all P<0.05). The association with noradrenaline remained significant also when adjusted for LVEF and plasma BNP, suggesting a significant contribution of adrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF. PMID:25903953

  1. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (P<0.05 in all cases). The increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001) and an elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (P<0.01), the other indices reflecting HF severity. There was a positive relationship between the increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all P<0.05). The association with noradrenaline remained significant also when adjusted for LVEF and plasma BNP, suggesting a significant contribution of adrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF.

  2. Effects of rapeseed-press cake glucosinolates and iodine on the performance, the thyroid gland and the liver vitamin A status of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schöne, F; Tischendorf, F; Leiterer, M; Hartung, H; Bargholz, J

    2001-01-01

    Rapeseed press cake (per kg DM 181 g EE, 341 g CP and 23.3 mmol glucosinolates) was tested in a long-term experiment with a total of sixty pigs (live weight range 24 to 104 kg). The 3 x 2 factorial design consisted of three rapeseed press cake levels (no rapeseed press cake--control, 75 g or 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet) each with two iodine dosages (125 or 250 micrograms supplementary iodine per kg diet). Reduced feed intake and depressed weight gain were found in groups receiving 150 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet, which correspond to 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. At an inclusion level of 75 g rapeseed-press cake per kg diet no differences in feed intake and growth intensity were recorded in comparison to the rape feed free control. The rapeseed-press cake diet increased the weight of thyroid gland and liver and decreased the serum thyroxine (T4) concentration. Higher iodine dosage increased the serum T4 concentration of pigs receiving 75 g rapeseed press cake per kg diet (= 1.6 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet) to the level of the control group and retarded the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Intake of rapeseed products lowered the iodine content of the thyroid gland, however, there was no significant difference between groups given 1.6 and 3.2 mmol glucosinolates per kg diet. The vitamin A content of the whole liver and the vitamin A serum concentration were not influenced by the diets tested. However, rapeseed press cake and the glucosinolates, respectively, decreased the vitamin A concentration per gram liver due to the organ enlargement and the resulting dilution effect.

  3. Opposite effects of flurbiprofen and the nitroxybutyl ester of flurbiprofen on apoptosis in cultured guinea-pig gastric mucous cells

    PubMed Central

    Johal, Kamaljit; Hanson, Peter J

    2000-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)-donating nitroxybutyl ester of flurbiprofen (NO-flurbiprofen), shows reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity relative to flurbiprofen. NO may exert either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects, while non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may induce apoptosis. The aim of the present work was therefore to compare the effects of flurbiprofen and NO-flurbiprofen on apoptosis in guinea-pig gastric mucous cells. Apoptotic activity was assessed by assay of caspase activity and from the fragmentation and condensation of nuclei. Incubation with flurbiprofen for 24 h produced a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in cells attached to the culture plate (caspase 3-like activity increased by 257% at 500 μM), while NO-flurbiprofen inhibited basal apoptosis (caspase 3-like activity decreased by 71% at 500 μM). Caspase activity and nuclear fragmentation were substantially increased in cells that had spontaneously detached from the culture plate. NO-flurbiprofen inhibited caspase activity (55% at 500 μM) but not nuclear fragmentation in these detached cells. NO flurbiprofen inhibited the activation of apoptosis by 25 μM C6-ceramide in cells attached to the culture plate. Inhibition of caspase activity by NO-flurbiprofen was detectable after 6 h of incubation with intact cells, but by contrast with the NO-donor S-nitrosyl-N-acetyl-penicillamine, was not demonstrable with cell homogenates. Activation of caspase 3-like activity by flurbiprofen was slow (>6 h incubation needed) and was inhibited by cycloheximide. The presence of a nitroxybutyl ester moiety on flurbiprofen prevents the pro-apoptotic activity of the parent compound and may contribute to the reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity of NO-flurbiprofen. PMID:10864887

  4. Effects of adrenoceptor antagonists and neuronal uptake inhibitors on dimethylphenylpiperazinium-induced release of catecholamines from the rabbit isolated adrenal gland and guinea-pig atria

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, A.R.; Story, D.F.

    1984-11-01

    Isolated rabbit adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C and the catecholamine storage sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)epinephrine. Release of radioactivity was evoked by 2-min periods of perfusion with dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 100 microM). DMPP-induced efflux of radioactivity was decreased by desipramine (1 microM), cocaine (30 microM), phenoxybenzamine (1 and 10 microM), phentolamine (1, 3 and 10 microM) and propranolol (1 microM). The reduction in DMPP-induced efflux cannot be accounted for by interactions with alpha adrenoceptors, as prazosin (1 microM) and yohimbine (1 microM) were without effect. There also was no correlation between inhibition of DMPP-induced efflux and ability of the drugs to inhibit catecholamine uptake as phentolamine (1 microM) and propranolol (1 microM) did not affect the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)epinephrine by the gland. In guinea-pig atria, in which the catecholamine storage sites had been labeled with (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine, efflux of radioactivity was elicited by 1-min periods of contact with DMPP. DMPP-induced efflux of radioactivity from atria was decreased by desipramine (1 microM), cocaine (30 microM), phenoxybenzamine (1 and 10 microM), phentolamine (1 and 10 microM) and propranolol (1 microM) but not by prazosin (1 microM) or yohimbine (1 microM). The inhibition of DMPP-induced efflux in guinea-pig atria could not be correlated with alpha adrenoceptor antagonism or blockade of neuronal uptake. There were differences between the two preparations in the degree of inhibition of DMPP-induced release produced by the above drugs.

  5. Gastric stability and oral bioavailability of colistin sulfate in pigs challenged or not with Escherichia coli O149: F4 (K88).

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Bergeron, Nadia; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Fairbrother, John Morris; Letellier, Ann

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro gastric stability of colistin sulfate (CS) and its antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and to study the impact of ETEC O149: F4 (K88) infection in pigs on CS intestinal absorption. The stability profile of CS was evaluated in a simulated gastric fluid (SGF). Antimicrobial activity of CS and its degradation products were examined in a 96-well polystyrene microplate model. The effect of experimental infection with ETEC O149: F4 on CS intestinal absorption was determined by quantification of CS systemic concentration using a validated LC-MS/MS method. A rapid degradation of CS accompanied by an increase in CS antimicrobial activity by comparison with non-degraded CS (P<0.0001) was observed in SGF. Additionally, CS levels were not quantifiable in systemic circulation using a highly sensitive method and concurrent oral challenge did not affect CS absorption in an induction model of subclinical post-weaning diarrhea (PWD).

  6. Distribution of vitamin C is tissue specific with early saturation of the brain and adrenal glands following differential oral dose regimens in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hasselholt, Stine; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-05-28

    Vitamin C (VitC) deficiency is surprisingly common in humans even in developed parts of the world. The micronutrient has several established functions in the brain; however, the consequences of its deficiency are not well characterised. To elucidate the effects of VitC deficiency on the brain, increased knowledge about the distribution of VitC to the brain and within different brain regions after varying dietary concentrations is needed. In the present study, guinea pigs (like humans lacking the ability to synthesise VitC) were randomly divided into six groups (n 10) that received different concentrations of VitC ranging from 100 to 1500 mg/kg feed for 8 weeks, after which VitC concentrations in biological fluids and tissues were measured using HPLC. The distribution of VitC was found to be dynamic and dependent on dietary availability. Brain saturation was region specific, occurred at low dietary doses, and the dose-concentration relationship could be approximated with a three-parameter Hill equation. The correlation between plasma and brain concentrations of VitC was moderate compared with other organs, and during non-scorbutic VitC deficiency, the brain was able to maintain concentrations from about one-quarter to half of sufficient levels depending on the region, whereas concentrations in other tissues decreased to one-sixth or less. The adrenal glands have similar characteristics to the brain. The observed distribution kinetics with a low dietary dose needed for saturation and exceptional retention ability suggest that the brain and adrenal glands are high priority tissues with regard to the distribution of VitC.

  7. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is primarily composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus, ...

  8. Quantification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-protein adducts in the in vivo gastric digesta of mini-pigs using a GC-MS/MS method with accuracy profile validation.

    PubMed

    Delosière, Mylène; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Chantelauze, Céline; Durand, Denys; Thomas, Agnès; Joly, Charlotte; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Rémond, Didier; Comte, Blandine; Gladine, Cécile; Guy, Alexandre; Durand, Thierry; Laurentie, Michel; Dufour, Claire

    2016-08-10

    Hydroxyalkenals are lipid oxidation end-products resulting from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This study aimed at quantifying the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-protein adducts (HNE-P) via Michael addition from n-6 PUFA oxidation in the gastric digesta of mini-pigs after the consumption of meat-based meals with different plant antioxidant contents. Using the accuracy profile procedure, we validated an extraction protocol for the quantification of HNE-P by GC-MS/MS in gastric contents. The formation of HNE-P in the gastric compartment was observed for the first time, with concentrations ranging from less than 0.52 to 1.33 nmol HNE-P per 500 mg digesta. Nevertheless, most gastric HNE-P levels were below the limit of quantification of 0.52 nmol HNE-P per 500 mg digesta. In this animal study, the protective effect of plant antioxidant sources on HNE-P formation was not evidenced contrasting with the results using TBARS as markers. PMID:27418316

  9. The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and DβH. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of DβH-positive fibres as well as in a small population of DβH-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of DβH-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion.

  10. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  11. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Located above the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by ... messages. In response to hormonal messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH ( ...

  12. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    PubMed Central

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  13. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: Adrenal Hypothalamus Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Testes Thyroid

  14. [Effect of steam bath on gastric secretion and some endocrine changes of athlete-fighters].

    PubMed

    Panov, S F; Pleshakov, A A

    2011-01-01

    The issues of adaptation of the gastric glands to thermal load (steam bath) of athlete-fighters. The differences in adaptation to thermal load of gastric glands in connection with a weight category, seniority and age of athletes. Discovered the relationship in reaction to thermal load of gastric and endocrine glands. The stability of steam bath of gastric glands in the middle weight class athlete-fighters combined with the preservation of endocrine homeostasis. The high sensitivity of athlete-fighters of light and middleweight category combined with an authentic increase in serum of blood the concentrations of gastric and aldosterone, and with decrease the concentrations of cortisol.

  15. Gastric adenocarcinoma with prostatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Roshni, S; Anoop, Tm; Preethi, Tr; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, Al

    2014-06-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  16. Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Prostatic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Roshni, S; Preethi, TR; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, AL

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  17. [Role of animal gastric Helicobacter species in human gastric pathology].

    PubMed

    Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G

    2015-01-01

    Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.

  18. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  19. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  20. Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting

    PubMed Central

    Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations. PMID:24069265

  1. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

  2. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation. PMID:11012362

  3. [Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2002-04-01

    Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

  4. Association of tightly spiraled bacterial infection and gastritis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Lee, B J; Lee, Y S; Park, J H

    2000-07-01

    Tightly spiral bacteria were observed only in the pyloric mucosa of 4 (8.0%) of 50 swine stomachs, mainly in the surface of epithelia, the gastric pits and the lumen of gastric glands. The presence of the spiral bacteria was significantly associated with chronic pyloric gastritis (p<0.05). Mean gastritis score of the bacteria-positive pyloric mucosa was 3.25 +/- 0.25, whereas that of the bacteria-negative pyloric mucosa was 2.37 +/- 0.12. Parakeratosis and hyperkeratosis were spontaneously seen in the mucosa layer of pars oesophagea, regardless of the bacterial infection. Marked infiltration of mononuclear cells and granulocytes were seen in the cardiac mucosa, regardless of the bacterial infection. Mean gastritis score of the bacteria-positive cardiac mucosa was 3.27 +/- 0.32, whereas that of the bacteria-negative cardiac mucosa was 2.84 +/- 0.13. There was no significant difference between the bacteria-positive and negative cardiac mucosa (p>0.05). Inflammatory response in the fundic mucosa was rare (gastritis score=0.75 +/- 0.08). The tightly spiraled bactera were not cultured with various culture media. These results suggest that the presence of tightly spiraled bacteria is associated with only the pyloric gastritis in pigs.

  5. Experimental infection of mice with tightly coiled spiral bacteria ("Candidatus Helicobacter suis") originating from the pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Park, J-H; Hong, J J; Park, J H

    2003-01-01

    Mice (n=34) were inoculated orally with a gastric homogenate from a pig infected with tightly coiled spiral bacteria (TCSB). In mice killed in pairs at 16 intervals up to 108 weeks post-inoculation (pi), TCSB were invariably found, mainly in the mucosal surface, gastric pits, intercellular spaces, cytoplasm of surface epithelial cells, and lumina of gastric glands. Histopathologically, infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells was seen from 8 weeks pi onwards, gradually increasing as infection progressed. From 64 weeks pi onwards, the formation of large follicles was observed in the lamina propria and submucosa, together with severe necrosis of surface epithelial cells. Glandular epithelial cells in the fundic mucosa were markedly dysplastic and intruded through the basement membrane into the submucosal layer. Common antigenicity between TCSB and Helicobacter pylori was demonstrated by Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. The sequence of the 16S rDNA fragment of 374 bp showed 100% homology with the 16S rRNA gene of "Candidatus Helicobacter suis". Experimental infection of the gastric mucosa of mice with TCSB was closely associated with chronic gastritis and dysplastic lesions.

  6. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  7. Characterization of gastrin receptors on guinea pig pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dahong; Noguchi, Masato; Zhou, Zhichao; Villanueva, M.L.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T. )

    1987-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated gastrin receptors in some pancreatic tumors and that gastrin is a potent stimulant of pancreatic Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange. In the present study the authors used {sup 125}I-labeled gastrin ({sup 125}I-gastrin) to characterize gastrin receptors on guinea pig pancreatic acini. Binding of {sup 125}I-gastrin was temperature dependent, saturable, and specific for gastrin-related peptides. Analysis demonstrated a single class of receptors with high affinity for gastrin and a binding capacity of 1 fmol/mg protein. Binding of {sup 125}I-gastrin was inhibited with the following relative potencies: cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) > gastrin-17-I = gastrin-34-I > pentagastrin > desulfated (des(SO{sub 3}))CCK-8 > CCK-4 and by the receptor antagonists CBZ-CCK-27-32-NH{sub 2} > proglumide analogue 10 > asperlicin > Bt{sub 2}-guanosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate. The present results demonstrate that guinea pig pancreatic acini possess gastrin receptors that have a high affinity for gastrin and are distinct from CCK receptors previously described. Only occupation of the CCK receptors results in enzyme secretion. Gastrin receptors on pancreatic acini resemble those described in parietal cells and gastric glands; however, their function is unknown.

  8. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  9. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection induced gastric cancer; advance in gastric stem cell research and the remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastric cancer, which remains an important health care challenge. Recent investigation in gastric stem cell or progenitor cell biology has uncovered valuable information in understanding the gastric gland renewal and maintenance of homeostasis, they also provide clues for further defining the mechanisms by which gastric cancer may originate and progress. Lgr5, Villin-promoter, TFF2-mRNA and Mist have recently been identified as gastric stem/progenitor cell markers; their identification enriched our understanding on the gastric stem cell pathobiology during chronic inflammation and metaplasia. In addition, advance in gastric cancer stem cell markers such as CD44, CD90, CD133, Musashi-1 reveal novel information on tumor cell behavior and disease progression implicated for therapeutics. However, two critical questions remain to be of considerable challenges for future exploration; one is how H. pylori or chronic inflammation affects gastric stem cell or their progenitors, which give rise to mucus-, acid-, pepsinogen-, and hormone-secreting cell lineages. Another one is how bacterial infection or inflammation induces oncogenic transformation and propagates into tumors. Focus on the interactions of H. pylori with gastric stem/progenitor cells and their microenvironment will be instrumental to decipher the initiation and origin of gastric cancer. Future studies in these areas will be critical to uncover molecular mechanisms of chronic inflammation-mediated oncogenic transformation and provide options for cancer prevention and intervention. We review recent progress and discuss future research directions in these important research fields. PMID:23217022

  11. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Y gastric bypass; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... Weight-loss surgery may be an option if you are very obese and have not been able to ...

  12. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  13. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  14. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  15. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  16. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  17. Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2013-05-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature.

  18. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  19. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  20. Syndromic Gastric Polyps: At the Crossroads of Genetic and Environmental Cancer Predisposition.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Giardiello, Francis M; Offerhaus, G Johan; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur in 1-4 % of patients undergoing gastroscopy. Although most are sporadic, some gastric polyps are part of an underlying hereditary syndrome. Gastric polyps can be seen in each of the well-known gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, but also in Lynch syndrome and in several rare not primarily gastrointestinal syndromes. In addition, Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach (GAPPS) is a recently described heritable syndrome characterized by isolated gastric polyposis and risk of gastric cancer.Some of these syndromes are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, whereas others are not. However, the neoplastic potential and the precursor status of these gastric polyps are not always clear, even in syndromes with a well-established risk of gastric cancer. For instance, the neoplastic potential of Peutz-Jeghers polyps is debatable, despite the well-established risk of gastric cancer in this syndrome. Also fundic gland polyps and gastric foveolar-type adenomas in FAP carry a low risk of malignant transformation. In contrast, gastric juvenile polyps are precursor lesions of gastric cancer in juvenile polyposis syndrome through neoplastic progression of juvenile polyps in these patients.Although these hereditary syndromes with gastric polyps are rare, recognition is important for individual patient management. Furthermore, the initiation and progression of these lesions can be influenced by environmental factors such as Helicobacter Pylori infection. This makes these rare lesions an appropriate model for understanding the clonal evolution of early gastric cancer in the wider population. PMID:27573780

  1. The pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Paquette, H

    2000-04-01

    The pineal gland is located posterior to the midbrain and is the site of melatonin production. Research on pineal gland function in neonates is very limited. This article will discuss pineal gland development and the possible relationship between melatonin production and sudden infant death syndrome. Further research on pineal gland function is needed in order to establish its significance for the neonate.

  2. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  3. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  4. Evaluation of “Helicobacter heilmannii” Subtypes in the Gastric Mucosas of Cats and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Priestnall, Simon L.; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    Infection with candidatus “Helicobacter heilmannii” is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with “H. heilmannii” type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against “H. heilmannii” ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and “H. heilmannii”-specific probes was employed to directly visualize “H. heilmannii” types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of “H. heilmannii” amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of “H. heilmannii” and were distinct from the “H. heilmannii”-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 “H. heilmannii”-infected cats and dogs were distinct from “H. heilmannii” type 1 and “H. suis” and clustered with “H. heilmannii” types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of “H. heilmannii” types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the “H. heilmannii” types present in cats. In infected dogs, “H. heilmannii” inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by “H. heilmannii” bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from “H. suis.” As “H. heilmannii” type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small. PMID:15131182

  5. Evaluation of "Helicobacter heilmannii" subtypes in the gastric mucosas of cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, Simon L; Wiinberg, Bo; Spohr, Anette; Neuhaus, Britta; Kuffer, Manuela; Wiedmann, Martin; Simpson, Kenneth W

    2004-05-01

    Infection with candidatus "Helicobacter heilmannii" is associated with gastritis and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in people. Infection with "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates (80%) and is thought to be acquired from dogs, cats, or pigs. We further examined the zoonotic potential of dogs and cats by amplifying gastric DNA from cats (n = 45) and dogs (n = 10) with primers against "H. heilmannii" ureB and 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the products. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with eubacterial and "H. heilmannii"-specific probes was employed to directly visualize "H. heilmannii" types and their intragastric distribution. ureB sequences of "H. heilmannii" amplicons clustered with human and feline isolates of "H. heilmannii" and were distinct from the "H. heilmannii"-like organisms (HHLO) H. felis, H. salomonis, and H. bizzozeronii. 16S ribosomal DNA sequences in 20 "H. heilmannii"-infected cats and dogs were distinct from "H. heilmannii" type 1 and "H. suis" and clustered with "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4. FISH confirmed the presence of "H. heilmannii" types 2 and 4 in dogs but failed to definitively characterize the "H. heilmannii" types present in cats. In infected dogs, "H. heilmannii" inhabited the gastric mucus and glands, and in dogs coinfected with other HHLO it shared the same gastric niche. The results indicate that dogs and cats are predominantly colonized by "H. heilmannii" bacteria that are distinct from type 1 and from "H. suis." As "H. heilmannii" type 1 predominates in people, the zoonotic risk posed by dogs and cats is likely small.

  6. Notch signaling regulates gastric antral LGR5 stem cell function

    PubMed Central

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Carulli, Alexis J; VanDussen, Kelli L; Thomas, Dafydd; Giordano, Thomas J; Liu, Zhenyi; Kopan, Raphael; Samuelson, Linda C

    2015-01-01

    The major signaling pathways regulating gastric stem cells are unknown. Here we report that Notch signaling is essential for homeostasis of LGR5+ antral stem cells. Pathway inhibition reduced proliferation of gastric stem and progenitor cells, while activation increased proliferation. Notch dysregulation also altered differentiation, with inhibition inducing mucous and endocrine cell differentiation while activation reduced differentiation. Analysis of gastric organoids demonstrated that Notch signaling was intrinsic to the epithelium and regulated growth. Furthermore, in vivo Notch manipulation affected the efficiency of organoid initiation from glands and single Lgr5-GFP stem cells, suggesting regulation of stem cell function. Strikingly, constitutive Notch activation in LGR5+ stem cells induced tissue expansion via antral gland fission. Lineage tracing using a multi-colored reporter demonstrated that Notch-activated stem cells rapidly generate monoclonal glands, suggesting a competitive advantage over unmanipulated stem cells. Notch activation was associated with increased mTOR signaling, and mTORC1 inhibition normalized NICD-induced increases in proliferation and gland fission. Chronic Notch activation induced undifferentiated, hyper-proliferative polyps, suggesting that aberrant activation of Notch in gastric stem cells may contribute to gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:26271103

  7. Optical method for quantifying rates of mucus secretion from single submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wu, J V; Krouse, M E; Saenz, Y; Wine, J J

    2001-08-01

    We describe an optical method to quantify single- gland secretion. Isolated tracheal mucosa were mounted at the air-Krebs interface and coated with oil. Gland secretions formed spherical bubbles that were digitally imaged at intervals, allowing rates of secretion to be calculated. We monitored 340 glands in 54 experiments with 12 sheep. Glands secreted basally at low rates (0.57 +/- 0.04 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1), 123 glands) in tissues up to 9 h postharvest and at lower rates for up to 3 days. Carbachol (10 microM) stimulated secretion with an early transient and a sustained or oscillating phase. Peak secretion was 15.7 +/- 1.2 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1) (60 glands); sustained secretion was 4.5 +/- 0.5 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1) (10 glands). Isoproterenol and phenylephrine (10 microM each) stimulated only small, transient responses. We confirmed that cats have a large secretory response to phenylephrine (11.6 +/- 3.7 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1), 12 glands), but pigs, sheep, and humans all have small responses (<2 nl x min(-1)m x gland(-1)). Carbachol-stimulated peak secretion was inhibited 56% by bumetanide, 67% by HCO replacement with HEPES, and 92% by both. The distribution of secretion rates was nonnormal, suggesting the existence of subpopulations of glands. PMID:11435221

  8. Gastrin in fetal and neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, R J; Cranwell, P D

    1991-01-01

    1. The concentration and molecular profile of gastrin were examined in plasma and tissue extracts of fetal and neonatal pigs from 93 days gestation up to 12 weeks of age and also in the fetal gastric contents. 2. Gastrin was present in the gastrointestinal tract and plasma of fetal pigs at 93 days gestation. The concentration in both plasma and antral extracts increased progressively up to birth and continued to rise postnatally, reaching a peak at about 3 weeks of age in plasma and 6 weeks in the antrum. 3. In blood the major molecular form of gastrin was G34 (up to 80%), while in the antrum the major form was G17 (66-91%). The percentage of G34 in the antrum was highest in later gestation (21%), and reached adult proportion by 8 weeks of age (4%). 4. A considerable amount of gastrin, chiefly G17, was detected in the fetal gastric contents. Synthetic human G17 was stable in fetal gastric contents when incubated at 37 degrees C for 60 min, although, when incubated with gastric contents from a sow, it disappeared within 5 min. 5. It is suggested that the presence of gastrin in fetal gastric contents may be important in stimulation of fetal gut development.

  9. Serum gastrin in newborn, sucking and weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, P D; Hansky, J

    1980-07-01

    Serum gastrin concentrations during the first six weeks of life in pigs reared on sow's milk alone were compared with those in pigs given access to solid food at two weeks and weaned at three weeks of age. Gastrin levels were higher in both parturient sows and newborn unsuckled pigs than in dry sows. It appears that the newborn pig is capable of secreting its own gastrin. High levels of gastrin persisted throughout the experimental period, being particularly high in the first two weeks of life. In weaned pigs, feeding after a period of fasting evoked a greater postprandial gastrin response than that which occurred in unweaned pigs after sucking from the sow. The results suggest a possible role for gastrin in early gastric development.

  10. [Changes of acid-producing function of the stomach before and after operation performed for gastric ulcer type I].

    PubMed

    Futuĭma, Iu M

    2007-01-01

    The gastric acid-producing function changes were analyzed in 48 patients suffering gastric ulcer (Johnson-I type), using the computer pH-metry. The dependence of the gastric glands acid-production on the ulcer defect localization was established. Hyperchlorhydria was revealed in 84.6% of patients suffering gastric distal third ulcer and in its subcardial localization--in 30.8%. In the late follow-up period after the operation, performed for gastric ulcer disease, the gastric stump capacity to restore its glands production of acid depends mainly on the method of surgical procedure applied. The best indices were revealed after application of organpreserving method--the partial resection of gastric ischemized segment according to L. Ya. Kovahlchuk combined with selective proximal vagotomy, comparing with such after application of resectional methods according to Billroth.

  11. Gastric mycosis following gastric resection and vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Rehnberg, O; Faxen, A; Haglund, U; Kewenter, J; Stenquist, B; Olbe, L

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective five-year follow-up study of 289 consecutive patients subjected to antrectomy and gastroduodenostomy with or without vagotomy, 130 patients underwent gastroscopy. Gastric mycosis was present almost exclusively in patients subjected to combined antrectomy and vagotomy (36%). Gastric acidity seemed to be of only minor or no importance in the development of the mycosis. The residual volume in the gastric remnant was significantly higher in patients with gastric mycosis. The impaired emptying of the gastric remnant is most likely a vagotomy effect and may be the main reason for the development of gastric mycosis. A simple but effective method was developed to evacuate gastric yeast cell aggregates. Gastric mycosis seems to give rise to only slight symptoms, mainly nausea and foul-smelling belching, whereas the reflux of duodenal contents that often occurred in combination with gastric mycosis was more likely to cause gastritis and substantial discomfort. PMID:7092348

  12. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... as your body gets used to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Weight loss may be slower after ...

  13. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  14. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  15. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  17. In situ mapping of urease-positive areas in porcine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Grasso, G M; Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Ruberto, A; Iannitto, G

    1995-01-01

    Urease activity is a feature of gastric helicobacters, and its abundant production provides an indirect means of detecting their colonization. A method for mapping urease-positive areas directly on the gastric mucosa was developed, and 57.8% of pigs had evidence of Helicobacter colonization based on urease assay. Moreover, 89.2% of urease-positive pigs had gastritis, confirming that the known association found in man between Helicobacter and gastritis was found also in pigs. The proposed urease assay allowed detection of all urease-positive areas on the gastric mucosa, thus overcoming the biopsy sampling problems derived from the patchy distribution of helicobacters. In this way, gastric mucosa specimens from urease-positive areas could be usefully utilized for culture attempts and for microscopic examination.

