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  1. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  2. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  3. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  4. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.

  5. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries.

  6. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  7. Respiratory disease in growing pigs after Porcine rubulavirus experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenicity and distribution of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs. Nine 6-week-old pigs were infected with PorPV and examined clinically. Blood, nasal swab, and tissue samples were collected on different days post-infection (DPI). The humoral immune responses and viral loads were evaluated. The infected pigs exhibited an increase in the respiratory clinical signs. In addition, the excretion of PorPV was extended to 23 DPI in the nasal fluid. The distribution of PorPV in the respiratory tract tissues was extended until the end of the experiment; soft palate tonsil and lymph nodes exhibited high viral loads. The major microscopic lesions observed in the lungs corresponded to interstitial pneumonia and hyperplasia of the associated lymphoid tissue. In conclusion, PorPV infection causes a pneumonic disease characterized by a prolonged virus excretion and high viral load in the lymphoid tissues.

  8. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  9. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  10. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  11. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  12. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  13. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  14. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  15. Insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes an insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Both guinea pigs presented with neurologic signs and low blood glucose readings. The neurologic signs resolved with dextrose administration. Insulinoma was confirmed on postmortem examination. PMID:15943120

  16. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  17. Thiamphenicol disposition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Castells, G; Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Pérez, B; Arboix, M; Cristòfol, C; Martì, G

    1999-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) were determined after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 30 mg kg-1 of TAP in pigs. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Intravenous TAP kinetics were fitted to a bi-exponential equation, with a first rapid disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short, at 59.3 (29.4) minutes; volume of distribution at steady state was 0.62 (0.24) 1 kg-1; and plasma clearance was 13.4 (4.5) ml min-1 kg-1. After i.m. administration, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax= 4.1 microg ml-1) was reached in about 60 minutes; these concentrations are lower than those reported in other species. The TAP elimination half-life after i.m. administration, 250.2 (107.1) minutes was longer after than i.v. administration, probably due to the slow rate of absorption from the muscle. The mean bioavailability value for i.m. administration was 76 (12) per cent.

  18. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The methods for isolation and purification of a guinea-pig serum protein with homocytotropic antibody activity and characteristics of IgE are described. By precipitation in the equivalence zone or immunoadsorption and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, we isolated an homocytotropic antibody, that was not able to give a precipitin line when it was reacted directly with the antigen. It was capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA after a latent period of 24–48 hours but not after 3 hours; it was sensitive to treatment with mercaptoethanol. It had antigenic determinants present in the other guinea-pig immunoglobulins and particular antigenic determinants. All these properties make us believe that this protein belongs to an immunoglobulin different from γ1 and similar to the reaginic antibody (IgE) described in other species. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4126261

  19. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The physicochemical and biological properties of purified guinea-pig reaginic antibody were studied. It is a labile protein different to γ1. Its antibody activity is completely destroyed by heating at 56° for 6 hours and by treatment with mercaptoethanol. The capacity to give PCA is decreased by repeated freezing and thawing. It is a bivalent antibody, haemagglutinating, does not fix complement and is capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA reaction after a latent period of a week but not after 3 hours. Reaginic antibody appears on day 7–8 after the first inoculation and the higher levels (PCA reaction) are obtained at the eleventh to thirteenth days. After the fifteenth to seventeenth days the PCA is negative. The reaginic antibody does not pass the placenta. Higher levels of reaginic antibody were obtained when the guinea-pigs were inoculated with the antigen in saline with simultaneous inoculation, intraperitoneally, of killed Bordetella pertussis, phase I. PMID:4354828

  20. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  1. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  2. A Simple Model for Learning Improvement: Weigh Pig, Feed Pig, Weigh Pig. Occasional Paper #23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Good, Megan R.; Coleman, Chris M.; Smith, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learning does not by itself result in increased student accomplishment, much like a pig never fattened up because it was weighed. Indeed, recent research shows that while institutions are more regularly engaging in assessment, they have little to show in the way of stronger student performance. This paper clarifies how assessment results…

  3. Detecting mitochondrial signatures of selection in wild Tibetan pigs and domesticated pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhou; Jin, Long; Ma, Jideng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Selection in genomic regions is prevalent in mammals; however, the effects of selection on the mitogenome are not clearly understood. We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from six wild Tibetan pigs from the Tibetan plateau and four domestic pig breeds from the lowland of neighboring southwest China. Nucleotide diversity analysis using the sliding window method showed that the nucleotide diversity of wild Tibetan pigs in most regions of the mitogenome was higher than that of domestic pigs. The 12 s ribosomal RNA showed relatively lower nucleotide diversity in Tibetan pigs, suggesting purifying selection of these genes during high-altitude adaptation. More non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions in the ATP6 were found in wild Tibetan pigs, indicating adaptive selection in Tibetan pigs. The results suggested distinct impacts of natural selection and artificial selection upon the mitogenome, especially the mitochondrial signatures of adaptive evolution in wild Tibetan pigs under natural selection.

  4. Decomposition Rate and Pattern in Hanging Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lynch-Aird, Jeanne; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-09-01

    Accurate prediction of the postmortem interval requires an understanding of the decomposition process and the factors acting upon it. A controlled experiment, over 60 days at an outdoor site in the northwest of England, used 20 freshly killed pigs (Sus scrofa) as human analogues to study decomposition rate and pattern. Ten pigs were hung off the ground and ten placed on the surface. Observed differences in the decomposition pattern required a new decomposition scoring scale to be produced for the hanging pigs to enable comparisons with the surface pigs. The difference in the rate of decomposition between hanging and surface pigs was statistically significant (p=0.001). Hanging pigs reached advanced decomposition stages sooner, but lagged behind during the early stages. This delay is believed to result from lower variety and quantity of insects, due to restricted beetle access to the aerial carcass, and/or writhing maggots falling from the carcass.

  5. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  6. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  7. Genetically modified pig models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Nana; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-02-20

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies. Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases, some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology. Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy, physiology, and genome. Thus, pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases. This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic disorders. We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  8. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  9. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  10. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions.

  11. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  12. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blastocystis subtype 5, a subtype known to infect humans, was detected by molecular methods in the feces of 36 naturally infected market age pigs. At necropsy, 6 heavily infected pigs were selected to determine the tropism of the infection within the gastrointestinal tract. Because so little is know...

  13. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  14. A Review of Pain Assessment in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Sarah H.; Clutton, R. Eddie; Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Rutherford, Kenneth M. D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a moral obligation to minimize pain in pigs used for human benefit. In livestock production, pigs experience pain caused by management procedures, e.g., castration and tail docking, injuries from fighting or poor housing conditions, “management diseases” like mastitis or streptococcal meningitis, and at parturition. Pigs used in biomedical research undergo procedures that are regarded as painful in humans, but do not receive similar levels of analgesia, and pet pigs also experience potentially painful conditions. In all contexts, accurate pain assessment is a prerequisite in (a) the estimation of the welfare consequences of noxious interventions and (b) the development of more effective pain mitigation strategies. This narrative review identifies the sources of pain in pigs, discusses the various assessment measures currently available, and proposes directions for future investigation. PMID:27965968

  15. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  16. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers. PMID:26122206

  17. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the...

  18. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  19. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the...

  20. Inhibitors of pig kidney trehalase.

    PubMed

    Kyosseva, S V; Kyossev, Z N; Elbein, A D

    1995-02-01

    Trehazolin, a new trehalase inhibitor isolated from the culture broth of Micromonospora, was reported to be a highly specific inhibitor for porcine and silk worm trehalases with IC50 values of 5.5 x 10(-9) and 3.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively (O. Ando, H. Satake, K. Itoi, A. Sato, M. Nakajima, S. Takashi, H. Haruyama, Y. Ohkuma, T. Kinoshita, and R. Enokita (1991) J. Antibiot. 44, 1165-1168). We also found that trehazolin is a very powerful and quite specific inhibitor against purified pig kidney trehalase, giving an IC50 value of 1.9 x 10(-8) M. Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that this compound was a competitive inhibitor of the trehalase. However, even at concentrations of 200 micrograms/ml, trehazolin did not inhibit the rat intestinal maltase or sucrase, yeast alpha-glucosidase or almond beta-glucosidase. Validoxylamine A and validamycin A, two other trehalase inhibitors, showed potent competitive inhibition against purified pig kidney trehalase, with IC50 values of 2.4 x 10(-9) and 2.5 x 10(-4) M, respectively. On the other hand, validoxylamine A was almost inactive against rat intestinal sucrase and maltase, with some inhibition being observed at millimolar concentration. A number of other glucosidase inhibitors, such as MDL 25637, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin were also tested against the purified trehalase and showed reasonable inhibitory activity.

  1. Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, Anne-Claude; Nicolas, Jacques; Cobut, Pierre; Delva, Julien; Nicks, Baudouin; Philippe, François-Xavier

    2013-10-01

    A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou s.pig-1), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean assessed odour emission factor with the pig mass. However, the variation within the same mass class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling.

  2. Olive by-products in pig fattening.

    PubMed

    Rupić, V; Jerković, I; Bozac, R; Glowattzky, D; Muźic, S; Hrabak, V

    1997-01-01

    The utilisation in pig fattening of diets with various proportions of dried olive cake, i.e., olive by-product resulting from centrifugal separation, was investigated in 60 Swedish Landrace x Large White crossbreds (30 castrates and 30 gilts). The pigs were divided into three equal groups (10 + 10): two experimental groups, fed with a fodder mix containing 50 g/kg and 80 g/kg respectively of dried olive cake, and a control group, fed with the same mix but minus the cake. The experiment last 90 days. For the first 45 days the pigs were given the starter, and for the second 45 days the finisher, mix. Throughout the whole period, pigs in both experimental groups achieved greater average body mass and mass gain than the control animals. Concurrently, castrates in all three groups, became heavier and demonstrated greater mass gain than did the gilts. While supplied respectively with the finisher mix throughout the whole test period, pigs fed mixes with 50 g/kg of dried olive cake demonstrated significantly greater feed consumption than those fed without the cake and than those fed mixes with 80 g/kg of cake. While supplied with the starter mix, pigs fed mixes with 50 g/kg of dried olive cake achieved the lowest feed conversion rate, whereas those supplied with the finisher mix achieved the highest. Throughout the entire period no significant differences were observed in feed conversion rate among pig groups.

  3. Production of carbon dioxide in a fattening pig house under field conditions. I. Exhalation by pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Hendriks, Jos; Coenegrachts, Jan; Vinckier, Christiaan

    Exhalation of carbon dioxide (CO 2) by pigs was investigated under field conditions in a mechanically ventilated commercial fattening house. The tranquil CO 2 exhalation rate (TCER) by pigs was defined and methodology was developed to study it. The experiments were conducted by moving groups of pigs in and out of one of the compartments in the house and comparing differences of measured CO 2 production rates. The measured TCERs ranged from 41.5 to 73.9 g CO 2 h -1 per pig for pigs from 32 to 105 kg. When pigs were very active, the CO 2 exhalation rate could be about 200% of the TCER but did not last for long time. A TCER mathematical model was developed based on 4 sets of experiments. It calculated the CO 2 exhalation by a pig at tranquil time as a function of its weight. Daily mean CO 2 exhalation rate (CER) by a pig was about 110% of the TCER. The TCER/CER model related the CO 2 exhalation to some aspects of pigs' behaviours and was the first reported model developed with direct measurement of CO 2 production rates. Five models of CO 2 exhalation in available literature were reviewed and the CER model was compared with them. There was a clear disparity among these models. The average CO 2 exhalation rate calculated with the "Ouwerkerk Model" was about three times as that obtained by the "Anderson Model" for pigs from 35 to 120 kg. The CER model produced the same CO 2 exhalation rate as the "Ouwerkerk Model" for a pig of 35 kg and a close rate to the "Klooster Model" for a pig of 85 kg.

  4. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  5. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  6. HIMAC PIG ion source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Sato, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Kimura, T.

    1989-02-01

    The HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) project is in progress. Necessary characteristics for the HIMAC ion source are high current ( 130-630 μA with a q/A of{1}/{7}) from He to Ar, good stability, long life and easy maintenance. To attain these characteristics, an indirectly heated PIG ion source test bench has been designed and constructed since 1985. A low-energy beam transport line has also been installed in order to test the beam quality and the matching condition with an RFQ linac (8-800 keV/u). For N, Ne and Ar, preliminary experiments have been carried out on the arc characteristics, ion extraction and charge spectra since 1987. The radial emittance has also been measured and is 150 π mm mrad for a 40 μA Ar 3+ beam (0.64 keV/u).

  7. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  8. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P < 0.001), identifying 2 main dimensions of pig expression (dim1: playful/confident-cautious/timid; dim2: aggressive/nervous-relaxed/bored), on which pig scores for different observer groups were highly correlated (pearson r > 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P < 0.001); however, this difference did not distort the strong overall consistency of characterizations by observers of individual pigs. Questionnaire results indicated observer groups to differ in various ways, such as daily and lifetime contact with pigs (P < 0.001), some aspects of affection and empathy for pigs (P < 0

  9. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  10. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  11. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M.; Chesnut, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  12. Evidence for aggression-modulating pheromones in prepuberal pigs.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Curtis, S E; Banks, E M

    1987-01-01

    A series of behavioral bioassays were conducted to determine the aggression-influencing properties of urine and other fluids. Subjects were prepuberal castrated male and female domestic pigs from commercial stocks. In the behavior assay, pigs were painted with a test fluid and grouped for a videotaped 90 min observation period. Experiment 1 validated use of videotape recording by showing that duration of aggressive behavior registered live was correlated with that obtained from video records (R = .98). In experiment 2, urine and plasma collected from actively aggressive pigs reduced the durations of aggressive behavior of test pigs compared with the effects of urine and plasma collected from socially stable, handled pigs. In Experiment 3, a new set of test pigs confirmed that urine from fighting pigs reduced the duration of attack by test pigs compared with urine from nonfighting, handled pigs. In addition, the suggested reproductive pheromone, 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one, substantially reduced the duration of attack. The effects of gender and aggressive state of urine-donor pigs on test pigs was determined in Experiment 4. Again, urine from castrated male and female aggressive pigs reduced attack by test pigs compared with the level of attack shown by test pigs coated with urine from handled castrated males and females. Urine from fighting and nonfighting intact males had similar effects on test pig aggression. In Experiment 5, urine was obtained from nonhandled, socially stable pigs in their home pens and again from the same pigs after they had been regrouped (aggressive). These urine types had no significant influence on test pigs' aggression over the entire 90-min observation. However, during the first 30 min nonhandled, nonfighting pigs' urine induced less aggression in test pigs than did urine from fighting pigs. Results indicate that urine and blood plasma from aggressive pigs reduces aggression by test pigs compared with the effects of urine from handled

  13. Using guinea pigs in studies relevant to asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chou, Yangling

    2010-01-01

    The guinea pig has been the most commonly used small animal species in preclinical studies related to asthma and COPD. The primary advantages of the guinea pig are the similar potencies and efficacies of agonists and antagonists in human and guinea pig airways and the many similarities in physiological processes, especially airway autonomic control and the response to allergen. The primary disadvantages to using guinea pigs are the lack of transgenic methods, limited numbers of guinea pig strains for comparative studies and a prominent axon reflex that is unlikely to be present in human airways. These attributes and various models developed in guinea pigs are discussed. PMID:18462968

  14. Doramectin efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T B; Fox, M C; Wiles, S E

    1996-11-01

    Four controlled trials with growing pigs were performed to determine efficacy of doramectin against natural and induced populations of nematodes. In Trial 1 (T1), 20 pigs with natural infections were assigned to one of two like groups on the basis of weight, sex and worm egg counts. In Trial 2 (T2), 20 pigs with negative worm egg counts were assigned to one of two groups on the basis of weight and sex. Each pig was subsequently given (per os) 3000 Trichuris suis embryonated eggs; 2000 Ascaris suum embryonated eggs; 10000 Oesophagostomum spp. infective larvae and 10,000 Strongyloides ransomi infective larvae (SC injection). In Trial 3 (T3), 20 pigs with negative worm egg counts were assigned as in T2, and each pig was subsequently given (per os) 2000 A. suum embryonated eggs, 15000 Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum infective larvae, and 2891 Hyostrongylus rubidus infective larvae. In Trial 4 (T4), 16 pigs with negative worm egg counts were each assigned to one of two groups as in T2 and were given (per os) 2670 T. suis embryonated eggs. On Day 0 of each trial, each pig of the control group was injected IM in the neck with sterile saline at the rate of 1.5 ml 50 kg-1. Each pig in the treated group of each trial was similarly injected with doramectin at the rate of 300 micrograms kg-1. All pigs were necropsied 14 or 15 days post-treatment and parasites recovered by standard parasitological procedures. Efficacies against natural infections were: A. suum, 100%; Oesophagostomum spp. 100%; H. rubidus, 99.4%; and Strongyloides ransomi, 99.9%. Efficacies against induced infections were: 4th stage A. suum, 100%; 4th stage O.dentatum, 99.9%; 4th stage O.quadrispinulatum, 97.1 and 99.6%; 4th stage H. rubidus, 100%; adult S. ransomi, 100%; adult Trichuris suis in mixed infection, 54.1%; and in pure infection, 95.3%.

  15. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  16. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  17. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  18. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  19. Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163262.html Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo One goal of this stem cell research is ... have successfully used human stem cells to create embryos that are part-human, part-pig. Scientists said ...

  20. Proposed Surveillance for Influenza A in Feral Pigs.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Antonia E; Peck, Heidi A; Hurt, Aeron C; Cooke, Julie; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-06-01

    Pigs carry receptors for both avian- and human-adapted influenza viruses and have previously been proposed as a mixing and amplification vessel for influenza. Until now, there has been no investigation of influenza A viruses within feral pigs in Australia. We collected samples from feral pigs in Ramsar listed wetlands of South Australia and demonstrated positive antibodies to influenza A viruses. We propose feral pigs, and their control programs, as an available resource for future surveillance for influenza A viruses.

  1. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  2. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  3. Influenza virus infection in guinea pigs raised as livestock, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

  4. Oral Salmonella challenge alters feed preference in newly weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common industry practice is to segregate sick pigs; however, the same diet is provided. Due to the higher nutrient demand of the activated immune system, we hypothesized pigs would choose diets differing in nutrient content during an immune challenge when given choices. This study examined pig feed ...

  5. Effects of insulin on coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Grossini, E; Mary, D A S G; Bona, G; Scott, E; Vacca, G

    2002-01-01

    Insulin can influence the vasculature by a sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction and a vasodilatation; the latter effect predominates in the renal circulation of anesthetized pigs. We determined the effect of intravenous infusion of insulin on coronary blood flow in pentobarbitone-anesthetized pigs at constant heart rate, arterial pressure and blood levels of glucose and potassium. In 6 pigs, infusion of 0.004 IU kg(-1) min(-1) of insulin decreased coronary flow despite increasing left ventricular dP dT(max)(-1); when the latter was abolished by propranolol, the coronary flow response was augmented. The mechanisms of this response were examined in 22 pigs given propranolol. Phentolamine changed coronary flow response to an increase (6 pigs) and this was abolished by intracoronary injection of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 5 pigs). L-NAME augmented coronary flow response (6 pigs) and this was abolished by phentolamine (5 pigs). In 18 pigs given propranolol, three incremental doses of insulin caused graded coronary flow decreases whether L-NAME was given (6 pigs) or not (6 pigs) beforehand, and caused graded coronary flow increases after phentolamine (6 pigs). Thus insulin caused a coronary vasoconstriction mediated by sympathetic alpha-adrenergic effects and a vasodilatation related to the release of nitric oxide. The net effect was a coronary vasoconstriction.

  6. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, there is no information on E. bieneusi in pigs. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of E. bieneusi in pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 91 pigs (1- to 12-mo-old) ...

  7. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  8. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects.

  9. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, P. Guru; Punyakumari, B.; Ekambaram, B.; Prakash, M. Gnana; Subramanyam, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n) in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05) on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7), subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12) and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18), while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature. PMID:27047069

  10. Pigs from iron containing dusts and sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    DK Recycling und Roheisen GmbH converts 380,000 annual tonnes of iron containing waste materials into pig iron. Zinc is the main reason that these materials are classified as waste. The materials are processed in the conventional way by making sinter which is then smelted in a blast furnace to foundry grade pig iron. The trick lies not in the unit operations which are quite standard but rather in the modifications made to the plant and operating procedures to cope with the much higher levels of tramp elements.

  11. Skin toxicity of propranolol in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Maruo, H; Saeki, Y; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M

    1999-05-01

    The skin toxicities of propranolol were studied in guinea pigs. In the primary and cumulative skin irritation studies, the skin reactions and the histopathological changes were observed in all animals treated with propranolol, and those tended to increase with the increase of propranolol dosage. The skin reactions increased with the application times of propranolol up to 7 days in the cumulative skin irritation study. In the skin sensitization, the phototoxicity and the skin photosensitization studies, no skin reactions were observed in any animals used in the studies. These results indicate that propranolol caused skin irritation, but was negative for skin sensitization, phototoxicity and skin photosensitization in guinea pigs.

  12. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Ryoko; JOMA, Ikumi; OTSUBO, Koji; MATSUTAKE, Hiroshi; YANAI, Tokuma; SAKAI, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  13. The Correlation between Thermal and Noxious Gas Environments, Pig Productivity and Behavioral Responses of Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D.; Chang, Won Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. PMID:22016700

  14. Prolactin Family of the Guinea Pig, Cavia porcellus

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S. M. Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P.; Soares, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig. PMID:20534723

  15. Polyerositis and Arthritis Due to Escherichia coli in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Britt, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Forty gnotobiotic pigs from six litters were exposed orally to Escherichia coli 083:K·:NM at 69 to 148 hours of age, while 17 pigs from the same litters served as unexposed controls. Clinical signs of infection included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, lameness, and reluctance to move. Eighty-four percent of the exposed pigs in four litters died, while only 13% in two litters died. Gross and microscopic lesions included serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent polyserositis in 96% of the exposed pigs in four litters and 33% of the exposed pigs in two litters. A few pigs had gross and/or microscopic lesions of arthritis. Escherichia coli was routinely isolated from the serous and synovial cavities of infected pigs. Anti-hog cholera serum administered orally as a colostrum substitute gave partial protection against E. coli infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261837

  16. Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.

  17. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Watch out guinea pigs, here I come.

    PubMed

    Norton, T

    2001-04-01

    We live in an age of increasing emphasis of do-it-yourself, as a mere glance at the TV schedule will prove. Why not apply this same principle to your research? By becoming the guinea pig of your own experimentation you will be following a noble precedent--though maybe not a sane one!

  19. Lessons learned from the cystic fibrosis pig.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, David K

    2016-07-01

    Deficient function in the anion channel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator is the fundamental cause for CF. This is a monogenic condition that causes lesions in several organs including the respiratory tract, pancreas, liver, intestines, and reproductive tract. Lung disease is most notable, given it is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with CF. Shortly after the identification of CF transmembrane conductance regulator, CF mouse models were developed that did not show spontaneous lung disease as seen in humans, and this spurred development of additional CF animal models. Pig models were considered a leading choice for several reasons including their similarity to humans in respiratory anatomy, physiology, and in size for translational imaging. The first CF pig models were reported in 2008 and have been extremely valuable to help clarify persistent questions in the field and advance understanding of disease pathogenesis. Because CF pigs are susceptible to lung disease like humans, they have direct utility in translational research. In addition, CF pig models are useful to compare and contrast with current CF mouse models, human clinical studies, and even newer CF animal models being characterized. This "triangulation" strategy could help identify genetic differences that underlie phenotypic variations, so as to focus and accelerate translational research.