  18. Surrounding Gastric Mucosa Findings Facilitate Diagnosis of Gastric Neoplasm as Gastric Adenoma or Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miike, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Miyata, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Tomoya; Noda, Yuko; Noda, Takaho; Suzuki, Sho; Takeda, Sachiko; Natsuda, Shuichiro; Sakaguchi, Mai; Maemura, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Kanna; Yamaji, Takumi; Abe, Hiroo; Iwakiri, Hisayoshi; Tahara, Yoshihiro; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Kitanaka, Akira; Shimoda, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. It is difficult to master the skill of discriminating gastric adenoma from early gastric cancer by conventional endoscopy or magnifying endoscopy combined with narrow-band imaging, because the colors and morphologies of these neoplasms are occasionally similar. We focused on the surrounding gastric mucosa findings in order to determine how to discriminate between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma by analyzing the characteristics of the gastric background mucosa. Methods. We retrospectively examined 146 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric neoplasm between October 2009 and January 2015. The boundary of atrophic gastritis was classified endoscopically according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification system. Of 146 lesions, 63 early gastric cancers and 21 gastric adenomas were ultimately evaluated and assessed. Results. Almost all gastric adenomas were accompanied by open-type gastritis, whereas 47 and 16 early gastric cancers were accompanied by open-type and closed-type gastritis, respectively (p = 0.037). Conclusions. The evaluation of the boundary of atrophic gastritis associated with gastric neoplasms appears to be useful for discrimination between early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma. When gastric neoplasm is present in the context of surrounding localized gastric atrophy, gastric cancer is probable but not certain. PMID:26858751

  19. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34+/PDGFRα+ TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  20. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34(+)/PDGFRα(+) TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  1. Submandibular gland myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Testa, D; Galera, F; Insabato, L; Vassallo, A; Mesolella, M; Galli, V

    2005-06-01

    Benign myoepithelioma is a very rare form of salivary gland tumor, composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. It accounts for approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors and is most frequently located in the parotid gland and in the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. We describe herein the ninth reported case of myoepithelioma of the submandibular gland. Benign myoepithelioma must be differentiated from several benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining can help differentiate between these conditions, but histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosing this neoplastic process.

  2. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  3. [Adrenocortical activity in pigs in relation to nutrition, body weight mycobacteriosis and pre-slaughter stress].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M; Herzig, I; Gilka, J

    1982-01-01

    In 115 pigs divided into 10 groups, with different nutrition levels or with experimentally evoked atypical mycobacteriosis, during the experiments or at slaughter the concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids (11-OHCS) in blood plasma, relative weight of adrenal glands and liver were determined. The increase in adrenocortical function was proved in the cases when the body weight was significantly influenced by malnutrition, and then in the pigs at slaughter, even after relatively careful handling. No changes were found in the course of mycobacteriosis. The relative weight of adrenal glands in slaughtered pigs of lower body weight was higher than that in the pigs of the same age, but of higher body weight. On the other hand, the slaughtered pigs of higher body weights tended to have higher 11-OHCS concentrations. The prolonged stay of the pigs in slaughter houses before bleeding did not result in the increased 11-OHCS levels. The quality of meat was not affected.

  4. Gastric leiomyoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bose, B.; Candy, J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of gastric leiomyoblastoma (bizarre smooth muscle tumour), one of them having evidence of metastases. Both patients remain well after seven years and three and a half years respectively. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. The histological appearances are described in detail and an attempt is made to assess the criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:5485837

  5. Mist1 Expressing Gastric Stem Cells Maintain the Normal and Neoplastic Gastric Epithelium and Are Supported by a Perivascular Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Stancikova, Jitka; Sakitani, Kosuke; Asfaha, Samuel; Renz, Bernhard W; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A; Shibata, Wataru; Wang, Hongshan; Westphalen, Christoph B; Chen, Xiaowei; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Kim, Woosook; Khurana, Shradha S; Tailor, Yagnesh; Nagar, Karan; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Setlik, Wanda; Gershon, Michael D; Saha, Subhrajit; Ding, Lei; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G; Friedman, Richard A; Konieczny, Stephen F; Worthley, Daniel L; Korinek, Vladimir; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-12-14

    The regulation and stem cell origin of normal and neoplastic gastric glands are uncertain. Here, we show that Mist1 expression marks quiescent stem cells in the gastric corpus isthmus. Mist1(+) stem cells serve as a cell-of-origin for intestinal-type cancer with the combination of Kras and Apc mutation and for diffuse-type cancer with the loss of E-cadherin. Diffuse-type cancer development is dependent on inflammation mediated by Cxcl12(+) endothelial cells and Cxcr4(+) gastric innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). These cells form the perivascular gastric stem cell niche, and Wnt5a produced from ILCs activates RhoA to inhibit anoikis in the E-cadherin-depleted cells. Targeting Cxcr4, ILCs, or Wnt5a inhibits diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis, providing targets within the neoplastic gastric stem cell niche.

  6. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism.

  7. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  8. Severe gastritis in guinea-pigs infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sturegård, E; Sjunnesson, H; Ho, B; Willén, R; Aleljung, P; Ng, H C; Wadström, T

    1998-12-01

    An appropriate animal model is essential to study Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if H. pylori can colonise the guinea-pig stomach and whether the infection causes gastritis and a serological response similar to that observed in man. Guinea-pigs were infected either with fresh H. pylori isolates from human gastric biopsies or with a guinea-pig passaged strain. When the animals were killed, 3 and 7 weeks after inoculation, samples were taken for culture, histopathology and serology. H. pylori was cultured from 22 of 29 challenged animals. All culture-positive animals exhibited a specific immune response against H. pylori antigens in Western blotting and gastritis in histopathological examination. Antibody titres in enzyme immunoassay were elevated among animals challenged with H. pylori. The inflammatory response was graded as severe in most animals and consisted of both polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes. Erosion of the gastric epithelium was found in infected animals. These results suggest that the guinea-pig is suitable for studying H. pylori-associated diseases. Moreover, guinea-pigs are probably more similar to man than any other small laboratory animal as regards gastric anatomy and physiology.

  9. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.

  10. Borrmann Type 4 Advanced Gastric Cancer: Focus on the Development of Scirrhous Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Seun Ja

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Borrmann type 4 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is very important for improving the prognosis of AGC patients. Because there is no definite mass in most cases of Borrmann type 4 AGC, its accurate diagnosis via endoscopy requires an understanding of its pathogenesis and developmental process. Moreover, many people confuse linitis plastica (LP) type gastric cancer (GC), scirrhous GC, and Borrmann type 4 AGC. To distinguish each of these cancers, knowledge of their endoscopic and pathological differences is necessary, especially for LP type GCs in the developmental stage. In conclusion, diagnosis of pre-stage or latent LP type GC before progression to typical LP type GC requires the detection of IIc-like lesions in the fundic gland area. It is also crucial to identify any abnormalities such as sclerosis of the gastric wall and hypertrophy of the mucosal folds during endoscopy. PMID:27456608

  11. Immunomodulatory Effect of H. Pylori CagA Genotype and Gastric Hormones On Gastric Versus Inflammatory Cells Fas Gene Expression in Iraqi Patients with Gastroduodenal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    AL-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the Immunomodulatory effects of CagA expression; pepsinogen I, II & gastrin-17 on PMNs and lymphocytes Fas expression in inflammatory and gastric cells; demographic distribution of Fas molecule in gastric tissue and inflammatory cells. METHODS: Gastroduodenal biopsies were taken from 80 patients for histopathology and H. pylori diagnosis. Serum samples were used for evaluation of pepsinogen I (PGI); (PGII); gastrin-17 (G-17). RESULTS: Significant difference (p < 0.001) in lymphocytes & PMNs Fas expression; epithelial & lamina propria Fas localization among H. pylori associated gastric disorders. No correlation between grade of lymphocytes & PMNs Fas expression in gastric epithelia; lamina propria and types of gastric disorder. Significant difference (p < 0.001) in total gastric Fas expression, epithelial Fas; lamina propria and gastric gland Fas expression according to CagA, PGI; PGII; PGI/PGII; Gastrin-17. Total gastric Fas expression has significant correlation with CagA, PGII levels. Gastric epithelial and gastric lamina propria Fas expression have significant correlation with CagA, PGI; PGII levels. Significant difference (p < 0.001) was found in lymphocytes & PMNs Fas expression; epithelial & lamina propria localization of lymphocytes & PMNs Fas expression according to CagA, PGI; PGII; PGI/PGII; Gastrin-17. Lymphocytes Fas expression have correlation with PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII. PMNs Fas expression have correlation with PGI, PGII. CONCLUSION: Fas gene expression and localization on gastric and inflammatory cells affected directly by H. pylori CagA and indirectly by gastric hormones. This contributes to progression of various gastric disorders according to severity of CagA induced gastric pathology and gastric hormones disturbance throughout the course of infection and disease. PMID:27703557

  12. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Submandibular gland excision.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, G M; Yarington, C T

    1988-10-01

    A review of 107 submandibular gland excisions was made to determine the relative frequency of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic disease. The results show a preponderance of non-neoplastic pathology. Benign tumors were found in 6% of glands, primary glandular and metastatic carcinoma in 3%. Timely treatment of a submandibular gland mass is indicated due to the relatively aggressive behavior of malignancies originating in this location.

  14. Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Driver, P J; Lemp, M A

    1996-01-01

    Blepharitis is probably the most common disease entity seen in the general ophthalmologist's office. A significant proportion of these cases are secondary to meibomian gland disease. This review outlines our knowledge of the histopathology, lipid abnormalities and role of microorganisms in meibomian gland dysfunction. We will also review the physiology of meibomian gland secretion and present models of meibomian gland dysfunction which have enhanced our knowledge of this condition. The importance of diagnosing associated conditions such as aqueous tear deficiency, contact lens intolerance, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis is emphasized. Although this condition causes significant morbidity in the population, there are effective treatments available and these will be discussed.

  15. Identification of non-neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanghai; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Gastric polyps can be broadly defined as luminal lesions projecting above the plane of the mucosal surface. They are generally divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic polyps. Accurate diagnosis of neoplastic polyps is important because of their well-known relationship with gastric cancer. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. In this study, we used MPM to image the microstructure of gastric polyps, including fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory fibroid polyps and adenomas, then compared with gold-standard hematoxylin- eosin(H-E)-stained histopathology. MPM images showed that different gastric polyps have different gland architecture and cell morphology. Dilated, elongated or branch-like hyperplastic polyps are arranged by columnar epithelial cells. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are composed of small, thin-walled blood vessels surrounded by short spindle cells. Fundic glands polyps are lined by parietal cells and chief cells, admixed with normal glands. Gastric adenomas are generally composed of tubules or villi of dysplastic epithelium, which usually show some degree of intestinal-type differentiation toward absorptive cells, goblet cells, endocrine cells. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be used to identify non- neoplastic and neoplastic gastric polyps without the need of any staining procedure.

  16. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  17. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori. After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che−) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che− strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization. PMID:27729513

  18. An appropriate ingestion volume of oral sulfa drug suspension in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kokue, E; Shimoda, M; Suzuki, R

    1989-06-01

    The influence of ingested volume of a sulfa drug suspension, sodium sulfamonomethoxine (SMMNa), on the oral pharmacokinetics was studied in pigs, with regard to bioavailability and gastric emptying. Eighteen pigs, weighing 30-70 kg, were used. Phenol red solution was used for the evaluation of gastric emptying study. SMMNa suspension was used for pharmacokinetic study. Both of these fluids were administered by natural swallowing. Three experimental groups were constructed: G-I; 5 ml/kg of the test fluids to starved animals, G-II; 5 ml/kg of the test fluids to fed animals and G-III; 20 ml/kg of the fluids to fed animals. The glucose glycine electrolyte solution (GGES) was used as the vehicle for both the compounds. Six pigs, having duodenal cannula, were used for the study of gastric emptying. The gastric emptying rate was rapid in G-I, relatively rapid in G-III, and slow and variable in G-II. In agreement with the result of gastric emptying study, the values of Cmax and tmax were high and rapid in G-I, relatively high and rapid in G-III, and low and slow in G-II. Accordingly, the voluminous ingestion of drug suspension can facilitate the gastric emptying, in turn may make the oral absorption of the drug rapid-and-uniform. The 20 ml/kg volume of sulfa drug suspension may practically be recommended for the oral administration in pigs.

  19. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  20. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  3. [Restoration of secretory activity of digestive glands in conditions of acute hyperkinesis at persons with different levels of motor activity].

    PubMed

    Griaznykh, A V

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.

  4. Gastrointestinal ulceration in the guinea pig in response to dimaprit, histamine, and H1- and H2-blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Pfeiffer, C.J.

    1981-04-01

    Histamine is known to induce gastric ulcers in guinea pigs after intraperitoneal administration and duodenal ulcers after repeated intramuscular administrations. This study was undertaken to clarify further the differential role of H1 and H2 receptor sites in respect to gastric and duodenal ulcer in the guinea pig. Groups of guinea pigs were treated with histamine, intraperitoneal (1.81 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or intramuscular (0.09 mg/kg intramuscular X 8 doses); the selective H2 agonist dimaprit (0.09-0.18 mg/kg X 8 doses intramuscular or 1.81-3.62 mg/kg intraperitoneal); NaCl, 154 mM (control); and the selective H1 and H2 antagonists, diphenhydramine (125 mg/kg X 2 doses, intramuscular) or cimetidine (50 mg/kg X 3 doses, intramuscular). Gastric and duodenal lesions were evaluated and residual gastric contents were analyzed. The selective induction of gastric or duodenal ulceration by histamine was confirmed, and the H2 agonist, dimaprit, has been shown to be ulcerogenic to the guinea pig duodenum by intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration. Diphenhydramine produced considerably more protection against histamine-induced gastric ulceration (62% decrease in incidence), while cimetidine was particularly effective in the prevention of histamine-induced duodenal ulcer (64% decrease in incidence). A differential role of histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric as opposed to duodenal ulcer is suggested by the present findings.

  5. The Gastric Phenotype in the Cypriniform Loaches: A Case of Reinvention?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Odete; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Smolka, Adam J.; Fontainhas, António

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2–3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade. In the present study, the foregut regions of Cobitidae, Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae and the ancestral Botiidae family members were examined for the presence of gastric glands and gastric proton pump (Atp4a) α subunit expression by histology and immunohistochemistry respectively. Atp4a gene expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gastric glands expressing apical H+/K+-ATPase α subunit and isolated partial sequences of atp4a, identified using degenerate primers showing clear orthology to other vertebrate atp4a sequences, were detected in representative species from Nemacheilidae/ Balitoridae and Botiidae, but not Cobitidae (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). In summary, we provide evidence for an uninterrupted gastric evolutionary lineage in the Cobitoidea, making it highly improbable that the stomach was reinvented in the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae clade consistent with Dollo’s principle. These results also indicate that the gastric trait may be present elsewhere in the Cobitoidea. PMID:27783698

  6. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  7. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  8. The development of acid and pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1) secretory capacity in the pig; the effects of age and weaning. 1. Studies in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, P D

    1985-07-01

    The development of gastric secretory capacity of hydrochloric acid and pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1) was studied in thirty-eight Large White X Landrace pigs from the litters of six sows (three pairs of two), 9-38 d of age. The pigs of each pair of sows were born within 24 h of each other. The pigs of a litter were paired according to sex and size and cross-fostered, i.e. one pig from each pair was allocated to each sow. One litter from each pair was reared entirely by the sow (milk-fed, MF) whereas the other litter was reared by the sow for 21 d, but was allowed access to solid food (210 g crude protein (nitrogen X 6.25)/kg) at 12 d and was entirely dependent on solid food after 21 d (creep-fed, CF). Following a 14-18 h fast, pigs were anaesthetized (Halothane-sodium pentobarbitone) and their stomachs perfused at a constant rate with Ringer solution. Gastric secretion was stimulated by intravenous infusion of betazole hydrochloride (Histalog) at 3 mg/kg per h for 2 h. Hydrochloric acid and pepsin were measured in the perfusate which was collected at 15-min intervals. There were significant positive correlations between stomach weight and body-weight for both MF and CF pigs. The slope of the regression line for CF pigs was significantly greater than that for MF pigs (P less than 0.01). There were significant positive correlations between maximal acid output and stomach weight for both MF and CF pigs. There were significant positive correlations between maximal pepsin output and stomach weight for both MF and CF pigs. The slope of the regression line for CF pigs was significantly different from that for MF pigs (P less than 0.01). There were also significant positive correlations between maximal pepsin output per unit stomach weight and stomach weight for both MF and CF pigs. The pattern of development of pepsin secretory capacity in both CF and MF pigs was different from that for acid secretion. Maximal outputs of acid per unit stomach weight for MF and CF pigs remained

  9. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases.

  10. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  11. In situ detection of urease-positive Helicobacter pylori-like organisms on swine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Kathleen A; Krakowka, Steven; Ringler, Susan S; Ellis, John A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the visual localization of urease activity of Helicobacter pylori-like organisms (HPLO) on swine gastric mucosa by in vitro optimization of the urea concentration and pH indicator of a urease test reagent. Five 21-day-old conventional pigs were infected orally with HPLO (3 pigs) or Brucella broth alone (2 pigs). At 17 d after infection the pigs were euthanized and their stomachs excised and tested for HPLO by a modified urease test formulation sprayed onto the gastric mucosa, as well as confirmatory culture and isolation of HPLO from urease-positive sites. This study showed improved detection of HPLO in porcine gastric mucosa with the use of a modified urease test formulation containing 5% urea and the pH indicator bromocresol purple compared with the use of a conventional formulation of 2% urea and phenol red. This test can readily be applied to achieve a presumptive diagnosis of HPLO in cases of gastritis or gastric esophageal ulceration in pigs.

  12. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  13. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  14. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  15. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  16. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  17. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  18. Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  19. Meibomian gland dysfunction. III. Meibomian gland lipids.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, N; Santos, E C; Smith, R E; Jester, J V

    1989-05-01

    The lipid components of meibomian gland excreta were evaluated in rabbits after they received 2% topical epinephrine dropped into their eyes daily for a period of 6 months to a year to induce meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Changes were compared to excreta obtained from seven age-matched, untreated control rabbits. Comparison of the lipids from MGD lids with lipids obtained from control rabbits revealed, for clinically evident MGD, a marked increase in the lipids that are uniquely characteristic of epidermal tissue. These epidermal lipids are free sterols (large amounts) and a group of seven types of ceramides. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the initiating factor of rabbit MGD is hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelia. For clinically apparent MGD some hydrolysis of the sterol esters of the meibomian gland lipids also seems to have occurred. This was evidenced by the formation of an 8-fold increase in a cluster of anteiso fatty acids with chain lengths longer than C20 in the free fatty acid fraction. This group of free fatty acids was the same as the acids esterified to the sterol esters. We could detect no change in the lipid excreta obtained from rabbits that developed only subclinical MGD, consisting of orifice plugging and dilation of the duct.

  20. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Partanen, K H; Mroz, Z

    1999-06-01

    Organic acids and their salts appear to be potential alternatives to prophylactic in-feed antibiotics and growth promoters in order to improve the performance of weaned piglets, fattening pigs and reproductive sows, although their growth-promoting effects are generally less than that of antibiotics. Based on an analysis of published data, the growth-promoting effect of formates, fumarates and citrates did not differ in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, formates were the most effective followed by fumarates, whereas propionates did not improve growth performance. These acids improved the feedgain ratio of both weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In weaned piglets, the growth-promoting effects of dietary organic acids appear to depend greatly on their influence on feed intake. In sows, organic acids may have anti-agalactia properties. Successful application of organic acids in the diets for pigs requires an understanding of their modes of action. It is generally considered that dietary organic acids or their salts lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes and gastric retention time, and thus improved protein digestion. Reduced gastric pH and increased retention time have been difficult to demonstrate, whereas improved apparent ileal digestibilities of protein and amino acids have been observed with growing pigs, but not in weaned piglets. Organic acids may influence mucosal morphology, as well as stimulate pancreatic secretions, and they also serve as substrates in intermediary metabolism. These may further contribute to improved digestion, absorption and retention of many dietary nutrients. Organic acid supplementation reduces dietary buffering capacity, which is expected to slow down the proliferation and|or colonization of undesirable microbes, e.g. Escherichia coli, in the gastro-ileal region. However, reduced scouring has been observed in only a few studies. As performance responses to dietary organic acids in pigs often varies

  1. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested. PMID:27185134

  2. Primary gastric tuberculosis mimicking gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eray, İsmail Cem; Rencüzoğulları, Ahmet; Yalav, Orçun; Dalcı, Kubilay; Kakil, Erdem; Bağır, Emine; Parsak, Cem Kaan

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient with no previous known diseases who had complaints of postprandial epigastric pain and weight loss and who could not be diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy, although gastric cancer was suspected radiologically and endoscopically, was diagnosed with primary gastric tuberculosis by laparotomy and frozen section. Following anti-tuberculosis treatment, a complete clinical, radiological, and endoscopic response was achieved. PMID:26504425

  3. Resolution of Fundic Gland Polyposis following Laparoscopic Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation and Subsequent Cessation of Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Joel R.; Connolly, Erin E.; Wittchow, Richard J.; Kothari, Shanu N.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur from a variety of sources and are found commonly on upper endoscopy. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who presented for evaluation for antireflux surgery with a history of fundic gland polyposis who required twice-daily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for control of her gastric reflux. After verifying that she met criteria for surgery, she underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation placement. With the cessation of PPIs following surgery, the fundic gland polyposis resolved. Fundic gland polyps may occur sporadically or within certain syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis. Multiple possible inciting factors exist, including the use of PPIs. This is the first reported case of the resolution of numerous fundic gland polyps following the completion of laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation. PMID:26600954

  4. Distribution and properties of arginase in the salivary glands of four species of laboratory mammals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, N; Moriwaki, K; Furuyama, S

    2004-04-01

    Important progress in arginine metabolism includes the discovery of widespread expression of two isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, not only in hepatic cells but also in non-hepatic cells, and the formation of nitric oxide, a widely distributed signal-transducing molecule, from arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Possible physiological roles of arginase may therefore include regulation of nitric oxide synthesis through arginine availability for nitric oxide synthase. In this paper, arginase was investigated in the submandibular, sublingual, and parotid glands of rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit. From their arginase contents, the salivary glands of these species were divided into two groups. Variable levels of arginase activity were detected in the salivary glands of mouse and rat. However, salivary glands of rabbit and guinea pig had almost no arginase activity. The presence of nitric oxide synthase has been reported in all the salivary glands used in this study. Therefore, one of the important findings was the presence of species specificity in the co-localization of arginase and nitric oxide synthase in the salivary glands of the four species. The highest specific activity of arginase was found in mouse parotid gland. In rat, considerable arginase activity was detected in all three glands, at 3.6-7.3% of that in rat liver. In rat submandibular gland, arginase was detected in both cytosolic and particulate fractions. In addition, arginase was detected in isolated acinar cells, but not in duct cells. Experiments on the intracellular distribution and the effects of the arginase inhibitors ornithine and N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), suggested the presence of both arginase I and arginase II in rat submandibular gland. PMID:14712329

  5. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described.

  6. [Gastric cancer in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Wu, M S; Lin, J T; Lee, W J; Yu, S C; Wang, T H

    1994-09-01

    The study of gastric cancer is important in clinical medicine as well as in public health. Environmental factors play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis and thus primary prevention is feasible after improvement of these factors. The 5-year survival rate of resected early gastric cancer is over 90% and this provides an excellent paradigm for secondary prevention. Though its mortality rate has declined since 1970, gastric cancer remains common and carries a high mortality in Taiwan where about 2,000 patients die of gastric cancer annually. The age-adjusted mortality is 16.54 and 8.16/100,000 for male and female, ranking the third and fourth cancer death respectively. Epidemiologic data disclose a positive association between gastric cancer and some dietary factors in Taiwan. However, the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and hereditary susceptibility should be elucidated in the future. Endoscopy with biopsy is an excellent method of the diagnosis of gastric cancer. However, its invasiveness makes it impractical as a screening tool and thus the proportion of early gastric cancer to gastric cancer remains as low as 30% in most reports. The value of lymph node dissection remains controversial although surgery is one of the most effective methods of eradicating gastric cancer. Overall, the 5 year survival rate is 24.5% to 54%. Laser therapy is usually reserved for patients with high operative risk and specific types of gastric cancer. To improve the survival results, development of a simple and economic screening program based on the epidemiologic results and utilization of noninvasive examinations such as serologic markers to diagnose and treat gastric cancer at its earliest stage deserves further study.

  7. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  8. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Niharika; Parmar, Deepankar; Rao, B Rama Mohan; Rao, Epari Sanjeeva

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare primary tumour of the salivary gland, benign in nature arising from differentiated Sebaceous glands and cells in the salivary gland. Most of the tumours are seen in the parotid gland and very rarely in the submandibular gland. Herein a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma is reported in a 45 years old female with a swelling in the submandibular region. Histopathological study after surgical excision showed islands of sebaceous epithelial cells with dense collections of lymphoid cells in stroma and a diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland was made.

  9. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  10. Lymphomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M J; Bennett, M H; Cawson, R A

    1986-08-01

    Primary lymphomas arising in salivary glands are very uncommon. The histologic classification of 40 cases of lymphomas in salivary gland tissue submitted to the British Salivary Gland Tumour Panel is reported, and, for 30 of the patients for whom adequate information was available, the clinical presentation, management, and outcome have been analyzed. Lymphomas in salivary glands represented 1.7% of all reported salivary neoplasms. The majority developed in the parotid glands of patients aged between 50 and 70 years. Only four cases gave a premorbid history compatible with sicca syndrome. In this series, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated; 23 were Grade I, and 13 were Grade II. Treatment regimens were not uniform, but are outlined. Survival ranged from 5 to 111 months. Median survival for the group was 49 months. Prognosis was not influenced by the clinical stage of disease at presentation. Four cases of lymphoma arising in benign lymphoepithelial lesions are included. None had clinical symptoms of sicca complex. Prognosis for this group was found to be as favorable as the others.

  11. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin F; Meier, Jeremy D; Ward, P Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision.

  12. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  13. Changes in the microflora and physiology of the anterior intestinal tract of pigs weaned at 2 days, with special reference to the pathogenesis of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barrow, P A; Fuller, R; Newport, M J

    1977-12-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora and gastric physiology of piglets weaned at 2 days was compared with that of piglets allowed to continue sucking the sow. Although there was a significantly higher count of Escherichia coli in the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum of the early-weaned compared with sow-reared pigs, these differences were not detectable in samples from the ileum. There were no quantitative differences in lactobacilli and in streptococci between the two treatments. Lactobacillus fermentum, L. acidophilus, Streptococcus salivarius, S. bovis, and related biotypes were isolated from both groups of pigs. L. fermentum and S. salivarius were isolated more frequently from sow-reared piglets. The weight of digesta in the stomach was greater in weaned than in sucking pigs and was even greater in scouring weaned pigs, suggesting that in scouring pigs there may be gastric stasis. The gastric pH was higher in the weaned pigs at 4 days of age, but gradually decreased up to 10 days, during which time the lactic acid concentration rose. In weaned pigs there was a highly significant negative correlation between pH and lactic acid concentration in the stomach digesta, and also a positive correlation between pH and number of E. coli. These correlations suggest that lactic acid, from bacterial fermentation, is the major component in the regulation of gastric pH in weaned pigs. Three of twenty sucking pigs, but none of the weaned pigs, were secreting HCl (chloride concentration > 3 mg/g, pH < 3.5). In sucking pigs there was an inverse relationship between the chloride and lactic acid concentrations in the digesta. In weaned scouring pigs there was a nonsignificant increase in pepsin concentration in the stomach tissue. There was a threefold increase in the total proteolytic activity of the stomach tissue.