  20. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  1. New guinea pig model of Cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, William R; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie; Patterson, Thomas F; Graybill, John R

    2007-08-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole. Disease was monitored by serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and quantitative organ cultures. Our model produces disseminating central nervous system disease and responds to antifungal therapy.

  2. 33 CFR 154.2104 - Pigging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Marine Vapor Control Systems Transfer... downstream of the pig-receiving device; (4) An interlock with the main cargo line manual block valve so that line-clearing operations cannot begin unless the main cargo line manual block valve is closed; and...

  3. A GWAS of teat number in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size continues to increase, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. The pig displays considerable variation for number of teats; therefore, a genome-wide association (GWA) an...

  4. Forensic cases of bruises in pigs.

    PubMed

    Barington, K; Jensen, H E

    2013-11-30

    Bruises in pigs inflicted by blunt trauma are a significant animal welfare problem, and affected skin and underlying muscle are regularly submitted for forensic investigation. Central to the evaluation is an assessment of the age of the bruises. This paper presents cases of bruises in pigs sent for forensic investigation that were collected retrospectively. Data comprised photographs of the gross lesions, slides for histology, and written reports. The time from collecting the animals at the farms and delivery to the slaughterhouse was recorded together with the time of slaughter. Since 2005 there has been an increase in cases, with a peak in 2008 and 2009 of 40 cases for each year. At gross examination, the pattern of bruises often reflected the type of object which caused them. Histologically, haemorrhage and cellular infiltrations were frequently present. Currently, the age of bruises may be estimated to be more or less than four hours based on a porcine bruise model. In bruises more than four hours old, estimations of two-hour intervals are used based on studies of wound healing. The time from collecting the pigs at the farms until slaughter was between one and four hours in 44.1 per cent of cases, during which time the pigs had been handled by several people. In addition, in 22.0 per cent of cases of bruising an inflammatory response was absent, making it impossible to estimate the age of the bruise.

  5. Synthesis of factor VIII antigen by cultured guinea pig megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Nachman, R; Levine, R; Jaffe, E A

    1977-10-01

    Immunoprecipitates containing guinea pig Factor VIII antigen were prepared from guinea pig plasma with a cross-reacting rabbit anti-human Factor VIII. Monospecific antisera to guinea pig Factor VIII antigen were produced in rabbits by using these washed immunoprecipitates as immunogens. The resulting antisera to guinea pig Factor VIII antigen detected Factor VIII antigen in guinea pig plasma and inhibited the von Willebrand factor activity in guinea pig plasma. This antibody also detected Factor VIII antigen in a solubilized protein mixture prepared from isolated cultured guinea pig megakaryocytes. Cultured guinea pig megakaryocytes were labeled with radio-active leucine. By radioautography, 96.2% of the radio-activity was present in megakaryocytes. The radio-active Factor VIII antigen present in the solubilized cell protein mixture was isolated by immunoprecipitation and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrate that cultured guinea pig megakaryocytes synthesize Factor VIII antigen which contains the same polypeptide subunit (mol wt 200,000) present in guinea pig plasma Factor VIII antigen.

  6. Smallholder pig production: prevalence and risk factors of ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Braae, U C; Ngowi, H A; Johansen, M V

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk factors for ectoparasites. Within the confinement system, contact with neighbouring pigs and the time interval (in months) since last ectoparasitic treatment were additionally identified as risk factors. The prevalence of Haematopinus suis was 20% in confined pigs and 63% among free-range pigs. Free-ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs (2%) were found infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. Ticks found belonged to four genera; Amblyomma spp., Rhipicephalus spp., Haemaphysalis spp., and Boophilus spp. The prevalence of hard ticks among the free-range pigs was 50%. Ectoparasites were more prevalent in the free-range system although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  8. Occurrence of K99 antigen on Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and colonization of pig ileum by K99+ enterotoxigenic E. coli from calves and pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H W; Nagy, B; Isaacson, R E; Orskov, I

    1977-01-01

    Several strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from pigs were found to have an antigen (K99) previously reported only on strains of calf and lamb origin and which facilitates intestinal colonization in the latter two species. Several human ETEC were also tested for K99; however, none were positive. Each of four K99-positive ETEC strains of calf origin and one of pig origin produced K99 in pig ileum in vivo, adhered to villous epithelium in pig ileum, colonized pig ileum, and caused profuse diarrhea in newborn pigs. In contrast to the K99-positive strains above, four K99-negative ETEC from humans and chickens and one K99-positive ETEC from a calf either did not colonize pig ileum or did so inconsistently. When the K99-negative strains did colonize, they had little or no tendency to adhere to intestinal villi. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that K99 facilitates adhesion to and colonization of pig ileum by some ETEC. Images PMID:321356

  9. Occurrence of K99 antigen on Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and colonization of pig ileum by K99+ enterotoxigenic E. coli from calves and pigs.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Nagy, B; Isaacson, R E; Orskov, I

    1977-02-01

    Several strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from pigs were found to have an antigen (K99) previously reported only on strains of calf and lamb origin and which facilitates intestinal colonization in the latter two species. Several human ETEC were also tested for K99; however, none were positive. Each of four K99-positive ETEC strains of calf origin and one of pig origin produced K99 in pig ileum in vivo, adhered to villous epithelium in pig ileum, colonized pig ileum, and caused profuse diarrhea in newborn pigs. In contrast to the K99-positive strains above, four K99-negative ETEC from humans and chickens and one K99-positive ETEC from a calf either did not colonize pig ileum or did so inconsistently. When the K99-negative strains did colonize, they had little or no tendency to adhere to intestinal villi. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that K99 facilitates adhesion to and colonization of pig ileum by some ETEC.

  10. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Yorkshire pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Yang, Hu; Ma, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in the Yorkshire pig. Sequence analysis indicates that the genome structure is in accordance with other pig breeds, and it contains 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Yorkshire pig provides an important record set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  12. Application of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational research.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Hitomi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    Pigs are increasingly being recognized as good large-animal models for translational research, linking basic science to clinical applications in order to establish novel therapeutics. This article reviews the current status and future prospects of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational studies. It also highlights pigs specially designed as disease models, for xenotransplantation or to carry cell marker genes. Finally, use of porcine somatic stem and progenitor cells in preclinical studies of cell transplantation therapy is also discussed.

  13. Simulation of Wild Pig Control via Hunting and Contraceptives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 13 -2 1 Simulation of Wild Pig Control via Hunting and Contraceptives Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc...Simulation of Wild Pig Control via Hunting and Contraceptives Jennifer L. Burton, James D. Westervelt, and Stephen Ditchkoff Construction Engineering... contraceptives , and the combination of both on the Fort Benning, GA feral pig population. Results suggest that the combination of hunting and contraception

  14. Theory of hopping conductivity in pig insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yuan-Jie; Ladik, János

    1993-08-01

    The ac conductivity for a native protein, pig insulin, was calculated in the ab initio scheme using Clementi's minimal basis set. The hopping centers and ``main residue'' of an orbital are defined. It is assumed that the hopping events of charge carriers happen among these centers of main residues. The analysis of primary hopping events shows that there might be a relationship between the distribution of the hopping centers and the biochemical activity of insulin, and that the disulfur bridges of insulin have particular relevance for the ac conduction. The formulas for calculation of the ac conductivity of proteins are given. The results show that the curve of the frequency versus ac conductivity of pig insulin lies in the range of some typical inorganic amorphous conductors and confirm that proteins if doped are amorphous conductors. Finally, the possibility of direct comparison of the theoretical results with experiments is discussed.

  15. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  16. Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Randall S.; Lorson, Monique; Ross, Jason W.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Walters, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are used widely as models of human disease, their utility as models has been enhanced by genetic engineering. Initially, transgenes were added randomly to the genome, but with the application of homologous recombination, zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies, now most any genetic change that can be envisioned can be completed. To date these genetic modifications have resulted in animals that have the potential to provide new insights into human diseases for which a good animal model did not exist previously. These new animal models should provide the preclinical data for treatments that are developed for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, spinal muscular atrophy, diabetes, and organ failure. These new models will help to uncover aspects and treatments of these diseases that were otherwise unattainable. The focus of this review is to describe genetically engineered pigs that have resulted in models of human diseases. PMID:25387017

  17. PIG2LIG-4FUTURE: a database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouahabi, A.; Martrat, B.; Lopez, J. F.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to simulate the rhythm of abrupt climate changes (ACCs) will depend on the availability of high quality palæoclimate databases with sufficient temporal resolution to make relevant inferences from a human perspective. This study presents the PIG2LIG-4FUTURE database (P2L-4F db). The philosophy behind is to facilitate access to data not only for the scientific community, but also for those outside this community and, in doing so, ensure that the data are as useful as possible to help in answering a challenging key question: What is the risk of ACCs in periods similar to the present one? The P2L-4F db identifies an intra- and inter-event stratigraphy. A breakdown of the events in the PIG (present interglacial, time period from which more information is available and it is reasonably well dated) is defined in order to (2) identify ACCs in the LIG (last interglacial, much less known and dated period) for (4) better evaluation of the likelihood of sudden shifts within warm climate behaviour (i.e. next centuries, FUTURE). For this db, both the PIG and the LIG include deglaciation and interglacial states and they are referred to by means of chronostratigraphy: (i) the PIG refers to the last 19 ka years, i.e. a precessional cycle should be complete within the next 5 ka years; (ii) the LIG is the time span between 133 ka and 109 ka years, i.e. a time slot of 24 ka years, roughly a precessional cycle. The db compiles comprehensive selected palæo-data retrieved from a variety of sources (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov, http://www.pangaea.de and others) but also instrumental data, to validate reconstructions against observations (e.g. http://data.giss.nasa.gov, http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu, etc). The records included accomplish two simple criteria: they cover the time span of interest, specifically the PIG and the LIG periods, and have sufficient time resolution to distinguish between an ACC and a gradual event. The research has focussed on three main pal

  18. Dietary clays alleviate diarrhea of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Liu, Y; Soares, J A; Che, T M; Osuna, O; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 3 different clays in the nursery diet reduce diarrhea of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli. Weaned pigs (21 d old) were housed in individual pens of disease containment chambers for 16 d [4 d before and 12 d after the first challenge (d 0)]. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement: 1) with or without an E. coli challenge (F-18 E. coli strain; heat-labile, heat-stable, and Shiga-like toxins; 10(10) cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 d from d 0) and 2) dietary treatments. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were measured for each interval (d 0 to 6, 6 to 12, and 0 to 12). Diarrhea score (DS; 1 = normal; 5 = watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily. Feces were collected on d 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 and plated on blood agar to differentiate β-hemolytic coliforms (HC) from total coliforms (TC) and on MacConkey agar to verify E. coli. Their populations on blood agar were assessed visually using a score (0 = no growth; 8 = very heavy bacterial growth) and expressed as a ratio of HC to TC scores (RHT). Blood was collected on d 0, 6, and 12 to measure total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and total protein (TP). In Exp. 1 (8 treatments; 6 replicates), 48 pigs (6.9 ± 1.0 kg of BW) and 4 diets [a nursery control diet (CON), CON + 0.3% smectite (SM), CON + 0.6% SM, and CON until d 0 and then CON + 0.3% SM] were used. The SM treatments did not affect growth rate of the pigs for the overall period. In the E. coli challenged group, the SM treatments reduced DS for the overall period (1.77 vs. 2.01; P < 0.05) and RHT on d 6 (0.60 vs. 0.87; P < 0.05) and d 9 (0.14 vs. 0.28; P = 0.083), and altered differential WBC on d 6 (neutrophils, 48 vs. 39%, P = 0.092; lymphocytes, 49 vs. 58%, P = 0.082) compared with the CON treatment. In Exp. 2 (16 treatments; 8 replicates), 128 pigs (6.7 ± 0.8 kg of BW) and 8 diets [CON and 7 clay treatments (CON + 0.3% SM

  19. [Can man live with a pig kidney?].

    PubMed

    Valentin, J F; Lebranchu, Y; Nivet, H

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs from one species to another introduces a question of compatibility not seen in allotransplantation, the ability of a kidney to perform its physiological function in the new host environment. It has been assumed that an allotransplanted organ will function normally if is not rejected; ample experience supports this assumption. This luxury will not exist in the field of xenotransplantation, where the issues of comparative physiology will assume great importance. From many standpoints, the pig kidney seems an ideal donor for xenotransplantation. They are of similar size and have remarkably similar internal anatomy. Even if the immunological problems could be overcome, there is almost no direct experimental evidence to answer the question of whether or not a pig kidney can function in a human body.

  20. A panel of VNTR markers in pigs.

    PubMed

    Signer, E N; Gu, F; Jeffreys, A J

    1996-06-01

    By cloning tandemly repeated sequences from the pig genome by use of non-porcine minisatellite probes for library screening, five novel polymorphic VNTR loci were isolated: three minisatellites and two satellite-like loci. Four of them could be mapped onto chromosomes by linkage analysis and/or in situ hybridization. They were assigned to Chromosomes (Chrs) 5, 6, 14, and 16. Physical mapping on both presumed satellites and on one of the minisatellites revealed that the former resided near or at the centromere and the latter towards the chromosome ends. The location of the minisatellite is of particular interest since, together with data on three other minisatellites previously isolated, it supports the idea that, as in humans, minisatellites may preferentially be subtelomeric also in pigs.

  1. The role of genetically-engineered pigs in xenotransplantation research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David K.C.; Ekser, Burcin; Ramsoondar, Jagdeece; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical shortage in the number of deceased human organs that become available for purposes of clinical transplantation. This problem might be resolved by the transplantation or organs from pigs genetically-engineered to protect them from the human immune response. The pathobiological barriers to successful pig organ transplantation in primates include activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, coagulation dysregulation, and inflammation. Genetic engineering of the pig as an organ source has increased the survival of the transplanted pig heart, kidney, islet and corneal graft in nonhuman primates (NHP) from minutes to months or occasionally years. Genetic engineering may also contribute to any physiological barriers that might be identified as well as to reducing the risks of transfer of a potentially infectious micro-organism with the organ. There are now an estimated 40 or more genetic alterations that have been carried out in pigs, with some pigs expressing 5 or 6 manipulations. With the new technology now available, it will become increasingly common for a pig to express even more genetic manipulations, and these could be tested in the pig-to-NHP models to assess their efficacy and benefit. It is therefore likely that clinical trials of pig kidney, heart, and islet transplantation will become feasible in the near future. PMID:26365762

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Liao, Jinhu; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinjun; Wang, Jianye; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-08-30

    Cattle are the natural hosts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which causes mucosal disease, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, and reproductive problems in cattle. However, BVDV can also infect goats, sheep, deer, and pigs. The prevalence of BVDV infection in pig herds has substantially increased in the last several years, causing increased economic losses to the global pig breeding industry. This article is a summary of BVDV infections in pigs, including a historical overview, clinical signs, pathology, source of infection, genetic characteristics, impacts of porcine BVDV infection for diagnosis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), differentiation of infection with CSFV and BVDV, and future prospects of porcine BVDV infection.

  3. Studies on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Organophosphate Poisons in Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Idantlty by Woe« numb«-; Hydrolysis Of the OrganO- phosphate paraoxon was studied in Yorkshire pig, rat and human sera. Enzymatic hydrolysis ...D-A123 269 UNCLASSIFIED STUDIES ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGflNOPHOSPHATE 1/i POISONS IN PIGS(U) LETTERNAN ARMY INST OF RESEARCH...ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONS IN PIGS Part 1. pH and Ion Effects in Sera from Pigs, Rats, and Humans PETER SCHMID, PhD

  4. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D; Segales, J; Meyns, T; Sibila, M; Pieters, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-01-25

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. The organism adheres to and damages the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Affected pigs show chronic coughing, are more susceptible to other respiratory infections and have a reduced performance. Control of the disease can be accomplished in a number of ways. First, management practices and housing conditions in the herd should be optimized. These include all-in/all-out production, limiting factors that may destabilize herd immunity, maintaining optimal stocking densities, prevention of other respiratory diseases, and optimal housing and climatic conditions. Strategic medication with antimicrobials active against M. hyopneumoniae and, preferably, also against major secondary bacteria may be useful during periods when the pigs are at risk for respiratory disease. Finally, commercial bacterins are widely used to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The main effects of vaccination include less clinical symptoms, lung lesions and medication use, and improved performance. However, bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent colonization of the organism. Different vaccination strategies (timing of vaccination, vaccination of sows, vaccination combined with antimicrobial medication) can be used, depending on the type of herd, the production system and management practices, the infection pattern and the preferences of the pig producer. Research on new vaccines is actively occurring, including aerosol and feed-based vaccines as well as subunit and DNA vaccines. Eradication of the infection at herd level based on age-segregation and medication is possible, but there is a permanent risk for re-infections.

  5. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    PubMed

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  6. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions.

  7. Heat stress increases insulin sensitivity in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Stoakes, Sara K; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Seibert, Jacob T; Johnson, Jay S; Horst, Erin A; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Proper insulin homeostasis appears critical for adapting to and surviving a heat load. Further, heat stress (HS) induces phenotypic changes in livestock that suggest an increase in insulin action. The current study objective was to evaluate the effects of HS on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Female pigs (57 ± 4 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 21°C) and were fed ad libitum. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (i) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 6), or (ii) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 6) to eliminate the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) was conducted on d3 of both periods; and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were collected prior to and after an insulin tolerance test (ITT) on d5 of period 2. During the HEC, insulin infusion increased circulating insulin and decreased plasma C-peptide and nonesterified fatty acids, similarly between treatments. From period 1 to 2, the rate of glucose infusion in response to the HEC remained similar in HS pigs while it decreased (36%) in PFTN controls. Prior to the ITT, HS increased (41%) skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 protein abundance, but did not affect protein kinase B or their phosphorylated forms. In adipose tissue, HS did not alter any of the basal or stimulated measured insulin signaling markers. In summary, HS increases whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:26243213

  8. [A pilot study on establishment of human/pig hematopoietic chimera model in fetal and neonatal pigs].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying-Xia; Wang, Jie-Xi; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yang-Pei

    2005-08-01

    This study was aimed to explore the feasibility of transplanting human cord blood stem cells (HSC) into pre-immune fetal and neonatal pigs, and to investigate the self-renewal of HSC in the recipient pigs. The fetus and neonate were manipulated in sterile separated room and human donor cells were injected into fetus via fetus muscle or umbilical vein (dissectted womb) or into neonate via umbilical vein before cutting it. Human CD45(+) cells s were detected by labeling with human anti-CD45 antibody and analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The results showed that tested pigs developed as well as control and a definite proportion of human cells existed in peripheral blood of chimeric pig on day 60 after transplantation. In conclusion, the fetus and neonate pigs can tolerate a definite proportion of human antigens, and to establish the human/pig model of hematopoietic chimerism is possible.

  9. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  11. Comparison of Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus Muscles from Purebred Pigs and Three-way Crossbred LYD Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeong-Seok; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Jung, Ji-Taek; Jung, Young-Chul; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Myung-Ok; Choi, Yang-Il; Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to find pork quality to meet the needs of consumers. Thus, the meat quality and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscles from purebred pigs (Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc) and three-way crossbred LYD pigs were compared and evaluated. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscles were significant (p<0.05) different among pigs. Duroc contained significant (p<0.05) higher fat contents than other pigs, whereas significant (p<0.05) higher moisture contents were observed in Landrace, Yorkshire, and LYD pigs compared to those of Duroc pigs. The values of pH24 h and pH14 d were the highest in Landrace pigs. Myoglobin contents of LYD pigs were higher (p<0.05) than those of purebred pigs. Regarding meat color, Duroc and Yorkshire pigs had higher redness values than Landrace and LYD pigs, while Landrace pigs had the lowest (p<0.05) color values among all pigs. There was no significant difference in shear force or water holding capacity (WHC). Duroc pigs maintained the lowest drip loss during 14 d of cold storage. In sensory evaluation, the marbling scores of Duroc pigs were higher (p<0.05) than other pigs. Regarding fatty acid compositions, total USFA, poly-, n-3, and n-6 contents were the highest (p<0.05) in LYD pigs, while total SFA contents were the highest (p<0.05) in Duroc pigs. Based on these results, purebred pigs had superior overall meat quality to crossbred pigs. PMID:27857546

  12. Trends in slaughter pig production and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pig herds, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A R; Pires, S M; Houe, H; Emborg, H-D

    2011-10-01

    Overuse of antimicrobials in food-animal production is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of resistant bacterial populations. Data on non-human antimicrobial usage is essential for planning of intervention strategies to lower resistance levels at the country, region or herd levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100 slaughter pig-days at risk while macrolide TI presented a more moderate increase, from 0·40 to 0·44 ADD/100 slaughter pig-days at risk during the study period. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between herd size and TI rates for tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides/trimethoprim and cephalosporins, with small herds presenting significantly higher TI than moderate, large and the largest herds. This study highlights the importance of establishing an antimicrobial consumption monitoring programme, integrated with comprehensive food-animal production surveillance. Further research should be performed to address the potential causes of the detected associations between herd sizes and antimicrobial consumption in pigs.

  13. Efficacy of oral vaccination against swine erysipelas in growing-finishing pigs in a clinically infected Slovakian pig herd.

    PubMed

    Friendship, C R; Bilkei, G

    2007-01-01

    In a large Slovakian growing-finishing pig production unit, the effects of oral vaccination against swine erysipelas (SE) were investigated in three groups of pigs of 10 weeks of age. In group 1, the pigs were vaccinated intramuscularly at 1 and 3 weeks after arrival in the growing-finishing barn using an Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacterin. Group 2 pigs were vaccinated at the same time as group 1 using an oral avirulent live SE vaccine administered through drinking water; the pigs in the third group were placebo treated. Clinical signs of acute SE, arthritic changes, average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated. None of the pigs in groups 1 and 2 but 31.7% of the control animals (group 3) showed typical clinical signs of acute SE. More (P<0.01) non-vaccinated pigs had chronic arthritic changes compared with groups 1 and 2. No significant differences in mortality were recorded between the groups. Groups 1 and 2 had higher (P<0.05) ADG and lower feed conversion ratios compared with group 3 pigs. The results demonstrated that the oral avirulent live culture was efficacious in significantly reducing the clinical symptoms caused by E. rhusiopathiae infection, so enhancing the pigs' performance.

  14. Selenium elimination in pigs after an outbreak of selenium toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Davidson-York, D; Galey, F D; Blanchard, P; Gardner, I A

    1999-07-01

    In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were exposed to selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed to the feed, and 8 pigs died with signs of paralysis. Bilateral symmetrical poliomyelomalacia involving the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescence was evident on histologic examination of spinal cord from affected pigs. Of 44 surviving exposed pigs, 33 (75%) exhibited signs of selenosis, including anorexia, alopecia, and hoof lesions. Thirty-nine of 44 pigs (88.6%) had elevated (>1 ppm) blood selenium concentrations. Surviving exposed pigs were changed to a standard commercial ration containing approximately 0.5 ppm (dry weight) selenium. Blood selenium concentrations were determined weekly for 46 days following removal of the contaminated feed and were compared with values of 20 control pigs fed a standard commercial ration. Mean (+/-SD) blood selenium concentrations of exposed pigs were 3.2 +/- 2.6 ppm at the initial sampling and 0.4 +/- 0.1 ppm after 46 days. Mean blood selenium concentrations of < or = 0.3 ppm for control pigs at all samplings were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than concentrations for exposed pigs. Muscle and liver samples of 22 of the 44 exposed pigs were collected at slaughter approximately 72 days after withdrawal of the selenium-contaminated feed. Muscle samples had a mean selenium concentration of 0.36 ppm (wet weight). Liver samples had a mean selenium concentration of 1.26 ppm (wet weight). One liver sample had a selenium value in the toxic range for pigs (3.3 ppm wet weight; reference range, 0.4-1.2 ppm). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model of selenium elimination in exposed pigs was generated, and the geometric mean blood selenium elimination half-life was estimated to be 12 days. The 60-day withdrawal time recommended

  15. Individual coping characteristics, rearing conditions and behavioural flexibility in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Schouten, Willem G P; de Leeuw, John A; Schrama, Johan W; Wiegant, Victor M

    2004-07-09

    Several studies suggest that classification of piglets early in life based on the degree of resistance they display in a so-called Backtest may be indicative of their coping style at a later age. In the present study behavioural flexibility was investigated in pigs diverging for Backtest response and housing environment during rearing. Pigs were housed either without a rooting substrate (barren housing, B) or in identical pens enriched with deep straw bedding (enriched housing, E) from birth. During the suckling period piglets were subjected to the Backtest. Each piglet was restrained on its back for 1 min and the resistance (i.e. number of escape attempts) was scored. Pigs classified as 'high-resisting' (HR) or as 'low-resisting' (LR) were subjected to a simple (left/right) spatial discrimination (T-maze) task at 8 weeks of age. The effect of a single, subtle intramaze change was determined after acquisition of the task. In addition, pigs were subjected to reversal learning to assess their ability to modulate established behaviour patterns. Housing and its interaction with Backtest classification influenced the behavioural response to the intramaze change: E pigs were considerably more distracted than B pigs. Housing condition affected LR pigs more than HR pigs, as indicated by the interaction effects on various recorded behaviours. These interactions indicate that behavioural responding of pigs with diverging coping characteristics cannot simply be generalised across rearing conditions. Furthermore, HR pigs were less successful in reversal learning than LR pigs, suggesting that they have a higher propensity to develop inflexible behavioural routines.

  16. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  17. Pig lacks functional NLRC4 and NAIP genes.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Chisato; Toki, Daisuke; Shinkai, Hiroki; Takenouchi, Takato; Sato, Mitsuru; Kitani, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2017-02-01

    The NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognizes flagellin and components of the type III secretion system, plays an important role in the clearance of intracellular bacteria. Here, we examined the genomic sequences carrying two genes encoding key components of the NLRC4 inflammasome-NLR family, CARD-containing 4 (NLRC4), and NLR apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)-in pigs. Pigs have a single locus encoding NLRC4 and NAIP. Comparison of the sequences thus obtained with the corresponding regions in humans revealed the deletion of intermediate exons in both pig genes. In addition, the genomic sequences of both pig genes lacked valid open reading frames encoding functional NLRC4 or NAIP protein. Additional pigs representing multiple breeds and wild boars also lacked the exons that we failed to find through genome sequencing. Furthermore, neither the NLRC4 nor the NAIP gene was expressed in pigs. These findings indicate that pigs lack the NLRC4 inflammasome, an important factor involved in monitoring bacterial proteins and contributing to the clearance of intracellular pathogens. These results also suggest that genetic polymorphisms affecting the molecular functions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and other pattern recognition receptors associated with the recognition of bacteria have a more profound influence on disease resistance in pigs than in other species.

  18. The pig X and Y Chromosomes: structure, sequence, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Benjamin M.; Sargent, Carole A.; Churcher, Carol; Hunt, Toby; Herrero, Javier; Loveland, Jane E.; Dunn, Matt; Louzada, Sandra; Fu, Beiyuan; Chow, William; Gilbert, James; Austin-Guest, Siobhan; Beal, Kathryn; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cheng, William; Gordon, Daria; Grafham, Darren; Hardy, Matt; Harley, Jo; Hauser, Heidi; Howden, Philip; Howe, Kerstin; Lachani, Kim; Ellis, Peter J.I.; Kelly, Daniel; Kerry, Giselle; Kerwin, James; Ng, Bee Ling; Threadgold, Glen; Wileman, Thomas; Wood, Jonathan M.D.; Yang, Fengtang; Harrow, Jen; Affara, Nabeel A.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We have generated an improved assembly and gene annotation of the pig X Chromosome, and a first draft assembly of the pig Y Chromosome, by sequencing BAC and fosmid clones from Duroc animals and incorporating information from optical mapping and fiber-FISH. The X Chromosome carries 1033 annotated genes, 690 of which are protein coding. Gene order closely matches that found in primates (including humans) and carnivores (including cats and dogs), which is inferred to be ancestral. Nevertheless, several protein-coding genes present on the human X Chromosome were absent from the pig, and 38 pig-specific X-chromosomal genes were annotated, 22 of which were olfactory receptors. The pig Y-specific Chromosome sequence generated here comprises 30 megabases (Mb). A 15-Mb subset of this sequence was assembled, revealing two clusters of male-specific low copy number genes, separated by an ampliconic region including the HSFY gene family, which together make up most of the short arm. Both clusters contain palindromes with high sequence identity, presumably maintained by gene conversion. Many of the ancestral X-related genes previously reported in at least one mammalian Y Chromosome are represented either as active genes or partial sequences. This sequencing project has allowed us to identify genes—both single copy and amplified—on the pig Y Chromosome, to compare the pig X and Y Chromosomes for homologous sequences, and thereby to reveal mechanisms underlying pig X and Y Chromosome evolution. PMID:26560630

  19. The pig X and Y Chromosomes: structure, sequence, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Benjamin M; Sargent, Carole A; Churcher, Carol; Hunt, Toby; Herrero, Javier; Loveland, Jane E; Dunn, Matt; Louzada, Sandra; Fu, Beiyuan; Chow, William; Gilbert, James; Austin-Guest, Siobhan; Beal, Kathryn; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cheng, William; Gordon, Daria; Grafham, Darren; Hardy, Matt; Harley, Jo; Hauser, Heidi; Howden, Philip; Howe, Kerstin; Lachani, Kim; Ellis, Peter J I; Kelly, Daniel; Kerry, Giselle; Kerwin, James; Ng, Bee Ling; Threadgold, Glen; Wileman, Thomas; Wood, Jonathan M D; Yang, Fengtang; Harrow, Jen; Affara, Nabeel A; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We have generated an improved assembly and gene annotation of the pig X Chromosome, and a first draft assembly of the pig Y Chromosome, by sequencing BAC and fosmid clones from Duroc animals and incorporating information from optical mapping and fiber-FISH. The X Chromosome carries 1033 annotated genes, 690 of which are protein coding. Gene order closely matches that found in primates (including humans) and carnivores (including cats and dogs), which is inferred to be ancestral. Nevertheless, several protein-coding genes present on the human X Chromosome were absent from the pig, and 38 pig-specific X-chromosomal genes were annotated, 22 of which were olfactory receptors. The pig Y-specific Chromosome sequence generated here comprises 30 megabases (Mb). A 15-Mb subset of this sequence was assembled, revealing two clusters of male-specific low copy number genes, separated by an ampliconic region including the HSFY gene family, which together make up most of the short arm. Both clusters contain palindromes with high sequence identity, presumably maintained by gene conversion. Many of the ancestral X-related genes previously reported in at least one mammalian Y Chromosome are represented either as active genes or partial sequences. This sequencing project has allowed us to identify genes--both single copy and amplified--on the pig Y Chromosome, to compare the pig X and Y Chromosomes for homologous sequences, and thereby to reveal mechanisms underlying pig X and Y Chromosome evolution.

  20. PIG7 promotes leukemia cell chemosensitivity via lysosomal membrane permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ting; Wu, Yu; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Fangfang; Zheng, Yuhuan; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    PIG7 localizes to lysosomal membrane in leukemia cells. Our previous work has shown that transduction of pig7 into a series of leukemia cell lines did not result in either apoptosis or differentiation of most tested cell lines. Interestingly, it did significantly sensitize these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we further investigated the mechanism underlying pig7-induced improved sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to chemotherapy. Our results demonstrated that the sensitization effect driven by exogenous pig7 was more effective in drug-resistant leukemia cell lines which had lower endogenous pig7 expression. Overexpression of pig7 did not directly activate the caspase apoptotic pathway, but decreased the lysosomal stability. The expression of pig7 resulted in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and lysosomal protease (e.g. cathepsin B, D, L) release. Moreover, we also observed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by pig7. Some autophagy markers such as LC3I/II, ATG5 and Beclin-1, and necroptosis maker MLKL were also stimulated. However, intrinsic antagonism such as serine/cysteine protease inhibitors Spi2A and Cystatin C prevented downstream effectors from triggering leukemia cells, which were only on the “verge of apoptosis”. When combined with chemotherapy, LMP increased and more proteases were released. Once this process was beyond the limit of intrinsic antagonism, it induced programmed cell death cooperatively via caspase-independent and caspase-dependent pathways. PMID:26716897

  1. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    PubMed

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  2. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

  3. Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Barss, P; Ennis, S

    Pigs are intelligent animals that can be formidable adversaries to humans because of their sharp tusks and their ability to attack swiftly. Domestic and feral pigs have an important role in the ecology of village life in Melanesia. A six-year review of all injuries that were caused by pigs that were referred from the villages in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to the Provincial Hospital was completed. Some of the injuries that were seen among the 20 patients who were studied included: three penetrating abdominal injuries with prolapse and strangulation of the intestine; a "sucking" chest wound; bilateral pneumothoraces; two infected open fractures of the radius and the ulna; a perforating injury of the knee with septic arthritis; a hand injury with laceration of multiple tendons; an arterial injury of the wrist; injury of a tibial nerve with foot drop; and a severe scrotal injury with exposure of the testicles. Most injuries resulted from the hunting of feral pigs. Adult male hunters who used dogs and carried only one spear were injured most frequently. Wounds from injuries by pigs are deep, often involve multiple critical structures, and are grossly contaminated. Resuscitation requires the administration of fluid and often blood. Treatment includes irrigation, debridement and closure of the wound. The principles of managing such injuries, the prevention of injuries, the ecology of pigs and humans, human infections originating from pigs, and safer methods of hunting pigs are discussed.

  4. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  5. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  6. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  7. Genomic analysis reveals selection in Chinese native black pig

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuhua; Li, Cencen; Tang, Qianzi; Tian, Shilin; Jin, Long; Chen, Jianhai; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genomic signatures that help reveal mechanisms underlying desirable traits in domesticated pigs is of significant biological, agricultural and medical importance. To identify the genomic footprints left by selection during domestication of the Enshi black pig, a typical native and meat-lard breed in China, we generated about 72-fold coverage of the pig genome using pools of genomic DNA representing three different populations of Enshi black pigs from three different locations. Combining this data with the available whole genomes of 13 Chinese wild boars, we identified 417 protein-coding genes embedded in the selected regions of Enshi black pigs. These genes are mainly involved in developmental and metabolic processes, response to stimulus, and other biological processes. Signatures of selection were detected in genes involved in body size and immunity (RPS10 and VASN), lipid metabolism (GSK3), male fertility (INSL6) and developmental processes (TBX19). These findings provide a window into the potential genetic mechanism underlying development of desirable phenotypes in Enshi black pigs during domestication and subsequent artificial selection. Thus, our results illustrate how domestication has shaped patterns of genetic variation in Enshi black pigs and provide valuable genetic resources that enable effective use of pigs in agricultural production. PMID:27808243

  8. Intracoronary ghrelin infusion decreases coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Molinari, Claudio; Mary, David A S G; Ghigo, Ezio; Bona, Gianni; Vacca, Giovanni

    2007-02-01

    The peptide ghrelin has been linked to the atherosclerotic process and coronary artery disease. We planned to study, for the first time, the primary effects of ghrelin on the intact coronary circulation and determine the mechanisms involved. In 24 sodium pentobarbitone-anesthetized pigs, changes in anterior descending coronary blood flow caused by intracoronary infusion of ghrelin at constant heart rate and arterial pressure were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. In 20 pigs, intracoronary infusion of ghrelin decreased coronary blood flow without affecting left ventricular maximum rate of change of left ventricular systolic pressure (dP/dt(max)), filling pressures of the heart or plasma levels of GH. In four pigs, this decrease was graded by step increments of infused dose of the hormone. The mechanisms of the above response were studied in the 20 pigs by repeating the experiment after coronary flow had returned to the control values observed before infusion. The ghrelin-induced coronary vasoconstriction was not affected by iv atropine (five pigs) or phentolamine (five pigs). This response was abolished by iv butoxamine (five pigs) and intracoronary N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (five pigs), even after reversing the increase in arterial pressure and coronary vascular resistance caused by the two blocking agents with iv infusion of papaverine. The present study showed that intracoronary infusion of ghrelin primarily caused coronary vasoconstriction. The mechanisms of this response were shown to involve the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect related to the release of nitric oxide.

  9. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  10. PIG7 promotes leukemia cell chemosensitivity via lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiazhuo; Peng, Leiwen; Niu, Ting; Wu, Yu; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Fangfang; Zheng, Yuhuan; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-26

    PIG7 localizes to lysosomal membrane in leukemia cells. Our previous work has shown that transduction of pig7 into a series of leukemia cell lines did not result in either apoptosis or differentiation of most tested cell lines. Interestingly, it did significantly sensitize these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we further investigated the mechanism underlying pig7-induced improved sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to chemotherapy. Our results demonstrated that the sensitization effect driven by exogenous pig7 was more effective in drug-resistant leukemia cell lines which had lower endogenous pig7 expression. Overexpression of pig7 did not directly activate the caspase apoptotic pathway, but decreased the lysosomal stability. The expression of pig7 resulted in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and lysosomal protease (e.g. cathepsin B, D, L) release. Moreover, we also observed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by pig7. Some autophagy markers such as LC3I/II, ATG5 and Beclin-1, and necroptosis maker MLKL were also stimulated. However, intrinsic antagonism such as serine/cysteine protease inhibitors Spi2A and Cystatin C prevented downstream effectors from triggering leukemia cells, which were only on the "verge of apoptosis". When combined with chemotherapy, LMP increased and more proteases were released. Once this process was beyond the limit of intrinsic antagonism, it induced programmed cell death cooperatively via caspase-independent and caspase-dependent pathways.

  11. Integrating the USMARC genetic map for the pig with the pig physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive genetic linkage map containing 3418 markers and spanning 2,326 cM of the autosomal genome was generated and integrated with the available physical maps for the pig. Marker types consisted of 1531 microsatellites and 1887 markers based on single feature polymorphisms, insertion/delet...

  12. Analysis of pig movements across eastern Indonesia, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Christley, Robert M; Geong, Maria; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of live animal movement through markets and from farm-to-farm is needed to inform strategies for control of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) in south-east Asia, particularly due to consumer preference for fresh meat. In eastern Indonesia a TAD of principal interest for control is classical swine fever (CSF) due to its impacts on smallholder farmers. Pig movement is considered a contributor to failure of current CSF control efforts but pig movement patterns are not well understood. This study investigated movement of live pigs in West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands during 2009-2010, with the aim of informing CSF control policies for Nusa Tenggara Timor province. A market survey of 292 pig sellers and 281 pig buyers across nine live pig markets and a farmer survey across 18 villages with 289 smallholder farmers were conducted and information collected on pig movements. The data obtained was used for social network analysis (SNA) on formal (via a market) and informal (village-to-village) movements using information on trading practices, source and destination locations, and the number of pigs being moved. Both inter- and intra-island movements were identified, however inter-island movement was only observed between Flores and Sumba islands. West Timor and Sumba had highly connected networks where large numbers of villages were directly and indirectly linked through pig movement. Further for West Timor, both formal and informal pig movements linked the capital Kupang, on the eastern end of the island to the western districts bordering East Timor connecting all five districts and demonstrating that informal movement transports pigs over distances similar to formal movement on this island. Sumba had a higher potential for pigs to move to a greater number of sequential locations across the entire island. Flores was found to have a more fragmented network, with pig movements concentrated in its eastern or western regions, influenced by terrain. Markets were

  13. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  14. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  15. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization of pigs sired by different boars.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alvaro; Galina, Lucina; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-04-01

    Differences in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization were evaluated in experimentally inoculated pigs sired by 3 different boars of the same genetic line. Forty-six pigs were used, including a treatment group and positive and negative control groups. The pigs were intratracheally inoculated with an M. hyopneumoniae suspension or with Friis media as a placebo. To evaluate differences in the magnitude of colonization during a 35-day period, nasal and tracheal swabs were collected weekly and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR). Temperature, weight and circulating antibodies were measured for 35 days. At 11 and 35 d postinoculation the pigs were necropsied and macroscopic and microscopic lesions were determined. A section of bronchus was tested by the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N-PCR. The N-PCR results from the nasal and tracheal swabs showed that the pigs sired by one boar (B3) had a distinctive colonization pattern, different from that of the pigs from the other 2 boars and from the positive controls. SEM studies demonstrated that at 35 d postinoculation a higher proportion of B3 pigs had lower numbers of mycoplasmas attached to the cilia compared with B1 and B2 offspring. No significant differences were observed in temperature and weight gain among groups by ANOVA; however, with use of a 2 x 2 table, temperature differences were observed between pigs sired by boars B1 and B2 at 4 d postinoculation. No pigs seroconverted, showed gross or microscopic lesions, or had positive IFAT results. These results provide evidence of differences in patterns of colonization between pigs sired by different boars, suggesting a possible genetic effect.

  16. Widespread distribution of hepatitis E virus in Spanish pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a serious health problem in developing countries and is also increasingly reported in industrialized regions. HEV is considered a zoonotic agent and strains isolated from swine and human sources are genetically similar. Thus, HEV is of increasing importance to both public and animal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of HEV in a large population of pigs from herds located in different autonomous regions throughout Spain. Results The presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was analyzed in 1141 swine serum samples (corresponding to 381 pigs younger than 6 months and 760 pigs older than 6 months) collected from 85 herds. Herds were located in 6 provinces in 4 autonomous regions throughout Spain. At least one pig tested positive for anti-HEV IgG in over 80% of herds. Of individual pigs, 20.4% (233/1141) were positive for anti-HEV IgG, with the prevalence being higher in adult pigs than in those under 6 months (30.2% vs. 15.5%). A subset of serum samples taken at 2- to 5-week intervals showed that seroprevalence dropped between 3 and 11 weeks of age, and then rose significantly by the 15th week. Pigs were also examined for the presence of HEV-RNA by RT-PCR. Of pigs tested for the presence of HEV-RNA 18.8% (64/341) were positive, with at least one pig in almost half of the herds testing positive. HEV-RNA amplicons from several positive pigs were sequenced and all were of genotype 3. Conclusions HEV was found to be widely distributed among swine farms across Spain, with the prevalence being highest among animals older than 6 months. These results indicate that HEV infection either is or is likely to become endemic in the Spanish swine population. PMID:21999141

  17. Possible introgression of the VRTN mutation increasing vertebral number, carcass length and teat number from Chinese pigs into European pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Huang, Lusheng; Yang, Ming; Fan, Yin; Li, Lin; Fang, Shaoming; Deng, Wenjiang; Cui, Leilei; Zhang, Zhen; Ai, Huashui; Wu, Zhenfang; Gao, Jun; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vertnin (VRTN) variants have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in European pigs, but the association has not been evidenced in Chinese indigenous pigs. In this study, we first performed a genome-wide association study in Chinese Erhualian pigs using one VRTN candidate causative mutation and the Illumina Porcine 60K SNP Beadchips. The VRTN mutation is significantly associated with thoracic vertebral number in this population. We further show that the VRTN mutation has pleiotropic and desirable effects on teat number and carcass (body) length across four diverse populations, including Erhualian, White Duroc × Erhualian F2 population, Duroc and Landrace pigs. No association was observed between VRTN genotype and growth and fatness traits in these populations. Therefore, testing for the VRTN mutation in pig breeding schemes would not only increase the number of vertebrae and nipples, but also enlarge body size without undesirable effects on growth and fatness traits, consequently improving pork production. Further, by using whole-genome sequence data, we show that the VRTN mutation was possibly introgressed from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Our results provide another example showing that introgressed Chinese genes greatly contributed to the development and production of modern European pig breeds. PMID:26781738

  18. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  19. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 1,077 domestic pigs in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of pigs were sampled: Group A pigs (n=555) were raised in 3 geo...

  5. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  6. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  7. Identification and characterization of pigs prone to producing 'RSE' (reddish-pink, soft and exudative) meat in normal pigs.

    PubMed

    Cheah, K S; Cheah, A M; Just, A

    1998-03-01

    RSE (reddish-pink, soft and exudative) meat was investigated using pigs of three different halothane genotypes. A significantly lower pH(1h), value was observed in RSE compared with that of RFN (red, firm and non-exudative) -meat, both of which have values higher than 6.0 at 1 hr post-mortem. Drip loss (%) in RSE-meat was ≥7%, which was twice that of RFN-meat. Normal values for fibre optic probe and Minolta L and a were observed for RSE-meat. RSE-meat could be derived from NN and Nn pigs, and its formation could be induced from RFN-prone pigs by poor post-slaughter management. Pigs expected to produce RSE-meat were identified using small biopsy samples of M. longissimus dorsi (LD). Predicted RSE-meat in live pigs was confirmed by post-mortem assessments of meat quality using LD muscle. With NN Landrace-Yorkshire × Duroc pigs, 15.6% were identified to be RSE-prone in live pigs, and a further 6.7% RSE was induced after slaughter from RFN pigs. The rate of glycolysis determined from biopsy LD samples and at 1 hr post-mortem (pH(1h)) were significantly (p < 0.001) faster in RSE than in RFN-prone pigs, but significantly slower than those of PSE-prone pigs. Good correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between biopsy fluid (F) values, an indicator of water-holding capacity (WHC), and drip loss (r = 0.652) from post-mortem LD muscle, and between biopsy pH (F), an indicator for the rate of glycolysis, and F (r = -0.828). These results show that the skeletal muscle test using biopsy LD muscle could be employed to reduce the incidence of RSE-meat.

  8. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  9. Cellularity of adipose tissue in fetal pig.

    PubMed

    Desnoyers, F; Pascal, G; Etienne, M; Vodovar, N

    1980-03-01

    Adipose tissue cellularity was studied in the 85-day-old Large-White pig fetus. The aim of this work was to count the adipose cells of forming tissue in an animal species which could be a possible model for studying adipose tissue in humans. Using a morphometric method with electron microscopy, mean triglyceride volume per cell was determined independently of mean cell volume. This method is suitable for counting adipose cells in the early stage of differentiation whatever their size and lipid inclusion volume. Site-by-site dissection of adipose tissue was not feasible in the 85-day old fetus and adipose cell number was computed by dividing total carcass triglyceride volume by mean triglyceride volume per cell. The carcass triglyceride seemed to originate only from adipose cells. The mean total carcass triglyceride volume per fetus (1.84 g) was low but, owing to the low mean triglyceride volume per cell (180.28 microns3), the adipose cell number (11.15 X 10(9)) was relatively important, as it represented about 27% of the extramuscular adipose cell number in the Large-White adult pig (41 X 10(9)).