  14. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Alén, Begoña O; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer.

  15. The role of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Alén, Begoña O.; Leal-López, Saúl; Alén, María Otero; Viaño, Patricia; García-Castro, Victoria; Mosteiro, Carlos S.; Beiras, Andrés; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Gallego, Rosalía; García-Caballero, Tomás; Camiña, Jesús P.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, and the GPR39 receptor were reported to be involved in the control of mitogenesis of gastric cancer cell lines; however, the relationship between the obestatin/GPR39 system and gastric cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the expression levels of the obestatin/GPR39 system in human gastric adenocarcinomas and explored their potential functional roles. Twenty-eight patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were retrospectively studied, and clinical data were obtained. The role of obestatin/GPR39 in gastric cancer progression was studied in vitro using the human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line. Obestatin exogenous administration in these GPR39-bearing cells deregulated the expression of several hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, obestatin signaling promoted phenotypic changes via GPR39, increasingly impacting on the cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion of these cells. In healthy human stomachs, obestatin expression was observed in the neuroendocrine cells and GPR39 expression was localized mainly in the chief cells of the oxyntic glands. In human gastric adenocarcinomas, no obestatin expression was found; however, an aberrant pattern of GPR39 expression was discovered, correlating to the dedifferentiation of the tumor. Altogether, our data strongly suggest the involvement of the obestatin/GPR39 system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of human gastric adenocarcinomas and highlight the potential usefulness of GPR39 as a prognostic marker in gastric cancer. PMID:26716511

  16. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  17. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  18. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  19. Imaging of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J L

    1995-12-01

    CT and MRI have greatly facilitated evaluation of pathology of the three pairs of major salivary glands and the hundreds of minor salivary glands. Imaging can frequently offer a specific histological diagnosis for benign and malignant neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Obstruction, infection, autoimmune processes, and congenital anomalies also are readily diagnosed. CT and MRI studies assess the anatomic extent of minor salivary gland neoplasms. Sialography continues to provide useful information about intrinsic abnormalities of the parotid and submandibular ducts.

  20. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  1. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  2. Ramucirumab for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Kohei; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, various molecular target agents have been investigated for gastric cancer. VEGF is one of the most potent angiogenic factors and is a signaling molecule secreted by many solid tumors. High VEGF expression is one of the characteristic features of gastric carcinomas, thus targeting VEGF is considered a promising strategy for gastric cancer. Ramucirumab, an anti-VEGF receptor antibody, has proven to be effective for previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Details of ramucirumab, including two pivotal Phase III studies, will be discussed in this review. Ramucirumab, with or without chemotherapy, improved survival in gastric cancer after previous systemic chemotherapy, thus becoming the standard of care for this patient population. Optimal timing of ramucirumab use and adequate biomarkers for patient selection as well as mechanism of resistance should be explored in future research.

  3. [Intermediate gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Fontán, A N; Marzano, C A; Martínez, M M; Palau, G; Rubio, H H

    1980-01-01

    Gastric Cancer comprises two basic types: Advanced Gastric Cancer (A.G.C.) and Early Gastric Cancer (E.G.C.). A.G.C. extends beyond the proper muscle layer with a 5 to 17%, five years survival rate after surgery. E.G.C. does not extend beyond the submucosa (with or without metastasis to regional lymph nodes) and has a 80 - 95% five years survival rate. Intermediate Gastric Cancer, PM G.C. (Gastric cancer of the proper muscle layer) does not surpass the proper muscle layer and offers a five years life expectance of near 60% after adequate surgical treatment, with peculiar features in radiology, endoscopy and evolutivity. We report a case of PM G.C., "depressed" and "protruded". The proper muscle layer was invaded by the depressed lesion". Both lesions were continguous.

  4. [Meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Finis, D; Schrader, S; Geerling, G

    2012-05-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a chronic disease, usually caused by obstruction of the secretory Meibomian glands. The subsequent reduction of gland secretion results in a decreased amount of lipids in the tear film. This results in a faster evaporation of the tear film and thus an evaporative dry eye. MGD alone is responsible for about 60% of all cases in combination with aqueous deficiency for a further 20% of dry eyes. While in Europe up to 20% of the population are suffering from MDD, this is true in Asia for over 60% of the population. MGD is more common in women and it incidence increases with age. It is influenced by the hormonal status as well as chemical and mechanical noxious stimuli. Additional risk factors include various skin diseases such as rosacea, acne or atopy. To diagnose MGD, particular attention should be paid to changes in the lid margin such as plugging or pouting of the ducts, thickening and telangiectasia. However, most important is the diagnostic expression of the glands. At first it should be assessed whether secretion can be caused by pressure to the eyelid against the globe and secondly the quality of the expressed secretions should be evaluated. MGD should be treated according to the severity of the disease. While in mild stages instructions for lid margin hygiene, warming and massage in combination with artificial tears might be sufficient, in more severe stages oral tetracyclin derivatives and anti-inflammatory eye drops such as steroids or CSA are necessary for successful treatment.

  5. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children.

  6. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2+ cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5+ stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5+ stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2+ cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2+ cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program. PMID:26989172

  7. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  8. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  9. [Hemodynamic restructuring of the gastric macro- and microcirculatory bed in disordered circulation].

    PubMed

    Khaimov, G N

    1980-07-01

    Species-specific peculiarities of extra- and intraorganic gastric blood vessels in some representatives of carnivores, herbivores, omnivores (220 animals) have been studied. Sources of the gastric blood supply have been defined in dogs, foxes, cats, rabbits, guinea-pigs, white rats, pigs; intraorganic distribution of blood vessels and local peculiarities of the microcirculatory bed have been studied in the normal organ. Structural bases during restorative processes of the gastric circulation after subtotal and partial devascularization have been revealed; collateral pathways, plastic properties of vessels having various diameters have been described in detales. A great attention has been paid to rearrangement of some microcirculatory links, to certain capacity changes, with special reference to dynamics of morphological indices.

  10. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  11. Comparison of human and porcine gastric clasp and sling fiber contraction by M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vegesna, Anil K.; Braverman, Alan S.; Miller, Larry S.; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Tiwana, Mansoor I.; Khayyam, Umar

    2010-01-01

    To compare the gastroesophageal junction of the human with the pig, M2 and M3 receptor densities and the potencies of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtype selective antagonists were determined in gastric clasp and sling smooth muscle fibers. Total muscarinic and M2 receptors are higher in pig than human clasp and sling fibers. M3 receptors are higher in human compared with pig sling fibers but lower in human compared with pig clasp fibers. Clasp fibers have fewer M3 receptors than sling fibers in both humans and pigs. Similar to human clasp fibers, pig clasp fibers contract significantly less than pig sling fibers. Analysis of the methoctramine Schild plot suggests that M2 receptors are involved in mediating contraction in pig clasp and sling fibers. Darifenacin potency suggests that M3 receptors mediate contraction in pig sling fibers and that M2 and M3 receptors mediate contraction in pig clasp fibers. Taken together, the data suggest that both M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors mediate the contraction in both pig clasp and sling fibers similar to human clasp and sling fibers. PMID:20133950

  12. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

    1998-06-01

    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens. PMID:9732040

  13. Helicobacter suis Causes Severe Gastric Pathology in Mouse and Mongolian Gerbil Models of Human Gastric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flahou, Bram; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; D'Herde, Katharina; Driessen, Ann; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background “Helicobacter (H.) heilmannii” type 1 is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans suffering from gastric disease. It has been shown to be identical to H. suis, a bacterium which is mainly associated with pigs. To obtain better insights into the long-term pathogenesis of infections with this micro-organism, experimental infections were carried out in different rodent models. Methodology/Principal Findings Mongolian gerbils and mice of two strains (BALB/c and C57BL/6) were infected with H. suis and sacrificed at 3 weeks, 9 weeks and 8 months after infection. Gastric tissue samples were collected for PCR analysis, histological and ultrastructural examination. In gerbils, bacteria mainly colonized the antrum and a narrow zone in the fundus near the forestomach/stomach transition zone. In both mice strains, bacteria colonized the entire glandular stomach. Colonization with H. suis was associated with necrosis of parietal cells in all three animal strains. From 9 weeks after infection onwards, an increased proliferation rate of mucosal epithelial cells was detected in the stomach regions colonized with H. suis. Most gerbils showed a marked lymphocytic infiltration in the antrum and in the forestomach/stomach transition zone, becoming more pronounced in the course of time. At 8 months post infection, severe destruction of the normal antral architecture at the inflamed sites and development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma-like lesions were observed in some gerbils. In mice, the inflammatory response was less pronounced than in gerbils, consisting mainly of mononuclear cell infiltration and being most severe in the fundus. Conclusions/Significance H. suis causes death of parietal cells, epithelial cell hyperproliferation and severe inflammation in mice and Mongolian gerbil models of human gastric disease. Moreover, MALT lymphoma-like lesions were induced in H. suis-infected Mongolian gerbils. Therefore, the

  14. Innervation of the human gastric wall.

    PubMed Central

    Kyösola, K; Rechardt, L; Veijola, L; Waris, T; Penttilä, O

    1980-01-01

    The intrinsic innervation of the human gastric wall was studied by means of (1) demonstration of the acetylcholinesterase activity, (2) fluorescence microscopy, and (3) electron microscopy. The cholinergic innervation was rich: in the mucosa, a dense three dimensional network consisting of single delicate varicose acetylcholinesterase-positive axons and small nerve fascicles was observed in close relation to the gastric glands. In the submucosa, large nerve trunks and densely woven plexuses mainly consisting of single varicose axons (obviously perivascular plexuses)) were seen. In the muscularis external, a small-meshed net consisting of single varicose axons and nerve fascicles was observed. The ganglia of the myenteric plexus were small and scattered irregularly between and within the muscle layers. Most of the nerve cells exhibited moderate to intense acetylcholinesterase activity. In the serosa, only a few nerves were observed. By fluorescence microscopy, an abundance of brightly yellow fluorescing irregularly fusiform enterochromaffin cells was observed in the epithelial lining of the antral glands. The parietal cells of the fundic glands exhibited a granular, yellow to orange autofluorescence. Fluorescing axons were seen in intimate relation to some enterochromaffin cells, whereas most enterochromaffin cells and parietal cells did not receive any direct functional adrenergic innervation. In the other tissue layers, only a few fluorescing nerves were seen. The main ultrastructural characteristics of the intrinsic innervation of the mucosa were: (1) 'Innervation fasciculée'; (2) the axons were unmyelinated; (3) two main types of nerve terminals were identified according to their vesicle population(s): (a) nerve terminals containing only clear vesicles, (b) nerve terminals containing clear vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles. Most of the axons and nerve terminals within the nerve fascicles were acetylcholinesterase-positive. The nerve terminals were

  15. Gastric conduit perforation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  16. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band after laparoscopic gastric bypass and following placement of adjustable gastric band

    PubMed Central

    Lanaia, Andrea; Zizzo, Maurizio; Cartelli, Concetto M.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Banded gastric bypass is a bariatric surgical intervention that has been regularly performed in many centers. According to some series, banded gastric bypass is safe and feasible. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass in 2008. Subsequently, she underwent surgery in order to place adjustable gastric banding on previous bypass because of gastric pouch dilatation. Five months later, patient showed anorexia and signs of malnutrition. For this reason, she underwent laparoscopic removal of gastric banding. In our opinion, placing a device to restrict an already dilated gastric pouch must be avoided. PMID:26232597

  17. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  18. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals. PMID:26742788

  19. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; Román, L S

    1995-05-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  20. JB-9322, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with potent gastric mucosal protective properties.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, B.; Montero, M. J.; Sevilla, M. A.; Román, L. S.

    1995-01-01

    1. JB-9322 is a selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist with gastric antisecretory activity and mucosal protective properties. 2. The affinity of JB-9322 for the guinea-pig atria histamine H2-receptor was approximately 2 times greater than that of ranitidine. 3. In vivo, the ID50 value for the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats was 5.28 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. JB-9322 also dose-dependently inhibited gastric juice volume and pepsin secretion. In gastric lumen-perfused rats, intravenous injection of JB-9322 dose-dependently reduced histamine-, pentagastrin- and carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. JB-9322 showed antiulcer activity against aspirin and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and was more potent than ranitidine. 5. JB-9322 effectively inhibited macroscopic gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. Intraperitoneal injection was effective in preventing the lesions as well as oral treatment. The oral ID50 value for these lesions was 1.33 mg kg-1. By contrast, ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) failed to reduce these lesions. In addition, the protective effect of JB-9322 was independent of prostaglandin synthesis. 6. These results indicate that JB-9322 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a potent cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity. PMID:7647984

  1. Gastric cancer detection in gastric ulcer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mountford, R A; Brown, P; Salmon, P R; Alvarenga, C; Neumann, C S; Read, A E

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study has been performed of all cases of gastric ulcer diagnosed or investigated within the Endoscopy Unit of the Department of Medicine, Bristol, over a three year period (1974-76). The average length of follow-up was two years. Two hundred and sixty five cases of gastric ulcer were studied of which 37 proved to be malignant (14%). Presenting complaints of anorexia, weight loss, nausea and/or vomiting, and multiple (greater than 3) symptoms, were commoner in the malignant ulcer group. Ulcer site and the presence of coexisting duodenal ulceration were largely unhelpful in deciding the status of an ulcer. Malignant ulcers tended to be large (greater than 1 cm diameter). Radiology was highly unreliable in distinguishing benign from malignant ulcers. Visual inspection at endoscopy was more reliable, but associated with a tendency to over-diagnose malignancy. False positive biopsies were uncommon (two cases). Three cases of clinically unsuspected superficial gastric carcinoma were revealed. Repeated endoscopy and biopsy of all gastric ulcers until they are completely healed is advised. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7364322

  2. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagómez, G; Pabón, J; Calderón, O; Elío, D; Pérez, J; Martínez, M; Patiño, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterología Boliviano Japonés and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions.

  3. [Peptic activity of gastric juice in chronic gastritis. Morpho-functional aspects].

    PubMed

    Perasso, A; Testino, G; Cornaggia, M; Melloni, E

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study has been to evaluate peptic activity in gastric juice and gastric peptic cell mass in chronic gastritis. As regard peptic activity, there is a close correlation between it and the peptic gastric cell mass considered globally and expressed as Peptic Gastric Index (PGI), resulting from the individual average between fundic peptic index (chief cells + fundic muco-peptic cells) and antral peptic index (antral muco-peptic cells), both obtained by multiplying the number of peptic cells per mm2 by the thickness of respectively fundic and antral gland layer). In particular fundic and antral superficiale gastritis does not involve changes in peptic activity in gastric juice. On the contrary, in case of fundic pre-atrophic or atrophic there is a significant drop of peptic activity in gastric juice, regardless of the histological condition of the antrum. The lowest value of peptic activity may be noticed in case of atrophic pan-gastritis. Pre-atrophic and atrophic gastritis limited to the antrum--with superficial fundic gastritis--does not involve significant decreases of peptic activity in gastric juice. In this experiences Helicobacter pylori seem to influence peptic secretion: in fact, there is an increases of peptic activity in gastric juice in case of chronic pre-atrophic gastritis HP+.

  4. Characterization of a vasodilator from the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J M

    1992-04-01

    Salivary gland homogenates and oil-induced saliva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti dilate the rabbit aortic ring and contract the guinea pig ileum. The vasodilatory activity is endothelium-dependent, heat-stable, sensitive to both trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments, and both smooth muscle activities cross-desensitize to the tachykinin peptide substance P. Both bioactivities co-elute when salivary gland homogenates are fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC. Molecular sieving chromatography indicates a relative molecular mass of 1400. A monoclonal antibody specific to the carboxy terminal region of tachykinins reacts with material in the posterior part of the central lobe of paraformaldehyde-fixed salivary glands. The presence of a vasodilatory peptide of the tachykinin family in the salivary glands of A. aegypti is proposed and its role in blood feeding is discussed. PMID:1375258

  5. Cytochemical investigation on lipids in human major salivary glands. A light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Diaz, G; Lantini, M S; Del Fiacco, M

    1976-01-01

    The localization of lipids in the secretion of human parotid and submandibular glands has been here investigated. Ultrastructural observations following lipid extraction and histochemical data showed that lipid components are not present in the secretory granules. In fact, while histochemical reactions are completely negative, secretory granules from lipid-depleted glands retain all their morphological characters. These results led us to emphasize that, at least in human seromucous cells, lipids are not directly involved in the salivary secretion. This conclusion, which is supported by the biochemical data concerning the lipid content in human saliva, disagrees with the findings obtained in rat and guinea pig salivary glands. However, this discrepancy may be ascribed to the specific biochemical and ultrastructural differences found in the salivary glands of the various mammalian species. PMID:1023331

  6. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  7. Production of the mouse whey acidic protein in transgenic pigs during lactation.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Solinas, S; Pursel, V G; McKnight, R A; Alexander, L; Beattie, C; Hennighausen, L; Wall, R J

    1991-11-01

    The mouse whey acidic protein (WAP) gene was introduced into the genome of pigs and its expression was analyzed in the mammary gland. Mouse WAP was detected in milk of lactating females from five lines at levels between .5 and 1.5 g/liter, thereby representing as much as 2% of the total milk proteins. The corresponding mRNA was expressed in mammary tissue at levels similar to those of pig beta-lactoglobulin and beta-casein. The pattern of WAP secretion in three pigs over a period of 6 wk was quantitatively similar to that of pig beta-lactoglobulin. From the eight transgenic pigs analyzed, three successfully completed one lactational period, but five pigs stopped lactating a few days after parturition. Our results show that it is possible to produce large quantities of a foreign protein in milk of pigs over a full lactational period. However, expression of WAP can compromise the mammary gland and render it nonfunctional. PMID:1721617

  8. In vitro synthesis of immunoglobulin-A by salivary glands from animals of different species

    PubMed Central

    Hurlimann, J.; Darling, H.

    1971-01-01

    The in vitro synthesis of immunoglobulins by the salivary glands from eight different species was studied. It has been demonstrated that salivary glands from the cow, horse, sheep, pig, rat and guinea-pig preferentially synthesize a fast migrating immunoglobulin which seems to be analogous to IgA. In three of the species, the cow, sheep and pig, the IgA-like component cross-reacts with human IgA. The IgA synthesized by the salivary glands from the rat cross-reacts with the mouse IgA. When one compares the salivary IgA from the cow, horse, sheep, pig and rat with the IgA synthesized by the lymph nodes, there is evidence of additional antigenic determinants in the salivary IgA. These additional determinants could very possibly correspond to a secretory component. Thus, it appears that in most mammalian species there exists a mechanism for the synthesis of secretory IgA analogous to the one which exists in humans. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4104287

  9. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  10. Bronchial mucous gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H

    1979-07-27

    Tumours arising in the bronchial mucous glands closely resemble tumours arising in the mixed salivary glands. Bronchial mucous gland tumours account for less than 0.5 per cent of all lung tumours. Twenty six tumours are reviewed and they have been divided into five types, (a) adenoidcystic carcinomas, (b) muco-epidermoid tumors, (c) mixed (pleomorphic) tumors, (d) cystadenomas and (f) oxyphilic adenoma. The clinical features, and postoperative course of the patients are reviewed. Adenocystic carcinomas, arising in the bronchus frequently involve the neighbouring trachea and spread mainly by direct infiltration. Most muco-epidermoid bronchial tumours were confined to young persons, and the only malignant muco-epidermoid tumour occurred in an elderly person. The prognosis in young persons is good provided the tumours are completely excised. The two mixed bronchial tumours resembled their salivary counterparts and one subsequently behaved as a carcinoma and metastasised. Bronchial cystadenomas all proved to be benign tumours but in two cases were associated with surface papillary proliferation. The only example of an oxyphil cell adenoma was discovered at post mortem examination. The histogenesis of the tumours is considered.

  11. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Berendson, R; Gilman, R H

    1995-01-01

    A review is done on the evidence in favor of a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer of the intestinal type. In countries at high risk of gastric cancer, like Perú, Hp infection begins early in life and is highly frequent and persistent. When Hp colonizes the gastric mucosa, it causes active chronic gastritis. Initially, the gastritis is of the superficial type. With time, and probably as a result of the concurrent action of nutritional, epidemiologic and immunologic modulating factors, chronic superficial gastritis may give rise to a progressive gastric pathology that leads to gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and increases the predisposition to gastric cancer. The principal modulating factors are described. The epidemiology of gastric premalignant lesions in Perú is also described. Finally, a discussion is done on the effect that eradication of Hp infection might have on the prevalence of gastric cancer.

  12. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  13. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  14. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  15. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  16. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Sedat; Can, Ilknur Haberal; Unlü, Ilhan; Süngü, Nuran; Gönültaş, Mehmet Alparslan; Samim, Ethem Erdal

    2009-05-01

    A 33-year-old male patient with a slow-growing, painless, well-circumscribed soft tissue mass on the left parotid region is presented. The clinical impression was that of a benign salivary gland tumor. The tumor was situated in the superficial lobe of the gland, and a superficial parotidectomy was performed, with preservation of the facial nerve. Histopathologic examination results revealed a sialolipoma of the parotid gland and a lesion that consisted of both mature adipose tissue and glandular elements. Sialolipomas share similar clinical features with conventional lipomas of the salivary glands. Preoperative diagnosis is generally difficult, and computed tomographic scanning is useful in defining these benign parotid gland masses. Superficial parotidectomy is the usual surgical treatment for parotid gland superficial lobe lipomas, with near-total absence of recurrence.

  17. [Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Gardner, M; Petit, F

    2005-06-01

    Tumors of salivary glands arise mainly from the parotid gland. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mandatory not only to localize precisely the tumor within the gland but also to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms, in competition with cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Tumors without risk of transformation, such as adenolymphoma, are not systematically operated on. Indications of roentgenotherapy and irradiation volumes depend on histologic type, localisation and size of the tumor.

  18. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity.

  19. Pharmacological profile of gastric mucosal protection by marmin and nobiletin from a traditional herbal medicine, Aurantii fructus immaturus.

    PubMed

    Takase, H; Yamamoto, K; Hirano, H; Saito, Y; Yamashita, A

    1994-09-01

    We studied the effects of marmin and nobiletin on the experimental acute gastric lesions, gastric transmucosal potential difference (PD) and gastric motor activity in rats and the contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum. Oral administration of marmin and nobiletin inhibited both the appearance of ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic lesions dose-dependently in a dose range of 10-50 mg/kg, with ED50 values for marmin and nobiletin being 17.2 and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. However, marmin and nobiletin had minimal effects on aspirin-induced gastric lesions at a dose of 50 mg/kg, respectively. Marmin and nobiletin had no significant influence on the basal PD. Intragastrical administration of marmin and nobiletin at a dose of 25 mg/kg significantly prevented the PD reduction induced by ethanol. Both marmin and nobiletin given intragastrically at 25 mg/kg significantly inhibited gastric motor activity measured as intraluminal pressure recordings. Marmin and nobiletin exhibited concentration-dependent relaxations of contractions induced by acetylcholine, transmural electrical stimulation and histamine in isolated guinea pig ileum, respectively. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer effects of marmin and nobiletin are ascribed primarily to the maintenance of the mucosal barrier integrity and inhibition of gastric motor activity and secondarily due to the prevention of the effects of endogenous acetylcholine and histamine.

  20. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  1. Phytase properties and locations in tissues of transgenic pigs secreting phytase in the saliva.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Murray, D; Keirstead, N D; Hayes, M A; Fan, M Z; Ganeshapillai, Jeyabarathy; Monteiro, M A; Golovan, S P; Phillips, J P

    2014-08-01

    A transgenic Cassie (CA) line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs was developed using a transgene composed of the mouse parotid secretory protein promoter linked to the Escherichia coli phytase gene integrated in chromosome 4. Previous studies documented that salivary secretion of phytase was sufficient to enable efficient digestion of plant feed phytate P. In the present study the catalytic properties and tissue distribution of the phytase in CA pigs were determined by a combination of enzymatic assays, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblots of tissue samples. The E. coli phytase had a mass of 44.82 kDa whereas the phytase secreted in CA saliva had a mass of 52.42 kDa as a result of glycosylation of the enzyme in the parotid gland. Despite the difference in size, the 2 enzymes exhibited similar substrate specificities, and substrate affinity ( K: m) and maximum hydrolytic activity ( V: max) catalytic properties. Phytase assays showed that the enzyme was present at high specific activity in the salivary glands with low activity in the soft palate and essentially none in the kidney, lean (muscle), liver, or skin of CA pigs and none in YK pigs. This conclusion was supported by immunoblot analysis using a polyclonal anti-phytase antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 different tissue locations of CA and YK pigs confirmed the ubiquitous presence of phytase in serous cells of the salivary glands and the localized presence of phytase in both serous and mixed cell types in the submucosal glands of the oropharynx; in the pharynx, tonsils, and esophagus; in some Bowman's glands in the nasal mucosa and eustachian tube; and in the prostate gland of CA boars. Furthermore, it showed the absence of phytase from the kidney, lean, liver, and skin of CA pigs. Phytase was not detected in any of the conventional YK tissues tested. The phytase was found to be glycosylated with the allergenic galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) epitope by immunoblotting using α-gal specific monoclonal

  2. [Meibomian gland dysfunction--review].

    PubMed

    Nowińska, Anna; Wylegała, Edward; Tarnawska, Dorota; Janiszewska, Dominika; Dobrowolskia, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction is a common ocular disorder affecting from 39 to 50% of population. Despite that, so far a pathophysiology path of the disease remains unknown, moreover there is no distinct border between physiology and the disease. There has been no clear diagnostic criteria. The purpose of this review was to combine a current knowledge of Meibomian gland anatomy, Meibomian gland dysfunction epidemiology, as well as presenting current definition, nomenclature, classification and diagnostic criteria. The importance of diagnosis associated with conditions such as aqueous tear deficiency, seborrheic dermatitis, and rosacea is emphasized. The available treatment methods are discussed. Meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, dry eye syndrome.

  3. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  4. Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  5. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  6. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  7. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  8. Experimental infection of pigs with 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis'.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, A; Chiers, K; Decostere, A; De Bock, M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R

    2007-05-01

    'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' is a spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomach of more than 60% of slaughter pigs. The role of 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' in gastric disease of pigs is still unclear. Experimental studies in pigs are lacking because this bacterium is unculturable until now. An inoculation protocol using 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' infected mouse stomach homogenate was used to reproduce the infection in pigs. Control animals were inoculated using negative mouse stomach homogenate. Pigs were inoculated three times with one-week intervals and euthanized 6 weeks post inoculation. Tissue samples were taken from different mucosal stomach regions to detect 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' by PCR and urease test. Mucosal inflammation was evaluated on formalin-fixed tissue samples. Lesions in the pars oesophagea were scored macroscopically. Infection was successful in all challenged animals, with the antrum and the fundus being predominantly positive. Infection was associated with infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the antral mucosa, evolving to follicular gastritis. No apparent inflammation of the fundic stomach region was detected in the infected animals. A clear link between 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' and pars oesophageal lesions could not be found.

  9. Trenbolone acetate induced changes in the genital tract of male pigs.

    PubMed

    López-Bote, C; Sancho, G; Martínez, M; Ventanas, J; Gázquez, A; Roncero, V

    1994-03-01

    Eleven entire and twelve castrated male pigs were implanted with trenbolone acetate and the effects of the treatment on genital tract macro- and microscopical modifications were evaluated and compared to non-implanted animals. In entire male pigs a reduction of testicular weight and size was observed as a consequence of the treatment (< 0.001), but no important modifications were found in bulbourethral gland and seminal vesicles macroscopically. Castrated non-implanted males had bulbourethral gland atrophy (P < 0.01), while castrated implanted ones showed similar development to entire males. As for vesicular glands there were no significant differences among the four groups under study. Histological study of prostate has demonstrated structural modifications. As a consequence of the treatment glandular lumen was increased (P < 0.05), and most parenchyma was occupied by polymorphous cysts.