  10. Human brucellosis at a pig slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-12-01

    Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.

  11. Actin from pig and rat uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Elce, J S; Elbrecht, A S; Middlestadt, M U; McIntyre, E J; Anderson, P J

    1981-01-01

    Smooth-muscle actin was isolated from pig uterus and from pregnant-rat uterus. Methods involving acetone-dried powders were unsuccessful, and a column-chromatographic procedure was developed, with proteinase inhibitors and avoiding polymerization as a purification step. The yield of pure actin was 0.8--1.5 mg/g wet wt. of uterus, which should be compared with an expected yield of actin from skeletal muscle of 2--4 mg/g wet wt. The actin was pure as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and exhibited alpha-, beta-, and gamma-forms on isoelectric focusing. It possessed a blocked N-terminal amino acid residue, and its amino acid analysis conformed to those of other actins. The rat uterine actin was available only in small amounts (5--10 mg) and did not polymerize. The pig uterine actin could be obtained in amounts up to 30 mg, polymerized reversibly, and activated a skeletal myosin Mg2+-dependent ATPase. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:6458278

  12. Iron deficiency in outdoor pig production.

    PubMed

    Szabo, P; Bilkei, G

    2002-09-01

    It has been claimed that outdoor-reared suckling piglets do not need iron supplementation. According to practical experience, outdoor-reared and non-iron-supplemented piglets show a lower performance in comparison with their iron-supplemented counterparts. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of iron supplementation on outdoor-reared suckling piglets. In a large Hungarian outdoor pig production unit, 4691 piglets were assigned to one of two treatment groups. Piglets in group 1 (n = 2344): received no iron supplementation, whereas piglets in group 2 (n = 2347) were intramuscularly injected in the neck on day 3 post-partum with 1.5 ml of Ferriphor 10% solution (TAD Pharmaceutical GmbH, Bremerhaven, Germany). Animal weights, morbidity, haemoglobin concentration and mortality were recorded and analysed. At weaning the iron-injected piglets were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier. The iron-supplemented piglets also revealed significantly (P < 0.01) less pre-weaning morbidity and mortality and higher (P < 0.01) blood haemoglobin concentration compared with the non-injected ones. This study suggests that in order to prevent pre-weaning losses and support piglet health and weight performance, iron supplementation should be administered to piglets in outdoor pig production units.

  13. Evaluation of chronic immune system stimulation models in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, A; de Lange, C F M

    2012-02-01

    Two experiments (EXPs) were conducted to evaluate models of immune system stimulation (ISS) that can be used in nutrient metabolism studies in growing pigs. In EXP I, the pig's immune response to three non-pathogenic immunogens was evaluated, whereas in EXP II the pig's more general response to one of the immunogens was contrasted with observations on non-ISS pigs. In EXP I, nine growing barrows were fitted with a jugular catheter, and after recovery assigned to one of three treatments. Three immunogens were tested during a 10-day ISS period: (i) repeated injection of increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (ii) repeated subcutaneous injection of turpentine (TURP); and (iii) feeding grains naturally contaminated with mycotoxins (MYCO). In EXP II, 36 growing barrows were injected repeatedly with either saline (n = 12) or increasing amounts of LPS (n = 24) for 7 days (initial dose 60 μg/kg body weight). Treating pigs with TURP and LPS reduced feed intake (P < 0.02), whereas feed intake was not reduced in pigs on MYCO. Average daily gain (ADG; kg/day) of pigs on LPS (0.50) was higher than that of pigs on TURP (0.19), but lower than that of pigs on MYCO (0.61; P < 0.01). Body temperature was elevated in pigs on LPS and TURP, by 0.8°C and 0.7°C, respectively, relative to pre-ISS challenge values (39.3°C; P < 0.02), but remained unchanged in pigs on MYCO. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-1β were increased in pigs treated with LPS and TURP (56% and 55%, respectively, relative to 22.3 pg/ml for pre-ISS; P < 0.01), but not in MYCO-treated pigs. Plasma cortisol concentrations remained unchanged for pigs on MYCO and TURP, but were reduced in LPS-treated pigs (30% relative to 29.8 ng/ml for pre-ISS; P < 0.05). Red blood cell glutathione concentrations were lower in TURP-treated pigs (13% relative to 1.38 μM for pre-ISS; P < 0.05), but were unaffected in pigs on LPS and MYCO. In EXP I, TURP caused severe responses including skin ulceration and

  14. Enterobacter cloacae inhibits human norovirus infectivity in gnotobiotic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Samuel, Helen; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Study of HuNoV biology has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system. Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 104 genome copies of HuNoV. Compared to control pigs, reduced HuNoV shedding was observed in E. cloacae colonized pigs, characterized by significantly shorter duration of shedding in post-inoculation day 10 subgroup and lower cumulative shedding and peak shedding in individual pigs. Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization. PMID:27113278

  15. Estimate of herpetofauna depredation by a population of wild pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolley, D.B.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Sparklin, B.D.; Hanson, L.B.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Herpetofauna populations are decreasing worldwide, and the range of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is expanding. Depredation of threatened reptile and amphibian populations by wild pigs could be substantial. By understanding depredation characteristics and rates, more resources can be directed toward controlling populations of wild pigs coincident with threatened or endangered herpetofauna populations. From April 2005 to March 2006 we used firearms to collect wild pigs (n = 68) and examined stomach content for reptiles and amphibians. We found 64 individual reptiles and amphibians, composed of 5 different species, that were consumed by wild pigs during an estimated 254 hours of foraging. Primarily arboreal species (e.g., Anolis carolinensis) became more vulnerable to depredation when temperatures were low and they sought thermal shelter. Other species (e.g., Scaphiopus holbrookii) that exhibit mass terrestrial migrations during the breeding season also faced increased vulnerability to depredation by wild pigs. Results suggest that wild pigs are opportunistic consumers that can exploit and potentially have a negative impact on species with particular life-history characteristics. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Enterobacter cloacae inhibits human norovirus infectivity in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaohua; Samuel, Helen; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-04-26

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Study of HuNoV biology has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system. Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 10(4) genome copies of HuNoV. Compared to control pigs, reduced HuNoV shedding was observed in E. cloacae colonized pigs, characterized by significantly shorter duration of shedding in post-inoculation day 10 subgroup and lower cumulative shedding and peak shedding in individual pigs. Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization.

  17. The laryngeal mask airway in experimental pig anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wemyss-Holden, S A; Porter, K J; Baxter, P; Rudkin, G E; Maddern, G J

    1999-01-01

    The pig is used as a large animal model in many research projects. Standard practice for airway maintenance under general anaesthesia is using endotracheal (ET) intubation after intravenous induction to a near surgical plane. This is a technically demanding skill, requiring the assistance of an experienced technician. A technique is required which simplifies pig anaesthesia. This study examined the feasibility and potential advantages of using the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in 10 pigs during laparotomy under spontaneous breathing anaesthesia. The results show that the LMA can be inserted rapidly, with minimal time for airway control by researchers relatively inexperienced in anaesthesia and is associated with few complications. By removing the need for intravenous induction, an entire step in the anaesthetic process is removed. The LMA designed for humans fits well in the pig hypopharynx; all pigs could be manually ventilated with no detectable gas leak. Although the pigs in this study were spontaneously breathing it is proposed that the LMA should be further investigated in studies of artificially ventilated pigs.

  18. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  19. A new assay system for guinea pig interferon biological activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiko; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ohishi, Kazue; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Umemori, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Saburo; McMurray, David N

    2002-07-01

    We have developed an assay system for guinea pig interferon (IFN) based on reduction of viral cytopathic effect (CPE) in various cell lines. CPE inhibition was detected optimally in the guinea pig fibroblast cell line 104C1 infected with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The amount of biologically active guinea pig IFN was quantified by estimating viable cell numbers colorimetrically by means of a tetrazolium compound, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-1) and 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate (PMS). WST-1 color developed until stopped by the addition of sulfuric acid. This had no effect on the colorimetric assay, and the color was stable for at least 24 h. The acid also inactivated the EMCV and, thus, eliminated the viral hazard. Inhibition of CPE activity was highly correlated with the concentration of culture supernatants from BCG-vaccinated guinea pig splenocytes stimulated in vitro with tuberculin or an immunostimulatory oligoDNA. This assay detected guinea pig IFN and human IFN-alpha, but not IFN-gamma from human, mouse, rat, pig, or dog. This assay system has proved useful for the titration of guinea pig IFN, being easy to perform, free from viral hazard, relatively species specific, highly reproducible, and inexpensive.

  20. Human placental lactogen decreases regional blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossini, E; Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Mary, D A S G; Ribichini, F; Surico, N; Vacca, G

    2006-01-01

    In 22 pigs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in blood flow caused by infusion of human placental lactogen into the left renal, external iliac, and anterior descending coronary arteries were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. In 17 pigs, infusion of human placental lactogen whilst keeping the heart rate and arterial pressure constant decreased coronary, renal and iliac flow. In 5 additional pigs, increasing the dose of human placental lactogen produced a dose-related decrease in regional blood flow. The mechanisms of the above response were studied in 15 of the 17 pigs by repeating the experiment of infusion. The human placental lactogen-induced decrease in regional blood flow was not affected by blockade of cholinergic receptors (5 pigs) or of alpha-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs), but it was abolished by blockade of beta2-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs). The present study showed that intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen primarily decreased coronary, renal and iliac blood flow. The mechanism of this response was shown to be due to the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect.

  1. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    PubMed

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds.

  2. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  3. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  4. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.

    PubMed

    Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented.

  5. Isolation and metabolism cage system for newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Songer, J R; Mathis, R G; Skartvedt, S M

    1976-03-01

    An isolation system was designed and constructed for isolating normal and infected newborn pigs. The system consisted of an outer cage fitted with a biological diffusion filter and a dunk bath entry system and an inner metabolism cage to contain the pig. When tested with S-13 bacteriophage, the isolation and metabolism cage system was at least 99% efficient in preventing the entry or escape of microorganism. A total of 267 Escherichia coli-infected newborn pigs have been isolated in these units, with no cross contaminations.

  6. Lean breed Landrace pigs harbor fecal methanogens at higher diversity and density than obese breed Erhualian pigs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-heng; Su, Yong; Wright, André-Denis G; Zhang, Ling-li; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of fecal methanogens of Erhualian (obese type) and Landrace (lean type) pigs was examined using separate 16S rRNA gene libraries for each breed. A total of 763 clones were analyzed; 381 from the Erhualian library and 382 from the Landrace library were identified belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter. Others were identified belonging to the genus Methanosphaera. The two libraries showed significant differences in diversity (P < 0.05) and composition (P < 0.0001). Only two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found in both libraries, whereas six OTUs were found only in the Erhualian library and 23 OTUs were found only in the Landrace library. Real-time PCR showed that the abundance of fecal methanogens in Landrace pigs was significantly higher than that in Erhualian pigs (P < 0.05). Results showed that the Landrace pig (lean) harbored a greater diversity and higher numbers of methanogen mcrA gene copies than the Erhualian pig (obese). These differences may be related to the fatness or leanness in these two pig breeds. The results provide new leads for further investigations on the fat storage of pigs or even humans.

  7. An Internet portal dedicated to pig production and wild suids in the tropics: PigTrop web site http://pigtrop.cirad.fr.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, Vincent; Gourment, Cyricce; Erwin, Thierry; Nouaille, Christine

    2006-10-01

    Considering that a wide access to updated and relevant data is a key point for livestock development and research improvement in tropics, The PigTrop web site (http://pigtrop.cirad.fr) is dedicated to pig production and pork commodity chains in developing countries. It mainly addresses stakeholders involved in the pig commodity chain, but also researchers, students, or development agencies with an interest in tropical pig breeding. It is run by the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD).

  8. Pig-2-Bac as a biomarker of occupational exposure to pigs and livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers.

    PubMed

    Pisanic, Nora; Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Stewart, Jill; Wing, Steve; Love, David C; Hall, Devon; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-11-01

    Over 50 million hogs are raised annually in the United States for consumption, mostly on industrial hog operations (IHOs). Workers at IHOs are exposed to airborne particulates, zoonotic pathogens, and other workplace hazards, but lack of access to IHOs can hinder exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. Here, we demonstrate the utility of pig-specific Bacteroidales (Pig-2-Bac) as a biomarker of exposure to pigs and pig waste and to help identify sources of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among IHO workers.

  9. Biology of leptin in the pig.

    PubMed

    Barb, C R; Hausman, G J; Houseknecht, K L

    2001-11-01

    The recently discovered protein, leptin, which is secreted by fat cells in response to changes in body weight or energy, has been implicated in regulation of feed intake, energy expenditure and the neuroendocrine axis in rodents and humans. Leptin was first identified as the gene product found deficient in the obese ob/ob mouse. Administration of leptin to ob/ob mice led to improved reproduction as well as reduced feed intake and weight loss. The porcine leptin receptor has been cloned and is a member of the class 1 cytokine family of receptors. Leptin has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and the anorexia associated with disease. The leptin receptor is localized in the brain and pituitary of the pig. The leptin response to acute inflammation is uncoupled from anorexia and is differentially regulated among swine genotypes. In vitro studies demonstrated that the leptin gene is expressed by porcine preadipocytes and leptin gene expression is highly dependent on dexamethasone induced preadipocyte differentiation. Hormonally driven preadipocyte recruitment and subsequent fat cell size may regulate leptin gene expression in the pig. Expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteinalpha (C/EBPalpha) mediates insulin dependent preadipocyte leptin gene expression during lipid accretion. In contrast, insulin independent leptin gene expression may be maintained by C/EBPalpha auto-activation and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Adipogenic hormones may increase adipose tissue leptin gene expression in the fetus indirectly by inducing preadipocyte recruitment and subsequent differentiation. Central administration of leptin to pigs suppressed feed intake and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion. Serum leptin concentrations increased with age and estradiol-induced leptin mRNA expression in fat was age and weight dependent in prepuberal gilts. This occurred at the time of expected puberty in intact contemporaries and was associated with greater LH secretion

  10. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-03-06

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.

  11. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... observed for 7 days. (b) If unfavorable reactions attributable to the product occur in either of the guinea pigs during the observation period, the serial or subserial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable...

  12. Selection of invasive wild pig countermeasures using multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Brondum, Matthew C; Collier, Zachary A; Luke, Christopher S; Goatcher, Buddy L; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Wild pigs are a widespread invasive species that pose significant environmental and social risks. A number of wild pig eradication and control measures exist, but many eradication campaigns are ultimately unsuccessful. Decision making regarding how to design and execute an eradication plan is difficult because of multiple costs and benefits spanning various decision criteria that are associated with different eradication and control countermeasures. Moreover, multiple stakeholders are often involved with differing and sometimes competing objectives, and wild pigs are adaptive adversaries, meaning that the ideal countermeasure may change over time. In this paper, we propose the use of formal decision analytic tools which can structure decision problems into a set of relevant criteria, countermeasures, and stakeholder preferences to facilitate the evaluation of tradeoffs. We operationalize this method in a simple Excel-based decision tool and conclude with a path forward regarding how to successfully implement such tools for effective wild pig control.

  13. A Collection Scheme for Tracing Information of Pig Safety Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyao; Xiong, Benhai; Yang, Liang

    This study takes one main production pattern of smallhold pig farming in Tianjin as a study prototype, deeply analyzes characters of informations about tracing inputs including vaccines,feeds,veterinary drugs and supervision test in pig farming, proposesinputs metadata, criteria for integrating inputs event and interface norms for data transmision, developes and completes identification of 2D ear tags and traceability information collection system of pig safety production based on mobile PDA. The system has implemented functions including setting and invalidate of 2D ear tags, collection of tracing inputs and supervision in the mobile PDA and finally integration of tracing events (the epidemic event,feed event,drug event and supervision event) on the traceability data center (server). The PDA information collection system has been applied for demonstration in Tianjin, the collection is simple, convenient and feasible. It could meet with requirements of traceability information system of pig safety production

  14. Developing implantable neuroprosthetics: a new model in pig.

    PubMed

    Borton, David; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Agha, Naubahar; Minxha, Juri; Komar, Jacob; Patterson, William; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A new model has been established in the domestic pig for neural prosthetic device development and testing. To this end, we report on a complete neural prosthetic developmental system using a wireless sensor as the implant, a pig as the animal model, and a novel data acquisition paradigm for actuator control. A new type of stereotactic frame with clinically-inspired fixations pins that place the pig brain in standard surgical plane was developed and tested with success during the implantation of the microsystem. The microsystem implanted was an ultra-low power (12.5 mW) 16-channel intracortical/epicranial device transmitting broadband (40 kS/s) data over a wireless infrared telemetric link. Pigs were implanted and neural data was collected over a period of 5 weeks, clearly showing single unit spiking activity.

  15. Developing Implantable Neuroprosthetics: a New Model in Pig

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Agha, Naubahar; Minxha, Juri; Komar, Jacob; Patterson, William; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto

    2014-01-01

    A new model has been established in the domestic pig for neural prosthetic device development and testing. To this end, we report on a complete neural prosthetic developmental system using a wireless sensor as the implant, a pig as the animal model, and a novel data acquisition paradigm for actuator control. A new type of stereotactic frame with clinically-inspired fixations pins that place the pig brain in standard surgical plane was developed and tested with success during the implantation of the microsystem. The microsystem implanted was an ultralow power (12.5mW) 16-channel intracortical/epicranial device transmitting broadband (40kS/s) data over a wireless infrared telemetric link. Pigs were implanted and neural data was collected over a period of 5 weeks, clearly showing single unit spiking activity. PMID:22254977

  16. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    PubMed

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs.

  17. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  18. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  19. Reversing the objective: Adding guinea pig pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2004-03-01

    This article explores objectification in science and science education, i.e., the way material is turned into an object of interest to scientists. Drawing on sociological and anthropological drama theory, it examines how objectification does and does not occur in classrooms and schools. To understand the role and relationship of the object to the scientist, I look at current literature from the social studies of science concerning human and nonhuman objects as well as my own ethnographic work on the activism of politicized human research subjects. The paper concludes by how and why a more self-conscious focus on the object of science is important for those concerned with equity in science education, suggesting that such guinea pig pedagogies restore missing historical and ethical dimensions to science education.

  20. Transglutaminase from Hair Follicle of Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S. I.; Folk, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Two transglutaminases are found in homogenates of the inner root sheaths of guinea pig hair-follicles. One is indistinguishable from the well-characterized liver transglutaminase [J. Biol. Chem., 246, 1093 (1971)]. The other, which is present in far greater quantity, has not been detected in other organs or tissues. Gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies indicate that the native hair-follicle enzyme, of molecular weight 54,000, is composed of two subunits of identical molecular weight. Specificity studies suggest that the intermolecular cross-linking of fibrin and fibrinogen that is catalyzed by this enzyme is a result of the formation of ε(γ-glutamyl)lysine bonds. The probable participation of hair-follicle transglutaminase in the formation of these cross-links in the proteins of hair is discussed. Images PMID:4501114

  1. Electrocardiographic toxicity in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm are one of the most common clinical problems in cardiology and arise as the result of either disorders of cardiac impulse formation or conduction, or a combination of both. It has been established that some classes of drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine), cardiac glycosides (e.g., digoxin), and Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g., quinidine or amiodarone) can produce electrocardiographic toxicity in humans. It is therefore highly advisable to assess the effect of any new compound in this respect, during the early phases of drug development. This unit presents a protocol to detect the electrocardiographic toxicity of compounds in the anesthetized guinea pig.

  2. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    PubMed

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  3. Qualitative Behavioural Assessment of emotionality in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Kenneth M.D.; Donald, Ramona D.; Lawrence, Alistair B.; Wemelsfelder, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Scientific assessment of affective states in animals is challenging but vital for animal welfare studies. One possible approach is Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA), a ‘whole animal’ methodology which integrates information from multiple behavioural signals and styles of behavioural expression (body language) directly in terms of an animal's emotional expression. If QBA provides a valid measure of animals’ emotional state it should distinguish between groups where emotional states have been manipulated. To test this hypothesis, QBA was applied to video-recordings of pigs, following treatment with either saline or the neuroleptic drug Azaperone, in either an open field or elevated plus-maze test. QBA analysis of these recordings was provided by 12 observers, blind to treatment, using a Free Choice Profiling (FCP) methodology. Generalised Procrustes Analysis was used to calculate a consensus profile, consisting of the main dimensions of expression. Dimension one was positively associated with terms such as ‘Confident’ and ‘Curious’ and negatively with ‘Unsure’ and ‘Nervous’. Dimension two ranged from ‘Agitated’/‘Angry’ to ‘Calm’/‘Relaxed’. In both tests, Azaperone pre-treatment was associated with a more positive emotionality (higher scores on dimension one reflecting a more confident/curious behavioural demeanour) than control pigs. No effect of drug treatment on dimension two was found. Relationships between qualitative descriptions of behaviour and quantitative behavioural measures, taken from the same recordings, were found. Overall, this work supports the use of QBA for the assessment of emotionality in animals. PMID:22915833

  4. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an “unsupervised” and a “supervised” approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach. PMID:28249050

  5. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an "unsupervised" and a "supervised" approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach.

  6. Phytate in pig and poultry nutrition.

    PubMed

    Humer, E; Schwarz, C; Schedle, K

    2015-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) is primarily stored in the form of phytates in plant seeds, thus being poorly available for monogastric livestock, such as pigs and poultry. As phytate is a polyanionic molecule, it has the capacity to chelate positively charged cations, especially calcium, iron and zinc. Furthermore, it probably compromises the utilization of other dietary nutrients, including protein, starch and lipids. Reduced efficiency of utilization implies both higher levels of supplementation and increased discharge of the undigested nutrients to the environment. The enzyme phytase catalyses the stepwise hydrolysis of phytate. In respect to livestock nutrition, there are four possible sources of this enzyme available for the animals: endogenous mucosal phytase, gut microfloral phytase, plant phytase and exogenous microbial phytase. As the endogenous mucosal phytase in monogastric organisms appears incapable of hydrolysing sufficient amounts of phytate-bound P, supplementation of exogenous microbial phytase in diets is a common method to increase mineral and nutrient absorption. Plant phytase activity varies greatly among species of plants, resulting in differing gastrointestinal phytate hydrolysis in monogastric animals. Besides the supplementation of microbial phytase, processing techniques are alternative approaches to reduce phytate contents. Thus, techniques such as germination, soaking and fermentation enable activation of naturally occurring plant phytase among others. However, further research is needed to tap the potential of these technologies. The main focus herein is to review the available literature on the role of phytate in pig and poultry nutrition, its degradation throughout the gut and opportunities to enhance the utilization of P as well as other minerals and nutrients which might be complexed by phytates.

  7. Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2008-02-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally.

  8. Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Cowled, Brendan D; Galea, Francesca; Garner, M Graeme; Laffan, Shawn W; Marsh, Ian; Negus, Katherine; Sarre, Stephen D; Woolnough, Andrew P

    2013-03-23

    Although wild pig populations are known to sometimes be infected by Salmonella, the situation in Australia has received little attention and few population-based, planned studies have been conducted. Understanding the distribution of Salmonella infections within wild pig populations allows the potential hazard posed to co-grazing livestock to be assessed. We sampled a remote and isolated wild pig population in northwestern Australia. Faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were collected from 651 wild pigs at 93 locations and cultured for Salmonella. The population sampled was typical of wild pig populations in tropical areas of Australia, and sampling occurred approximately halfway through the population's breeding season (38% of the 229 adult females were pregnant and 35% were lactating). Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella infection based on culture of 546 freshly collected faecal samples was 36.3% (95% CI 32.1-40.7%), and based on culture of mesenteric lymph nodes was 11.9% (95% CI, 9.4-15.0%). A total of 39 serovars (139 isolates) were identified--29 in faecal samples and 24 in lymph node samples--however neither Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nor Salmonella Cholerasuis were isolated. There was a significant (p<0.0001) disagreement between faecal and lymph node samples with respect to Salmonella isolation, with isolation more likely from faecal samples. Prevalence differed between age classes, with piglets being less likely to be faecal-positive but more likely to be lymph node positive than adults. The distribution of faecal-positive pigs was spatially structured, with spatial clusters being identified. Study results suggest that this population of wild pigs is highly endemic for Salmonella, and that Salmonella is transmitted from older to younger pigs, perhaps associated with landscape features such as water features. This might have implications for infection of co-grazing livestock within this environment.

  9. Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea on performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Julio; Sarradell, Javier; Morrison, Robert; Perez, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infection on the US pork industry has mainly been attributed to the mortality that it causes in suckling piglets, and, consequently, much effort has been invested in the quantification of its effect in sow farms. However, no information on the performance of surviving pigs that were exposed to the PEDv as piglets is available. Here, a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infection on growing pigs' performance, as indicated by mortality, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was performed using production records from weaned pigs in nursery and wean-to-finish sites from sow farms that became PEDv-infected between May 2013 and June 2014. Production records from the first batch of growing pigs weaned in infected flows after the PEDv outbreak ("infected batches") were compared with those from pigs weaned within the previous 14 to 120 days ("control batches"). Performance records from infected and control batches, paired by flow, were compared using non-parametric paired tests. Mortality, ADG and FCR were significantly different in PEDv-positive (infected) compared with PEDv-negative (control) batches, with a mean increase of mortality and FCR of 11% and 0.5, respectively, and a decrease of ADG of 0.16 lb/day. Our results demonstrate a poorer performance of growing pigs weaned after a PEDv outbreak compared with those weaned within the previous 14-120 days, suggesting that in addition to the mortality induced by PEDv in suckling pigs, the disease also impairs the performance of surviving pig. These findings help to quantify the impact of PEDv infection in the US and, ultimately, contribute to efforts to quantify the cost-effectiveness of disease prevention and control measures.

  10. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  11. Cestrum diurnum intoxication in normal and hyperparathyroid pigs.

    PubMed

    Kasali, O B; Krook, L; Pond, W G; Wasserman, R H

    1977-04-01

    The effect of ingestion of dried leaves of Cestrum diurnum, a plant shown to contain a 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like principle, was tested in normal pigs fed 1.2% calcium and 1.0% phosphorus for 10 weeks from weaning and in hyperparathyroid pigs fed 0.8% calcium and 1.6% phosphorus for the same periods of time. Addition of 3% Cestrum diurnum leaf meal rapidly resulted in decreased feed consumption and weight gain, hypercalcemia and hypophosphatasemia. In normal pigs, plasma calcium rose to 16 mg/100 ml within one week and remained high for the 4 week experimental period. In hyperparathyroid pigs with hypocalcemia, plasma calcium rose to 12.75 mg/100 ml within one week and later approached 15 mg/100 ml. Ingestion of Cestrum diurnum retarded cell differentiation of growth cartilages. Arrested osteocytic osteolysis was observed within one week with osteopetrosis of epiphyses and metaphyses. The negative effect on the resorbing osteocytes then caused osteonecrosis which, in combination with lack of bone formation because of atrophy of osteoblasts, resulted in osteopenia within 4 weeks. Dystrophic calcinosis occurred within 2 weeks and was widespread after 4 weeks in lungs, kidneys, heart and vessels. Atrophy of parathyroid cells was severe after one week. Hyperparathyroid pigs responded with skeletal lesions, dystrophic calcinosis and parathyroid atrophy more rapidly and severely than normal pigs. The biochemical and anatomical changes in Cestrum diurnum ingestion are closely similar to those in vitamin D3 intoxication in pigs. Whereas pigs can tolerate large amounts of vitamin D3 because of feed-back control of 1 alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney, this control point is by-passed in Cestrum diurnum ingestion and intoxication occurs promptly.

  12. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in pigs from different farming systems in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M

    2014-04-01

    Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ∼70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate.

  13. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs in subtropical southern China.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Xu, M J; Zhou, D H; Zou, F C; Lin, R Q; Yin, C C; He, X H; Liang, R; Liang, M; Zhu, X Q

    2011-03-01

    Enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a severe disease of pigs, causing significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide, including the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to obtain the baseline prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in pigs from intensive farms in southern China, double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect M. hyoneumoniae antibodies in 460 pig serum samples collected from 12 administrative cities in China's southern Guangdong province. According to the proportions of the infected animals, among the 12 intensive farms, only two of them showed no infection of M. hyoneumoniae and the seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 90%, with an averaged prevalence of 45.7%. The highest prevalence was found in breeding boars (68.8%), followed by sows (54.5%). These data showed that the infection of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae is severe, and boars might be more important carriers and transfers of M. hyoneumoniae than sows. Integrated strategies and measures should be taken to control the infection of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae in southern China.

  14. Review: Drinking water for liquid-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Chiron, J; Etore, F; Fabre, A; Laval, A; Pol, F; Prunier, A; Ramonet, Y; Nielsen, B L

    2016-11-07

    Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare. We highlight factors which may lead to water ingestion above or below requirements. Increases in the need for water may be caused by numerous factors such as morbidity, ambient temperature or competition within the social group, emphasising the necessity of permanent access to water as also prescribed in EU legislation. The drinkers can be the target of redirected behaviour in response to feed restriction or in the absence of rooting materials, thereby generating water losses. The method of water provision and drinker design is critical to ensure easy access to water regardless of the pig's physiological state, and to limit the amount of water used, which does not benefit the pig.

  15. Dietary consistency and the midline sutures in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Burn, AK; Herring, SW; Hubbard, R; Zink, K; Rafferty, K; Lieberman, DE

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced masticatory function on midline suture growth and morphology in growing pigs. Setting and Sample Population The sample was 20 pigs separated into 2 dietary groups, and raised at the Department of Antrhopology, Harvard University. Midline suture specimes were analyzed at the Department of Orthodontics, University of Washington. Materials and Methods Ten farm pigs and 10 minipigs, all male, were randomly assigned to hard (n=9) and soft diet (n=11) groups. Fluorochromic mineral labels were administered to document bone apposition, and the animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Undecalcified sections of the interfrontal, interparietal, internasal and intermaxillary sutures were evaluated for bone quantity and sutural thickness, interdigitation ratio and growth rate. Results Soft diet pigs were characterized by a slower rate of weight gain, and less bone than their hard diet counterparts. Even after correction for weight gain, soft diet pigs had reduced suture growth rate and thickness. However, no difference in interdigitation ratio was detected between dietary groups. Conclusion Restriction to a soft diet reduces midline suture growth and bone apposition in the growing pig. PMID:20477970

  16. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  17. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence of guinea pig endometrial prorelaxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y A; Bryant-Greenwood, G D; Mandel, M; Greenwood, F C

    1992-03-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the relaxin gene transcript in the endometrium of the late pregnant guinea pig has been determined. The strategy used was a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers designed from the mRNA sequence of porcine preprorelaxin, rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR, and blunt end cloning in M13 mp18. With heterologous primers, a 226-basepair (bp) segment of the guinea pig relaxin gene sequence was obtained and was used to design a guinea pig-specific primer for use with the rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR method. The latter allowed completion of the sequence of 336 bp, with a 96-bp overlap. The sequence obtained shows greater homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels with porcine and human relaxins H1 and H2 than with rat relaxin, supporting the thesis that the guinea pig is not a rodent. The transcription of the guinea pig endometrial relaxin gene during pregnancy was confirmed by Northern analysis of guinea pig endometrial tissues with a species-specific cDNA probe. The endometrial relaxin gene is transcribed during pregnancy, but not in lactation, consistent with the observed immunostaining for relaxin.

  18. Investigating the geometry of pig airways using computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Azad, Md Khurshidul; McMurray, Brandon; Henry, Brian; Royston, Thomas J.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical modeling of sound propagation in the airways requires accurate knowledge of the airway geometry. These models are often validated using human and animal experiments. While many studies documented the geometric details of the human airways, information about the geometry of pig airways is scarcer. In addition, the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. The objective of this study is to measure the airway diameter, length and bifurcation angles in domestic pigs using computed tomography. After imaging the lungs of 3 pigs, segmentation software tools were used to extract the geometry of the airway lumen. The airway dimensions were then measured from the resulting 3 D models for the first 10 airway generations. Results showed that the size and morphology of the airways of different animals were similar. The measured airway dimensions were compared with those of the human airways. While the trachea diameter was found to be comparable to the adult human, the diameter, length and branching angles of other airways were noticeably different from that of humans. For example, pigs consistently had an early airway branching from the trachea that feeds the superior (top) right lung lobe proximal to the carina. This branch is absent in the human airways. These results suggested that the human geometry may not be a good approximation of the pig airways and may contribute to increasing the errors when the human airway geometric values are used in computational models of the pig chest.

  19. Experimental pig-to-pig transmission dynamics for African swine fever virus, Georgia 2007/1 strain.

    PubMed

    Guinat, C; Gubbins, S; Vergne, T; Gonzales, J L; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) continues to cause outbreaks in domestic pigs and wild boar in Eastern European countries. To gain insights into its transmission dynamics, we estimated the pig-to-pig basic reproduction number (R 0) for the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain using a stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model with parameters estimated from transmission experiments. Models showed that R 0 is 2·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3-4·8] within a pen and 1·4 (95% CI 0·6-2·4) between pens. The results furthermore suggest that ASFV genome detection in oronasal samples is an effective diagnostic tool for early detection of infection. This study provides quantitative information on transmission parameters for ASFV in domestic pigs, which are required to more effectively assess the potential impact of strategies for the control of between-farm epidemic spread in European countries.

  20. Extensively reared Iberian pigs versus intensively reared white pigs for the manufacture of liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Estévez, M; Morcuende, D; Ramírez, R; Ventanas, J; Cava, R

    2004-07-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics and quality traits of the raw ingredients (muscle cuadriceps femoris, liver and adipose tissue) and the pâtés made from extensively reared Iberian pigs and intensively reared white pigs, were evaluated. The differences found between muscles, livers and adipose tissues from Iberian and white pigs influenced the characteristics of the pâtés. Compared to pâtés from white pigs, pâtés from Iberian pigs had a higher content of heme iron (27.5 μg/g vs 11.5 μg/g; p<0.05) and lower content of non-heme iron (27.5 μg/g vs 33.7 μg/g; p<0.05). Pâtés from Iberian pigs exhibited a darker colour (L (∗):18.6 vs 15.9, p<0.05) with less redness (a (∗) values: 9.1 vs 11.3; p<0.05) and yellowness (b (∗) values: 13.1 vs 14.8, p<0.05). Thus, pâtés from white pigs had higher values of chroma (18.6 vs 15.9, p<0.05) and smaller values of hue (52.5 vs 55.2, p<0.05) that those from Iberian pigs' pâtés. In fatty acid composition, pâtés from white pigs had higher proportions of SFA (37.9% vs 32.8%, p<0.05) and PUFA (14.4% vs 9.6%, p<0.05) than pâtés from Iberian pigs and lower percentages of oleic (53.4% vs 43.6%, p<0.05) and total of MUFA (57.5% vs 47.6%, p<0.05). Pâtés from Iberian pigs had a lower n-6/n-3 values (13.2 vs 17.2; p<0.05).

  1. Comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (cAEDA) of Fat from Tainted Boars, Castrated Male Pigs, and Female Pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christoph; Leppert, Jan; Santiuste, Alicia Chamarro; Pfeiffer, Anne; Boeker, Peter; Wüst, Matthias

    2017-01-12

    The aroma profile of porcine fat from tainted boars, female pigs, and castrated male pigs was investigated by application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) on a SAFE distillate of volatiles prepared from porcine back fat samples. The AEDA resulted in a total of 16 aroma active compounds for boar fat with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 2 to 2048, whereas 12 aroma active compounds were found in fat of female pigs and 14 in fat of castrated male pigs, both with FD factors ranging from 2 to 32. Odor activity values (OAVs) of key components for each fat were identified: In boar fat androstenone, skatole, indole, and 2-aminoacetophenone showed highest OAVs, whereas 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,4-decadienal, and δ-decalactone showed highest OAVs in fat of female pigs. Fat of castrated male pigs showed highest OAVs for skatole, indole, 1-octen-3-ol and methional. Finally, the off-flavor attributes of boar fat were successfully simulated by a recombinant of all odorants at their natural concentration level in deodorized sunflower oil.

  2. Continuous straw provision reduces prevalence of oesophago-gastric ulcer in pigs slaughtered at 170 kg (heavy pigs).

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Rampin, Fabio; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2013-12-01

    Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare.

  3. [Effect of the Stellamune Mycoplasma vaccine on growth, energy conversion, death, and medication use in fattening pigs on a pig farm chronically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Bouwkamp, F T; Elbers, A R; Hunneman, W A; Klaassen, C H

    2000-07-15

    The effect of Stellamune Mycoplasma vaccine, administered to piglets aged 2-15 days and then 13-15 days later, on daily weight gain, energy conversion, and use of medication was examined in fattening pigs on a chronically Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infected pig farm. Half of the piglets were vaccinated and the other half acted as controls. In the study design, half of the pens in the fattening unit were allocated to vaccinated pigs; the other half to non-vaccinated pigs, pen was the experimental unit. In the fattening pens sows and castrated boars were separated. The study consisted of a total of 37 pens with vaccinated, and 37 pens with non-vaccinated pigs in 12 different compartments within the pig herd. In the finishing period, mean growth performance and mean energy conversion (EV/kg) of vaccinated animals was 65 grams/day higher and 0.07 EV/kg lower than in control pigs. Furthermore, the incidence of individual curative medication against respiratory problems was more than 4 times higher in control pigs than in vaccinated pigs. There was a tendency for a higher number of group medications against respiratory problems in control pigs than in vaccinated pigs. It is concluded that, in this herd, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae was successful from an economic point of view.

  4. Detection of genetic diversity and selection at the coding region of the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene in Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Jin, Long; Long, Keren; Chai, Jie; Ma, Jideng; Tang, Qianzi; Tian, Shilin; Hu, Yaodong; Lin, Ling; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2016-01-10

    Domestication and subsequent selective pressures have produced a large variety of pig coat colors in different regions and breeds. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a crucial role in determining coat color of mammals. Here, we investigated genetic diversity and selection at the coding region of the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) in Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs. By contrast, genetic variability was much lower in Landrace pigs than in Tibetan pigs. Meanwhile, haplotype analysis showed that Tibetan pigs possessed shared haplotypes, suggesting a possibility of recent introgression event by way of crossbreeding with neighboring domestic pigs or shared ancestral polymorphism. Additionally, we detected positive selection at the MC1R in both Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs through the dN/dS analysis. These findings suggested that novel phenotypic change (dark coat color) caused by novel mutations may help Tibetan pigs against intensive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and camouflage in wild environment, whereas white coat color in Landrace were intentionally selected by human after domestication. Furthermore, both the phylogenetic analysis and the network analysis provided clues that MC1R in Asian and European wild boars may have initially experienced different selective pressures, and MC1R alleles diversified in modern domesticated pigs.

  5. Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji

    2013-06-01

    The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe.

  6. A preliminary study of effects of feral pig density on native Hawaiian montane rainforest vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheffler, Pamela Y.; Pratt, Linda; Foote, David; Magnacca, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of different levels of pig density on native Hawaiian forest vegetation. Pig sign was measured across four pig management units in the 'Öla'a Forest from 1998 through 2004 and pig density estimated based upon pig activity. Six paired vegetation monitoring plots were established in the units, each pair straddling a pig fence. Percent cover and species richness of understory vegetation, ground cover, alien species, and preferred pig forage plants were measured in 1997 and 2003 and compared with pig density estimates. Rainfall and hunting effort and success by management personnel were also tracked over the study period. Vegetation monitoring found a higher percentage of native plants in pig-free or low-pig areas compared to those with medium or high pig densities, with no significant change in the percent native plant species between the first and second monitoring periods. Differences between plots were strongly affected by location, with a higher percentage of native plants in western plots, where pig damage has historically been lower. Expansion of this survey with more plots would help improve the statistical power to detect differences in vegetation caused by pigs. Because of the limited vegetation sampling in this study, the results must be viewed as descriptive. We compare the vegetation within 30 x 30 m plots across three thresholds of historical pig density and show how pig densities can change in unanticipated directions within management units. While these results cannot be extrapolated to area-wide effects of pig activity, these data do contribute to a growing body of information on the impacts of feral pigs on Hawaiian plant communities.

  7. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp.

  8. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens.

    PubMed

    Aarnink, A J A; Schrama, J W; Heetkamp, M J W; Stefanowska, J; Huynh, T T T

    2006-08-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) was studied. Ten groups of 5 pigs were placed in partially slatted pens (60% solid concrete, 40% metal-slatted) in climate respiration chambers. After an adaptation period, temperatures were raised daily for 9 d. Results showed that above certain inflection temperatures (IT; mean 22.6 degrees C, SE = 0.78) the number of excretions (relative to the total number of excretions) on the solid floor increased with temperature (mean increase 9.7%/ degrees C, SE = 1.41). Below the IT, the number of excretions on the solid floor was low and not influenced by temperature (mean 13.2%, SE = 3.5). On average, the IT for excretion on the solid floor decreased with increasing BW, from approximately 25 degrees C at 25 kg to 20 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.05). Increasing temperature also affected the pattern and postural lying. The temperature at which a maximum number of pigs lay on the slatted floor (i.e., the IT for lying) decreased from approximately 27 degrees C at 25 kg to 23 degrees C at 100 kg of BW (P < 0.001). At increasing temperatures, pigs lay more on their sides and less against other pigs (P < 0.001). Temperature affects lying and excreting behavior of growing-finishing pigs in partially slatted pens. Above certain IT, pen fouling increases linearly with temperature. Inflection temperatures decrease at increasing BW.

  9. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs.

    PubMed

    Romagosa, Anna; Allerson, Matt; Gramer, Marie; Joo, Han Soo; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2011-12-20

    Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R) of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual) using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i) non-vaccinated (NV), (ii) vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE), and (iii) vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO). The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p < 0.05). A statistically significant reduction in transmission was observed in the vaccinated groups where R (95%CI) was 1 (0.39-2.09) and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46) in NV pigs (p < 0.05). Transmission in the HE group was delayed and variable when compared to the NV group and transmission could not be detected in the HO group. Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission.

  10. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  11. Cytokine Expression in the Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Infection of the respiratory tract by PRV, involves mononuclear cells in draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN)...

  12. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  13. Space requirements of weaned pigs during a sixty-minute transport in summer.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Davis, B L; McGlone, J J

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there are no trucking quality assurance recommendations for space allowance of weaned pigs during transport in the United States. The objective of this research was to establish a first estimate of the space requirements of weaned pigs during transport in summer based on measures of animal well-being. A commercial semi-trailer was fitted with compartments that provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig, which were replicated on the upper and lower deck, with a constant 100 pigs per compartment. Cameras were placed in each experimental compartment to record behaviors and postures of pigs during transport. The frequencies of standing, lying, sitting, standing/rearing on another pig, and lying/huddling on top of another pig were recorded using 1-min scan samples during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples were collected and BW and lesion scores recorded from 32 pigs per space allowance for physiological and immune measures before and after transport (n = 32 pigs/treatment). Pigs were transported for 60 +/- 5 min to the wean-to-finishing site using the same route for each replicate during summer (temperature: 28.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C and relative humidity: 59.8 +/- 4.4% within the trailer). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Cortisol, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase increased (P < 0.05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Plasma glucose and BW decreased (P < 0.05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Lesion scores increased (P < 0.001) after transport and were greater (P < 0.05) for barrows compared with gilts. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was greater (P < 0.005) for pigs transported at 0.05 m(2)/pig compared with pigs transported at 0.06 and 0.07 m(2)/pig. Pigs transported at 0.05 m(2)/pig lay down less (P < 0.05) than pigs transported at 0.06 and 0.07 m(2)/pig between 30 and 60 min of

  14. Monitoring genotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: application of the PIG-A assay.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ukai, Akiko; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugano, Ayako; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-09-15

    The recently introduced Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay measures endogeneous mutations of Pig-a (human, PIG-A), an X-linked gene that is conserved across species from rodents to humans. Flow cytometric analysis enables the enumeration of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor-deficient erythrocytes, resulting from a mutation in Pig-a/PIG-A, in only a few microliters of peripheral blood. Pig-a/PIG-A mutations appear to function in a neutral manner, allowing evaluation of the accumulated genotoxic effects of repeated exposures. To date, most Pig-a studies have been conducted in rodents; only a few reports regarding human applications of the PIG-A assay have been published. We have conducted a PIG-A assay in the context of human genotoxicity monitoring. Peripheral blood was collected from healthy human donors and chemotherapy-treated cancer patients at Yamagata University Hospital. To investigate the PIG-A mutant frequency (MF) induced by chemotherapy, red blood cells were analyzed via flow cytometry following staining with allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-CD235ab (erythrocyte specific) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-CD59 antibodies (GPI-anchored protein specific). Reticulocyte frequencies (%RET) were also analyzed using a phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-CD71 antibody to monitor bone marrow suppression and reticulocytosis. Two of 27 patients exhibited a significantly elevated frequency of PIG-A mutants. Although we observed either a reduced or an increased %RET in all patients, no association was observed between this factor and the PIG-A MF. Unfortunately, we could not analyze blood samples collected before treatment during therapeutic processes. Additionally, the sampling time point for some patients was too short to express the PIG-A mutant phenotypes. Therefore, the possibility of natively high PIG-A MFs prior to treatment must be considered. The human PIG-A assay shows promise as a human genotoxicity monitoring method.