  10. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Diffusion through Pig Gastric Mucin: Effect of Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Runnsjö, Anna; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Sparr, Emma; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Arnebrant, Thomas; Engblom, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Mucus covers the epithelium found in all intestinal tracts, where it serves as an important protecting barrier, and pharmaceutical drugs administrated by the oral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, or nasal route need to penetrate the mucus in order to reach their targets. Furthermore, the diffusion in mucus as well as the viscosity of mucus in the eyes, nose and throat can change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this study we have investigated how diffusion through gels of mucin, the main protein in mucus, is affected by changes in ambient relative humidity (i.e. water activity). Already a small decrease in water activity was found to give rise to a significant decrease in penetration rate through the mucin gel of the antibacterial drug metronidazole. We also show that a decrease in water activity leads to decreased diffusion rate in the mucin gel for the fluorophore fluorescein. This study shows that it is possible to alter transport rates of molecules through mucus by changing the water activity in the gel. It furthermore illustrates the importance of considering effects of the water activity in the mucosa during development of potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:27336158

  12. Cloning and expression characteristics of the pig Stra8 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tingfeng; Song, Chengyi; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Yani

    2014-07-15

    Stra8 (Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8) is considered a meiotic gatekeeper gene. Using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the complete sequence of the pig Stra8 gene was cloned. Bioinformatics analyses of this sequence were performed. Using semi-quantitative methods, the expression characteristics of Stra8 in Testis, cauda epididymis, body epididymis, caput epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Cowper's gland, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus of adult Meishan boar and sow tissues were examined. The expression pattern in the testis of 2-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 150-day old Meishan boars were analyzed using real-time PCR. We constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for the Stra8 gene and used it to transfect NIH-3T3 cells and third generation pig spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cultured in vitro. Testes weight and sperm count in the cauda epididymis were evaluated at various time points. The results showed that the length of the pig Stra8 gene cDNA was 1444 bp encoding 366 amino acids with one typical helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain. It is testes-specific expression. Expression was first detected in boar testis starting at day 2, and its expression significantly (p<0.05) increased with age and body weight. When NIH-3T3 cells and pig SSCs were transfected with the eukaryotic expression vector EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein)-N1-pStra8, it was expressed in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells. However, in SSCs, Stra8 was expressed predominantly in cytoplasm and few in nucleus. Our data suggest that perhaps Stra8 acts as a transcription factor to initiate meiosis in young boar.

  13. Cloning and Expression Characteristics of the Pig Stra8 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tingfeng; Song, Chengyi; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Stra8 (Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8) is considered a meiotic gatekeeper gene. Using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the complete sequence of the pig Stra8 gene was cloned. Bioinformatics analyses of this sequence were performed. Using semi-quantitative methods, the expression characteristics of Stra8 in Testis, cauda epididymis, body epididymis, caput epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Cowper’s gland, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus of adult Meishan boar and sow tissues were examined. The expression pattern in the testis of 2-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 150-day old Meishan boars were analyzed using real-time PCR. We constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for the Stra8 gene and used it to transfect NIH-3T3 cells and third generation pig spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cultured in vitro. Testes weight and sperm count in the cauda epididymis were evaluated at various time points. The results showed that the length of the pig Stra8 gene cDNA was 1444 bp encoding 366 amino acids with one typical helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain. It is testes-specific expression. Expression was first detected in boar testis starting at day 2, and its expression significantly (p < 0.05) increased with age and body weight. When NIH-3T3 cells and pig SSCs were transfected with the eukaryotic expression vector EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein)-N1-pStra8, it was expressed in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells. However, in SSCs, Stra8 was expressed predominantly in cytoplasm and few in nucleus. Our data suggest that perhaps Stra8 acts as a transcription factor to initiate meiosis in young boar. PMID:25029539

  14. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  15. Five month persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sjunnesson, Hakan; Sturegard, Erik; Hynes, Sean; Willen, Roger; Feinstein, Ricardo; Wadstrom, Torkel

    2003-06-01

    Seven Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were infected with the Sydney strain of H. pylori (SS1). Gastric histopathology was evaluated and serum antibody response to H. pylori cell-surface proteins was analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoblot. Tissue and faecal samples from five control animals were analysed for the presence of naturally occurring Helicobacter spp. infection by culture and Helicobacter genus-specific PCR. The H. pylori infection persisted for 5 months, in most animals accompanied by a histologically severe antral gastritis, exhibiting focal degeneration and necrosis of gastric crypt epithelium. Increased numbers of mitotic figures were observed in the gastric epithelium, indicating a regenerative process. Infected animals displayed specific antibodies towards H. pylori cell-surface proteins in immunoblot, whereas EIA was of dubious value creating false-positive results. Serum complement C3 and cholesterol levels appeared to be elevated in infected animals. Helicobacter spp. infection was not detected in the control animals. The persistent infection, accompanied by severe gastritis and a prominent serum antibody response, and the apparent absence of a natural Helicobacter spp. infection makes the guinea pig model useful in H. pylori research.

  16. [Tumor markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Hisanao

    2002-04-01

    There are two markers, pepsinogen isoenzymes and antibody against Helicobactor pyroli, for screening of high-risk group for gastric cancer. Most of markers are used in diagnosis, staging, monitoring and differentiating subgroups of gastric cancer. Markers in ascitic fluid are used for diagnosing peritoneal invasion of gastric cancer. PMID:11977555

  17. Immunobiology of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, L M; Shafer-Weaver, K; DeRosa, D

    1997-08-01

    The mammary gland is a complex organ that provides neonatal offspring with milk for nourishment and disease resistance. Specific and innate immune factors associated with mammary gland tissues and secretion also play a vital role in protecting the gland from infectious disease. Through genetic selection and technological advances in milk removal, the bovine mammary gland yields for more milk than is needed to nourish the newborn calf. This excess is the basis of the dairy industry. Factors associated with the intense management of dairy cattle can profoundly affect mammary gland immunity and the ability of the host to resist mastitis. Technological advances in immunology have led to the availability of new research tools that can facilitate the study of mammary gland immunity and disease pathogenesis. In recent years, considerable research effort has focused on enhancing the natural defense mechanisms of the mammary gland during periods of heightened susceptibility to disease. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity with special emphasis on the bovine system. The underlying mechanisms of disease susceptibility and development of potential immunoregulatory strategies to control mastitis are discussed.

  18. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  19. Potential role of aquaporin 3 in gastric intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haijian; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yangchun; Zhang, Weiming; Wang, Yao; Wen, Jianfei; Zhang, Zhihong; Shen, Lizong

    2015-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a pre-cancerous condition and a pivotal step in the formation of gastric cancer (GC). Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) has been found to be expressed in goblet cells rather than mucus-secreting glands. To investigate the characteristics of GIM in non-cancerous tissues adjacent to GC, as well as the expression and role of AQP3 in GIM tissues, 16 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma of intestinal type located in the lesser curve of the antrum were consecutively enrolled in this study. A new pathological technology called “gastric mucosal sausage roll” was introduced. GIM was determined according to the updated Sydney system, and AQP3 expression in goblet cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. GIM was found in all stomach specimens, and its incidence increased with progression to GC (P < 0.001). GIM prevalence displayed remarkable association with the distance to GC in the anterior gastric wall tissues (P = 0.016) and tissues toward the cardia (P = 0.014), such that GIM was more common in the areas closer to GC (P < 0.001). AQP3 was found to be expressed in 67.71% of parts with GIM, and AQP3 immunoreactivity was identified more frequently in severe GIM areas (P < 0.001). In short, the incidence and severity of GIM correlated with the distance from GC, and AQP3 was differentially expressed in goblet cells, with most AQP3-positive goblet cells presenting in severe GIM. Together, this study suggests that AQP3 may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis from GIM. PMID:26506416

  20. Localization of transforming growth factor alpha and its receptor in gastric mucosal cells. Implications for a regulatory role in acid secretion and mucosal renewal.

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, R D; Barnard, J A; McCutchen, C M; Cherner, J A; Coffey, R J

    1989-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) shares with epidermal growth factor (EGF) structural homology (35%), a common cell-surface membrane receptor (TGF alpha/EGF receptor), and a nearly identical spectrum of biological activity, including inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Herein, we report expression of TGF alpha mRNA in normal gastric mucosa of the adult guinea pig, rat, and dog. TGF alpha mRNA was also detected in matched surgically resected gastric mucosa and adjacent gastric carcinoma from 10 patients, and in gastric mucosa adjacent to a benign ulcer from an additional patient. TGF alpha protein was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and was present in tumor and adjacent mucosa. TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA was also detected in gastric mucosa from all species studied. Localization of TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was examined in samples of unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa and from chief cell-enriched and parietal cell-enriched fractions. All samples exhibited TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor expression. The TGF alpha signal was greatest in the parietal cell fraction (5.8-fold increase), but was also enhanced in the chief cell fraction (1.9-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated gastric mucosa. Like TGF alpha expression, TGF alpha/EGF receptor mRNA expression was most intense in the parietal cell-enriched fraction (7.8-fold increase), but was also increased in the chief cell-enriched fraction (2.7-fold increase) relative to the unfractionated guinea pig gastric mucosa. We conclude that TGF alpha and TGF alpha/EGF receptor genes are expressed in normal adult mammalian gastric mucosa. These findings, when interpreted in light of described actions of TGF alpha and EGF, provide evidence that local production of TGF alpha could play an important role in the regulation of acid secretion and mucosal renewal in the stomach. Images PMID:2760208

  1. Percutaneous implantation of gastric electrodes - a novel technique applied in animals and in patients.

    PubMed

    Elfvin, A; Andersson, S; Abrahamsson, H; Edebo, A; Simrén, M; Lönroth, H

    2007-02-01

    Temporary electrodes implanted under general anaesthesia, or via an oral or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy route have been used for testing of gastric electrical stimulation (GES). We have developed a principle for percutaneous electrode implantation. Leads were constructed so that the tip could be anchored to the gastric submucosa under gastroscopic control. Acute experiments were performed in anaesthetized pigs. Three patients referred for nausea and/or vomiting and non-established indications for GES (chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, functional dyspepsia without gastroparesis) were evaluated. Electrode function was tested by recording and stimulation techniques. In the pigs, a slow-wave (SW) rhythm (3 min(-1)) was recorded with decrease in frequency at the end of the experiments. In the patients, implantation time from start of gastroscopy to end of electrode placement was 12-20 min. Electrode distance varied from 12 to 45 mm. Gastric electromyography showed a regular SW rhythm of about 3 min(-1). Antral pressure waves had intervals being multiples of the SW-to-SW time. With temporary GES for 7-9 days, weekly frequency of the referral symptoms decreased >80% in two patients and 33% in one patient. Temporary percutaneous gastric leads can easily be implanted and may be used for testing of GES and study of gastric electrophysiology. PMID:17244164

  2. Schwannoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Diaz, D D; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; White, V J

    1991-01-01

    Neurilemmomas (schwannomas) are solitary neurogenic tumors that arise from cells of the neural sheath. They are slow growing and represent a proliferation of Schwann cells. Extracranial neurogenic tumors of the head and neck are uncommon, with benign tumors occurring with greater frequency than malignant tumors. These tumors often mimic primary or metastatic disease in the head and neck. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. An unusual case of neurilemmoma of the submandibular gland is presented, and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed. We believe this tumor originated in an autonomic nerve of the submandibular gland. The mass was discrete and well demonstrated on CT scan. Total excision of the gland resulted in complete resolution of symptoms with no cranial nerve deficits.

  3. Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index

    SciTech Connect

    Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

  4. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  5. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  6. The Glands of the Stomach in Relation to Pernicious Anæmia; with Special Reference to the Glands in the Pyloric Region

    PubMed Central

    Meulengracht, E.

    1935-01-01

    The researches have had in view the anatomical localization of the anti-anæmic factor (Castle's “intrinsic factor”) in the stomach. As the pig's stomach is peculiarly constructed, having a so-called cardiac-gland region, a fundus-gland region and a pyloric gland region continued in the glands of Brunner in the duodenum, preparations have been made from each of these regions, and tests of the effectiveness of each of these separate portions have been made in cases of pernicious anæmia. It has previously been pointed out (Meulengracht and Schiødt) that the production of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and rennin was confined to the glands of the fundus region (peptic glands) with their oxyntic cells and chief cells. The experiments showed that the extract of the fundus-gland portion was inactive in cases of pernicious anæmia, that of the so-called cardiac-gland portion was mildly active, that of the pyloric-gland portion was strongly active, and that of the duodenal portion was also strongly active. The feebler activity of the cardiac portion might be shown to be a result of the smaller number of glands to the unit area in that region. The conclusion drawn from the experiments is that the so-called cardiac glands, the pyloric glands and the Brunner glands in the duodenum, which anatomically may be said to be very nearly identical, may also be taken to be functionally identical, at any rate with regard to the production of the anti-anæmic factor. This collective gland region, which it is proposed to call the pyloric-gland region, is the site of the production of the anti-anæmic factor. There is thus attributed to these glands a definite, well-defined and vitally important function. It is further concluded from the experiments that pernicious anæmia in human beings is due to atrophy and inactivity of that part of the stomach which comprises the pyloric-gland region. The experiments may thus be said to have anatomically localized pernicious anæmia in human beings

  7. Immunohistochemical location of serotonin and serotonin 2B receptor in the small intestine of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Lei; Teng, Kedao

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin and serotonin 2B receptor in the small intestines of pigs newborn, 5, 15 and 100 days of age were examined qualitatively and quantitatively by immunohistochemical labeling, microscopic observation and image analysis. The results showed serotonin immunopositive cells distributed diffusely among the epithelial cells of the middle and more basal parts of villi and intestinal glands in all segments of all pigs examined. Serotonin 2B receptor was first localized in the duodenum of 15-day-old pigs, whereas in 100-day-old pigs, serotonin 2B receptor was immunolabeled abundantly in all segments. Serotonin 2B receptor was distributed in the connective tissue of the small intestinal mucosa, lamina propria and in some myenteric neurons. The density of serotonin 2B receptor immunopositive cells in the duodenum of 100-day-old pigs was higher than that of 15-day-old pigs. The density of serotonin 2B receptor immunopositive cells in the duodenum was the highest among the three segments of the 100-day-old pigs. The study indicates that the distribution of serotonin 2B receptor is species different in the pig small intestine and the intensity of serotonin 2B receptor becomes stronger as the small intestine matures.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Helicobacter suis sp. nov. from pig stomachs.

    PubMed

    Baele, M; Decostere, A; Vandamme, P; Ceelen, L; Hellemans, A; Mast, J; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-06-01

    A new cultivation method was successfully applied for the in vitro isolation of a hitherto uncultured spiral Helicobacter species associated with ulceration of the non-glandular stomach and gastritis in pigs and formerly described as 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis'. Three isolates, HS1(T), HS2 and HS3, were subcultured from the stomach mucosa of three pigs after slaughter and were analysed using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The novel isolates grew on biphasic culture plates or very moist agar bases in microaerobic conditions and exhibited urease, oxidase and catalase activities. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the 23S rRNA gene, the partial hsp60 gene and partial ureAB genes confirmed that the strains present in the gastric mucosa of pigs constituted a separate taxon, corresponding to 'Helicobacter heilmannii' type 1 strains as detected in the gastric mucosa of humans and other primates. For all genes sequenced, the highest sequence similarities were obtained with Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii and Helicobacter salomonis, Helicobacter species isolated from the gastric mucosa of dogs and cats, which have also been detected in the human gastric mucosa and which are commonly referred to as 'Helicobacter heilmannii' type 2. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins of strains HS1(T), HS2 and HS3 differentiated them from other Helicobacter species of gastric origin. The results of the polyphasic taxonomic analysis confirmed that the novel isolates constitute a novel taxon corresponding to 'Helicobacter heilmannii' type 1 strains from humans and to 'Candidatus H. suis' from pigs. The name Helicobacter suis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates with the type strain HS1(T) (=LMG 23995(T)=DSM 19735(T)).

  9. Computed tomography of gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Buy, J N; Moss, A A

    1982-05-01

    The CT features in 12 patients with gastric lymphoma, four primary and eight secondary, were analyzed, correlated with other diagnostic studies, surgery, and pathologic features, and compared with the CT findings in 22 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. An abnormally thickened gastric wall (mean, 4.0 cm) was found in all patients with gastric lymphoma. Lymphomas of the stomach often involved more than one region of the stomach (83%). The contour of the outer gastric wall was smooth or lobulated in 42%, perigastric lymph adenopathy was common (58%), extension into adjacent organs was found in 42%, and 42% had lymphadenopathy at or below the renal pedicle.

  10. A gastric pathogen moves chemotaxis in a new direction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Emily Goers; Guillemin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    For almost 50 years, Escherichia coli has been the model for understanding how bacteria orient their movement in response to chemical cues, but recent studies of chemotaxis in other bacteria have revealed interesting variations from prevailing paradigms. Investigating the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, Amieva and colleagues [mBio 2(4):e00098-11, 2011] discovered a new chemotaxis regulator, ChePep, which modulates swimming behavior through the canonical histidine-aspartate phosphorelay system. Functionally conserved among the epsilonproteobacteria, ChePep is essential for H. pylori to navigate deep into the stomach's gastric glands and may be an attractive target for novel antibiotics.

  11. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics.

  12. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  13. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  14. Salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P J; Black, K M

    1985-10-01

    A retrospective review of 643 patients with salivary gland tumors seen between 1958-72 is reported. There were 328 malignant and 375 benign tumors. All patients with malignant tumors were assessed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. The median age for developing malignant tumors was 58 and there was a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. For benign tumors the median age was 46 years and the male to female ratio 0.8:1. Overall the primary tumor was controlled by the first planned treatment in 145 (44%) malignant tumors and in 253 (80%) benign tumors. The five and 10 year actuarial survival for malignant tumors was 59.4% and 45.6% respectively.

  15. [Hypertrophic gastropathy similar to Ménétrier's disease in pigs slaughtered in accordance with regulations].

    PubMed

    Negro, M; Valenza, F; Galloni, M; Guarda, F

    1990-01-01

    The authors found during a study concerning the gastric pathology in pigs 2828 cases of hypertrophic gastropathy in 8408 regularly slaughtered animals. After a description of the morphologic patterns of the lesions, the authors make some pathogenetic hypothesis and conclude that this lesion is like Ménétrier's disease of man.

  16. Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, a kampo medicine, promotes adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea pig stomachs.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Arakawa, T; Kase, Y; Akiyama, S; Ishige, A; Takeda, S; Sasaki, H; Uno, H; Fukuda, T; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Some patients with dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia present impaired reservoir functions such as gastric adaptive relaxation. A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, has been identified as an effective drug against dyspeptic symptoms and is widely used for therapy in such patients. In this study, we examined the effects of this drug on the gastric adaptive relaxation in isolated guinea pig stomachs. The changes in intragastric volume and pressure were recorded in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. Gastric adaptive relaxation was induced by luminal distention. Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (100 mg/ml) induced gastric adaptive relaxation at a lower intragastric pressure and increased the % volume of the gastric adaptive relaxation and the absolute intragastric volume. Metoclopramide (2 mg/ml), trimebutine (6 mg/ml) and cisapride (2 mg/ml) did not affect gastric adaptive relaxation. It was inhibited by means of the incubation of the stomach with NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM). Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (100 mg/ml), but not gastroprokinetics overcame the effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine. These results suggested that Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang promoted gastric adaptive relaxation. This effect might, at least in part, contribute to the symptom relief in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:10568209

  17. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  18. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development. PMID:26139838

  19. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  20. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line. PMID:20400167

  1. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line.

  2. Effects of colchicine on parotid gland: structural and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Malberti, A I; González de Crosa, M

    1998-01-01

    The present study involves the analysis of structural, ultrastructural and biochemical modifications induced by colchicine (Col) in Guinea Pig parotid gland. The biochemical studies showed that the highest concentration of soluble proteins occurred 4 hs after colchicine injection. The curve of a-amylase activity in the gland showed an increase in enzyme activity over control at approximately 4 hs post-injection. At 8 hours the rise was even greater. The structural and ultrastructural analyses of the gland revealed that 4 hs post-injection colchicine exerts its maximum inhibitory effect on secretion. At this treatment time, the cytoplasm contained granules of various sizes and sharp outlines. Large areas of the cytoplasm exhibited material which resembled the granular content and seemed to result from the fusion of granules. No secretion was found in the lumen of the ducts. The inhibitory effect on secretion would be due to the disassembly of microtubules which would in turn impair transport of the granules to the apical surface of the membrane and eventual exocytosis. We herein propose that the effects of colchicine in the experimental conditions of this study would be largely reversible at 24 hours. At this time, structural, ultrastructural and biochemical features were similar to those of controls. PMID:11885456

  3. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity. PMID:27167480

  4. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  5. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Michaelidis, Ioannis George-Akrivos; Stefanopoulos, Panagiotis Konstantinos; Sambaziotis, Demetrios; Zahos, Marios Alexandros; Papadimitriou, George Alexandros

    2006-01-01

    A case of slow-enlarging mass of the parotid region in a 44-year-old male is presented, which proved to be a lipomatous tumour of the parotid gland. The clinical impression was that of a benign salivary gland tumour. The tumour was situated in the deep lobe of the gland, thus a total parotidectomy was performed, with preservation of the facial nerve. Microscopically the lesion was described as consisting of mature adipose tissue, which, however, encompassed both glandular elements and nerve bundles within it. This tumour has been recently recognized as a separate entity under the term 'sialolipoma'.

  6. Imaging of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gaenor K; Miszkiel, Katherine A

    2006-12-01

    The lacrimal gland is situated superolateral to the eye and produces tears that moisten, lubricate, and protect the delicate corneal and conjunctival epithelium. Anatomically related to the orbit but embryologically and functionally more closely related to the salivary glands, radiological imaging has proven invaluable in delineation and differentiation of the unique range of pathological processes affecting the lacrimal gland. This article details traditional and new imaging techniques used in investigating such pathology and discusses the imaging findings and patterns of spread characteristic of various neoplastic, inflammatory, and structural processes ranging from benign adenomas, adenocarcinomas, and lymphomas to sarcoidosis, Mickulicz's syndrome, histiocytosis, and benign dacrocysts.

  7. Salivary gland neoplasia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bull, P D

    1999-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours, benign or malignant, are rare in childhood and as a result may be misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. Ten children with salivary gland tumours have been treated by the author over a period of 18 years. Four tumours were benign and six malignant. Treatment in all cases was by surgical excision. There has been one recurrence, treated by further surgery, in an acinic cell carcinoma. Three cases had inadequate surgery or biopsy before referral. These findings reflect other series, which demonstrate that a solid tumour in a salivary gland in childhood is more likely to be malignant than to be benign.

  8. Sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti; Ponzoni, Daniela; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Demétrio, Marcos Rogério; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes

    2011-05-01

    Sialolithiasis of the salivary gland is a benign pathology that occurs most frequently in the submandibular gland because of its anatomic features. Depending on the sialolith size and calcification degree, it can be visible in radiographic examinations. Commonly, patients may experience pain and/or edema, when the ducts are obstructed. The authors report the case of sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland in a 42-year-old, female, white-skinned patient, noticed during routine dental examination. Following diagnosis confirmed by clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan consisted of surgery for removal of the calcified mass. The prognosis is often good, and generally there is no recurrence.

  9. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  10. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  11. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  12. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Attila, Tan; Chen, Dean; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Ptak, Theadore W; Marcon, Norman E

    2006-01-01

    Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours); however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases. PMID:16858502

  13. [Experimental liver transplantation in pigs. Surgical technique and complications].

    PubMed

    Laino, G M; Anastasi, A; Fabbri, L P; Gandini, E; Valanzano, R; Fontanari, P; Venneri, F; Mazzoni, P; Ieri, A; Spini, S; Scalzi, E; Batignani, G

    1996-10-01

    Only recently, in our laboratory of experimental surgery, we started with a protocol for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a pig model. This was felt as mandatory for experimental purposes as well as for future clinical applications at our center. We report herein our own experience with 41 OLTx. Intraoperative "lethal" complications occurred in up to 32% (14/41) whereas postoperative complications occurred in the remainders at different intervals of time with a maximum survival of 30 days. No attention was paid to prevent rejection-infection episodes. The main cause of death was the primary non-function (PNF) or dis-function (PDF) manifested either intra or postoperatively in 16 out the 41 OLTx (39%). Intraoperative technical errors accounted for up to 9% (4/41 OLTx). Acute hemorrhage gastritis and gastric perforations occurred postoperatively in 6 animals (14%) and represent one of the peculiar aspects of OLT in pig model.

  14. Case report: Helicobacter suis infection in a pig veterinarian.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Myrthe; Flahou, Bram; Meyns, Tom; Smet, Annemieke; Arts, Joris; De Cooman, Lien; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2013-10-01

    This study describes a non-Helicobacter (H.) pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) infection in a pig veterinarian. The patient suffered from reflux esophagitis and general dyspeptic symptoms and was referred to the hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histologic examination of corpus and antrum biopsies revealed a chronic gastritis. Large spiral-shaped non-H. pylori helicobacters could be visualized and were identified as H. suis by PCR. The patient was treated with a triple therapy, consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 10 days. Successful eradication was confirmed after a follow-up gastrointestinal endoscopy and PCR 10 weeks after treatment. A mild chronic gastritis was, however, still observed at this point in time. This case report associates porcine H. suis strains with gastric disease in humans, thus emphasizing the zoonotic importance of H. suis bacteria from pigs.

  15. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  16. LFA-1 expression on exocrine glands as a potential novel marker of malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Futagami-Mizoguchi, E; Yamada, A; Mizoguchi, A; Imai, Y; Yokoyama, M M

    1993-09-01

    The lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 has been found only on leukocytes and lymphoid tissues; however, the expression of lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 on nonhematopoietic cells has not been reported previously. In this study, immunohistochemical expression of lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 was examined on various tissues from 35 patients with malignant diseases and 36 patients with benign diseases including benign tumors. The expression of lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 was found on various exocrine tissues (eg, gastric glands, bronchial epithelium, alveolar epithelium, duodenal glands, bile ducts, pancreatic acini, and salivary glands) uninvolved by tumor in patients with malignant diseases. Localization of lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 was limited to the exocrine glands and differed from tissue-infiltrating leukocytes. The expression of lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 on exocrine tissues was confirmed in all 35 cases of malignant diseases that were examined. These included a wide spectrum of carcinomas and hematopoietic tumors. In contrast, none of the 36 cases with benign diseases examined expressed lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 on their exocrine glands. These results indicate a strong correlation between lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 expression on exocrine glands and malignant disease. The expression of lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 on nonhematopoietic cells was further confirmed in nonhematopoietic cell lines. Two of 19 nonhematopoietic cell lines (MKN45 and PANC-1; exocrine gland cell lines) examined expressed lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 on both cell surface and cytoplasm. These results suggested that immunohistochemically defined lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 molecules on nontumorous exocrine gland cells are a potential marker for the presence of malignant diseases.

  17. Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.

    PubMed

    Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

    2014-06-01

    Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  19. [Bilateral sarcoidosis of parotid glands].