  15. Groupthink, Bay of Pigs, and Watergate Reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Raven

    1998-02-01

    Irving Janis's concept of groupthink can be seen in the context of our on-again-off-again love affair with groups. Group decisions have often been seen as offering the benefits of collective wisdom, but may also lead to disastrous consequences. Groupthink then focuses on the negative effects of erroneous group decisions. Two major examples of groupthink are reexamined and compared: the disastrous Bay of Pigs decision by the elite advisory group of President Kennedy, and the advisory groups of President Nixon, which led to the Watergate disaster and at unsuccessful attempts to cover up. In both, it is suggested there was a "runaway norm," escalation and polarization with the norm being to exceed other members of the group in taking more extreme and unrestrained actions against an "enemy." While Janis seems to suggest that groupthink will ultimately lead the group to fail in its ultimate endeavors, we need to consider the frightening possibility that in the case of the Nixon group, the group actions came close to being successful. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. Dynamic mechanics in the pig mandibular symphysis

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, G E J; Zhang, F; Herring, S W; van Eijden, T M G J; Hannam, A G

    2006-01-01

    During mastication, various biomechanical events occur at the mammalian jaw symphysis. Previously, these events have been studied in the static environment, or by direct recording of surface bone strains. Thus far, however, it has not been possible to demonstrate directly the forces and torques passing through the symphysis in association with dynamically changing muscle tensions. Therefore, we modified a previously published dynamic pig jaw model to predict the forces and torques at the symphysis, and related these to simulated masticatory muscle tensions, and bite, joint and food bolus forces. An artificial rigid joint was modelled at the symphysis, allowing measurements of the tri-axial forces and torques passing through it. The model successfully confirmed three previously postulated loading patterns at the symphysis. Dorsoventral shear occurred when the lower teeth hit the artificial food bolus. It was associated with balancing-side jaw adductor forces, and reaction forces from the working-side bite point. Medial transverse bending occurred during jaw opening, and was associated with bilateral tensions in the lateral pterygoid. Lateral transverse bending (wishboning) occurred at the late stage of the power stroke, and was associated with the actions of the deep and superficial masseters. The largest predicted force was dorsoventral shear force, and the largest torque was a ‘wishboning’ torque about the superoinferior axis. We suggest that dynamic modelling offers a new and powerful method for studying jaw biomechanics, especially when the parameters involved are difficult or impossible to measure in vivo. PMID:16822271

  17. A Genetic Analysis of Mortality in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of mortality is undertaken in two breeds of pigs: Danish Landrace and Yorkshire. Zero-inflated and standard versions of hierarchical Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial Bayesian models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The objectives of the study were to investigate whether there is support for genetic variation for mortality and to study the quality of fit and predictive properties of the various models. In both breeds, the model that provided the best fit to the data was the standard binomial hierarchical model. The model that performed best in terms of the ability to predict the distribution of stillbirths was the hierarchical zero-inflated negative binomial model. The best fit of the binomial hierarchical model and of the zero-inflated hierarchical negative binomial model was obtained when genetic variation was included as a parameter. For the hierarchical binomial model, the estimate of the posterior mean of the additive genetic variance (posterior standard deviation in brackets) at the level of the logit of the probability of a stillbirth was 0.173(0.039) in Landrace and 0.202(0.048) in Yorkshire. The implications of these results from a breeding perspective are briefly discussed. PMID:19901070

  18. Identification of receptors for pig endogenous retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Thomas A; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Templin, Christian; Quinn, Gary; Farhadian, Shelli F; Wood, James C; Oldmixon, Beth A; Suling, Kristen M; Ishii, Jennifer K; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Salomon, Daniel R; Weiss, Robin A; Patience, Clive

    2003-05-27

    Xenotransplantation of porcine tissues has the potential to treat a wide variety of major health problems including organ failure and diabetes. Balanced against the potential benefits of xenotransplantation, however, is the risk of human infection with a porcine microorganism. In particular, the transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is a major concern [Chapman, L. E. & Bloom, E. T. (2001) J. Am. Med. Assoc. 285, 2304-2306]. Here we report the identification of two, sequence-related, human proteins that act as receptors for PERV-A, encoded by genes located on chromosomes 8 and 17. We also describe homologs from baboon and porcine cells that also are active as receptors. Conversely, activity could not be demonstrated with a syntenic murine receptor homolog. Sequence analysis indicates that PERV-A receptors [human PERV-A receptor (HuPAR)-1, HuPAR-2, baboon PERV-A receptor 2, and porcine PERV-A receptor] are multiple membrane-spanning proteins similar to receptors for other gammaretroviruses. Expression is widespread in human tissues including peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but their biological functions are unknown. The identification of the PERV-A receptors opens avenues of research necessary for a more complete assessment of the retroviral risks of pig to human xenotransplantation.

  19. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. Variation in the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Isolates in a Pig, Within a Batch of Pigs, and Among Batches of Pigs from One Farm.

    PubMed

    Dayao, Denise Ann E; Dawson, Susan; Kienzle, Marco Jean-Paul; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial porcine respiratory pathogens has been shown to exist in many countries. However, little is known about the variability in antimicrobial susceptibility within a population of a single bacterial respiratory pathogen on a pig farm. This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using multiple isolates within a pig and across the pigs in three different slaughter batches. Initially, the isolates from the three batches were identified, serotyped, and subsample genotyped. All the 367 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, and only a single genetic profile was detected in the 74 examined isolates. The susceptibility of the 367 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae to ampicillin, tetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by a disc diffusion technique. For tilmicosin, the three batches were found to consist of a mix of susceptible and resistant isolates. The zone diameters of the three antimicrobials varied considerably among isolates in the second sampling. In addition, the second sampling provided statistically significant evidence of bimodal populations in terms of zone diameters for both tilmicosin and ampicillin. The results support the hypothesis that the antimicrobial susceptibility of one population of a porcine respiratory pathogen can vary within a batch of pigs on a farm.

  1. The miniature pig as an animal model in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Vodicka, Petr; Smetana, Karel; Dvoránková, Barbora; Emerick, Teresa; Xu, Yingzhi Z; Ourednik, Jitka; Ourednik, Václav; Motlík, Jan

    2005-05-01

    Crucial prerequisites for the development of safe preclinical protocols in biomedical research are suitable animal models that would allow for human-related validation of valuable research information gathered from experimentation with lower mammals. In this sense, the miniature pig, sharing many physiological similarities with humans, offers several breeding and handling advantages (when compared to non-human primates), making it an optimal species for preclinical experimentation. The present review offers several examples taken from current research in the hope of convincing the reader that the porcine animal model has gained massively in importance in biomedical research during the last few years. The adduced examples are taken from the following fields of investigation: (a) the physiology of reproduction, where pig oocytes are being used to study chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy) in the adult human oocyte; (b) the generation of suitable organs for xenotransplantation using transgene expression in pig tissues; (c) the skin physiology and the treatment of skin defects using cell therapy-based approaches that take advantage of similarities between pig and human epidermis; and (d) neurotransplantation using porcine neural stem cells grafted into inbred miniature pigs as an alternative model to non-human primates xenografted with human cells.

  2. [Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil. Comparison between humans and guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Girard, J; Unkovic, J; Delahayes, J; Lafille, C

    1979-01-01

    Phototoxicity of bergamot oil in solar simulating radiation (SSR greater than or equal to 290 nm) and in long ultraviolet radiation (LUV greater than or equal to 320 nm) has been compared by studying photoaugmentation of erythema in the guinea pig after 24 h and pigmentary photoaugmentation in man on the 8th day. The results show that a close relationship exists between guinea pig and human responses, with both radiations used, and that man seems to be slightly more sensitive to phototoxic effects of bergamot oil than the guinea pig. This difference of sensitivity necessarily implies the participation of UVA (320--400 nm) in the phototoxic reaction of bergamot oil with solar radiation. This UVA participation is particularly obvious in the guinea pig; in man, the results are less clear and a certain synergy of UVB rays (290--320 nm) may be involved in the phototoxic UVA-induced reaction of bergamot oil. Despite these slight differences, the erythematous reaction in the guinea pig appears to be a remarkable experimental model to show out potential phototoxic reactions of products containing psoralens in man.

  3. Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

  4. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

    2013-01-01

    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  5. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  6. [PRRSV-eradication: an option for pig herds in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Bätza, Hans-Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The problem of successfully controling PRRS with traditional methods has led to a growing interest in eradication. This review summarizes the current literature on topics of PRRS-eradication, including the relevant routine diagnostic procedures, routes of virus transmission between pig herds (as i.e. pig movement, semen, aerosols, insects, fomites, transport vehicles) and eradication by close&rollover and test&removal, respectively. On the basis of this knowledge and experiences it can be concluded that PRRS eradication in Germany with its intensive pig production and remarkably high pig density in several regions may only be possible through a national eradication program. The lack of potent marker vaccines that reduce the virus spread significantly, combined with the lack of differentiating diagnostic tests for routine laboratory use leads to the recommendation not to launch a national eradication program under the given circumstances. For the future it should be taken into account that the situation after reintroduction of PRRSV in a free region could only be managed by stamping-out which is generally poorly accepted by the majority of pig producers.

  7. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian market-age pigs.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, A A; Aramini, J J; Tiffin, G; Bisaillon, J R

    1998-08-01

    During 1991 and 1992, 2,800 market-age pigs were sampled at federally inspected abattoirs from across Canada. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG at titers of > or =1:32 were found in 240 pigs examined by a commercial, latex agglutination test. Seroprevalences ranged from 3.5 to 13.2% in the different regions of the country. Tissue hybridization studies using a previously developed probe demonstrated T. gondii ribosomal RNA in 9 of 36 animals, whereas mouse bioassay testing of heart muscle and diaphragm from all 2,800 pigs failed to demonstrate the presence of infective stages of T. gondii in tissues. Although serology results from this study indicated that Canadian market-age pigs are infected with T. gondii at rates similar to those reported from other parts of North America, mouse bioassay results suggested that Canadian pork products contain low levels of infective organisms. This apparent discrepancy suggests that serological evidence of T. gondii infection in pigs alone does not accurately assess the public health risks associated with consuming improperly cooked pork products.

  8. Mycobacterium fortuitum from lesions of slaughtered pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K; Okker, M; Jahans, K

    2010-12-01

    To ascertain the cause of tuberculous-like lesions in pigs slaughtered in a local abattoir in Ibadan (south-western Nigeria), a total of 516 pigs were inspected over a period of four months, 18 of which had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis at post-mortem. Mycobacterial culture and molecular typing (GenoType Mycobacterium CM [Common Mycobacteria] assay) analysis were used to identify and confirm the mycobacteria species responsible for these lesions. Results show that 2.3% (12/516) of the animals screened were infected with mycobacteria; Mycobacterium fortuitum was confirmed in 33.3% (4/12) of these cases. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first report confirming the isolation of M. fortuitum in slaughtered pigs in Nigeria. There is a need to improve on necessary preventive and control measures that will reduce potential sources of mycobacterial infections in pig-rearing herds. These infections may also have public health implications, especially to workers in the pig industry.

  9. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-02-24

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs.

  10. Genetic characterization of Uruguayan Pampa Rocha pigs with microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, M; Llambí, S; Castro, G; Barlocco, N; Vadell, A; Landi, V; Delgado, JV; Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we genetically characterized the Uruguayan pig breed Pampa Rocha. Genetic variability was assessed by analyzing a panel of 25 microsatellite markers from a sample of 39 individuals. Pampa Rocha pigs showed high genetic variability with observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.583 and 0.603, respectively. The mean number of alleles was 5.72. Twenty-four markers were polymorphic, with 95.8% of them in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The level of endogamy was low (FIS = 0.0475). A factorial analysis of correspondence was used to assess the genetic differences between Pampa Rocha and other pig breeds; genetic distances were calculated, and a tree was designed to reflect the distance matrix. Individuals were also allocated into clusters. This analysis showed that the Pampa Rocha breed was separated from the other breeds along the first and second axes. The neighbour-joining tree generated by the genetic distances DA showed clustering of Pampa Rocha with the Meishan breed. The allocation of individuals to clusters showed a clear separation of Pampa Rocha pigs. These results provide insights into the genetic variability of Pampa Rocha pigs and indicate that this breed is a well-defined genetic entity. PMID:25983624

  11. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, S. A.; Lucas, D.; Kleven, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multi-colored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To insure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism. PMID:25655512

  12. Advances in Pig Genomics and Functional Gene Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Advances in pig gene identification, mapping and functional analysis have continued to make rapid progress. The porcine genetic linkage map now has nearly 3000 loci, including several hundred genes, and is likely to expand considerably in the next few years, with many more genes and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers being added to the map. The physical genetic map is also growing rapidly and has over 3000 genes and markers. Several recent quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans and candidate gene analyses have identified important chromosomal regions and individual genes associated with traits of economic interest. The commercial pig industry is actively using this information and traditional performance information to improve pig production by marker-assisted selection (MAS). Research to study the co-expression of thousands of genes is now advancing and methods to combine these approaches to aid in gene discovery are under way. The pig's role in xenotransplantation and biomedical research makes the study of its genome important for the study of human disease. This review will briefly describe advances made, directions for future research and the implications for both the pig industry and human health. PMID:18629119

  13. Of Pigs and Men: Understanding Students' Reasoning About the Use of Pigs as Donors for Xenotransplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2010-09-01

    Two important roles of education are to provide students with knowledge for their democratic participation in society and to provide knowledge for a future profession. In science education, students encounter values that may be in conflict with their worldview. Such conflicts may, for example, lead to constructive reflections as well as rejection of scientific knowledge and technology. Students’ ways of reasoning are important starting points for discussing problematic issues and may be crucial for constructive dialogues in the classroom. This study investigates students’ reasoning about conflicting values concerning the human-animal relationship exemplified by the use of genetically modified pigs as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Students’ reasoning is analyzed using Giddens’ concepts of disembedded and embedded practices in parallel with moral philosophical theories in a framework based on human-animal relationships. Thirteen students were interviewed and their stances categorized. Kantian deontological and classical utilitarian ethics were found within the patronage and the partnership models. These students appreciated expert knowledge but those using the partnership model could not accept xenotransplantation if pigs were to be killed. Students using care ethics did not appreciate expert knowledge since it threatened naturalness. The results suggest that stances against the use of scientific knowledge are more problematic than knowledge per se, and that conflicting stances have similarities that present opportunities for understanding and development of students’ argumentation skills for future participation in societal discourse on utilizing expert knowledge. Furthermore it is argued that science education could benefit from a higher awareness of the presence of different morals.

  14. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  15. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  16. Mineral profiling of local pig-feeds and pigs reared under resource driven production system to reduce porcine mineral deficiency in subtropical hill ecosystem of Northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Ramesh, T

    2009-04-01

    The present study assessed the mineral status of pigs fed with local feed resources. The commonly used plants for feeding pigs and blood serum samples from Hampshire, Large White Yorkshire and indigenous pigs were analyzed for total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels. Processed plant and serum samples were also analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, cobalt, manganese, iron and zinc. The incidence and extent of mineral deficiency in pigs was quantified. No significant difference was observed in total protein and albumin levels between any two breed/types of pigs, however the Indigenous pigs showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher cholesterol level compared to other two breeds. Among different plants, Spilanthus sp had majority of macro and micro nutrients in high levels. Regarding incidence of mineral deficiency in pigs, it was observed that 90, 67.1, 61.4, 48.6, 95.7% of the pigs were deficient in calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and potassium. An interesting finding was that all the pigs (100%) utilized in the study were deficient in zinc. From this study, it was inferred that there are good numbers of potential source of mineral that might be used more economically to improve the mineral availability to pigs.

  17. Cecum is the major degradation site of ingested inulin in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Two groups have reported > 90% of pre-caecal digestibility of inulin in pigs, and argued against pigs as a proper animal model for humans in this regard. Two experiments were conducted with weanling pigs to characterize the complete hydrolysis profile of inulin in various segments of the en...

  18. Influence of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the following experiment was to examine the effect of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs. Twenty crossbred pigs (average BW = 15 kg) were housed in isolation rooms (10 pigs/room) and randomly assigned to one of two lighting regimes: ...

  19. Analysis of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For nearly 8,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship, and through domestication and breeding, humans have shaped the genomes of current diverse pig breeds. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic pig from the European Duroc...

  20. Direct feeding of microencapsulated bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella colonization in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella shedding often increases in pigs following pre-slaughter transportation and/or lairage. We previously showed that administering anti-Salmonella bacteriophages to pigs by gavage significantly reduced Salmonella colonization when the pigs were exposed to a Salmonella-contaminated pen. In ...

  1. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  2. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  3. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  4. Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ≤8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. PMID:23658848

  5. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  6. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  7. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  8. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  9. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  10. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  11. Postprandial lipoprotein composition in pigs fed diets differing in type and amount of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effects of diet on postprandial lipoprotein composition, growing pigs were fed diets containing 20 or 40% of energy as soybean oil, tallow or a 50:50 blend of soybean oil and tallow. At the end of wk 6, a blood sample was drawn from pigs fasted for 12 h. Pigs were then fed, and blood samples were drawn 1 and 4 h later. In LDL, concentrations of free and total cholesterol were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.02). Pigs fasted for 12 h had lesser concentrations of triacylglycerol and greater concentrations of phospholipid in LDL and HDL than did pigs fasted for 1 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). In HDL, total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). A greater concentration of triacylglycerol was found in VLDL of pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). Amount of dietary fat had a greater effect than did type of dietary fat on composition of lipoproteins from postprandial pigs.

  12. Does the presence of a human effect the preference of enrichment items in young, isolated pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may be housed individually in both production and research settings. Gregarious by nature, pigs kept in isolation may show behavioral and physiological signs of stress. In this study we investigated the preference of individually-housed pigs, for social and non-social enrichments. Three enric...

  13. Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in people and pigs at county fairs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On July 11, 2012 a fair veterinarian was requested to examine an ill pig in the show barn. The following day additional pigs were reported as listless, anorexic, and febrile (up to 107F). The Board of Animal Health was notified of the situation on July 12th. Approximately 280 pigs were in attendance...

  14. Creation of a gastroenteric anastomosis with endoscopy and percutaneous gastrostomy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cope, Constantin; Faigel, Douglas O; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Timmermans, Hans A; Uchida, Barry T

    2008-01-01

    The authors have previously shown in pigs an immediate transgastric technique for stapling the stomach and jejunum to allow a functioning gastroenteric anastomosis (GEA) with use of balloons and stent placement. The aim of this approach in six pigs was to replicate this procedure by using a flexible endoscopic technique. All pigs had GEAs that were well attached and fully patent.

  15. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  16. Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling and nursery pigs in a region of high pig density.

    PubMed

    Nathues, H; Kubiak, R; Tegeler, R; grosse Beilage, E

    2010-02-13

    The occurrence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in young pigs was surveyed in a retrospective study of 1122 datasets obtained from routine diagnostics where either suckling or nursery pigs were examined for M hyopneumoniae in lung tissue. Findings were correlated with the presence of lung lesions, detection of other respiratory pathogens, vaccination history and parameters describing the herd of origin. The prevalence of M hyopneumoniae in lung tissue from 201 suckling pigs was 2.0 per cent and, therefore, significantly lower than in lung tissue from 921 nursery pigs, which was 9.3 per cent. Previous use of antimicrobials and the vital status of the pigs when delivered for postmortem examination did not influence the detection of M hyopneumoniae infection. The presence of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-EU genotype, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis or Streptococcus suis was correlated with a higher probability of also finding M hyopneumoniae. The history of vaccination, the time of the first or second application, and the type of vaccine (one- versus two-shot) did not influence the detection of M hyopneumoniae. A correlation between the type of herd and the presence of M hyopneumoniae was statistically insignificant and no effect of farrowing rhythm could be confirmed.

  17. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    PubMed Central

    López, C.; Sanchez-Rubio, P.; Betrán, A.; Terré, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline. PMID:24294240

  18. San Miguel sea lion virus fed to mink and pigs.

    PubMed

    Wilder, F W; Dardiri, A H

    1978-04-01

    Mink became infected with San Miguel sea lion virus when fed ground meat from seal carcasses showing vesicular-like lesions in the skin. The mink also contracted the infection when they were fed San Miguel sea lion virus infected pig meat or cell culture propagated virus. San Miguel sea lion virus infection in mink was inapparent but the virus was isolated from blood and rectal swabs. Pigs treated similarly with the same virus preparations given to mink developed a severe vesicular disease syndrome similar to that produced by vesicular exanthema of swine. In a separate trial, pigs fed a large sample of commercial ground seal meat did not develop disease signs or antibodies. Further work is needed to assess the hazard of introducing San Miguel sea lion virus into swine on the same premises when potentially San Miguel sea lion virus infective seal meat is fed to mink.

  19. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-02-08

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis.

  20. Genetic differences in recombination frequency in the pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ollivier, L

    1995-10-01

    A comparison has been performed on 3 recently published linkage maps of the pig, hereafter designated as the American (A), European (E), and Swedish (S) maps. The cumulated distances between common markers in these 3 maps were in the ratio 1.00 (A):0.88 (E):0.77 (S), in keeping with the ratio of the percentages of domestic genome in the reference families used to build the corresponding maps, i.e., 1.00 (A):0.81 (E):0.50 (S). From further recombination frequencies reported in wild boars (in the S report), the wild pig genome length (in centimorgans) is expected to represent 66% of the domestic pig genome length. These observations tend to confirm a general result of Burt and Bell (Nature (London), 326: 803-805 (1987)), showing higher chiasma frequencies in domestic mammalian species compared with wild species. Consequences for mapping studies are discussed.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Java warty pig (Sus verrucosus).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Java warty pig was reported for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,479 bp. It contained the typical structure, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region) as that of most other pigs. The overall composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be 34.9% for A, 26.1% for T, 26.0% for C and 13.0% for G showing an A-T (61.0%)-rich feature. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic resource to uncover pigs' evolution.

  2. Insulin affects sperm capacity in pig through nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Saveria; Giordano, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Rago, Vittoria; Carpino, Amalia

    2013-11-01

    Insulin (Ins) has recently been demonstrated to have the ability to induce the capacitation process in pig spermatozoa. In various mammalian species, capacitation has been linked to the nitric oxide (NO) signalling; therefore, this study investigated NO production in Ins-treated pig spermatozoa by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. For the same samples, sperm capacitation was evaluated by chlortetracycline staining, protein tyrosine phosphorylation pattern and acrosomal status. A significant increase of the intrasperm NO level and the activation of three capacitation indices were detected in response to Ins treatment. Conversely, sperm preincubation with an NO synthase inhibitor (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) or with the anti-Ins receptor β (IRβ) antibody reversed all of the Ins-related effects. These results suggest that Ins has the capacity to enhance intracellular NO concentrations in pig spermatozoa and indicate a possible NO implication upon Ins promotion of capacitation.

  3. Il2rg gene-targeted severe combined immunodeficiency pigs.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Iwamoto, Masaki; Saito, Yoriko; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Misae; Mikawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Aoki, Yuki; Najima, Yuho; Takagi, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Nahoko; Suzuki, Emi; Kubo, Masanori; Mimuro, Jun; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Madoiwa, Seiji; Sakata, Yoichi; Perry, Anthony C F; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Onishi, Akira

    2012-06-14

    A porcine model of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) promises to facilitate human cancer studies, the humanization of tissue for xenotransplantation, and the evaluation of stem cells for clinical therapy, but SCID pigs have not been described. We report here the generation and preliminary evaluation of a porcine SCID model. Fibroblasts containing a targeted disruption of the X-linked interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene, Il2rg, were used as donors to generate cloned pigs by serial nuclear transfer. Germline transmission of the Il2rg deletion produced healthy Il2rg(+/-) females, while Il2rg(-/Y) males were athymic and exhibited markedly impaired immunoglobulin and T and NK cell production, robustly recapitulating human SCID. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, donor cells stably integrated in Il2rg(-/Y) heterozygotes and reconstituted the Il2rg(-/Y) lymphoid lineage. The SCID pigs described here represent a step toward the comprehensive evaluation of preclinical cellular regenerative strategies.

  4. [Control of enzootic Aujeszky's disease on pig farms].