    PubMed

    Hahn, Pernille; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2012-04-23

    We describe an unusual case of sarcoidosis in which the patient presented with a bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands and no other manifestation of the disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause in which there may be multiple exocrine involvement, including the salivary glands. This case emphasises the importance of including sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid swelling. PMID:22533935

  20. Tubuloalveolar adenoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, D R; Reed, R J; Megehee, J A

    1985-06-01

    An unusual monomorphic salivary gland adenoma, occurring in a 57-year-old woman, is described. The lesion was histologically similar to the so-called tubular adenoma; however, occasional microscopic foci of serous (acinar cell) differentiation were present. The term tubuloalveolar adenoma is proposed to describe salivary gland tumors that are histologically benign and composed of cells resembling those of normal intercalated ducts and secretory units (acini).

  1. [Myoepithelioma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Almela Cortés, R; García-Hirschfeld García, J M; Ramos López, B

    2002-01-01

    Myoepithelioma of the salivary gland is a benign tumor set up almost exclusively for myoepithelial cells. It is considered as the terminal form of the histopathologic spectrum of mixed tumors, but owing to its monomorphic appearance is considered an aside form. In this article is reported one myoepithelial case of the parotid gland and are also reviewed the published literature of this sort of neoplasms.

  2. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

  3. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  4. Salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Speight, P M; Barrett, A W

    2002-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Although most clinicians and pathologists will have encountered the more common benign neoplasms, few have experience of the full range of salivary cancers, which are best managed in specialist centres. This review considers some current areas of difficulty and controversy in the diagnosis and management of these neoplasms. The classification of these lesions is complex, encompassing nearly 40 different entities, but precise classification and terminology is essential for an accurate diagnosis and for the allocation of tumours to prognostic groups. For many salivary tumours diagnosis is straightforward but the wide range of morphological diversity between and within tumour types means that a diagnosis may not be possible on small incisional biopsies and careful consideration of the clinical and pathological features together is essential. Although tumour grading is important and helpful, it is not an independent prognostic indicator and must be considered in the context of stage. Large malignancies tend to have a poor prognosis regardless of grade and even high-grade neoplasms may do well when they are small. A helpful guide to management of salivary cancers is the '4 cm rule'.

  5. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  6. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer: characteristics and endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Fujisaki, Junko; Omae, Masami; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) leads to chronic gastritis and eventually causes gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is gradually decreasing with improvement of living conditions and eradication therapy. However, some reports have described cases of H. pylori-negative gastric cancers (HpNGC), and the prevalence was 0.42-5.4% of all gastric cancers. Diagnostic criteria of HpNGC vary among the different reports; thus, they have not yet been definitively established. We recommend negative findings in two or more methods that include endoscopic or pathological findings or serum pepsinogen test, and negative urease breath test or serum immunoglobulin G test and no eradication history the minimum criteria for diagnosis of HpNGC. The etiology of gastric cancers, excluding H. pylori infection, is known to be associated with several factors including lifestyle, viral infection, autoimmune disorder and germline mutations, but the main causal factor of HpNGC is still unclear. Regarding the characteristics of HpNGC, the undifferentiated type (UD-type) is more frequent than the differentiated type (D-type). The UD-type is mainly signet ring-cell carcinoma that presents as a discolored lesion in the lower or middle part of the stomach in relatively young patients. The gross type is flat or depressed. The D-type is mainly gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type that presents as a submucosal tumor-like or flat or depressed lesion in the middle and upper part of the stomach in relatively older patients. Early detection of HpNGC enables minimally invasive treatment which preserves the patient's quality of life. Endoscopists should fully understand the characteristics and endoscopic findings of HpNGC.

  7. Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

  8. Schlafen 4–expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M.; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A.; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori–infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  9. The use of murine-derived fundic organoids in studies of gastric physiology

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Michael A; Aihara, Eitaro; Feng, Rui; Engevik, Amy; Shroyer, Noah F; Ottemann, Karen M; Worrell, Roger T; Montrose, Marshall H; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Zavros, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gastric function and disease have been limited by the lack of extended primary cultures of the epithelium. An in vitro approach to study gastric development is primary mouse-derived antral epithelium cultured as three-dimensional spheroids known as organoids. There have been no reports on the use of organoids for gastric function. We have devised two unique gastric fundic-derived organoid cultures: model 1 for the expansion of gastric fundic stem cells, and model 2 for the maintenance of mature cell lineages. Both models were generated from single glands dissociated from whole fundic tissue and grown in basement membrane matrix (Matrigel) and organoid growth medium. Model 1 enriches for a stem cell-like niche via simple passage of the organoids. Maintained in Matrigel and growth medium, proliferating organoids expressed high levels of stem cell markers CD44 and Lgr5. Model 2 is a system of gastric organoids co-cultured with immortalized stomach mesenchymal cells (ISMCs). Organoids maintained in co-culture with ISMCs express robust numbers of surface pit, mucous neck, chief, endocrine and parietal cells. Histamine induced a significant decrease in intraluminal pH that was reversed by omeprazole in fundic organoids and indicated functional activity and regulation of parietal cells. Localized photodamage resulted in rapid cell exfoliation coincident with migration of neighbouring cells to the damaged area, sustaining epithelial continuity. Thus, we report the use of these models for studies of epithelial cell biology and cell damage and repair. PMID:25605613

  10. [Gastric emptying and functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Aros, S

    2006-01-01

    Dyspeptic syndrome includes symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, nausea and/or vomiting. These symptoms are common to highly diverse processes such as duodenal ulcer, pancreatitis and even intestinal ischemia, among many others. However, most patients who consult for this syndrome do not have any of these well known processes. New mechanisms have been proposed that could explain the symptoms presented by these patients. Among these mechanisms are those relating to an alteration of normal gastroduodenal motor function, such as alterations of gastric compliance, antral distension, gastric accommodation to anomalous ingestion, and alterations of gastric emptying. The present review evaluates the role of gastric emptying in producing dyspeptic symptoms according to the evidence available to date. We discuss gastric emptying in patients with functional or idiopathic dyspepsia compared with that in the healthy population, the correlation between gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms, and the response of dyspeptic symptoms to the prokinetic therapies carried out to date.

  11. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  12. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

  13. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Stasko, Judi; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-04-01

    Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

  14. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  15. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  16. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  17. Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Michel; Giusti, Vittorio; Worreth, Marc; Héraief, Eric; Calmes, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic gastric banding using 2 different bands (the Lapband [Bioenterics, Carpinteria, CA] and the SAGB [Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band; Obtech Medical, 6310 Zug, Switzerland]) in terms of weight loss and correction of comorbidities, short-and long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life in morbidly obese patients Summary Background Data: During the past 10 years, gastric banding has become 1 of the most common bariatric procedures, at least in Europe and Australia. Weight loss can be excellent, but it is not sufficient in a significant proportion of patients, and a number of long-term complications can develop. We hypothesized that the type of band could be of importance in the outcome. Methods: One hundred eighty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to receive the Lapband or the SAGB. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were correction of comorbidities, early- and long-term complications, importance of food restriction, and improvement of quality of life. Results: Initial weight loss was faster in the Lapband group, but weight loss was eventually identical in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward more early band-related complications and more band infections with the SAGB, but the study had limited power in that respect. Correction of comorbidities, food restriction, long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life were identical. Only 55% to 60% of the patients achieved an excess weight loss of at least 50% in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of long-term complications. Conclusions: Gastric banding can be performed safely with the Lapband or the SAGB with similar short- and midterm results with respect to weight loss and morbidity. Only 50% to 60% of the patients will achieve sufficient weight loss, and close to 10% at least will develop severe

  18. Microvascular injury in persistent gastric ulcers after yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization for liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Belinda; Lapetino, Shawn R; Diffalha, Sameer A L; Yong, Sherri; Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Koppe, Sean; Garzon, Steven; Guzman, Grace

    2016-04-01

    Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization ((90)Y MRE) is a therapy for liver malignancies by permanently implanting (90)Y-containing microspheres into tumors via hepatic artery. The etiology of persistent gastric ulcerations in patients presenting months after treatment remains unclear. Three patients who presented with gastric ulceration 4 to 13 months after (90)Y MRE were examined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsies. Pathological examinations showed multiple (90)Y microspheres scattered within the lamina propria and submucosa. Most of the microspheres were distributed in a linear fashion, consistent with an intravascular location; however, the vascular lumen and endothelial cells were not present. The microspheres were surrounded by fibrotic tissue infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells and rare neutrophils. Epithelial granulation without pititis and miniaturized glands with intervening fibrosis were noted, compatible with chronic ischemic changes. These findings suggest that the persistent gastric ulceration is a result of localized ischemic injury in response to (90)Y MRE-induced vascular damage.

  19. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  20. In situ detection of Epstein-Barr virus in gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yuen, S T; Chung, L P; Leung, S Y; Luk, I S; Chan, S Y; Ho, J

    1994-11-01

    The association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma in the nasopharynx, which is common in Chinese from the southern region, is well established. Recently, EBV has also been found to be associated with lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas (LELCs) and carcinomas with prominent lymphoid infiltrates in the stomach. We investigated for the presence of EBV in 74 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and 36 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma from Chinese patients by in situ hybridization (ISH) using an antisense EBER probe. In seven cases (9.5%) of gastric carcinoma, EBER was highly expressed in the adenocarcinoma cells and metastatic tumor cells in regional lymph nodes. In all these cases, the normal gastric epithelium was EBV negative. None of the colorectal carcinomas showed a positive signal. Isolated positive lymphoid cells were frequently found in both tumors. Of the seven positive cases, only one was LELC, and the others were conventional adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type. Five showed expression of the viral RNA in all tumor cells as well as the surrounding dysplastic epithelium. Interestingly, the sixth case showed distinct negative islands of dysplastic glands adjacent to strongly positive dysplastic glands and invasive carcinoma cells. This pattern of positivity, together with negative normal gastric epithelium and positive metastatic tumor, suggested that EBV infection occurred in the dysplastic phase and that an apparent growth advantage was conferred by the EBV infection.

  1. Gastric distention exacerbates ischemia in a rodent model of partial gastric devascularization.

    PubMed

    Urschel, J D; Antkowiak, J G; Takita, H

    1997-11-01

    Occult ischemia of the mobilized gastric fundus is an important etiologic factor for esophagogastric anastomotic leaks after esophagectomy. Postoperative gastric distention is another possible predisposing factor for anastomotic leakage. We hypothesized that gastric distention could worsen gastric ischemia. To test this hypothesis, gastric tissue perfusion was studied in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. Baseline serosal gastric tissue perfusion was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry at a point 10 mm distal to the gastroesophageal junction. Perfusion was measured after left gastric artery occlusion, gastric distention to 20 cm water pressure, and combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Gastric tissue perfusion (in tissue perfusion units, TPU) was 64.2 +/- 9.1 TPU at baseline measurement, 18.6 +/- 4.3 TPU after left gastric artery occlusion, 22.0 +/- 4.1 TPU after gastric distention, and 7.8 +/- 1.8 TPU after combined left gastric artery occlusion and gastric distention. Distention (P < 0.0001) and arterial occlusion (P < 0.0001) both reduced gastric tissue perfusion; of the two, arterial occlusion produced the greatest reduction in perfusion (P < 0.021). The combination of distention and arterial occlusion caused greater reduction in gastric perfusion than either factor alone (P < 0.0001). In this model, gastric distention exacerbated the ischemia produced by partial gastric devascularization. In clinical esophageal surgery, postoperative gastric distention may similarly potentiate the ischemic effects of gastric transposition for esophageal reconstruction.

  2. Stress-related gene expression in brain and adrenal gland of porcine fetuses and neonates.

    PubMed

    Schwerin, Manfred; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Otten, Winfried

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine stress-induced effects on gene expression of specific markers for HPA axis and neuronal activity in fetuses and neonatal pigs. Brain, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland were obtained to determine the mRNA levels for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), ACTH receptor (MC2R), c-jun and c-fos. The suitability of these molecular markers was determined in neonatal pigs which were maternally deprived for two hours. It was found that maternal deprivation caused significantly higher transcript levels of c-fos and CRH in brain accompanied by a down-regulation of CRHR1 mRNA and an up-regulation of c-jun in the pituitary gland. To determine the effect of elevated maternal cortisol levels on gene expression of these molecular markers in fetuses, pregnant sows were treated with 100 IU ACTH (Synacthen Depot) s.c. every two days between Day 49 and Day 75 of gestation (normal gestation length 114 days). Animals were killed 48 hours after the last ACTH administration and fetuses of each sow were isolated. The ACTH treatment of sows significantly increased mRNA expression of c-fos but not of CRH in the fetal brain, and significantly decreased MC2R mRNA expression in the adrenal gland. However, HPA axis seems not to be fully developed in Day 77-fetuses because fetal pituitary CRHR1 and POMC mRNA expression was low in most of the fetuses. Although the expression of endocrine regulatory factors was partially incomplete in fetuses at the beginning of the third-trimester, ACTH dependent activation of c-fos mRNA in brain indicates a stress-related increase of neuronal activity. Based on these results it is assumed that prenatal stress in pigs may also have effects on the activity of the HPA axis in the offspring.

  3. Galectin-3 Plays an Important Role in Innate Immunity to Gastric Infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah-Mee; Hagiwara, Satoru; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Yoshie, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    We studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal3) in gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori We first demonstrated that Gal3 was selectively expressed by gastric surface epithelial cells and abundantly secreted into the surface mucus layer. We next inoculated H. pylori Sydney strain 1 into wild-type (WT) and Gal3-deficient mice using a stomach tube. At 2 weeks postinoculation, the bacterial cells were mostly trapped within the surface mucus layer in WT mice. In sharp contrast, they infiltrated deep into the gastric glands in Gal3-deficient mice. Bacterial loads in the gastric tissues were also much higher in Gal3-deficient mice than in WT mice. At 6 months postinoculation,H. pylori had successfully colonized within the gastric glands of both WT and Gal3-deficient mice, although the bacterial loads were still higher in the latter. Furthermore, large lymphoid clusters mostly consisting of B cells were frequently observed in the gastric submucosa of Gal3-deficient mice.In vitro, peritoneal macrophages from Gal3-deficient mice were inefficient in killing engulfed H. pylori Furthermore, recombinant Gal3 not only induced rapid aggregation of H. pylori but also exerted a potent bactericidal effect on H. pylori as revealed by propidium iodide uptake and a morphological shift from spiral to coccoid form. However, a minor fraction of bacterial cells, probably transient phase variants of Gal3-binding sugar moieties, escaped killing by Gal3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Gal3 plays an important role in innate immunity to infection and colonization of H. pylori. PMID:26857579

  4. Galectin-3 Plays an Important Role in Innate Immunity to Gastric Infection by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Satoru; Hsu, Daniel K.; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal3) in gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori. We first demonstrated that Gal3 was selectively expressed by gastric surface epithelial cells and abundantly secreted into the surface mucus layer. We next inoculated H. pylori Sydney strain 1 into wild-type (WT) and Gal3-deficient mice using a stomach tube. At 2 weeks postinoculation, the bacterial cells were mostly trapped within the surface mucus layer in WT mice. In sharp contrast, they infiltrated deep into the gastric glands in Gal3-deficient mice. Bacterial loads in the gastric tissues were also much higher in Gal3-deficient mice than in WT mice. At 6 months postinoculation, H. pylori had successfully colonized within the gastric glands of both WT and Gal3-deficient mice, although the bacterial loads were still higher in the latter. Furthermore, large lymphoid clusters mostly consisting of B cells were frequently observed in the gastric submucosa of Gal3-deficient mice. In vitro, peritoneal macrophages from Gal3-deficient mice were inefficient in killing engulfed H. pylori. Furthermore, recombinant Gal3 not only induced rapid aggregation of H. pylori but also exerted a potent bactericidal effect on H. pylori as revealed by propidium iodide uptake and a morphological shift from spiral to coccoid form. However, a minor fraction of bacterial cells, probably transient phase variants of Gal3-binding sugar moieties, escaped killing by Gal3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Gal3 plays an important role in innate immunity to infection and colonization of H. pylori. PMID:26857579

  5. A guide to salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    McEwen, D R; Sanchez, M M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses salivary gland disorders and provides nurses with a broad base of knowledge for use in planning and implementing perioperative patient care. Salivary gland disorders may be caused by nonneoplastic conditions or neoplasms. Nonneoplastic conditions generally are related to inflammatory processes or are secondary to existing disease processes. Neoplasms manifest themselves as benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands. Patients with nonneoplastic conditions may undergo surgical procedures for health problems unrelated to their salivary gland disorders; however, patients with salivary gland neoplasms usually undergo surgical excisions of their tumors and affected glands. Patients in both categories require skilled perioperative nursing care.

  6. The Mammary Glands of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence). The molecular events regulating breast morphogenesis are described, as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary gland proliferation, differentiation, and function. Similarities and differences to the human breast are described. Regulatory events are illuminated by discussion of genetically modified mouse models. Tissue response markers, including immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and other hormonally induced changes and studies to date, regarding the effects of exogenous hormones, are briefly summarized. In general, estrogens stimulate progesterone receptor expression and proliferation in the mammary gland, and combinations of estrogens and progestogens cause greater proliferation than estrogens alone. Evaluation of novel chemical agents in macaques requires careful evaluation of age and hormonal context to avoid the confounding effects of mammary gland development, past reproductive history, and other influences on mammary gland morphology. The expression of proliferation markers and progesterone receptors may be used as biomarkers to measure chemically induced hormonal effects. PMID:21475638

  7. Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

    1989-10-01

    Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors.

  8. Tenascin in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Pääkkö, P; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of tenascin immunoreactivity was analysed in salivary gland tissue and in various benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. In the non-neoplastic tissue, tenascin was seen in the areas of basement membranes of the ductal epithelium. No immunoreactivity could be observed in the serous or mucous glands. In pleomorphic adenomas, tenascin immunoreactivity could be seen in the stromal compartment. It was more pronounced in the dense stromal areas and chondroid elements than in the myxoid area. In Warthin's tumours, strong tenascin immunoreactivity could be observed in the basement membrane zone of the epithelial component. In the lymphatic component, faint reticular staining could be seen. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, acinic cell tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, tenascin showed a linear stromal distribution. No intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity could be seen in any of the cases. The widespread tenascin positivity in salivary gland tumours suggests that tenascin may play a role in the induction and progression of salivary gland tumours, presumably by interfering with the normal parenchymal-mesenchymal interaction.

  9. Motilin receptors on isolated gastric smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Louie, D S; Owyang, C

    1988-02-01

    Motilin has a stimulating effect on gastrointestinal motility. The mechanism of its action is not known. Direct and neuronal effects have been postulated. To determine if receptors are present on smooth muscle cells we investigated the effect of synthetic porcine motilin and its interaction with acetylcholine on isolated guinea pig gastric smooth muscle cells. Motilin elicited a dose-dependent contraction of gastric smooth muscle cells. Minimal (8.3 +/- 1.3%) and maximal (33.9 +/- 2.4%) responses were observed at 10(-12) and 10(-6) M, respectively. The ED50 of motilin was 10(-9) M. Acetylcholine also elicited a dose-response muscle contraction with a maximal response observed at 10(-7) M. Atropine (10(-7) M) completely inhibited the maximal response to acetylcholine but did not have any effect on the contractile response to motilin. In addition, dibutyryl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (10(-3) M) and substance P antagonist, spantide (10(-4) M), also did not inhibit the action of motilin. Acetylcholine (10(-11) M) shifted the dose-response curve of motilin to the left by 1.5 log units. The maximal response to the combination of motilin (10(-6) M) and acetylcholine (10(-11) M) was 32 +/- 3.2%, which was similar to the maximal response to motilin alone. It is concluded that distinct motilin and muscarinic receptors are present on guinea pig gastric smooth muscle cells. The interaction between motilin and acetylcholine is additive and not potentiative.

  10. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach. PMID:9374701

  11. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach.

  12. Food intake controls in the suckling pig: glucoprivation and gastrointestinal factors.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A; Houpt, T R; Pond, W G

    1977-05-01

    The energy balance of suckling Yorkshire pigs 1 day to 2 wk old was challenged by: food deprivation, glucoprivation, and caloric and noncaloric gastric loads delivered by intubation. tafter 2--4 h fasts, food intake greatly increased over nonfasted control intake during a 3-h refeeding period. This response occurred both when body weight gain was used as a measure of intake for pigs nursing on the sow and when intake was measured directly in bottle-fed pigs. Glucoprivation produced by 0.5--2 U/kg insulin did not stimulate food intake although plasma glucose fell to a mean of 49 mg/100 ml (43% of control) after 1 U/kg insulin. Gastric loads of water or 3% NACl depressed intake after 3-h fast, but 0.9% NaCl did not. All the caloric gastric loads depressed intake; in order of increasing effectiveness, they were: heavy cream, protein hydrolysate, corn oil, milk, 5% glucose, and 5% lactose. The carbohydrate loads were most effective, a result which indicates that the response was not to calories alone but to some specific nutrient, possibly glucose.

  13. Trefoil factors: Gastrointestinal-specific proteins associated with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ping; Ling, Hui; Lan, Gang; Liu, Jiao; Hu, Haobin; Yang, Ruirui

    2015-10-23

    Trefoil factor family (TFF), composed of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, is a cluster of secreted peptides characterized by trefoil domain (s) and C-terminal dimerization domain. TFF1, a gastric tumor suppressor, is a single trefoil peptide originally detected in breast cancer cell lines but expressed mainly in the stomach; TFF2, a candidate of gastric cancer suppressor with two trefoil domains, is abundant in the stomach and duodenal Brunner's glands; and TFF3 is another single trefoil peptide expressed throughout the intestine which can promote the development of gastric carcinoma. According to multiple studies, TFFs play a regulatory function in the mammals' digestive system, namely in mucosal protection and epithelial cell reconstruction, tumor suppression or promotion, signal transduction and the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Action mechanisms of TFFs remain unresolved, but the recent demonstration of a GKN (gastrokine) 2-TFF1 heterodimer implicates structural and functional interplay with gastrokines. This review aims to encapsulate the structural and biological characteristics of TFF.

  14. Growth and development of the mammary glands of livestock: a veritable barnyard of opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Ashley R; Daniels, Kristy M; Ellis, Steven E; Hovey, Russell C

    2012-07-01

    The mammary glands of all mammals are rich and diverse in their histomorphogenesis, developmental biology, genomics and metabolism. Domesticated livestock comprise a unique population for the analysis of mammary gland and lactation biology, where much of what has been learned about these topics originates from studies of these species. However, with the strong trend toward using rodents as flexible and attractive models for normal mammary biology and cancer, there is a growing void of new information related to biology of the mammary glands in these relevant and informative domestic livestock. In turn, this trend threatens to reduce opportunities to either capitalize on an abundance of pre-existing data or to apply this information to studies of lactation and cancer. Herein we review the unique and discerning features of mammary gland development in several domestic livestock species including cows, sheep and pigs and provide an overview of the factors regulating it. At the same time we discuss some of the key considerations for studying these species, their limitations, and the associated opportunities. From such an analysis it quickly becomes clear that much remains to be learned about the mammary glands of domestic livestock, particularly given their many similarities to the human breast, the unique biological mechanisms they employ, and the phenotypic variation they afford.

  15. Prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hom, M M; Martinson, J R; Knapp, L L; Paugh, J R

    1990-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and to determine which patient profile factors might be associated with the syndrome. Patients were randomly selected, apparently normal patients presenting for routine vision examinations. Of the 398 patients for whom Meibomian gland expression was performed and a detailed history obtained, 155 patients or 38.9% exhibited MGD based on the principal clinical criterion of an absent or cloudy Meibomian gland secretion upon expression. Patient profile factors of gender, age, allergy occurrence, and contact lens wear were analyzed for correlation with MGD. Age was found to be the only significant correlating factor (positive correlation, p less than 0.0001).

  16. [Tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Tresserra, L; Tresserra, F

    1997-09-01

    Tumors of the parotid are the most frequently encountered salivary gland tumors. Knowledge of the histology and anatomy of the salivary gland is important when considering the histiogenesis of salivary gland tumors, requiring close cooperation between the pathologist and the surgeon. Most tumors are benign epithelial formations. Pleomorphous adenomas predominate. Superficial lobectomy is adequate treatment. When the tumor involves a deep lobe, total parotidectomy is indicated. Treatment of malignant tumors depends on the histology, its TNM stage and other factors. Total parotidectomy with lymphadectomy and radiotherapy are needed in case of high grade malignancy. In children, vascular neoplasias are the most frequent, followed by malignant tumors. Their histological features and treatment are the same as for adults.

  17. Ultrasound in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, J N; Mourou, M Y

    1993-01-01

    This text reviews the normal ultrasound (US) anatomy of the salivary glands along with tumoral, lithiasic, and inflammatory pathologies. For salivary gland tumors, US does have limitations (failure to visualize the entire parotid gland, relations with the nerve plexus, in-depth spread of large tumors, false-negative errors of malignancy for small encapsulated tumors). However, US is a simple technique allowing correct identification of the benign nature of a lesion in over 80% of the cases. For lesions under 3 cm in diameter, US is generally the only imaging technique used; for larger lesions, CT or MR is required. Sialolithiasis and inflammatory diseases are being documented by US more and more and the indications for sialography have strongly decreased.

  18. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  19. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  20. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  1. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  2. Advances in salivary gland pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K C

    2007-07-01

    This review summarizes the new findings on salivary gland pathology under the following categories: immunohistochemistry; molecular genetics; newly recognized tumour types; known tumour entities with new findings; and progression of salivary gland tumours. In the application of immunohistochemistry, CD117 can aid in highlighting the luminal cell component of various salivary gland tumours, whereas p63 or maspin can aid in highlighting the abluminal cell component. A high Ki67 index remains the most useful marker to predict adverse outcome in salivary gland carcinoma. Specific chromosomal translocations are recognized in pleomorphic adenoma (with translocation involving PLGA1 or HMGA2 gene) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with MECT1-MAML2 gene fusion). Newly recognized entities include: sclerosing polycystic adenosis (with recent molecular evidence supporting its neoplastic nature), sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, keratocystoma, adenoma with additional stromal component (lymphadenoma, lipoadenoma and adenofibroma), cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and signet ring adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. Known tumour entities with new findings include: salivary duct carcinoma (with newly recognized mucinous, micropapillary and sarcomatoid variants), intraductal carcinoma (with controversies in terminology), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with newly proposed grading parameters and oncocytic variant), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (with newly recognized morphological variants), small cell carcinoma (with most cases being related to Merkel cell carcinoma), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (with specific chromosomal translocation) and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (being a component of IgG4-related sclerosing disease). Progression of salivary gland tumours can take the form of malignant transformation of a benign tumour, progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma, dedifferentiation, or stromal invasion of an in situ carcinoma.

  3. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  4. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H; Batsakis, J G; McClatchey, K D

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  5. Salivary gland tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; el-Naggar, A K

    1991-10-01

    Fewer than 5% of all primary salivary gland neoplasms occur in children, but if benign supporting tissue tumors are excluded, a higher proportion than in adults are malignant. The first decade of life, and particularly the first 2 years of life, has a preponderance of benign neoplasms. Commencing with the second decade, carcinomas rise in incidence and are most often mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial salivary tumor throughout childhood. The embryoma may be a uniquely childhood epithelial salivary gland tumor.

  6. Cystadenoma of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Mandeep S; Pushker, Neelam; Kashyap, Seema; R, Balasubramanya

    2002-12-01

    Cystadenoma is a benign cystic tumor predominantly affecting the major and minor salivary glands. We present a case of bilateral cystadenoma of the lacrimal gland, which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported earlier. The patient had slowly increasing, painless, bilateral upper eyelid swelling. On examination, the tumors were multilobulated, mobile and transilluminant. Ultrasonography and CT-scan revealed cystic lesions with multiple septations in the region of both lacrimal fossae. Complete excision of the tumors was performed because of their potential for malignant transformation. The histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis.