    PubMed

    Motovski, A; Kurshelova, R; Milachkov, P; Georgiev, Kh

    1982-01-01

    Virologic and serologic investigations were carried out to demonstrate the persistence of the virulent virus of Aujeszky's disease. Threefold vaccinations were conducted with a live vaccine, embracing all animals on the farm and those that were born during the time when sanitation measures were applied. The first vaccination of the sucking pigs was performed with 10 doses of the vaccine in each case. During the time of applying sanation measures the farm was kept closed, the pigs after weaning being transferred to another farm. After sanitation was over some new virologic and serologic studies were carried out along with the serologic examination of nonimmune pigs that had stayed on the farm. These investigations did not prove the presence of a wild virus on the farm. It was found that the manifold vaccinations and use of higher amounts of the vaccine might well suit the base in working out sanitation programmes for farms infected with Aujeszky's disease.

  5. PSITTACOSIS : III. EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFECTIONS IN RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T M; Berry, G P

    1931-06-30

    1. Rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to psittacosis virus introduced intracerebrally. By means of brain to brain passages in these animals the active agent is capable of propagation indefinitely. 2. Serial passages of the virus through rabbits and guinea pigs do not cause the active agent to lose its pathogenicity for parrots and mice. 3. The chief clinical evidences of infection in rabbits and guinea pigs following intracranial inoculation of the virus are fever and loss of weight. The pathological changes are characterized by a mild meningo-encephalitis, and fatty degeneration, focal necrosis, and infarction of the liver. 4. Rabbits upon recovery from an attack of psittacosis are actively immune. 5. Two strains of virus, human and parrot, were found to be immunologically similar. 6. No evidence was obtained to show that human convalescent serum possesses an appreciable amount of neutralizing substances.

  6. Salinomycin residues and their ionophoricity in pig tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dimenna, G.P.; Lyon, F.S.; Creegan, J.A. ); Wright, G.J. ); Wilkes, L.C. ); Johnson, D.E.; Szymanski, T. )

    1990-04-01

    The effect of pretreatment with medicated feed on ({sup 14}C) salinomycin residue levels in pig tissues was studied. Pigs were fed unmedicated feed or feed medicated with salinomycin at 41 ppm in the diet for 29 days and then dosed with ({sup 14}C)salinomycin for 8 days. Total drug residue levels were below quantifiable limits of detection of kidney, fat, and muscle but at the tolerance limit of 1,800 ppb for liver. In liver, pretreatment tended to lower total residue levels, and unchanged ({sup 14}C)salinomycin accounted for <1% of the total drug residue. Approximately 15-20% of the total drug residue in liver was bound. Ionophoric activity in extracts of livers from the treated pigs was minimal, and only 2 of the 12 treated samples had ionophoric activity more than twice that obtained from the controls.

  7. Advancing pig cloning technologies towards application in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, H; Matsunari, H; Nakano, K; Watanabe, M; Umeyama, K; Nagaya, M

    2012-08-01

    Regenerative medicine is expected to make a significant contribution by development of novel therapeutic treatments for intractable diseases and for improving the quality of life of patients. Many advances in regenerative medicine, including basic and translational research, have been developed and tested in experimental animals; pigs have played an important role in various aspects of this work. The value of pigs as a model species is being enhanced by the generation of specially designed animals through cloning and genetic modifications, enabling more sophisticated research to be performed and thus accelerating the clinical application of regenerative medicine. This article reviews the significant aspects of the creation and application of cloned and genetically modified pigs in regenerative medicine research and considers the possible future directions of the technology. We also discuss the importance of reproductive biology as an interface between basic science and clinical medicine.

  8. Inhaled Bordetella pertussis vaccine decreases airway responsiveness in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M H; Bazán-Perkins, B; Segura, P; Campos, M G; Selman, M; Montaño, L M

    1995-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (BP) has been used as adjuvant for experimental animal immunization, but its effects on airway responsiveness are uncertain. Three groups of guinea pigs were used: animals with a single exposure to inhaled BP vaccine (strain 134, total dose 1.24 x 10(12) germs), animals submitted to a sensitization procedure through inhalation of ovalbumin plus BP, and healthy control animals. Four weeks after inhalation of BP or after the beginning of sensitization, dose- or concentration-response curves to histamine were constructed in vivo and in vitro (tracheal and parenchymal preparations). We found that BP alone produced lower responses to histamine than control guinea pigs in vivo (insufflation pressure, p = 0.0003) and in tracheal tissues (p = 0.04), but not in parenchymal preparations. Sensitization did not modify the responsiveness compared with their respective controls. These results suggest that some BP component(s), probably pertussis toxin, causes a long lasting airway hyporesponsiveness in guinea pigs.

  9. Validation of a behavioral observation tool to assess pig welfare.

    PubMed

    Smulders, D; Verbeke, G; Mormède, P; Geers, R

    2006-10-30

    Accurately measuring and monitoring of animal behavior is an important factor when assessing on-farm animal welfare. First we developed a feasible and simple method aiming at consistently on-farm measuring of pig's behavior. This test should cover a broad range of welfare-related pig behavior. The reaction towards a novel object, startling, tail and ear biting, play and aggressive behavior, stereotypies, coughing, sneezing, skin lesions, defecation, urination and cleanliness of body and pen are included. The development of accurate measures of on-farm behavior first requires the reliability assessment of the procedure. Therefore, the methodology was tested in a first part by three observers scoring simultaneously and independently pre-defined behavioral characteristics of 108 group-housed fattening pigs. The inter-observer repeatability of the measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 1. In a second part, the objective was to validate the behavioral characteristics against salivary cortisol, urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine and production traits. Salivary cortisol concentrations significantly increased in ear-bitten pigs and in pigs with tail lesions. Growth rate significantly dropped when cortisol levels rose. An age effect was also found. The percentage of animals approaching the novel object is positively correlated with the urinary epinephrine concentration. Pigs defecating during the test showed significantly higher epinephrine levels. Urinary norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly with age. Faster growing animals and animals with tail lesions showed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine. Pen dirtiness and number of animals per pen were associated with higher norepinephrine concentrations. Finally, barrows had higher norepinephrine concentrations than sows.

  10. A Solution on Identification and Rearing Files Insmallhold Pig Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Benhai; Fu, Runting; Lin, Zhaohui; Luo, Qingyao; Yang, Liang

    In order to meet government supervision of pork production safety as well as consumeŕs right to know what they buy, this study adopts animal identification, mobile PDA reader, GPRS and other information technologies, and put forward a data collection method to set up rearing files of pig in smallhold pig farming, and designs related metadata structures and its mobile database, and develops a mobile PDA embedded system to collect individual information of pig and uploading into the remote central database, and finally realizes mobile links to the a specific website. The embedded PDA can identify both a special pig bar ear tag appointed by the Ministry of Agricultural and a general data matrix bar ear tag designed by this study by mobile reader, and can record all kinds of inputs data including bacterins, feed additives, animal drugs and even some forbidden medicines and submitted them to the center database through GPRS. At the same time, the remote center database can be maintained by mobile PDA and GPRS, and finally reached pork tracking from its origin to consumption and its tracing through turn-over direction. This study has suggested a feasible technology solution how to set up network pig electronic rearing files involved smallhold pig farming based on farmer and the solution is proved practical through its application in the Tianjińs pork quality traceability system construction. Although some individual techniques have some adverse effects on the system running such as GPRS transmitting speed now, these will be resolved with the development of communication technology. The full implementation of the solution around China will supply technical supports in guaranteeing the quality and safety of pork production supervision and meet consumer demand.

  11. A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This work describes the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional landscape of the pig. A new porcine Affymetrix expression array was designed in order to provide comprehensive coverage of the known pig transcriptome. The new array was used to generate a genome-wide expression atlas of pig tissues derived from 62 tissue/cell types. These data were subjected to network correlation analysis and clustering. Results The analysis presented here provides a detailed functional clustering of the pig transcriptome where transcripts are grouped according to their expression pattern, so one can infer the function of an uncharacterized gene from the company it keeps and the locations in which it is expressed. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the tissue atlas, where possible assigning those signatures to specific cell populations or pathways. In particular, we discuss the expression signatures associated with the gastrointestinal tract, an organ that was sampled at 15 sites along its length and whose biology in the pig is similar to human. We identify sets of genes that define specialized cellular compartments and region-specific digestive functions. Finally, we performed a network analysis of the transcription factors expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and demonstrate how they sub-divide into functional groups that may control cellular gastrointestinal development. Conclusions As an important livestock animal with a physiology that is more similar than mouse to man, we provide a major new resource for understanding gene expression with respect to the known physiology of mammalian tissues and cells. The data and analyses are available on the websites http://biogps.org and http://www.macrophages.com/pig-atlas. PMID:23153189

  12. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Felt, Renée H M; Mulder, Eduard J H; Lüchinger, Annemarie B; van Kan, Colette M; Taverne, Marcel A M; de Vries, Johanna I P

    2012-08-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is cyclic. This study explores the distribution of SB-to-SB intervals in human and guinea pig embryos before the appearance of more complex movements such as general movements. We hypothesized that the activity in both species is cyclic. We made 15-min sonographic recordings of SBs between 5 weeks and 0 days (5wk0d) and 7wk0d conceptional age (CA) in 18 human embryos of uncomplicated IVF pregnancies (term 38 weeks) and in 20 guinea pig embryos between 3wk4d and 4wk0d CA (term 9 weeks). SB-to-SB interval durations were categorized as long (≥10 s) or short (<10 s) intervals. For human embryos, the median values for long and short intervals were 61 s (range, 10-165 s) and 3 s (range, 1-9 s) respectively; for guinea pigs 38 s (range, 10-288 s) and 5 s (range, 1-9 s), respectively. During development, the duration of long intervals decreased while the number of short intervals increased for both species. The earliest embryonic motility in the human and guinea pig is performed cyclically with distinct developmental milestones. The resemblance of their interval development offers promising possibilities to use the guinea pig as a noninvasive animal model of external influences on motor and neural development.

  13. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  14. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in pig tonsils.

    PubMed

    Torres, F; Santamaria, R; Jimenez, M; Menjón, R; Ibanez, A; Collell, M; Azlor, O; Fraile, L

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of antimicrobials in pig tonsils is hardly known. The objective of the study was to quantify the tildipirosin (TD) penetration in tonsils. Animals were randomly divided into six groups (control, T1, T2 (1), T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15)) of eight animals. T1 and T2 groups received a dose of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw in one shot (Zuprevo® MSD Animal Health), respectively, and the control group received 2 mL of saline solution. The animals were sacrificed by intravenous administration of pentobarbital sodium 24 h after finishing the treatment for the control, T1, and T2(1) groups, whereas animals of T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15) groups were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 days, post-treatment, respectively. Tonsils and blood samples were taken at necropsy to obtain plasma, and the tildipirosin concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The concentration in plasma was always significantly lower than in tonsil. Average TD tonsil concentrations increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the tonsil TD vs. plasma TD concentration ratio was approximately 75 for the doses of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw at 24 h post-treatment. Moreover, the maximum concentration of tildipirosin in tonsil was observed at 1 day postadministration, and this concentration decreased gradually from this day until 15 days postadministration for the dose of 4 mg of TD/kg bw. Finally, the ratio AUCtonsil/AUCplasma was 97.9, and the T1/2 (h) was clearly higher in tonsil than in plasma.

  16. DOCA-salts induce heart failure in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Tiritilli, A

    2001-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical problem confronting physicians and is often the final manifestation of many cardiovascular disorders. Despite recent advances in the pharmacological management of HF, it remains a highly lethal and disabling disorder. A number of animal models have been developed to study both the pathophysiology of HF and new therapeutic approaches to this complex syndrome. Only through an improved understanding of the basic biology of the early stages of the syndrome can HF be prevented or at least anticipated. With this in view, we have developed an easily realisable and inexpensive model in the guinea pig, which presents numerous structural, metabolic and biochemical similarities compared with the human heart. Thirty guinea pigs, aged 5 weeks and weighing 300 g were used. After anaesthesia, left nephrectomy was performed. After 1 week the guinea pigs were divided into: (a) control group (n=15), which received an injection of vehicle as well as tap water for 10 weeks; (b) DOCA-salts group (n=15), where the animals were treated with an IM injection of 10 mg DOCA 5 days a week for 10 weeks and with drinking water containing 9 g/l(-1) NaCl and 2 g/l(-1) KCl. Our results demonstrate that the administration of DOCA-salts to guinea pigs for 10 weeks caused a significant increase in blood pressure (BP+30%) associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), evaluated by LV weight (+37%), LV wall (+36%), by the ratio LV weight/Body weight (+23%) and by an increase in LV volume (+51%). Concerning HF, the latter was clinically evident through an increase in body weight, heart rate and dyspnoea. Indeed, guinea pigs presented pleural and/or pericardial effusion often associated with ascite. This model, which combines pressure and volume overload, results in a slow evolution towards HF. This allows a better understanding of the mechanisms in early LV remodelling which has the potential to develop into HF. Some recent studies have emphasised the value

  17. Renal Response to Graded Hemorrage in Conscious Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Guerrero AA, Musil G, Hulet WH. Renal function and nephron structure in the miniature pig. Am J Vet Res 1968;29:995-1007. 16. Edwards BS, Zimmerman RS...DOTIC FILE COPY INSTITUTE REPORT NO. 400 00 Renal Responses to Graded Hemorrage in N Conscious Pigs O J . L Sondeen G. A. Gonzaiudo J . A. Loveday G.E...MONITORING ORGANIZATION Division of Military Trauma J (If appicable) U. S. Army Medical Research Research j SGRD-ULT-M and DeveloDment Command 6c. ADDRESS

  18. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  19. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  20. Effect of Provision of Feed and Water during Transport on the Welfare of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Guay, Kimberly; Backus, Brittany; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation is a complex stressor, which has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Transport duration and withdrawal from feed and water are two factors that could potentially adversely affect the welfare of pigs transported at weaning. In this study, the effect of a 32 h transport period and the provision of feed and water on the welfare of weaned pigs was investigated using a multi-disciplinary approach. Body weight decreased in weaned pigs over time and this response was exacerbated by exposing pigs to a 32 h transport period and withdrawing feed and water. The greatest changes in body weight loss were observed after 8 h of transport or weaning. Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N:L) stress measure was elevated in pigs in response to an 8 h transport period or 8 h after weaning alone. With the exception of weaned pigs provided with feed and water, transported and weaned pigs continued to be different from control pigs until 16 h after weaning or exposure to a 16 h transport period. These findings suggest that pigs experience an acute stress response due to transport and weaning, but these two stressors do not appear to be additive. Overall, transportation had a negative effect on performance, physiology and behavior of weaned and transported pigs, especially if not provided with feed and water for more than 24 h. Abstract Transportation is a complex stressor made up of factors including weaning itself and withdrawal from feed and water. Therefore, transportation has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Pigs were transported for 32 h and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Treatment groups included pigs not weaned or transported (CON), weaned pigs provided with feed and water (WEAN+), weaned pigs not provided with feed and water (WEAN−), weaned and transported pigs provided with feed and water (TRANS+), and

  1. Effect of injected and dietary iron in young pigs on blood hematology and postnatal pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2011-12-01

    The relationship of injected Fe doses on blood hematology and pig growth performance during both preweaning and postweaning periods was studied. In Exp. 1, the effect of BW of 347 pigs injected with 200 mg of Fe (dextran) intramuscularly (i.m.) at birth on hemoglobin (Hb) and percent hematocrit (Hct) at weaning was assessed. As BW increased there was a decline (P < 0.01) in Hb and Hct. In Exp. 2, Fe injection doses and timing of injected Fe on blood hematology and pig growth were evaluated. Injections were as follows: 1) 200 mg of Fe at birth; 2) 300 mg of Fe at birth; or 3) 200 mg of Fe at birth + 100 mg of Fe at d 10. A total of 269 pigs were allotted within litter to 3 treatments. The 2 greater quantities of injected Fe (i.e., 300 or 200 + 100 mg of Fe) had similar but greater (P < 0.05) Hb and Hct values than pigs receiving 200 mg of Fe, but growth rates were similar at weaning. The effects of injecting 200 mg of Fe at birth and either saline or 100 mg of Fe at 10 d of age were investigated in Exp. 3. Weaned pigs of each group were fed diets with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg of added Fe for 35 d as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 replicates (n = 360 pigs) in a randomized complete block design (RCB). The innate Fe contents of diets averaged 200 mg/kg. The greater Fe injection group (200 + 100 mg) had greater (P < 0.01) Hb and Hct values through 14 d postweaning (P < 0.05) and greater (P < 0.01) Hct values through 21 d postweaning. As dietary Fe increased, Hb was greater only at d 14 (P < 0.05 4), whereas Hct increased linearly to d 35 (P < 0.01) postweaning. Dietary Fe resulted in linear increases (P < 0.01) in ADG from d 21 to 35 and d 0 to 35. In Exp. 4, 3 dietary Fe (80, 160, and 240 mg/kg of diet), 2 injected Fe treatments (200 or 300 mg of Fe) at birth, and birth BW (<1.5 or ≥1.5 kg) were evaluated as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a RCB design with 6 replicates (n = 280 pigs). The 300 mg of Fe injection group had lighter BW in both

  2. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.

  3. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim K; Christensen, Anja S; Møller, Kristian; Roepstorff, Allan

    2007-01-31

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet 1 or Diet 2, +/-B. hyodysenteriae, and +/-T. suis. Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet 1 showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were shedding B. hyodysenteriae in faeces at some points in time during the experiment. The number of T. suis was lower in pigs fed Diet 2 compared to pigs fed Diet 1, but the differences were not significant. Pigs on Diet 1 and challenged with both pathogens showed clinical symptoms of SD for a longer period than pigs inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae only. The study showed that diets supplemented with highly fermentable carbohydrates from dried chicory roots and sweet lupins can protect pigs against developing swine dysentery, but do not have any significant influence on T. suis.

  4. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  5. BRCA1 regulates PIG3-mediated apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Luo, Jiayan; Chen, Fengxia; Yang, Fang; Song, Wei; Zhu, Aiyu; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2015-04-10

    BRCA1 plays a key role in the regulation of p53-dependent target gene transcription activation. Meanwhile, the p53 inducible gene 3 (PIG3) is a downstream target of p53 and is involved in p53-initiated apoptosis. However, little is known about whether BRCA1 can regulate PIG3-mediated apoptosis. Using a tissue microarray containing 149 breast cancer patient samples, we found that BRCA1 and PIG3 expression status were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.678, P < 0.001) and identified a significant positive correlation between high expression of BRCA1 and/or PIG3 and overall survival (OS). Moreover, we reveal that overexpression of BRCA1 significantly increased expression of PIG3 in cells with intact p53, whereas no increase in PIG3 was observed in p53-null MDA-MB-157 cells and p53-depleted HCT116p53-/- cells. Meanwhile, ectopic expression of BRCA1 could not lead to an increase expression level of prohibitin (PHB), which we have previously identified to induce PIG3-mediated apoptosis. Finally, ChIP analysis revealed that PHB can bind to the PIG3 promoter and activate PIG3 transcription independent of p53, although p53 presence did enhance this process. Taken together, our findings suggest that BRCA1 regulates PIG3-mediated apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner, and that PIG3 expression is associated with a better OS in breast cancer patients.

  6. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs <6 months and 99 pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 16 fattening pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  7. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA.

  8. [Relationship Between Molecular Marker of Western Main Pig H-FABP Gene and IMF Content.].

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei-Jun; Sun, Shi-Duo; Li, Ying; Chen, Guo-Dong; Yang, Gong-She

    2005-05-01

    By using 265 pigs from eight breeds including Duroc,Landrace,Large White,Neijiang,Rongchang,Hanjiang Black,Hanzhong White,Bamei and wild ones, the genetic variations of 5'-upstream region from and the second intron in porcine H-FABP gene were checked by PCR-RFLP molecular marker with HinfI, Hae III and MspI,and effect of H-FABP gene on IMF content was then analyzed by least square analysis.The results showed as follows:(1) 8 pig breeds and wild pig had polymorphism at Hinf I-RFLP site. In above detected breeds,large white,Bamei pig, Hanjiang Black,Hanzhong White pig breeds and wild pig presented low polymorphism while other breeds have mediate polymorphism;(2)Among the tested breeds only 4 Chinese local pig breeds had no polymorphism at the Hae III-RFLP and Msp I-RFLP sites,but Duroc,Landrace,Largewhite, Hanzhong White pig breeds and wild pig had polymorphism. Wild pig at the Hae III-RFLP , Landrace,Largewhite and wild pig at the Hae III-RFLP and Msp I-RFLP sites were low polymorphism,others were mediate polymorphism;(3) H-FABP gene increased IMF content significantly(p0.05). Genetic effect of H-FABP gene on IMF content were HH>Hh>hh,DD.

  9. The potential application of hairless guinea pigs as a replacement for the Yucatan mini-pig in animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Imholte, Michelle L.

    2008-02-01

    The Yucatan mini-pig (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely used animal models for skin damage studies because it shares many of the same physical properties as human skin. While the Yucatan is ideal for laser exposure studies using a large spot size, its size and cost are excessive for projects using smaller beams. This experiment performed histological analysis of skin biopsies from pigmented Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) for epidermal thickness and melanin concentration. That data was then compared to similar information on the Yucatan.

  10. Behavior of Pigs Reared in Enriched Environment: Alternatives to Extend Pigs Attention

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Liliane Maria Piano; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Nieto, Viviane Maria Oliveira dos Santos; de Oliveira, Geyssane Farias

    2017-01-01

    Three trials were carried out in a completely randomized design aiming to assess the behavior of pigs in growth phase in enriched environments. Trial 1 evaluated the effects of frequency of availability of environmental enrichment. The animals were assigned to four treatments: 1) control with no enrichment object; 2) objects provided for six consecutive days uninterruptedly; 3) objects provided on alternate days, and 4) objects provided for six consecutive days taken away by the end of the afternoon and replaced at dawn. Trial 2 assessed the effects of scent on animals’ acceptance and maintenance of interest in objects. Animals were assigned to four treatments: 1) unscented object; 2) object with banana scent; 3) object with rum scent; 4) object with scents alternated every other day. Trial 3 aimed to assess the influence of environmental enrichment based on providing rewards at different difficulty levels. Animals were assigned to three treatments: 1) object with no reward; 2) object with a reward at an easy level; 3) object with a reward at a difficult level. Each trial had six days of behavioral observations every ten minutes for eight hours each day using images from video cameras. Enrichment objects stimulated the animals’ natural behavior of nuzzling and exploring the environment. The way the objects were available did not impact the success of their use. Offering enrichment on alternate days or removing the objects by the end of the day was not an effective strategy to extend the animals’ interest. The olfactory stimulus in environmental enrichment objects had no positive effect on extending the animals’ interest on them, nor did alternating the aromas. The tactile stimulus was a key factor for object attractiveness. Providing environmental enrichment objects with rewards stimulated the exploratory behavior of pigs. The level of difficulty to obtain the reward may discourage the animals. PMID:28060849

  11. Behavior of Pigs Reared in Enriched Environment: Alternatives to Extend Pigs Attention.

    PubMed

    Machado, Simone Pereira; Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Foppa, Luciana; de Moura, Rafael; Gonçalves, Liliane Maria Piano; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Nieto, Viviane Maria Oliveira Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Geyssane Farias

    2017-01-01

    Three trials were carried out in a completely randomized design aiming to assess the behavior of pigs in growth phase in enriched environments. Trial 1 evaluated the effects of frequency of availability of environmental enrichment. The animals were assigned to four treatments: 1) control with no enrichment object; 2) objects provided for six consecutive days uninterruptedly; 3) objects provided on alternate days, and 4) objects provided for six consecutive days taken away by the end of the afternoon and replaced at dawn. Trial 2 assessed the effects of scent on animals' acceptance and maintenance of interest in objects. Animals were assigned to four treatments: 1) unscented object; 2) object with banana scent; 3) object with rum scent; 4) object with scents alternated every other day. Trial 3 aimed to assess the influence of environmental enrichment based on providing rewards at different difficulty levels. Animals were assigned to three treatments: 1) object with no reward; 2) object with a reward at an easy level; 3) object with a reward at a difficult level. Each trial had six days of behavioral observations every ten minutes for eight hours each day using images from video cameras. Enrichment objects stimulated the animals' natural behavior of nuzzling and exploring the environment. The way the objects were available did not impact the success of their use. Offering enrichment on alternate days or removing the objects by the end of the day was not an effective strategy to extend the animals' interest. The olfactory stimulus in environmental enrichment objects had no positive effect on extending the animals' interest on them, nor did alternating the aromas. The tactile stimulus was a key factor for object attractiveness. Providing environmental enrichment objects with rewards stimulated the exploratory behavior of pigs. The level of difficulty to obtain the reward may discourage the animals.