  7. Embryoma (sialoblastoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Frankenthaler, R

    1992-11-01

    There are four clinicopathologic categories of the exclusively major salivary gland tumors that present in the perinatal period. The two with the smallest representation among the 20 cases reported to date are those with a hamartomalike appearance and those with benign adult equivalents--the pleomorphic and monomorphic adenomas. Five cases have been undifferentiated or basaloid salivary carcinomas. Embryomas (sialoblastomas) are the most numerous. These tumors manifest a histologic phenotype like that of the epithelial anlage of the salivary glands, albeit in an arrested state of differentiation.

  8. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goode, R K; Corio, R L

    1988-01-01

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare neoplasm. The diagnosis is established on the basis of oncocytic cellular features in conjunction with dysplastic change. These dysplastic changes may occur in benign oncocytomas or arise de novo. The tumor occurs most commonly in the parotid glands of persons over 60 years of age. Tumors that measure less than 2 cm at the initial surgical procedure appear to have a better prognosis than larger tumors. Aggressive surgical intervention at the initial presentation of the neoplasm, compared to simple enucleation, seems to offer a more favorable prognosis. Recurrence is an ominous feature. Metastasis, when it occurs, is widespread.

  9. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. Meibomian gland function and giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Billborough, M

    1992-08-15

    We examined 42 contact lens-wearing patients for clinical evidence of giant papillary conjunctivitis and for meibomian gland dysfunction with gland dropout. Fifteen patients were free of clinical signs and symptoms of giant papillary conjunctivitis, whereas 27 had clinical symptoms and evidence of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Patients with giant papillary conjunctivitis had significantly more gland dropout with an average of 0.6 +/- 1.2 gland absent in both lower eyelids compared with 0.2 +/- 0.4 gland absent in patients without giant papillary conjunctivitis. Additionally, the viscosity of meibomian gland excreta was greater in the giant papillary conjunctivitis group. There was no difference in tear osmolarity or in the Schirmer test results between the two groups. These results indicated patients with giant papillary conjunctivitis were more likely to have meibomian gland dysfunction with gland dropout than patients without giant papillary conjunctivitis.

  11. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  12. Basal cell adenoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen; Huang, Shun-Chen; Su, Chih-Ying

    2003-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute about 3% to 4% of all head and neck neoplasms. Approximately 80% originate in the parotid gland, and they rarely present in the sublingual gland; however, a disproportionately large majority of sublingual gland tumors are malignant. Basal cell adenoma is a benign epithelial salivary gland tumor that appears to have unique histologic characteristics, different from those of mixed tumors, and has a predilection for development in the parotid and minor salivary glands. No case has ever been reported as arising from the sublingual gland in the otolaryngology literature. We report here a case of a middle-aged woman with basal cell adenoma of the sublingual gland. The clinical presentation, pathological features, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for this relatively rare tumor are discussed.

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3-5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  14. Viral strain dependent differences in experimental Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junin virus) infection of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, R H; Green, D E; Maiztegui, J I; Peters, C J

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pigs infected with low-passage Junin virus of human origin showed viral strain dependent differences in mortality, LD50, time to death, and in viral spread and distribution. Different Junin strains appeared to cause at least two broad patterns of Argentine hemorrhagic fever in guinea pigs. A number of strains of Junin virus caused a viscerotropic type of illness in which virus replicated predominantly in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. With the most severe visceral forms of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the guinea pigs became viremic, developed necrosis of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, showed gastric hemorrhages, and all animals died within 13-15 days. Other Junin strains induced a neurological type of illness with transient viral replication in and lymphocyte depletion of spleen and lymph nodes, with no detectable viremia or viral replication in bone marrow. Subsequently, virus was found in the brain with varying severities of polioencephalitis, and the guinea pigs frequently showed rear leg paralysis before death occurred 28-34 days after inoculation. Not all animals infected with a neurotropic strain developed all these signs. One viral strain induced some signs characteristic of both patterns of illness. Although the disease forms in the guinea pig model did not strictly correlate with those observed in the humans from which these strains were obtained, the different strains of Junin virus consistently caused very different patterns of illness in infected guinea pigs.

  15. Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

  16. Update on gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma is an uncommon entity that can often present like classic adenocarcinoma. The most common organ site involved is the stomach. Important prognostic indicators include location of lymph node involvement, histologic subtype, lymphocyte lineage, gross size, and location of the tumor. Surgical resection is the mainstay of curative therapy. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have a role either separately or as part of a multimodality treatment program. Clinicians are encouraged to enter patients with primary gastric lymphoma into multi-institutional, cooperative group clinical trials to more clearly define the best treatment strategy. PMID:1956083

  17. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  18. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  19. Deep-lobe parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1984-01-01

    Fewer than 10% of all parotid gland tumors arise from the deep portion of the gland. The great majority are benign and are mixed tumors. Their clinical presentation in the parapharyngeal space is uncommon, but in the event, the principal differential diagnosis is the elimination of an oropharyngeal primary salivary gland tumor.

  20. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  1. Therapy for meibomian gland disease.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Deval Reshma; Foulks, Gary N

    2003-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the past half-century in our understanding of meibomian gland function and of the many inflammatory, hormonal, and infectious processes leading to its dysfunction. These advances have led to an exploration of exciting new avenues for treatment of this common but frustrating disease entity.

  2. Tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Madani, Gitta; Beale, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the role of imaging in the management of tumors of the salivary glands, discussing tumor localization, extent, and, where possible, characterization. The relative benefits of the different modalities and the typical features of benign and malignant lesions are discussed for each modality. Characteristic appearances of specific tumors are highlighted.

  3. G-cell hyperplasia of the stomach induces ECL-cell proliferation in the pyloric glands in a paracrinal manner.

    PubMed

    Kasajima, Atsuko; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Morikawa, Takanori; Kawasaki, Shuhei; Konosu-Fukaya, Sachiko; Shibahara, Yukiko; Nakamura, Tadaho; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Mika; Shibata, Chikashi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-05-01

    An inhibitory mechanism toward gastrin hypersecretion is significantly different between G-cell hyperplasia and gastrinoma despite the common clinical manifestations; hypergastrinemia and its related persistent gastric ulcers. We recenlty studied the G-cell, d-cell and ECL-cell density in a case of G-cell hyperplasia. The 70-year-old patient has been treated for persistent gastric ulcers with a markedly increased plasma gastrin (5600 pg/mL). The stomach was surgically resected because of the obstruction associated with ulcer scars. The number of G-cells in the pyloric glands was quantified on the surgical specimens and G-cell hyperplasia was histolopathologically identified. Immunostainig of histidine decarboxylate revealed the presence of ECL-cell hyperplasia in the pyloric glands and its density was significantly and positively correlated with G-cell density. Somatostatin immunoreactive cells (D-cells) increased in their number in the oxyntic glands. These results all indicated that hypersecretion of gastrin in G-cell hyperplasia could induce ECL-cell proliferation in a paracrinal manner. In addition, relatively non-prominent endocrinological features in the G-cell hyperplasia compared to gastrinoma could be also related to the paracrinal somatostatin inhibitory effects upon ECL-cells in the pyloric glands.

  4. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  5. Gland-preserving surgery can effectively preserve gland function without increased recurrence in treatment of benign submandibular gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Min, Ruan; Zun, Zhang; Siyi, Li; Wenjun, Yang; Jian, Sun; Chenping, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    The most widely accepted treatment for neoplasms of the submandibular gland usually involves excision of the entire gland. Our aim was to establish a gland-preserving operation for benign tumours of the submandibular gland and evaluate its efficacy. We treated 40 patients from January 2007 to December 2008 with benign submandibular gland tumours who were listed to have an operation that either preserved the gland or sacrificed it. Duration of operation, extent of injury to the nerve, postoperative function of the gland, aesthetic appearance, and recurrence were assessed. We found no significant difference in baseline characteristics among the 20 patients in each group (19 men; 21 women, mean (SD) age of 34 (33.8 ± 5.72) years. The extent of injury to the lingual nerve and submandibular branch, together with deformities of the facial contour, were significantly less in the group in which the gland was preserved. Postoperative salivary production and overall patients' satisfaction were also better in that group. There was no recurrence in either group during the follow up period of 38 months-5 years. The gland-preserving procedure has advantages over the typical approach in which the gland is sacrificed. There is less risk of injury to the nerve, less deformity of the facial contour, better preservation of function, and patients are more satisfied. The gland-preserving technique should therefore be the first choice for management of benign submandibular tumours.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  7. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  8. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery and identification in gastric tissue by Marshall and Warren in 1983, our knowledge about the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection has grown considerably. Its role in the multifactorial pathology of peptic ulcer disease (gastrodudodenal ulcer disease), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma is now widely accepted while its involvement in extraintestinal disease is still controversial.The correlation between the colonization of the stomach by H. pylori and gastric lymphoma has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Between 65 and 80% of distal gastric adenocarcinomas are attributed to H. pylori infection. However, gastric carcinogenesis cannot be explained by H. pylori infection alone. Among those individuals infected by this bacteria, only a small percentage (2-5%) ever develops gastric cancer, the majority exhibit benign lesions. There is a wide individual variation in the outcome of this infection in patients. This individual and population specific variation is due to the intricate relationship between genetics, the environment, bacterial virulence, diet, and socio-economic status and it explains the multiple outcomes of this infection. In this article, we conduct a review of the widely accepted theories regarding gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, the correlations and enigmas between them, the reported geographical variations, and the various proposed hypotheses on the carcinogenic mechanism of Helicobacter pylori.

  9. Establishment of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet.

    PubMed Central

    Krakowka, S; Morgan, D R; Kraft, W G; Leunk, R D

    1987-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, has been implicated in the genesis of human gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulceration. Previous attempts to reproduce the diseases in conventional laboratory animal species have been unsuccessful. To determine if neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were susceptible to C. pylori, we orally challenged two litters (n = 17) with 10(9) CFU after pretreating them with cimetidine. Controls housed in separate units received nothing or peptone water alone. Piglets were examined 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after challenge. Colonization by the bacterium and inflammation of the gastric mucosa persisted throughout the study period. Organisms were revealed by Warthin-Starry silver stain to reside between the mucus layer and the gastric epithelium. Culturing of samples from sites along the gastrointestinal tract revealed that the bacterium colonized essentially only the gastric and proximal duodenal mucosae. Gross pathological changes were restricted to the stomachs of infected piglets and consisted of submucosal edema, increased gastric mucus production, and progressive development of mucosal lymphoid follicles. Microscopic lesions consisted of transient neutrophilic infiltrates followed by diffuse and follicular infiltrations of mononuclear leukocytes into the mucosa and submucosa. Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff stains suggested that the infection resulted in the depletion of mucopolysaccharide production by deep gastric glands. These data indicate that gnotobiotic piglets reproduce many of the features of diseases associated with C. pylori in humans. Images PMID:3666963

  10. A spiral microorganism in the stomach of pigs.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, D M; Rocha, G A; Mendes, E N; Lage, A P; Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A J

    1990-08-01

    Light and electron microscopic and microbiologic evaluations were performed on mucosa of stomachs from 120 healthy slaughtered pigs. Helicobacter pylori was not found, but a tightly spiralled bacterium, not previously described, was seen in histological sections and/or in carbol fuchsin stained smears in 13 (10.8%) stomachs. In paraffin sections stained with carbol fuchsin, the bacteria were seen in the mucus of the lumen of the antral pits and in the mucosa surface within and beneath the mucus. In this sections of Polilyte embedded tissue the bacteria had three to eight spiral turns per cell (mean = five), flattened ends, a Gram-negative cell-wall structure and a sheathed flagella. The urease test was positive in gastric mucosa of 13 bacteria-positive pigs (10.8%). The microorganism was not cultured and did not cross-react with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against H. pylori. Superficial chronic gastritis and "borderline" gastritis were observed in antral mucosa of 10 (76.9%) and of two (15.4%) spiral bacteria-positive pigs, respectively.

  11. Analysis of gastric emptying data

    SciTech Connect

    Elashoff, J.D.; Reedy, T.J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.

  12. Intestinal metaplasia with a high salt diet induces epithelial proliferation and alters cell composition in the gastric mucosa of mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang; Crissey, Mary Ann S; Lynch, John P; Kaestner, Klaus H; Silberg, Debra G; Suh, Eunran

    2005-06-01

    Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa is an important component in the pathway to adenocarcinoma. The mechanisms that induce the progression from intestinal metaplasia to cancer have not been elucidated. High dietary salt has been known as one of the risk factors for gastric cancer development in humans. Therefore, we investigated the role of high salt diet on gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, using our mouse model that ectopically expressed Cdx2 homeodomain transcription factor and induced an intestinal metaplastic phenotype in the gastric epithelia. Sixty Cdx2 transgenic and sixty age-matched wild-type littermates were studied. Fifty-percent Cdx2 transgenic and wild type mice were administered a high-salt diet and the other fifty-percent was fed a standard diet starting at 12 weeks after birth. At 10, 20 and 40 weeks after initiation of the diets, histopathological changes were determined by Hemotoxylin and Eosin, alcian blue, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Cell types and cell kinetics were assessed by immunohistochemistry. At 52 weeks, significant alterations in pathology were observed in the Cdx2 transgenic mice fed a high-salt diet, including elongation of gastric pits, reduction of the glandular zone in the gastric corpus, and deepening of glands in the antrum. In the Cdx2 transgenic mice fed a high salt diet, the parietal and chief cells were significantly decreased in the gastric corpus. A significant increase in cell proliferation and apoptosis in the corpus and antrum were observed in Cdx2 transgenic mice fed a high-salt diet as compared to wild-type littermates. Taken together, these data implicate that intestinal metaplasia in concert with a high-salt diet induces epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and alters cellular types in the gastric mucosa of mice. Alteration in the composition of the gastric epithelium may play a role in influencing the microenvironment to engender susceptibility to carcinogens.

  13. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  14. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Columbus, Daniel A.; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2015-01-01

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14–16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt−1·meal−1 every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited. PMID:26374843

  15. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-09-15

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14-16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt(-1)·meal(-1) every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited.

  16. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  17. Mild Hypothermia Protects Pigs’ Gastric Mucosa After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation via Inhibiting Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Li, Yaqiang; Liu, Zhengxin

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mild hypothermia therapy on gastric mucosa after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced in pigs. After CPR, the surviving pigs were divided into mild hypothermia-treated and control groups. The changes in vital signs and hemodynamic parameters were monitored before cardiac arrest and at intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation. Serum IL-6 was determined at the same time, and gastroscopy was performed. The pathologic changes were noted, and the expression of IL-6 was determined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry under light. Results The heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output in both groups did not differ significantly. The gastric mucosa ulcer index evaluated by gastroscopy 2 h and 24 h after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the mild hypothermic group was lower than that the control group (P<0.05). The inflammatory pathologic score of gastric mucosa in the mild hypothermic group 6–24 h after ROSC was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Serum and gastric mucosa IL-6 expression 0.5–4 h and 6, 12, and 24 h after ROSC was lower in the mild hypothermic group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions Mild hypothermia treatment protects gastric mucosa after ROSC via inhibiting IL-6 production and relieving the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27694796

  18. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  19. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  20. Isolation and characterization of novel tachykinins from the posterior salivary gland of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Two novel tachykinins (OctTK-I: Lys-Pro-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Glu-Phe-Ile-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2) and OctTK-II: Lys-Pro-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Glu-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2)) were isolated from the posterior salivary gland of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) using a contraction assay of the carp rectum. These peptides had in common the pentapeptide sequence -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH(2) at the C-terminal and induced immediate contractions on the carp rectum and the guinea-pig ileum. cDNAs encoding their precursor proteins were cloned. The OctTK gene was expressed in the posterior salivary gland and the expression was localized in mucus-secreting cells of the gland. The results suggested that OctTKs might be secreted as a venomous substance acting on vertebrates such as fishes, which are the prey or natural enemies of the octopus. PMID:12576083

  1. Gastric cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hilmar; Marques, Miguel S; Zietlow, Rike; Meyer, Thomas F; Machado, Jose C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H. pylori infection, and the role of aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in GC transformation. The understanding of the molecular basis of GC development is of utmost importance for the identification of novel targets for GC prevention and treatment. PMID:27531537

  2. Gastric polyps: Association with Helicobacter pylori status and the pathology of the surrounding mucosa, a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Elhanafi, Sherif; Saadi, Mohammed; Lou, Wynee; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Dwivedi, Alok; Zuckerman, Marc; Othman, Mohamed O

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the endoscopic characteristics of gastric polyps and their association with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status in a predominantly Hispanic population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all esophagogastroduodenoscopies performed at our institution. Demographic, endoscopic and histopathological data were reviewed. Categorization of patients into Hispanic and Non-Hispanic was based on self-identification. Patients without resection/biopsy were not included in the analysis. Identification of polyps type was based on histological examination. One way analysis of variance was used to compare continuous variables among different polyp types and Fisher’s exact test was used compare categorical variables among polyp types. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons of demographic and clinical characteristics were performed according to the H. pylori status and polyp type using logistic regressions. RESULTS: Of 7090 patients who had upper endoscopy, 335 patients had gastric polyps (4.7%). Resection or biopsy of gastric polyps was performed in 296 patients (88.4%) with a total of 442 polyps removed or biopsied. Of 296 patients, 87 (29%) had hyperplastic polyps, 82 (28%) had fundic gland polyps and 5 (1.7%) had adenomatous polyps. Hyperplastic polyps were significantly associated with positive H. pylori status compared with fundic gland polyps (OR = 4.621; 95%CI: 1.92-11.13, P = 0.001). Hyperplastic polyps were also found to be significantly associated with portal hypertensive gastropathy compared with fundic gland polyps (OR = 6.903; 95%CI: 1.41-33.93, P = 0.0174). Out of 296 patients, 30 (10.1%) had a follow-up endoscopy with a mean duration of 26 ± 16.3 mo. Interval development of cancer was not noted in any of the patients during follow up period. CONCLUSION: Gastric hyperplastic polyps were significantly associated with positive H. pylori status and portal hypertensive gastropathy as compared with fundic gland polyps. PMID:26265993

  3. Histopathology of meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gutgesell, V J; Stern, G A; Hood, C I

    1982-09-01

    We conducted a histopathologic study of he meibomian glands of seven patients (all men, ranging in age from 58 to 83 years) who had severe or moderately severe meibomian dysfunction and who were undergoing ectropion or entropion repair. Abnormal features included signs of obstruction and dilatation of ducts, enlargement of acini with cystic degeneration and squamous metaplasia, foreign-body reaction and granuloma formation, a mild increase in inflammatory cells, and abnormal keratinization. Demodex organisms were found in both acini and ducts of one patient. These findings were similar to those reported in other entities involving meibomian duct obstruction, probably related to abnormalities of keratinization, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of meibomian gland dysfunction.

  4. Sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Claudia M; Mooney, Julia E; Luna, Mario A

    2003-08-01

    Primary sebaceous neoplasms of the salivary glands are extremely rare occurrences; furthermore, sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma has only been reported in three patients. We report a case of sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma arising in a lymphadenoma of the parotid gland. The patient was a 55-year-old man who presented with a parotid mass of 3 years' duration. Histologically, the lesion consisted of a sebaceous lymphadenoma with transition to a sebaceous carcinoma. The cytologic touch-preparation at the time of frozen section showed clusters of benign sebaceous cells in a rich lymphocytic background together with tridimensional clusters of malignant epithelial cells, strongly raising the suspicion of a malignant neoplasm arising in a benign sebaceous lesion. Malignant transformation of the sebaceous lymphadenoma, although rare, should be considered in enlarging, locally invasive parotid lesions, considering that clinical behavior and prognosis will be determined by the nature of the malignant component.

  5. Genetic Ablation of Parietal Cells in Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Analyzing Cell Lineage Relationships in the Gastric Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Victor; West, A. Brian; Goldenring, James R.; Levenson, Robert

    1996-03-01

    The gastric mucosa of mammalian stomach contains several differentiated cell types specialized for the secretion of acid, digestive enzymes, mucus, and hormones. Understanding whether each of these cell lineages is derived from a common stem cell has been a challenging problem. We have used a genetic approach to analyze the ontogeny of progenitor cells within mouse stomach. Herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase was targeted to parietal cells within the gastric mucosa of transgenic mice, and parietal cells were ablated by treatment of animals with the antiherpetic drug ganciclovir. Ganciclovir treatment produced complete ablation of parietal cells, dissolution of gastric glands, and loss of chief and mucus-producing cells. Termination of drug treatment led to the reemergence of all major gastric epithelial cell types and restoration of glandular architecture. Our results imply the existence of a pluripotent stem cell for the gastric mucosa. Parietal cell ablation should provide a model for analyzing cell lineage relationships within the stomach as well as mechanisms underlying gastric injury and repair.

  6. Birth by caesarian section alters postnatal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J A; Keisler, D H; Sterle, J A; Matteri, R L; Carroll, J A

    1999-03-01

    Eight crossbred sows were selected for the present study (n = 4 vaginal delivery and n = 4 Caesarian section [C-section]). Gestation length did not differ between vaginal delivery and C-section pigs (113.6 +/- .1 and 113.2 +/- .3 d, respectively; P > .16). Blood and tissue samples from 38 pigs were collected at birth. All remaining pigs were sustained with vaginal-delivery sows until 2 wk of age (n = 39). At 2 wk of age, remaining pigs were catheterized for blood sample collection to assess pituitary-adrenal responsiveness to an injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 10 microg/kg). Blood samples were collected at -30, -15, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 90 min; pigs received CRH or saline at time 0. Pigs were killed and tissue samples were collected immediately following the last blood sample. Serum concentrations of ACTH and cortisol (CS) were measured. Total RNA was isolated from the pituitary and adrenal glands to evaluate gene expression for mRNA specific for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and for the ACTH receptor. Centrifuged clot:blood ratio was reduced in the C-section pigs at birth (P < .001) and at 2 wk of age (P < .043), compared with the vaginally delivered pigs. Basal serum concentration of ACTH was greater in C-section than in vaginally delivered pigs at birth (P = .01) but did not differ at 2 wk of age (P = .42). Basal serum concentration of CS was not different at birth (P = .86) but was greater in C-section pigs than in vaginally delivered pigs at 2 wk of age (P < .04). Serum concentration of ACTH was not different (P > .99) between the two groups of pigs following the CRH challenge. However, serum concentration of CS was greater (P < .05) in C-section pigs following the CRH challenge. Expression of ACTH receptor mRNA tended to be greater in C-section pigs at birth (P < .063) and at 2 wk of age (P < .016). There was no difference in POMC mRNA between treatments (P > .73); however, there was a developmental increase (P < .001) from birth to 2 wk

  7. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do. PMID:26566288

  8. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  9. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  10. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, N; Agarwal, A; Raj, V; Chandra, S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare group of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. The problem is compounded by the ability of these cells to differentiate and modify into various morphological subtypes resulting in a myraid of histomorphological patterns. This also leads to a frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms and sometimes even between benign and malignant lesions causing significant diagnostic dilemma which sometimes may even not be resolved by immunohistochemical studies. Despite this the knowledge of histogenesis and morhogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumorigenesis greatly helps the pathologist in classifying these lesions as well as determining the prognosis. It will also help in development of newer strategies for differentiating these lesions and making an early diagnosis. The present article is aimed at reviewing and summarizing the current concepts regarding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  11. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes.

  12. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes. PMID:26817690

  13. A surface energy analysis of mucoadhesion: contact angle measurements on polycarbophil and pig intestinal mucosa in physiologically relevant fluids.

    PubMed

    Lehr, C M; Bouwstra, J A; Boddé, H E; Junginger, H E

    1992-01-01

    The possible role of surface energy thermodynamics in mucoadhesion was investigated with Polycarbophil and pig intestinal mucosa. In separate experiments, the surface energy parameters of the substrate (mucosa) and the adhesive (polymer film) were determined by contact angle measurements on captive air/octane bubbles in three physiologically relevant test fluids (isotonic saline, artificial gastric fluid, and artificial intestinal fluid). Whereas the swollen Polycarbophil films were relatively hydrophilic as indicated by small water contact angles (22, 23, and 16 degrees), the water contact angles measured on mucosal tissue were significantly larger (61, 48, and 57 degrees). Hence, mucus was found to possess an appreciable hydrophobicity. The measured adhesive performance (force of detachment) between Polycarbophil and pig small intestinal mucosa was highest in nonbuffered saline medium, intermediate in gastric fluid, and minimal in intestinal fluid. In agreement with this trend, the mismatch in surface polarities between substrate and adhesive, calculated from the contact angle data, increased in the same order.

  14. Histologic findings in "ex- Helicobacter pylori" gastric biopsies of pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marta; Rúa, Eduardo Cueto; Balcarce, Norma; Drut, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Long-term sequelae of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis (HpCG) have been described in adult patients. In the present study we report the histology of gastric mucosa biopsies in 6 asymptomatic pediatric patients (5 male and 1 female; mean age 9.5 years) with previous HpCG. Preceding H. pylori was histologically proved and confirmed by culture, direct visualization, and/or serology before delivering treatment. In 5 of 6 cases the HpCG followed a protracted clinical course, with various therapeutic series needed before H. pylori eradication. Time from final treatment for HpCG to actual biopsy ranged from 3 months to almost 3 years. Gastric mucosa showed mild chronic gastritis with absence of H. pylori organisms (6 of 6), focal loss of gland units with collagenous replacement (6 of 6), serrated foveolae (3 of 6), regenerative changes at elongated glandular necks with cells having enlarged and hyperchromatic nuclei (5 of 6), lymphoid aggregates (2 of 6), and presence of sulfomucins in isolated epithelial cells of glands and foveolae (2 of 6). None of these features were noticed in 10 normal gastric mucosa biopsies used as controls. The referred findings in "ex- H. pylori" pediatric patients may represent very early sequelae from HpCG at this age. PMID:16010501

  15. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  16. Excretion of host immunoglobulin in tick saliva and detection of IgG-binding proteins in tick haemolymph and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nuttall, P A

    1994-11-01

    Host immunoglobulin G (IgG) crossed the gut wall into the haemocoel of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus female ticks when they fed on guinea-pigs. Guinea-pig IgG was also found in saliva of the feeding ticks. The concentration and antibody activity of IgG in haemolymph, salivary gland extract (SGE) and saliva at different stages of tick feeding were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Specific activity of the IgG in tick samples was determined by feeding ticks on guinea-pigs which were immunized with killed Escherichia coli: 35-42% of the antibody activity in guinea-pig immune serum remained in the tick samples. The high relative concentration of IgG in tick saliva at later stages of feeding suggests that the tick may have a mechanism for getting rid of foreign proteins via the salivary gland. Such a mechanism could involve IgG binding proteins (IGBPs) which were found in both haemolymph and SGE of female ticks at day 6 of feeding using a guinea-pig IgG-agarose affinity column. In female ticks, the M(r) of IGBPs in SGE (23 and 57 kDa) were less than those in haemolymph (78 and > 100 kDa). The existence of IGBPs in both the tick salivary gland and haemolymph indicate that haemolymph and salivary gland cooperate to remove foreign proteins, e.g. host immunoglobulin, from the body during feeding. This mechanism may be a part of the tick self-defence system. PMID:7794319

  17. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  18. Inhibition of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase by chalcone derivatives, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin, from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Kijima, H; Isobe, Y; Muramatsu, M; Aihara, H; Otomo, S; Baba, K; Kozawa, M

    1990-10-01

    Two chalcone derivatives, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (II) isolated from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, inhibited pig gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase with IC50 values of 1.8 and 3.3 microM, respectively. The inhibition by I or II was competitive with respect to ATP and was non-competitive with respect to K+ I and II also inhibited K+, stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, with IC50 values of 1.3 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Proton transport in-vitro was inhibited by I or II, in a dose-dependent manner, 1 at 100 mg kg-1, i.p. significantly inhibited acid secretion and the formation of stress-induced gastric lesions. These results suggest that the antisecretory effect of 1 is due to the inhibition of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase.

  19. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  20. Meibomian gland dysfunction in chronic blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Shields, W J; Sachdev, M S; Petroll, W M; Jester, J V

    1991-07-01

    We examined 57 patients with symptoms of chronic blepharitis using meibomian gland expression, meibography, tear osmolarity, and the Schirmer's test. We also performed meibography on 20 normal patients free of chronic blepharitis. We found that 42 blepharitis patients (74%) had evidence of meibomian gland loss, whereas only four of 20 normal patients (20%) had any gland dropout. We performed cluster analysis on the data from the patients with blepharitis and found that these patients tended to fall into distinct groups with clinically relevant characteristics. We also found that tear osmolarity correlated positively with gland dropout (+0.413) and negatively with excreta volume (-0.499). This study demonstrates that an objective analysis of meibomian gland function may be used to assess chronic blepharitis and define subsets of blepharitis with measurable differences. It also supports the significance of meibomian gland dysfunction on tear osmolarity and the evaporative state of the eye.

  1. The treatment of sublingual gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Sun, G; Yang, X; Tang, E; Wen, J; Lu, M; Hu, Q

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the clinical and histological features and therapeutic efficacy of 25 cases of sublingual gland tumours from 1998 to 2008. There were 17 female patients and 8 male, the ratio of females to males was 2.1:1. The mean age was 48.6 years. 4 cases were benign tumours (16%). 21 cases were malignant sublingual gland tumours (84%) and of these, 18 were adenoid cystic carcinoma (86%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was mainly of the histological type, and the other histological classifications included mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, oncocytoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Sublingual gland tumours are rare and most are malignant. For malignant sublingual gland tumours, early diagnosis and aggressive surgical treatment, especially for tumours with nerve involvement, is the key to improving prognosis. Free radial forearm flap or pectoralis major myocutaneous flap are appropriate methods for mouth floor reconstruction. For benign sublingual gland tumours, the resection of tumour and sublingual gland is the preferred treatment.

  2. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  3. In vivo formation of nitrosocarbamates in the stomach of rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, R.W.; Dorough, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The N-nitrosocarbamates are potent mutagens and carcinogens and have been synthesized under acid conditions that prevail in the human stomach. However, it has never been documented that nitrosocarbamates are actually formed in vivo in the stomach of any mammalian species. Using /sup 14/C-labeled carbaryl and carbofuran, attempts were made to isolate the nitroso derivatives from the stomach contents of rats and guinea pigs treated orally with the carbamate and sodium nitrite. Only trace quantities of nitrocarbamate were recovered from the rat stomach, whereas 0.5 to 2.0% of the carbamate doses were isolated as the nitroso derivative from the contents of the guinea pig stomach. The rather low apparent yields resulted in part from the instability of the nitrosocarbamates and from absorption of the carbamate and/or nitrosocarbamate from the stomach. Higher rates of synthesis were indicated by incubating the carbamates with sodium nitrite in the presence of the stomach contents at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min. About 30% nitrosation occurred with the guinea pig and about 0.5% with the rat. The difference was attributed to the pH of the gastric contents. For the rat, the pH ranged from 3 to 5; gastric contents of the guinea pig had a pH between 1 and 2. Since the pH of the human stomach is also in the pH 1-2 range, it is likely that nitrosation of carbamates in humans would be very similar to that in the guinea pig. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  4. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed.

  5. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, A; Tetè, S

    1995-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the parotid gland are not common and are often erroneously diagnosed as benign tumors. Lymphoepithelial cysts are only rarely diagnosed in the parotid gland. The term "lymphoepithelial cyst" is used because it is a descriptive term and takes no account of the origin and development of these cysts. An origin from sequestered lymph nodes epithelium in the parotid gland may be a feasible explanation for the origin of these cysts.

  6. Oncocytoma of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Khakbaz Baboli, Oveis; Yarmand, Fateme

    2015-05-01

    Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor, which mostly occurs in the parotid gland. In this article, we describe an early onset of oncocytoma of minor salivary gland in a 36-year, white male. On clinical examination, we encounter with a painless, granular, sessile mass. After Excisional biopsy, the histopathological features revealed sheets of cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large, round nuclei that are known as "Oncocyte".

  7. Canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Carl M; Kendall, Charles; Murty, George E

    2005-01-01

    Canalicular adenomas are a rare form of benign tumour that occur in salivary glands, occurring mainly in the upper lip and minor salivary glands of the buccal mucosa. The authors report the fifth case and the first in the otorhinolaryngological literature of a canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland. Its specific histological features are difficult to detect on fine needle aspiration and its multifocal nature can lead to recurrence and this must be considered in the clinical management.

  8. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  9. Parotid gland biopsy for investigation of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J W; Edwards, J L; Christmas, P I; Ferguson, M M

    1990-08-01

    A technique is described for biopsy of the parotid salivary gland under local anaesthesia, which has been undertaken for a series of 59 patients who presented with suspected inflammatory exocrinopathy. The procedure is reliable and is associated with negligible postoperative discomfort. The advantages of the technique suggest that parotid gland biopsy is an acceptable alternative to conventional lower lip biopsy of minor salivary glands in the investigation of xerostomia.

  10. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  11. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  12. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  13. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg) were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM) or with quercetin (GBMQ). In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW) in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW) animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:24847478

  14. Diagnostic problems of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab

    2015-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland is a popular technique with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the interpretation of FNAC smear of salivary gland lesions is a great challenge to the cytologists. The cytological features of the various tumors of the salivary gland have overlapping cytological features and many other lesions in the head neck region may mimic salivary lesions. Moreover, at times it may be difficult to differentiate benign from malignant tumor of the tumor with same cell of origin. In this article, we have discussed the various problems in the diagnosis of FNAC of the salivary gland lesions.

  15. [Diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Zagólski, Olaf; Czajecki, Krzysztof; Gajda, Mariusz

    2006-10-01

    An intracellular metabolic disturbance associated with mitochondriopathy, due to an age dependent metabolic defect, is suggested to cause metaplasia of salivary gland cells into oncocytes. The WHO classification of salivary gland diseases considers 3 oncocytic lesions: oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. In case of diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland, extensive metaplasia of acinic and ductal cells leads to transformation of nearly all cells of the gland into oncocytes, which is clinically characterised by swelling of the parotid gland, and is an extremely rare condition. A 82-year-old man (the eldest of all reported) presented with a 2-month history of increasing diffuse swelling of the left parotid gland, 6 cm in diameter. The mass was soft, painless to palpation and grew in the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. The patient underwent surgical removal of the lesion with wide margins of healthy tissue. Histopathological examination of the operative specimen disclosed oncocytosis of the salivary gland. The patient has been followed-up for 6 months. He is doing well without recurrence. Surgical removal of the diffuse hyperplastic oncocytosis of the parotid gland, with indications and extent of the resection like in benign tumors, was effective in the presented patient.

  16. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  17. Oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, M; Shimizu, M; Manabe, T; Ito, J; Ogawa, S

    1998-04-01

    We report a case of oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland, previously unrecognized benign tumor of the salivary gland. The patient was a 66-year-old Japanese woman with a left submandibular mass, measuring 11 x 7.5 x 5 cm. Microscopically, the mass was completely surrounded by a thin fibrous connective tissue capsule, and was composed of an intimate admixture of mature fat cells and oncocytes. There have been no English reports of such a neoplasm in the salivary gland with the exception of one recent case report of lipoadenoma of the parotid gland without oncocytic features. We propose the diagnostic term "oncocytic lipoadenoma" for this benign tumor.

  18. Cystadenocarcinoma (papillary cystadenocarcinoma) of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Harimaya, A; Somekawa, Y; Sasaki, M; Ohuchi, T

    2006-12-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma (papillary cystadenocarcinoma) of the salivary gland is a rare malignant neoplasm. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. As far as we know, only one report, written in the French language, has been published concerning cystadenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland, but no report is available in the English language. In this report, we describe a case of cystadenocarcinoma arising from the submandibular gland of a 54-year-old male patient. The neoplasm is a low-grade carcinoma, and pre-operative examination may not show typical characteristics of malignant neoplasms. Therefore, as was true in this case, the differential diagnosis from benign lesions is sometimes difficult. This is the first report on cystadenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland in the English language and the first to show a computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this neoplasm in the submandibular gland.

  19. Exome sequencing identifies ATP4A gene as responsible of an atypical familial type I gastric neuroendocrine tumour.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Oriol; Reyes, Jose; Zuñiga, Sheila; Paumard-Hernández, Beatriz; Fernández, Victoria; Bujanda, Luís; Rodriguez-Pinilla, María S; Palacios, Jose; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Cañamero, Marta; Pritchard, D Mark; Benítez, Javier

    2015-05-15

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) arise from enterochromaffin-like cells, which are located in oxyntic glands within the stomach. Type I tumours represent 70-80% of gastric NETs and are associated with hypergastrinaemia, chronic atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria. Gastrin is involved in the endocrine regulation of gastric acid production. Most type I gastric NETs are sporadic, have a good prognosis and their genetic basis are unknown. We performed an exome sequencing study in a family with consanguineous parents and 10 children, five of whom were affected by type I gastric NET. Atypical clinical traits included an earlier age of onset (around 30 years), aggressiveness (three had nodal infiltration requiring total gastrectomy and one an adenocarcinoma) and iron-deficiency rather than megaloblastic anaemia. We identified a homozygous missense mutation in the 14th exon of the ATP4A gene (c.2107C>T), which encodes the proton pump responsible for acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. The amino acid p.Arg703Cys is highly conserved across species and originates a change of one of the transmembrane domains that avoids the liberation of protons from cells to stomach. This is consistent with the achlorhydria that was observed in the affected individuals. No germline or somatic mutations in the ATP4A gene were found in sporadic gastric NET patients. Based on the results of this large family, it seems that this atypical form of gastric NET has an earlier age of onset, behaves more aggressively and has atypical clinical traits that differentiated from other studied cases. PMID:25678551

  20. Rapid purification of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase complex by tomato-lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, J M; Toh, B H; Simpson, R J; Baldwin, G S; Gleeson, P A

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that tomato lectin binds specifically to the 60-90 kDa membrane glycoprotein of parietal cell tubulovesicles, the beta-subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase (proton pump) [Callaghan, Toh, Pettitt, Humphris & Gleeson (1990) J. Cell Sci. 95, 563-576; Toh, Gleeson, Simpson, Mortiz, Callaghan, Goldkorn, Jones, Martinelli, Mu, Humphris, Pettitt, Mori, Masuda, Sobieszczuk, Weinstock, Mantamadiotis & Baldwin (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6418-6422]. Here we have exploited this interaction for the development of a rapid single-step chromatography procedure for the purification of an active pig gastric proton pump complex. Initially, H+/K(+)-ATPase-enriched membranes, prepared from pig gastric microsomes by density-gradient centrifugation, were extracted in 1% Triton X-100 and passed through a 1 ml tomato lectin-Sepharose 4B column. The bound material, eluted with 20 mM-chitotriose, showed a major band with an apparent molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a faint broad band of 60-90 kDa, by SDS/PAGE. N-Glycanase treatment of the bound material resulted in the appearance of a 35 kDa band, the size of the protein core of the 60-90 kDa glycoprotein beta-subunit. The two components were identified as the 95 kDa alpha-subunit and the 60-90 kDa beta-subunit of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase, by immunoreactivity with monospecific antibodies, and by tryptic peptide sequences of the tomato-lectin-bound material. The beta-subunit was present in approximately equimolar amounts to the catalytic alpha-subunit. Whereas the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase was not active after solubilization in 1% Triton X-100, solubilization of density-gradient-purified membranes in the non-ionic detergent, C12E8, followed by chromatography of the extract on tomato lectin-Sepharose 4B, resulted in the purification of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase complex which exhibited K(+)-dependent phosphatase activity. This is the first report of a rapid purification of a partially active solubilized

  1. Production efficiency and telomere length of the cloned pigs following serial somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kurome, Mayuko; Hisatomi, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Tomii, Ryo; Ueno, Satoshi; Hiruma, Katsumi; Saito, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Okumura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Mitsuhito; Kaji, Yuji; Endo, Fumio; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the production efficiency of cloned pigs by serial somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and to ascertain any changes in the telomere lengths of multiple generations of pigs. Using fetal fibroblasts as the starting nuclear donor cells, porcine salivary gland progenitor cells were collected from the resultant first-generation cloned pigs to successively produce second- and third-generation clones, with no significant differences in production efficiency, which ranged from 1.4% (2/140) to 3.3% (13/391) among the 3 generations. The average telomere lengths (terminal restriction fragment values) for the first, second and third generation clones were 16.3, 18.1 and 20.5 kb, respectively, and were comparable to those in age-matched controls. These findings suggest that third-generation cloned pigs can be produced by serial somatic cell cloning without compromising production efficiency and that the telomere lengths of cloned pigs from the first to third generations are normal. PMID:18490858

  2. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.

    PubMed

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  3. [Unusual cause of gastric bleeding: leiomyoma].

    PubMed

    Alberti, P; Pruneri, U; Bianchi, P; Cerra, V

    1996-10-01

    The gastric leiomyoma is a rare non-epithelial tumor of the stomach that can either be asymptomatic (autoptical diagnosis) or, on the contrary, suddenly appear with severe gastric hemorrhage. The authors review the literature and report their own experience concerning 6 cases of gastric leiomyoma observed during 5 years. They discuss the clinical presentation, the difficulties of diagnosis and the therapeutic choices.

  4. Tumors of the submaxillary gland.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R H; Hajdu, S I; Strong, E W

    1976-10-01

    This study reviews a thirty year experience with 217 patients who had a tumor of the submaxillary gland, comprising about 9 per cent of all patients with salivary neoplasms seen during the same period. Most of the tumors were malignant (56 per cent), with adenoid cystic carcinoma predominating, but the histologic type most frequently encountered was benign mixed tumor (43 per cent). Median age was fifty-four years in patients with malignant tumors compared with forty-six years in those with benign tumors, and 58 per cent were women. Asymptomatic swelling was the usual presenting complaint, and the clinical findings are summarized using a staging system recently proposed for patients with parotid tumors. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in at least 50 per cent of patients who had an adenocarcinoma or epidermoid, mucoepidermoid, or anaplastic carcinoma. Treatment was surgical and complete gland excision proved adequate in those with benign tumors. Radical neck dissection was performed in conjunction with submaxillary resection in most patients with malignant lesions, but radical en bloc resection was reserved for those few who had extensive or fixed disease. Net determinate "cure" rates at five and ten years (30 and 20 per cent, respectively) are distressingly low and compare unfavorably with those previously reported in patients treated for carcinoma of the parotid. The high local recurrence rate and the greater incidence in the submaxillary gland of more aggressive tumor types which metastasize readily suggest that current treatment should be more radical. It seems reasonable to expect that results might be improved if en bloc resections were more often performed in patients with less advanced disease, possibly in conjuction with intensive postoperative irradiation in selected cases.

  5. Angiolipoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Dimosthenous, Kypros; Righi, Alberto; Puccetti, Maurizio; Lorenzini, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    This is a report of an angiolipoma of the thyroid gland, an extremely rare entity. A thorough search of the literature revealed only one previously reported example. The patient was a 77-year-old woman with a history of a nodular lesion of the thyroid in the context of a multinodular goiter. A fine needle aspiration highlighted the presence of abundant adipocytes associated with numerous dilated vessels. Histopathologic examination of the lobectomy specimen documented the presence of a tumor composed of two main elements, namely, mature adipocytes and proliferating vessels, some of the latter containing fibrin thrombi.

  6. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  7. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1), pepsinogen 2 (PG2) and gastrin 17 (G17) offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation), degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy) and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status). Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003). The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058). The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p < 0.01). Laurén-specific analysis revealed that this is only true for intestinal type tumors. Univariate ANOVA revealed atrophy and CagA-status as the only independent factors for low PG1 and a low PG1/2-ratio. Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer. PMID:22289789

  8. Oral glutathione supplementation drastically reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric pathologies

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Foss, Dennis; Sanchez, Margaret; Joosten, Myrthe; Zhang, Guangzhi; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastric pathologies in both pigs and humans. Very little is known on the metabolism of this bacterium and its impact on the host. In this study, we have revealed the importance of the glutamate-generating metabolism, as shown by a complete depletion of glutamine (Gln) in the medium during H. suis culture. Besides Gln, H. suis can also convert glutathione (GSH) to glutamate, and both reactions are catalyzed by the H. suis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Both for H. pylori and H. suis, it has been hypothesized that the degradation of Gln and GSH may lead to a deficiency for the host, possibly initiating or promoting several pathologies. Therefore the in vivo effect of oral supplementation with Gln and GSH was assessed. Oral supplementation with Gln was shown to temper H. suis induced gastritis and epithelial (hyper)proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Astonishingly, supplementation of the feed with GSH, another GGT substrate, resulted in inflammation and epithelial proliferation levels returning to baseline levels of uninfected controls. This indicates that Gln and GSH supplementation may help reducing tissue damage caused by Helicobacter infection in both humans and pigs, highlighting their potential as a supportive therapy during and after Helicobacter eradication therapy. PMID:26833404

  9. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  10. Endoscopic 3D-OCT reveals buried glands following radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Becker, Lauren; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Huang, Qin; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia is generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection or esophagectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recent treatment that allows broad and superficial ablation for BE. Endoscopic three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is a volumetric imaging technique that is uniquely suited for follow-up surveillance of RFA treatment. 3D-OCT uses a thin fiberoptic imaging catheter placed down the working channel of a conventional endoscope. 3D-OCT enables en face and cross-sectional evaluation of the esophagus for detection of residual BE, neo-squamous mucosa, or buried BE glands. Patients who had undergone RFA treatment with the BARRX HALO90 system were recruited and imaged with endoscopic 3D-OCT before and after (3-25 months) RFA treatment. 3D-OCT findings were compared to pinch biopsy to confirm the presence or absence of squamous epithelium or buried BE glands following RFA. Gastric, BE, and squamous epithelium were readily distinguished from 3D-OCT over a large volumetric field of view (8mmx20mmx1.6 mm) with ~5μm axial resolution. In all patients, neosquamous epithelium (NSE) was observed in regions previously treated with RFA. A small number of isolated glands were found buried beneath the regenerated NSE and lamina propria. NSE is a marker of successful ablative therapy, while buried glands may have malignant potential and are difficult to detect using conventional video endoscopy and random biopsy. Buried glands were not observed with pinch biopsy due to their extremely sparse distribution. These results indicate a potential benefit of endoscopic 3D-OCT for follow-up assessment of ablative treatments for BE.

  11. Simultaneous quadruple modal nonlinear optical imaging for gastric diseases diagnosis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Jian; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    We report the development of a unique simultaneous quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopy (i.e., stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and third-harmonic generation (THG)) platform for characterization of the gastric diseases (i.e., gastritis, intestinal metaplasia (IM), intestinal type adenocarcinoma). SRS highlights the goblet cells found in IM. SHG images the distribution of collagen in lamina propria. Collagen is found to aggregate for intestinal type adenocarcinoma. TPEF reveals the cell morphology and can reflect the damage inside glands caused by the diseases. THG visualizes the nuclei with high spatial resolution, which facilitates the identification of neutrophils that are usually used as a feature of inflammation. This work shows that the co-registration of quadruple-modal images can be an effective means for diagnosis and characterization of gastric diseases at the cellular and molecular levels.

  12. The first description of gastric Helicobacter in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Fabisiak, M; Sapierzyński, R; Salamaszyńska-Guz, A; Kizerwetter-Swida, M

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of gastric mucosa of 17 free-ranging wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot in the Central Poland during 2007/2008 hunting season were investigated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Histopathology, Helicobacter genus-specific 16S rRNA PCR, and DNA sequence analysis were employed. In PCR analysis the presence of Helicobacter's DNA was detected in one stomach. Obtained sequence analysis showed its relatedness to Helicobacter heilmannii type 2. In histopathology of the PCR-positive sample the presence of tightly coiled spiral bacteria was detected on the surface of the antral mucosa, in gastric pits and lumen of the upper parts of antral glands. Potential pathologic significance of the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach of free-ranging wild boars was obscured by the parasitic invasion-caused gastritis, and remains unknown.

  13. Hearing loss due to metastasis of gastric cancer to temporal bone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CAO, XIANGMING; CUI, FANGBO; WEI, JIA; WANG, QING; DENG, LI CHUN; LIU, BAO RUI; SHEN, WEI SHENG

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic temporal bone tumors are rare, and tend to be asymptomatic. The clinical symptoms consist of aural discharge, bleeding, hearing loss and facial nerve paresis. The most common origin of the metastasis is breast cancer, and other sites of the primary tumor include the thyroid gland, brain, lungs, prostate and blood. Clinical reports of hearing loss due to gastric cancer metastatic to temporal bone are rare. In the present study, a case of gastric cancer metastasis to temporal bone without other organ involvement is described. The patient presented with the symptom of hearing loss, and the metastatic tumor was diagnosed by radiological imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and bone scan. PMID:26893735

  14. [Morphogenesis of gastric mucosal atrophy as a basis of a phenotype of chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Kononov, A V; Mosgovoĭ, S I; Markelova, M V; Shimanskaia, A G

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic antral gastritis was found to show an absolute decrease in gland volume with higher expression of the gastric transcription factor Shh, i.e. absolute atrophy and that concurrent with the replacement of the specialized gastric epithelium by the intestinal MUC2-producing one, i.e. metaplastic atrophy. In atrophic multifocal gastritis along absolute and metaplastic atrophy, there are foci of the proliferative metaplastic epithelium, i.e. hyperproliferative metaplastic atrophy that is prevalent in atrophic pangastritis. The molecular characteristics of hyperproliferative metaplastic atrophy are varying: in some foci of metaplasia, the high proliferative activity of the epithelium is concomitant with the hyperexpression of P53, a marker of DNA damage, the lower expression of the intestinal transcription factor CDX-2, and the low level of Cpp32, an indicator of apoptosis. Whether such structures can be identified at the launching pad for tumor growth in atrophic pangastritis is discussed.

  15. Lectin binding pattern of gastric mucosa of pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Makara, Manami; Miyawaki, Kyoji; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    The stomach of the Pacific white-sided dolphin is divided into three parts: forestomach, proper gastric gland portion, and pyloric chamber. The histological features of the dolphin stomach are similar to those of terrestrial mammal stomachs, although the distribution of glycoconjugates in mucosal cells of the dolphin stomach is unknown. To learn about glycoconjugates in cetacean gastric mucosa, the glycoconjugate distribution in the mucous epithelium of the Pacific white-sided dolphin was studied using 21 lectins. Among the lectins tested, GSL-I and DBA specifically labelled the superficial layer of the forestomach epithelium. GSL-I, SBA, RCA-I, VVA, GSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL, s-WGA, WGA, PNA, and Jacalin labelled the luminal surface of the chief cells in the proper gastric gland. GSL-I, SBA, RCA-I, DSL, LEL, STL, s-WGA, PNA, and LCA labelled tubular structures in the cytoplasm of parietal cells. The surface portion of the pits in the pyloric chamber strongly reacted with RCA-I, GSL-II, WGA, PNA, LCA, PHA-L, and UEA-I, whereas the neck portion reacted weakly. Although lining one tubular portion, individual secretory cells in the pyloric gland displayed a heterogeneous reaction. This is the first report on the lectin histochemistry of a cetacean stomach and reveals GSL-I and DBA as specific marker lectins for the cornified stratified squamous epithelium cells of the Pacific white-sided dolphin. The stomachs of cetaceans and terrestrial mammals have similar histological features and mucous glycoconjugate content.

  16. Lectin binding pattern of gastric mucosa of pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Makara, Manami; Miyawaki, Kyoji; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    The stomach of the Pacific white-sided dolphin is divided into three parts: forestomach, proper gastric gland portion, and pyloric chamber. The histological features of the dolphin stomach are similar to those of terrestrial mammal stomachs, although the distribution of glycoconjugates in mucosal cells of the dolphin stomach is unknown. To learn about glycoconjugates in cetacean gastric mucosa, the glycoconjugate distribution in the mucous epithelium of the Pacific white-sided dolphin was studied using 21 lectins. Among the lectins tested, GSL-I and DBA specifically labelled the superficial layer of the forestomach epithelium. GSL-I, SBA, RCA-I, VVA, GSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL, s-WGA, WGA, PNA, and Jacalin labelled the luminal surface of the chief cells in the proper gastric gland. GSL-I, SBA, RCA-I, DSL, LEL, STL, s-WGA, PNA, and LCA labelled tubular structures in the cytoplasm of parietal cells. The surface portion of the pits in the pyloric chamber strongly reacted with RCA-I, GSL-II, WGA, PNA, LCA, PHA-L, and UEA-I, whereas the neck portion reacted weakly. Although lining one tubular portion, individual secretory cells in the pyloric gland displayed a heterogeneous reaction. This is the first report on the lectin histochemistry of a cetacean stomach and reveals GSL-I and DBA as specific marker lectins for the cornified stratified squamous epithelium cells of the Pacific white-sided dolphin. The stomachs of cetaceans and terrestrial mammals have similar histological features and mucous glycoconjugate content. PMID:21952399

  17. Spontaneous gastric squamous cell carcinomas and other neoplasms in Greenland collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

    PubMed Central

    Barker, I K; Mallory, F F; Brooks, R J

    1982-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms were present in 39/66 Dicrostonyx groenlandicus of varying ages, examined from a laboratory colony. The presence of multiple neoplasms in some resulted in an overall average of 1.15 tumors/affected animal. Gastric squamous papillomas were present in nine, and locally invasive or metastatic gastric squamous cell carcinomas in a further 36 animals. Three mammary adenocarcinomas, one pancreatic islet cell tumor, one probable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and one adrenal cortical adenoma were also seen in lemmings with gastric tumors. Two others had mammary adenocarcinoma alone, and one animal had bilateral Harderian gland adenocarcinoma. Lesions resembling glomerulonephrosis of rats were seen in 23/51 animals whose kidneys were examined. These findings were not considered artefacts of captivity since concurrent gastric squamous cell carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and glomerulonephrosis were present in the single animal examined directly from the wild at Eskimo Point, Northwest Territories. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:6751508

  18. Aberrant lacrimal gland and pleomorphic adenoma within the muscle cone.

    PubMed

    Mueller, E C; Borit, A

    1979-04-01

    Aberrant lacrimal gland tissue within the muscle cone formed a pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor). Histopathologically, the lesion was identical to similar neoplasms originating from lacrimal and other salivary glands as well as from other serous glands of the body.

  19. [Genetic factors in gastric carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ohgaki, H

    1983-02-01

    Genetic control of susceptibility of rats to gastro-carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was studied in susceptible ACI strain rats, resistant Buffalo strain rats, and their F1 and F2 offsprings. Rats were given MNNG at a concentration of 83 micrograms/ml in drinking water for 32 weeks and sacrificed on week 72. The incidence of gastric adenocarcinomas in F1 was as low as that in Buffalo rats. The results showed that susceptibility to MNNG was controlled genetically and that the resistance of Buffalo strain rats was autosomal dominant. To clarify the mechanisms which determine susceptibility to MNNG, some biochemical parameters such as pH of gastric juice, glutathione content in the gastric mucosa and the binding of MNNG to DNA, were analysed. No difference was observed between ACI and Buffalo strains in regard to the events leading to the binding of MNNG to DNA.

  20. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  1. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed. PMID:26426163

  2. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  3. Nonobvious obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Caroline A; Korb, Donald R; Knop, Eric; Bedi, Raman; Knop, Nadja; Holland, Edward J

    2010-12-01

    This review presents the rationale and supporting data for a recent paradigm shift in our understanding of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The historical understanding of MGD has been that of an infectious hypersecretory disorder with obvious signs of inflammation, hypersecretion, and purulent excreta. The current understanding of MGD now includes the polar concept of a less obvious or nonobvious type of hyposecretory obstructive MGD, where inflammation and other signs of pathology may be absent unless special examination techniques are employed. A new term, nonobvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD), is used to describe what may be the most common form of obstructive MGD. Obstructive MGD is an area of growing importance because obstructive MGD is now recognized to be the most common cause of evaporative dry eye, and because NOMGD seems to be the precursor to obvious obstructive MGD, it is also an important area to understand. The prevalence of NOMGD seems to be very high but currently significantly underdiagnosed. This review presents the relevant anatomy and physiology, concepts of obstructive MGD, the usual absence of inflammation in obstructive MGD, nomenclature and classification of obstructive and NOMGD, clinical diagnosis of NOMGD emphasizing the necessity for diagnostic expression, the use of a new instrument for diagnostic expression providing a standardized method of assessing meibomian gland functionality, the complementary roles of the aqueous and lipid layers, and the specific treatment of NOMGD, emphasizing that the success of treatment of all forms of obstructive MGD is dependent on the relief of the obstruction.

  4. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Endocrine Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ozlem G.; Kartal, Elçin; Taheri, Nusret

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the hormone levels of patients with seborrheic meibomian gland dysfunction with controls. Procedures. This is a retrospective case-control study involving 50 patients and 50 controls. Blood workup for hormones was studied in both groups by using macroELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Statistical evaluation was done by using SPSS 15.0 independent samples t-test. Results. There were statistically significant differences of serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels between patients and controls (P = 0.000). Female gender showed statistically significant differences of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin levels between patients and controls (P = 0.014 and P = 0.043), in addition to serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001). However, male gender showed statistically significant differences of only serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels between patients and controls. (P = 0.003 and P = 0.003 resp.). Conclusions. Increased serum levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in both genders should be considered as diagnostic markers for seborrheic meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:24533183

  5. Meibomian gland dysfunction: endocrine aspects.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ozlem G; Kartal, Elçin; Taheri, Nusret

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the hormone levels of patients with seborrheic meibomian gland dysfunction with controls. Procedures. This is a retrospective case-control study involving 50 patients and 50 controls. Blood workup for hormones was studied in both groups by using macroELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Statistical evaluation was done by using SPSS 15.0 independent samples t-test. Results. There were statistically significant differences of serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels between patients and controls (P = 0.000). Female gender showed statistically significant differences of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin levels between patients and controls (P = 0.014 and P = 0.043), in addition to serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001). However, male gender showed statistically significant differences of only serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels between patients and controls. (P = 0.003 and P = 0.003 resp.). Conclusions. Increased serum levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in both genders should be considered as diagnostic markers for seborrheic meibomian gland dysfunction.

  6. Nonobvious obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Caroline A; Korb, Donald R; Knop, Eric; Bedi, Raman; Knop, Nadja; Holland, Edward J

    2010-12-01

    This review presents the rationale and supporting data for a recent paradigm shift in our understanding of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The historical understanding of MGD has been that of an infectious hypersecretory disorder with obvious signs of inflammation, hypersecretion, and purulent excreta. The current understanding of MGD now includes the polar concept of a less obvious or nonobvious type of hyposecretory obstructive MGD, where inflammation and other signs of pathology may be absent unless special examination techniques are employed. A new term, nonobvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD), is used to describe what may be the most common form of obstructive MGD. Obstructive MGD is an area of growing importance because obstructive MGD is now recognized to be the most common cause of evaporative dry eye, and because NOMGD seems to be the precursor to obvious obstructive MGD, it is also an important area to understand. The prevalence of NOMGD seems to be very high but currently significantly underdiagnosed. This review presents the relevant anatomy and physiology, concepts of obstructive MGD, the usual absence of inflammation in obstructive MGD, nomenclature and classification of obstructive and NOMGD, clinical diagnosis of NOMGD emphasizing the necessity for diagnostic expression, the use of a new instrument for diagnostic expression providing a standardized method of assessing meibomian gland functionality, the complementary roles of the aqueous and lipid layers, and the specific treatment of NOMGD, emphasizing that the success of treatment of all forms of obstructive MGD is dependent on the relief of the obstruction. PMID:20847669

  7. Salivary gland neoplasms in children.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Ebihara, S; Mukai, K

    1994-04-01

    We reviewed 20 children with salivary gland neoplasms treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1964 and 1990. Retrospective analyses of pathological features and the clinical courses of these cases constituted the bases of the present study. The age of onset was late childhood in 19 cases, ranging from 9 to 20 years, but one patient was 1 year old. Approximately half (55%) the neoplasms were malignant. Histologically, all the benign neoplasms were pleomorphic adenomas (nine cases) and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (six cases, 55%), followed by adenocarcinoma (three cases, 27%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (one case, 9%) and malignant mixed tumor (one case, 9%). Recurrences of pleomorphic adenomas occurred only in the three patients initially treated with enucleation; meanwhile, five patients treated with superficial parotidectomy, and one with submandibular glandectomy, had no recurrence. Recurrences of malignant tumors occurred in all six patients initially treated with enucleation only and in one with superficial parotidectomy but not in two patients treated with total parotidectomy. In seven patients treated with prophylactic neck dissection, no metastasis was identified pathologically. The results support no enucleation of the tumor being applied at the first operation for curing both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The indication for radical neck dissection appears to be limited.

  8. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  9. Myoepithelial hamartoma of the stomach simulating a gastric carcinoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Portale, Teresa Rosanna; Mosca, Francesco; Vicari, Salvatore; Pulvirenti, Giuseppa; Fichera, Simona; Salomone, Edvige; Puleo, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Myoepithelial hamartoma is a very rare submucosal tumor of the stomach. Magnus-Alsleben first described 5 cases of this tumor in 1903. More recently (1993) Vandelli et al. published a review of the literature comprising only 33 cases. Histologically, the tumor is characterized by hypertrophic smooth muscle bands surrounding diverse epithelial elements that can be arranged in different ways: as a simple glandular structure, Brunner's gland, pancreatic ducts and occasionally pancreatic acinus. We report a case of myoepithelial hamartoma of the stomach simulating a gastric carcinoma.

  10. Proboscis-like Brunner's gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Wang; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Yang, Tsen-Long; Wang, Tsang-En

    2008-10-01

    Hyperplasia of Brunner's glands is a benign lesion discovered incidentally in 2% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. An asymptomatic 34-year-old woman had a 12-cm duodenal lesion resembling an elephant's proboscis. It was removed surgically and proved to be Brunner's gland hyperplasia. PMID:18585675

  11. Effects of Isotretinoin on Meibomian Glands.

    PubMed

    Moy, Allison; McNamara, Nancy A; Lin, Meng C

    2015-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the potential etiology and long-standing consequences of isotretinoin use in the development of dry eye symptoms in the absence of significant clinical findings. Despite the normal appearance of meibomian gland structure on meibography and minimal signs of eyelid margin inflammation, the secretory function of these glands is reduced and symptoms of dryness can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. The available literature indicates that isotretinoin's effect on the meibomian glands likely mimics its effects on the sebaceous glands of the skin in the treatment of acne. Several representative cases seen at the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry Dry Eye Clinic provide a clinical paradigm with the goal of raising awareness of the potential prevalence of this disease in patients who experience symptoms of dry eye. These cases highlight the importance of meibomian gland expression in determining whether there is poor quality and/or quantity of meibum secondary to reduced gland function. Currently, there is no definitive method to restore the structure and function of damaged meibomian glands; thus, treatment options for isotretinoin-associated meibomian gland dysfunction are primarily palliative to manage patient symptoms. PMID:26154692

  12. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  13. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  14. Effects of Isotretinoin on Meibomian Glands.

    PubMed

    Moy, Allison; McNamara, Nancy A; Lin, Meng C

    2015-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the potential etiology and long-standing consequences of isotretinoin use in the development of dry eye symptoms in the absence of significant clinical findings. Despite the normal appearance of meibomian gland structure on meibography and minimal signs of eyelid margin inflammation, the secretory function of these glands is reduced and symptoms of dryness can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. The available literature indicates that isotretinoin's effect on the meibomian glands likely mimics its effects on the sebaceous glands of the skin in the treatment of acne. Several representative cases seen at the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry Dry Eye Clinic provide a clinical paradigm with the goal of raising awareness of the potential prevalence of this disease in patients who experience symptoms of dry eye. These cases highlight the importance of meibomian gland expression in determining whether there is poor quality and/or quantity of meibum secondary to reduced gland function. Currently, there is no definitive method to restore the structure and function of damaged meibomian glands; thus, treatment options for isotretinoin-associated meibomian gland dysfunction are primarily palliative to manage patient symptoms.

  15. Bilateral canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Liess, Benjamin D; Lane, Robert V; Frazier, Shellaine; Zitsch, Robert P

    2006-03-01

    Canalicular adenoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the upper lip. Rarely, this benign tumor may occur multifocally in the oral cavity. We report a case of canalicular adenoma in bilateral parotid glands, discuss histological characteristics, and review this tumor.

  16. Intraductal papilloma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Mirza, S; Dutt, S N; Irving, R M; Jones, E L

    2000-06-01

    Salivary tissue intraductal papillomas are rare, benign tumours that predominantly affect minor salivary glands. We report a case of an intraductal papilloma arising in the unusual site of the submandibular gland. The tumour was completely excised and recurrence is not expected. A brief review of this histologically distinct lesion is presented.

  17. Sialadenoma papilliferum of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, J; Horowitz, A; Leventon, G

    1989-11-01

    Sialadenoma papilliferum is a rare, benign exophytic tumour of salivary glands. The preferred site of this tumour is usually the hard palate. A case of sialadenoma papilliferum occurring in the parotid gland of a 49-year-old man is presented; only one such case has been previously described.

  18. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, Juan Carlos; López-Arranz, Elena; García, Juan; López-Arranz, Juan Sebastián

    2003-07-01

    Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner's tumor) is a benign and chronic inflammatory condition of the submandibular gland that clinically cannot be easily distinguished from salivary malignant neoplasia. This is a report of a case of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis located as a solitary mass in an accessory parotid gland.

  19. [Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Schell, H

    1998-10-01

    Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands is a rare benign tumor that clinically resembles a mucous cyst. We demonstrate its histologic features and differential diagnosis by a case report. Benign and malignant neoplasms of the minor salivary glands are not well acknowledged in the dermatologic literature, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis for mucous cysts.

  20. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Fazylov, A A; Baĭmatova, B A

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic tomography was applied to diagnose salivary gland diseases in 201 patients. Malignant disorders were found in 53 cases, benign in 127, and inflammation in 21. The investigation yielded some echographic diagnostic criteria for tumors and non-tumorous salivary gland diseases.

  1. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

  2. The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland.

    PubMed

    Alicelebić, Selma; Mornjaković, Zakira; Susko, Irfan; Cosović, Esad; Beganović-Petrović, Amira

    2006-11-01

    Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group) or shampinealectomy (control group), adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatonin intraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th) post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  3. Guinea pig models of asthma.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Alice E; Mazzone, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    Described in this unit are methods for establishing guinea pig models of asthma. Sufficient detail is provided to enable investigators to study bronchoconstriction, cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. PMID:25446291

  4. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  5. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  6. Submaxillary gland mucocele: presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Boneu-Bonet, Fernando; Vidal-Homs, Enric; Maizcurrana-Tornil, Aránzazu; González-Lagunas, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The term mucocele is referred to two concepts: the extravasation cysts resulting from salivary glandular duct rupture, with mucin leakage into the surrounding peri-glandular soft tissue, and the retention cysts, caused by a glandular duct obstruction and resulting in a decrease or even an absence of glandular secretion. Mucocele can not be considered as a true cyst because its wall lacks an epithelial lining. These lesions are very common in the minor salivary glands (particularly in the labial glands), but are very infrequent in the major salivary glands--including the submaxillary glands. The present study describes a clinical case of a right submaxillary gland mucocele resolved by surgical treatment and reviews the differential diagnosis with other clinical entities.

  7. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

  8. A rare benign parotid gland tumor: angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Yang, Hui; Liu, Shi Xi; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Fei

    2013-11-01

    Angiomyolipomas are benign neoplasms composed of smooth muscle, vasculature, and mature adipose tissue, which most commonly occur in the kidney and located in the head and neck region. A very rare neoplasm, there are only 3 cases of angiomyolipoma in the parotid gland that have been reported to date. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old man who had a slow-growing mass in the parotid gland for the past 7 years. The results of a physical examination revealed a rubbery mass that was 2.5 cm in diameter in the below superficial lobe of the left parotid gland. A computed tomographic scan showed a heterogeneous and lobulated nodule with a well-defined margin, which was resected through partial parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve. A histologic finding revealed an angiomyolipoma of the parotid gland. In conclusion, angiomyolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of rubbery parotid gland masses.

  9. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  10. Pleomorphic multicentric adenoma in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Alves, Carlos Augusto Ferreira; Ribeiro Júnior, Ophir; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; Gouveia, Marcia Maria; Guimarães Júnior, Jayro; Aburad, Arlindo; de Souza, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado

    2007-12-01

    Neoplasms of salivary glands represent a small group among the diseases involving the head and neck complex. In this group, the pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequent neoplasm, yet involves the submandibular gland in only 12.3% of cases. A patient presenting a swelling in the region of the submandibular gland was submitted to an incisional biopsy, where a fragment of the gland and one juxtaposed node were removed. Histologically they were defined as pleomorphic adenoma. Later, the patient was submitted to submandibulectomy and two other nodes were found close to the gland and removed. All specimens were histologically defined as pleomorphic adenoma. This multicentric finding is of great interest, perhaps explaining the recurrence rate of this neoplasm. The patient is in continuous follow-up and has not presented signs of recurrence.

  11. Discrimination of rat Brunner's gland carbohydrate antigens by site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Goso, Yukinobu; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kurihara, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Mucus produced and secreted by gastrointestinal mucosa contains various types of mucins equipped with unique sugar chains considered to play critical roles in protecting mucous membranes; therefore, the identification and verification of mucin sugar chains is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms. In our previous work, we generated three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42, which recognize sugar chains in rat gastric mucin. Here, we immunohistochemically analyzed the rat gastrointestinal mucosa and found that the antigens recognized by RGM22 and RGM42 were expressed in the rat antrum and Brunner's glands, whereas that recognized by RGM26 was detected in the antrum, but rarely in Brunner's glands. We found that these antibodies reacted with porcine gastric mucin-derived oligosaccharides bearing a common structure: GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6GalNAc-ol. Moreover, epitope analysis revealed that RGM42 and RGM22 recognized α-linked GalNAc and GalNAcα1-3Gal, respectively, on the GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal structure, whereas RGM26 was specific for GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal. These results indicate that rat Brunner's glands express specific antigens bearing GalNAcα1-3Gal that are recognized by RGM22 and RGM42. Thus, RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42 with their unique antigen specificities could be useful tools for investigation of oligosaccharide diversity among mucins. PMID:27454489

  12. CEUS and strain elastography in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Vito; Rubini, Antonello; Miniagio, Guglielmo

    2013-07-18

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer, but diagnosis is often delayed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is currently the gold standard for evaluating gastric cancer. Also other imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are employed for identifying gastric cancer, but particularly for cancer staging. Ultrasound (US) is a first-line imaging modality used to examine organs in the abdomen, and during these examinations gastric cancer may be incidentally detected. Very few studies in the literature have investigated the role of US in gastric disease. However, more recently, some authors have reported on the use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and US-elastography in gastric disease using both endoscopic and transabdominal approach. In this paper, we present a case of gastric cancer studied by CEUS and transabdominal US-elastography.

  13. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  14. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  15. Review: influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology.

  16. Reversibility of gastric mucosal lesions induced by sodium phosphate tablets and characterized by probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Coron, Emmanuel; Dewitte, Marie; Aubert, Philippe; Musquer, Nicolas; Neunlist, Michel; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Adequate bowel preparation is key for the optimal quality of colonoscopy. The sodium phosphate laxatives used for preparation may induce gastric injuries. However, in vivo studies monitoring the effects of sodium phosphate on the gastric mucosa are currently lacking. We aimed to characterize the effects of sodium phosphate tablets (Colokit®; Mayoly Spindler, Chatou, France) on the gastric mucosa in a large-animal model. Methods: Fourteen anesthetized pigs were used for this study. Fundic mucosal sites were analyzed at 1.5, 24, and 72 hours after the endoscopically guided application of sodium phosphate tablets (NaPT) and placebo tablets (PlaT) and were compared with unexposed sites. Different mucosal parameters were assessed with white light endoscopy, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), histology, and ex vivo permeability measurements. Results: At 90 minutes after the application of NaPT, significant increases in epithelial irregularity and crypt pit intensity were observed with pCLE. These microscopic lesions persisted at 24 hours but were resolved at 72 hours. In addition, white light endoscopy revealed local exanthema in 57 % of the animals at 1.5 hours after NaPT application. Such lesions were observed in 22 % of the pigs at 24 hours and disappeared at 72 hours after application. After 1.5 hours, PlaT induced a slight but significant increase in epithelial irregularity, as well as architectural scores that were significantly lower than the ones induced by NaPT and that disappeared after 72 hours. Conclusions: The direct and prolonged gastric application of NaPT in pigs can induce acute superficial macroscopic and microscopic injuries that are reversible within 72 hours. PMID:26134776

  17. Polarized distribution of IQGAP proteins in gastric parietal cells and their roles in regulated epithelial cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rihong; Guo, Zhen; Watson, Charles; Chen, Emily; Kong, Rong; Wang, Wenxian; Yao, Xuebiao

    2003-03-01

    Actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in the establishment of epithelial cell polarity. Cdc42, a member of Rho GTPase family, modulates actin dynamics via its regulators, such as IQGAP proteins. Gastric parietal cells are polarized epithelial cells in which regulated acid secretion occurs in the apical membrane upon stimulation. We have previously shown that actin isoforms are polarized to different membrane domains and that the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for acid secretion. Herein, we show that Cdc42 is preferentially distributed to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. In addition, we revealed that two Cdc42 regulators, IQGAP1 and IQGAP2, are present in gastric parietal cells. Interestingly, IQGAP2 is polarized to the apical membrane of the parietal cells, whereas IQGAP1 is mainly distributed to the basolateral membrane. An IQGAP peptide that competes with full-length IQGAP proteins for Cdc42-binding in vitro also inhibits acid secretion in streptolysin-O-permeabilized gastric glands. Furthermore, this peptide disrupts the association of IQGAP and Cdc42 with the apical actin cytoskeleton and prevents the apical membrane remodeling upon stimulation. We propose that IQGAP2 forms a link that associates Cdc42 with the apical cytoskeleton and thus allows for activation of polarized secretion in gastric parietal cells.

  18. Kir1.1 (ROMK) and Kv7.1 (KCNQ1/KvLQT1) are essential for normal gastric acid secretion: importance of functional Kir1.1.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Esad; Alfadda, Tariq; MacGregor, Gordon G; Dong, Ke; Wang, Tong; Geibel, John P

    2015-07-01

    Potassium channels comprise the apical leak pathway supplying extracellular K(+) for exchange with protons by the gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase and provide potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting gastric acid secretion. The Kir1.1 (ROMK) potassium channel mediates the high capacity K(+) recycling necessary for NaCl reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the kidney, and this channel exhibits functional and regulatory characteristic well suited for K(+) recycling by gastric parietal cells. We report here that Kir1.1 channels are required for gastric acid secretion and that this channel participates with Kv7.1 (KCNQ1/KvLQT1) in the potassium recycling process. We show that Kir1.1 colocalizes with the β-subunit of H(+), K(+)-ATPase in gastric parietal cells of Kir1.1 wild-type mice. In Kir1.1-deficient mice, gastric mucosal morphology, as well as parietal cell number, proliferation index, and ultrastructure were normal but secretagogue-stimulated gastric acid secretion in whole stomach and perfused gastric glands was absent. Luminal application of potassium-restored acid secretion in perfused gastric glands from Kir1.1-deficient as well as barium-blocked wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, both luminal Tertiapin-Q, an inhibitor of Kir1.1, as well as XE991, an inhibitor of Kv7.1, reduced proton secretion. We propose that Kir1.1 and Kv7.1 channels collaborate in potassium and current recycling across the apical pole of parietal cells. PMID:25127675

  19. [The possible role of the salivary gland substrate in ixodid ticks as an adjuvant enhancing arbovirus transmission].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, A N; Chunikhin, S P; Rukhkian, M Ia; Stefutkina, L F

    1991-01-01

    Using a model: salivary glands of Dermacentor ticks--tick-borne encephalitis virus--guinea pig--D. marginatus ticks, it became possible to confirm the data of Jones et al. (1989) on the role of a substrate of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus glands as a strong enhancer of orthomyxovirus Togoto transmission during subcutaneous administration of a moderate virus dose to virus-resistant guinea pig. A tendency was only noticed towards better infectivity of ticks with the administration of sub- or supraoptimal virus doses together with the adjuvant (salivary gland substrate), as well as enhanced sensitivity of male individuals to a combination of virus with adjuvant. The latter fact can be explained by a transptyal way of infection typical for male individuals, which was noted earlier during joint nutrition with infected female individuals. A lower level of virus reproducibility in ticks who got it together with the adjuvant, as compared to the control, has been established. Low titer in female individuals after nutrition reduces the likelihood of transovarial transmission of virus with adjuvant. PMID:2067469

  20. Gastric stimulation for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-05-21

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  1. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  2. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  3. Advances in gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-09-10

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  4. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  5. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds.

  6. Circadian clock system in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Yoshitaka; Okano, Toshiyuki

    2002-02-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that functions as a central circadian oscillator in a variety of nonmammalian vertebrates. In many cases, the pineal gland retains photic input and endocrinal-output pathways both linked tightly to the oscillator. This contrasts well with the mammalian pineal gland equipped only with the output of melatonin production that is subject to neuronal regulation by central circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Molecular studies on animal clock genes were performed first in Drosophila and later developed in rodents. More recently, clock genes such as Per, Cry, Clock, and Bmal have been found in a variety of vertebrate clock structures including the avian pineal gland. The profiles of the temporal change of the clock gene expression in the avian pineal gland are more similar to those in the mammalian SCN rather than to those in the mammalian pineal gland. Avian pineal gland and mammalian SCN seem to share a fundamental molecular framework of the clock oscillator composed of a transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop. The circadian time-keeping mechanism also requires several post-translational events, such as protein translocation and degradation processes, in which protein phosphorylation plays a very important role for the stable 24-h cycling of the oscillator and/or the photic-input pathway for entrainment of the clock. PMID:11890455

  7. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

  8. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-07-30

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy.

  9. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  10. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  11. Overexpression of neuritin in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, MING; LI, YONGJUN; ZHONG, CHEN; LI, YONGKANG; NIU, JIANHUA; GONG, JIANPING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues, in order to explore the association between the expression of neuritin and the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Tissue specimens were collected from 58 patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the expression of neuritin in the gastric cancer and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues. The expression rate of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was 96.55% (56/58), demonstrating no statistically significant difference from the expression rate in the adjacent normal tissues (94.83%) (P>0.05). However, the rate of strong neuritin expression in gastric cancer tissues (82.76%) was significantly increased compared with the rate in the adjacent normal tissues (15.52%) (P<0.05). Neuritin expression exhibited no correlation with the gender or age of patients, tumor-node-metastasis staging, tumor depth, presence of lymph node metastasis, histological or pathological type of the tumor or presence of distant metastasis (P>0.05). As determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the mRNA expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues was markedly increased compared with the expression in the adjacent normal tissues. In conclusion, neuritin is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, suggesting that neuritin may act as a novel potential target for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26788217

  12. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-05-14

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  13. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  14. [The clinico-morphological characteristics of the gastric mucosa during peptic ulcer therapy with the autotransfusion of hemosorbent-treated blood].

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, K P; Nutfullina, G M

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of gastric biopsy specimens withdrawn on repeated endoscopy in 35 patients with chronic gastric ulcers before and 2 weeks after the treatment by autohemotransfusion of hemosorbent-treated blood (AHTB). In 30 patients, the ulcer healed or reduced in size, in 5 patients, the effect was lacking. Morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out on cryostat sections stained by means of PAS and according to Romanovsky-Giemsa. They involved determination of the specific area of the gland and count of free cells of the stroma surrounding the gland followed by an analysis of correlations between effector cells of the immune system. A comprehensive estimation of the accumulation and distribution of the cells infiltrating m. mucosae of the stomach and of their interaction revealed the dependence on the use of AHTB.

  15. Uncovering head gland diversity in neotropical Polistinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): comparative analysis and description of new glands.

    PubMed

    Penagos-Arévalo, Andrea C; Billen, Johan; Sarmiento, Carlos E

    2015-09-01

    Exocrine glands are involved in several wasp colony activities; however, the number of known glands in the Vespidae is rather low when compared to other social insect groups. The aim of this study is to survey the head of Neotropical social wasps and to provide a detailed comparative study of the glands found in the Polistinae. A total of 33 species distributed over 13 genera were studied with serial histological sections of the head, excluding the labiomaxillary complex. Additionally, the exoskeleton was explored using scanning electron microscopy looking for associated modifications. A total of eleven exocrine glands were observed, five are structures recorded for the first time for the Hymenoptera, three are new records for the Polistinae and three are previously known organs. The glands studied are: ocellar gland I, ocellar gland II, periocular gland, subantennal gland, hypopharyngeal gland, clypeal gland, posterobasal genal gland, ectal mandibular gland, mesal mandibular gland, intramandibular gland I, and intramandibular gland II. The widespread distribution of most of these glands suggests an origin prior to the evolution of the Polistinae. Our results highlight the importance of detailed morphological studies to unveil the significance of chemical communication in one of the most characteristic groups of social animals.

  16. Displacement technique and meibomian gland expression.

    PubMed

    Hom, M M; Silverman, M W

    1987-03-01

    Despite the absence of rosettes and malformed meibomian orifices, meibomian gland dysfunction cannot be easily detected with biomicroscopy unless the gland is expressed. The clarity of the expression at the orifice is sometimes difficult to ascertain. A dark field effect can be produced in conjunction with biomicroscopy to determine the amount of material present in the tear film. A more accurate determination of clarity can be made by expressing the distal contents of the meibomian gland into the tear film with the displacement phenomenon or technique. Dynamic assessment of the expressed contents allows easier differentiation of normal vs. abnormal expression.

  17. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wronski, A; Arendt, L M; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Although mouse models have provided invaluable information on the mechanisms of mammary gland development, anatomical and developmental differences between human and mice limit full understanding of this fundamental process. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by injecting immortalized human breast stromal cells into the cleared murine mammary fat pad enables the growth and development of human mammary epithelial cells or tissue. This facilitates the characterization of human mammary gland development or tumorigenesis by utilizing the mouse mammary fat pad. Here we describe the process of isolating human mammary stromal and epithelial cells as well as their introduction into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice.

  18. Anesthetic considerations on adrenal gland surgery.

    PubMed

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  19. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  20. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Colby, T V; Dorfman, R F

    1979-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands are probably more common than has been previously recognized. They must be differentiated from the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, although there may be an association between the two. The entire histologic spectrum of malignant lymphomas found at other sites can be seen in the salivary gland. In this study of 59 patients with lymphoma affecting the salivary gland, a large percentage were found to have disseminated disease. We recommend the same rigorous clinical evaluation and staging procedures as used in patients who present with primary lymph node involvement.