  12. Olfactory cues and pig agonistic behavior: evidence for a submissive pheromone.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J

    1985-02-01

    One hundred and two prepubertal pigs were used in two experiments to determine if adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-induced increase in submissive behavior could be mediated by odorous signals. In experiment one, urine was collected from pigs treated with either 0, 1 or 10 IU/kg ACTH. Urine from pigs given 1.0 IU/kg ACTH caused a trend for a rise in submissive behavior. Level of plasma cortisol from donor pigs correlated well (r = .92) with duration of submissive behavior in the tested pigs. In experiment two, urine from ACTH-treated pigs increased submissive behavior when sprayed in the air during late fight. Thus, ACTH-induced submissiveness may be mediated by a pheromone. These results fit the hypothesis that, in addition to visual cues, an olfactory cue (perhaps adrenal in origin) is released towards the end of a fight to signal submission. Aerosolizing urine from ACTH-treated pigs may have interfered with this pheromonal signal.

  13. Deletion of pigR gene in Monascus ruber leads to loss of pigment production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nana; Liu, Qingpei; Chen, Fusheng

    2013-09-01

    Pigments produced by Monascus are traditional food colorants and are widely used as dietary supplements. Since genes involving in pigment biosynthesis have not been reported, we describe the identification of a putative pigment-regulatory gene (pigR) obtained by molecular analysis of an albino strain of Monascus ruber M7. In the pigR-deleted strain (ΔpigR), neither the pigments nor pigR expression were detected by HPLC or reverse-transcription PCR, respectively, whereas the introduction of the pigR, together with a constitutive trpC promoter into ΔpigR, caused it to produce 5.4 U of red pigments/g dry mycelia, about 12-fold higher than Monascus ruber M7 (0.46 U/g dry mycelia). Thus pigR up-regulates pigment production in Monascus ruber M7.

  14. Optimal pig donor selection in islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-tao; Yu, Liang; Lyu, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as a donor, offers the possibility of an unlimited supply of islet grafts. Published studies demonstrated that pig islets could function in diabetic primates for a long time (>6 months). However, pig-islet xenotransplantation must overcome the selection of an optimal pig donor to obtain an adequate supply of islets with high-quality, to reduce xeno-antigenicity of islet and prolong xenograft survival, and to translate experimental findings into clinical application. This review discusses the suitable pig donor for islet xenotransplantation in terms of pig age, strain, structure/function of islet, and genetically modified pig.

  15. [Genetic diversity based on swine leukocyte antigen complex mi-crosatellites(SLA-MS) in five pig populations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Rong-Hui; Li, Hua; Zuo, Qi-Zhen; Li, Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity of swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) was studied among Guangdong local pigs, Huanan wild boars (S.s. chirodontus) and introduced pigs, which aimed at providing a theoretical foundation for further pig anti-disease resistance breeding. Pietrain pigs, Duroc pigs, Large black-white pigs, Lantang pigs, and Huanan wild boars were genotyped by employing 18 microsatellites in swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA-MS). The result showed that the average diversity in SLA II was higher (He=0.628, PIC=0.581) than that in SLA I (He=0.530, PIC=0.474) and in SLA III (He=0.526, PIC=0.458). The molecular diversity indices (MDI) of Huanan wild boars was the highest(0.716), followed by Lantang pigs (0.614), Large black-white pigs (0.559), Pietrain pigs (0.550) and Duroc pigs (0.507). As a whole, the genetic diversity of Huanan wild boars was the highest over Guangdong native pigs and introduced pigs. Large black-white pigs and Duroc pigs had ever happened a severe bottleneck by comparison with the Garza-Williamson index (GWI) in Huanan wild boar. From the genetic distance, one clade was that Lantang pigs were first clustered with Huanan wild boar, and then grouped together with Large black-white pigs; another clade was that Pietrain pigs were independently clustered with Duroc pigs in the NJ tree. The results would establish the foundation for pig conservation of germplasm resource, disease resistance breeding, and multiplicative strains.

  16. Synthetic maternal pheromone stimulates feeding behavior and weight gain in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Anderson, D L

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four pigs were used to determine the effects of a putative synthetic maternal pheromone on behavior and performance of weanling pigs. Each pen of weaned pigs contained three pigs that were given free access to water and feed. Pigs were videotaped in time lapse for 48 h after weaning and weekly body weights and feed disappearances were recorded for 4 wk. Treatments included: a) control (vehicle applied), b) 30 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to the feeder, or c) 10 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to each of three pigs' snouts. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone spent more (P < 0.05) time with their heads in the feeder and less (P < 0.05) time drinking, lying down, or engaged in agonistic behaviors than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone were more (P < 0.05) active during the 48-h period of video taping than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone (either on the feeder or their snout) had increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and better (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratio than control pigs over the 28-d postweaning period. In conclusion, the putative synthetic pheromone, applied once at weaning, stimulated apparent feeding behaviors, and reduced fighting and apparent drinking behaviors during the first 48 h after weaning. ADG and feed:gain ratio were improved by application of the putative synthetic pheromone either directly on the feeder or when painted on the pigs' snouts. Olfactory signals can modulate adaptation to the postweaning environment in ways that may improve pig performance and welfare.

  17. Welfare of entire male pigs is improved by socialising piglets and keeping intact groups until slaughter.

    PubMed

    Rydhmer, L; Hansson, M; Lundström, K; Brunius, C; Andersson, K

    2013-09-01

    In today's production systems, pigs raised for slaughter are mixed many times, resulting in stress and fighting. The negative consequences of mixing are probably more severe with entire males than with castrates, as they fight more. In this project, we studied a system without castration where entire male pigs met unfamiliar pigs only once. Piglets from two litters were allowed to visit each other from circa 2 weeks of age through an opening between the farrowing pens. Entire males from these litters were kept in intact groups from weaning and onwards, and they were slaughtered pen-wise in intact groups. Control pigs were raised and weaned in their litters and mixed with unknown pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They were slaughtered by split marketing based on individual weight. In total, 96 entire males from 24 litters were studied. Activity and social interactions of pigs were studied by direct observations on three observation occasions per pen for pigs kept in intact groups and four occasions for control pigs. All pigs were inspected for skin lesions during raising and at slaughter. Results showed that fewer pigs in intact groups were resting (17.1% v. 28.5%; P = 0.044) and they showed less aggressive behaviour (16.1 v. 27.7 number of interactions per hour; P = 0.001) than control pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They also got fewer skin lesions compared with control pigs (15 v. 35; P < 0.001). Consequently, control pigs tended to grow slower during the 1st week after mixing; however, growth rate during the whole growing-finishing phase did not differ between treatments (P = 0.205). Control pigs directed more aggressive behaviour towards non-litter mates than towards litter mates during the whole growing-finishing phase, whereas pigs from the other treatment made no difference between litter mates and other familiar pigs. At 67 kg, there was more sexual behaviour (mounting) among control pigs (7.6 v. 3.4; P = 0.033), but after

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in pigs infected experimentally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Andrada, M; Quesada-Canales, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Paz-Sánchez, Y; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia, primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), is a contagious disease characterized by catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Previous studies have evaluated immunohistochemically the distribution of Mh, different cellular populations and cytokines during Mh-induced pneumonia. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is overexpressed during inflammatory responses by different cell types in the lung. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of porcine enzootic pneumonia. COX-2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissues from 10 pigs infected experimentally with Mh. Ten pigs were inoculated intranasally with Mh and killed in pairs weekly from 1 to 5 weeks post inoculation. Three Mh-free pigs were taken as controls. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, bronchial submucosal glands and a small number of macrophages in the bronchoalveolar exudate expressed COX-2. COX-2 protein was always associated with areas of pneumonia and expression was minimal in lungs from control pigs. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of Mh-infection.

  19. Bacteriophage for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry, and pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indica...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of melamine in pigs following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof; Mason, Sharon E; Barrett, Erica; Barlow, Beth M; Riviere, Jim E

    2008-03-01

    Melamine-contaminated pet food was recently added as a supplement to livestock feed. There is little or no information concerning the pharmacokinetics of melamine in livestock, and the aim of this study was to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters for this contaminant in pigs. Melamine was administered intravenously to five weanling pigs at a dose of 6.13 mg/kg and plasma samples were collected over 24 h, extracted for melamine, and then analyzed by HPLC-UV. The data was shown to best fit a one-compartment model with melamine's half-life of 4.04 (+/- 0.37) h, clearance of 0.11 (+/- 0.01) L/h/kg, and volume of distribution of 0.61 (+/- 0.04) L/kg. These data are comparable to the only mammalian study in rats and suggests that melamine is readily cleared by the kidney and there is unlikely to be significant tissue binding. Further tissue residue studies are required to assess the depletion kinetics of this contaminant in the pig which will determine whether residue levels in the kidney should be of public health concern if pigs were exposed to a similar dose.

  1. Experimental and field studies with thiophanate in pigs.

    PubMed

    Baines, D M; Dalton, S E; Eichler, D A

    1976-08-14

    Thiophanate, administered at a dosage of 50 mg per kg to artifically infected pigs, removed 96 to 99 per cent of adult Oesophagostomum spp, Hyostrongylus rubidus and Trichuris suis. Activity was also high against larval stages of these nematodes, except for 26-day-old T suis. Thiophanate also showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H rubidus and Oesophagostomum spp. At 50 mg per kg thiophanate administered alone was inactive against Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri, the former species also being refractory at 200 mg per kg. Field trials confirmed these efficacy results in naturally infected animals. Pellet formulations providing mean dosages of 63 mg thiophanate per kg for adult pigs and 75 mg thiophanate per kg with 83 mg piperazine base per kg for growing pigs were highly effective in reducing the faecal output of Oesophagostomum spp, H rubidus and T suis eggs. In growing pigs, A suum was controlled by the thiophanate/piperazine product. No palatability or tolerance problems were observed when thiophanate or thiophanate/piperazine mixtures were administered at recommended dosage or multiples thereof in experimental or field studies.

  2. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  3. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called “quick wash” was investigated for its feasibility to extract ...

  4. Epitopes from two soybean glycinin subunits antigenic in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Glycinin is a seed storage protein in soybean (Glycine max) that is allergenic in pigs. Glycinin is a hexamer composed of subunits consisting of a basic and acidic portion joined by disulfide bridges. There are 5 glycinin subunits designated Gy1-Gy5. Results: Twenty seven out of 30 pi...

  5. [Immunosuppression in dogs and pigs infected with canine distemper virus].

    PubMed

    Sereda, A D; Nogina, I V

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppression manifesting itself as leukopenia and a considerably lower lymphocyte proliferative response to T- and B-cell mitogens develops in pigs and dogs within 2-3 weeks after intramuscular or oral infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). CDV antigens are detectable in the oral secretions of the animals within 2-2.5 week after infection.

  6. Transmission Dynamics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Crombé, Florence; Argudín, M. Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Hermans, Katleen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    From the mid-2000s on, numerous studies have shown that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), renowned as human pathogen, has a reservoir in pigs and other livestock. In Europe and North America, clonal complex (CC) 398 appears to be the predominant lineage involved. Especially worrisome is its capacity to contaminate humans in close contact with affected animals. Indeed, the typical multi-resistant phenotype of MRSA CC398 and its observed ability of easily acquiring genetic material suggests that MRSA CC398 strains with an increased virulence potential may emerge, for which few therapeutic options would remain. This questions the need to implement interventions to control the presence and spread of MRSA CC398 among pigs. MRSA CC398 shows a high but not fully understood transmission potential in the pig population and is able to persist within that population. Although direct contact is probably the main route for MRSA transmission between pigs, also environmental contamination, the presence of other livestock, the herd size, and farm management are factors that may be involved in the dissemination of MRSA CC398. The current review aims at summarizing the research that has so far been done on the transmission dynamics and risk factors for introduction and persistence of MRSA CC398 in farms. PMID:23518663

  7. Mood and personality interact to determine cognitive biases in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Friel, Mary; Griffin, Kym

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive bias has become a popular way to access non-human animal mood, though inconsistent results have been found. In humans, mood and personality interact to determine cognitive bias, but to date, this has not been investigated in non-human animals. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in a non-human animal, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), that mood and personality interact, impacting on judgement. Pigs with a more proactive personality were more likely to respond optimistically to unrewarded ambiguous probes (spatially positioned between locations that were previously rewarded and unrewarded) independent of their housing (or enrichment) conditions. However, optimism/pessimism of reactive pigs in this task was affected by their housing conditions, which are likely to have influenced their mood state. Reactive pigs in the less enriched environment were more pessimistic and those in the more enriched environment, more optimistic. These results suggest that judgement in non-human animals is similar to humans, incorporating aspects of stable personality traits and more transient mood states. PMID:27852940

  8. Determining heat tolerance in finishing pigs using thermal imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat production from modern pigs has been determined to be significantly higher than previously defined in the standards. This increase in heat production changes the thermal needs of growing swine. A study was designed to evaluate thermal images to determine the thermal status of swine. Thermal ...

  9. Health relevance of intestinal protein fermentation in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Villodre Tudela, C; Taciak, M; Bindelle, J; Pérez, J F; Zentek, J

    2016-12-01

    The physiological role of the gastrointestinal microbiota has become an important subject of nutrition research in pigs in the past years, and the importance of intestinal microbial activity in the etiology of disease is doubtless. This review summarizes the recent knowledge related to the microbial ecology of protein fermentation and the appearance of protein-derived metabolites along the pig intestine. The amount of fermentable protein depends on factors such as dietary protein concentration, protein digestibility due to secondary or tertiary structure, the interaction with dietary compounds or anti-nutritional factors, and the secretion of endogenous proteins into the gut lumen. High protein diets increase the luminal concentrations and epithelial exposure to putatively toxic metabolites and increase the risk for post-weaning diarrhea, but the mechanisms are not yet clarified. Although the use of fermentable carbohydrates to reduce harmful protein-derived metabolites in pigs is well-established, recent studies suggest that the inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates into diets with low protein digestibility or high dietary protein level may not ameliorate all negative effects with regard to epithelial response. Based on the current knowledge, the use of diets with low levels of high-quality protein may help to reduce the risk for intestinal disease in young pigs.

  10. Pathogenesis of Lassa Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    virus , an arenavirus distantly related to Lassa Lassa fever ...other arenaviruses in animal models (5. 6). In VOL. 37, 1982 LASSA VIRUS INFECTION IN GUINEA PIGS 777S[ iU FIG. 6. (A) Lassa viral antigens in...resem- ent with the hemoconcentration associated with bles human and primate Lassa virus infection other human hemorrhagic fever virus infections. than

  11. A high utility integrated map of the pig genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The domestic pig is being increasingly exploited as a system for modeling human disease. It also has substantial economic importance for meat-based protein production. Physical clone maps have underpinned large-scale genomic sequencing and enabled focused cloning efforts for many genome...

  12. RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiao; Guo, Xiaogang; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Quanmei; Yi, Xiaoling; Schambach, Axel; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Yang, Dongshan; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-08-01

    Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.

  13. Ototoxic drugs: difference in sensitivity between mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Poirrier, A L; Van den Ackerveken, P; Kim, T S; Vandenbosch, R; Nguyen, L; Lefebvre, P P; Malgrange, B

    2010-03-01

    The development of experimental animal models has played an invaluable role in understanding the mechanisms of neurosensory deafness and in devising effective treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop an adult mouse model of ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss and to compare the ototoxicity in the adult mouse to that in the well-described guinea pig model. Mice are a powerful model organism, especially due to the large availability of antibodies, probes and genetic mutants. In this study, mice (n=114) and guinea pigs (n=35) underwent systemic treatment with either kanamycin or cisplatin. Auditory brainstem responses showed a significant threshold shift in guinea pigs 2 weeks after the beginning of the ototoxic treatment, while there was no significant hearing impairment recorded in mice. Hair cells and neuronal loss were correlated with hearing function in both guinea pigs and mice. These results indicate that the mouse is not a good model for ototoxicity, which should be taken into consideration in all further investigations concerning ototoxicity-induced hearing loss.

  14. EFFECTS OF METHYLNALTREXONE ON GUINEA PIG GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Vegezzi, Gaia; Sternini, Catia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally acting μ opioid receptor (μOR) antagonist, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in naïve vs. opiate-chronically treated guinea pigs in vitro and in vivo. We have used the electrically stimulated muscle twitch contractions of longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations and total GI transit as measure of GI motility. In LMMP preparations of naïve guinea pigs, MNTX (1–30 μM) induced a significant, dose-response reduction of morphine-induced inhibition of electrically stimulated muscle twitch contractions, with an IC50 of 9.4 10−8M. By contrast, MNTX abolished the inhibitory effect of acute morphine at any concentration tested (1–30 μM) in the guinea pigs chronically treated with opiates. In vivo, MNTX (10–50 mg s.c.) did not affect GI transit in naïve guinea pigs when administered acutely or for 5 consecutive days, but reversed the GI transit delay induced by chronic morphine treatment. These findings show that MNTX is effective in reversing opiate-induced inhibition of GI motility acting at peripheral μORs, but does not exert a pharmacologic effect on GI transit in the absence of opiate stimulation. PMID:23361094

  15. The pig eye as a novel model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ederra, Javier; García, Mónica; Hernández, María; Urcola, Haritz; Hernández-Barbáchano, Ernesto; Araiz, Javier; Vecino, Elena

    2005-11-01

    We validated the pig eye as a model of glaucoma, based on chronic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP was elevated by cauterising three episcleral veins in each of the left eyes of five adult pigs. Right eyes were used as controls. Measurement of IOP was performed during the experiment with an applanation tonometer (Tono-Pen). Five months after episcleral vein occlusion, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from both cauterised and control eyes were retrogradely backfilled with Fluoro-Gold. Analysis of RGC loss and morphometric as characterization of surviving RGCs was performed using whole-mounted retinas. Elevation of IOP was apparent after three weeks of episcleral vein cauterisation and it remained elevated for at least 21 weeks (duration of the experiments). Analysis of RGC loss after chronic elevation of IOP revealed that RGC death was significant in the mid-peripheral and peripheral retina, mainly in the temporal quadrants of both retinal regions. Moreover the mean soma area of remaining RGCs was observed to increase and we found a greater loss of large RGCs in the mid-peripheral and peripheral retina. We conclude that the pattern of RGC death induced in the pig retina by episcleral vein cauterisation resembles that found in human glaucoma. On the basis of this study, the pig retina may be considered as a suitable model for glaucoma-related studies, based on its similarity with human and on its affordability.

  16. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology Letters 41:159-173. Brewer NR, Cruise LJ. (1997). The Respiratory System of the Guinea Pig: Emphasis on Species Differences. Contemp Top...3 3.1. MODELING DEPOSITION EFFICIENCY IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT ............. 3 3.2. LUNG GEOMETRY...15 iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Compartmental representation of the respiratory tract

  17. Identification of genomic regions associated with cryptorchidism in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptorchidism, failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum, is a common abnormality in pigs and man. Research has shown that genetics contributes to the incidence of the defect. Unlike humans, porcine cryptorchidism is not typically associated with other physiological defects. Yet cry...

  18. The Guinea Pig as a Model of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Carlin, Danielle J; McMurray, David N; Hickey, Anthony J

    2008-01-01

    The words ‘guinea pig’ are synonymous with scientific experimentation, but much less is known about this species than many other laboratory animals. This animal model has been used for approximately 200 y and was the first to be used in the study of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria. Today the guinea pig is used as a model for a number of infectious bacterial diseases, including pulmonary, sexually transmitted, ocular and aural, gastrointestinal, and other infections that threaten the lives of humans. Most studies on the immune response to these diseases, with potential therapies and vaccines, have been conducted in animal models (for example, mouse) that may have less similarity to humans because of the large number of immunologic reagents available for these other species. This review presents some of the diseases for which the guinea pig is regarded as the premier model to study infections because of its similarity to humans with regard to symptoms and immune response. Furthermore, for diseases in which guinea pigs share parallel pathogenesis of disease with humans, they are potentially the best animal model for designing treatments and vaccines. Future studies of immune regulation of these diseases, novel therapies, and preventative measures require the development of new immunologic reagents designed specifically for the guinea pig. PMID:18724774

  19. Mining the pig genome to investigate the domestication process

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Onsins, S E; Burgos-Paz, W; Manunza, A; Amills, M

    2014-01-01

    Pig domestication began around 9000 YBP in the Fertile Crescent and Far East, involving marked morphological and genetic changes that occurred in a relatively short window of time. Identifying the alleles that drove the behavioural and physiological transformation of wild boars into pigs through artificial selection constitutes a formidable challenge that can only be faced from an interdisciplinary perspective. Indeed, although basic facts regarding the demography of pig domestication and dispersal have been uncovered, the biological substrate of these processes remains enigmatic. Considerable hope has been placed on new approaches, based on next-generation sequencing, which allow whole-genome variation to be analyzed at the population level. In this review, we provide an outline of the current knowledge on pig domestication by considering both archaeological and genetic data. Moreover, we discuss several potential scenarios of genome evolution under the complex mixture of demography and selection forces at play during domestication. Finally, we highlight several technical and methodological approaches that may represent significant advances in resolving the conundrum of livestock domestication. PMID:25074569

  20. Reflections on the Fiftieth Reunion of the Guinea Pigs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loud, Oliver

    1988-01-01

    A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)

  1. Improved Method for Culturing Guinea-Pig Macrophage Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J.

    1982-01-01

    Proper nutrients and periodic changes in culture medium maintain cell viability for a longer period. New method uses a thioglycolate solution, instead of mineral oil, to induce macrophage cells in guinea pigs and also uses an increased percent of fetal-calf bovine serum in cultivation medium. Macrophage cells play significant roles in the body's healing and defense systems.

  2. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  3. Can we make the pig placenta work better?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of piglets born alive at each parity contributes to the efficiency of swine production. Moreover, piglet birth weights affect both survival to weaning and future growth rate. Litter size and birth weight are influenced by placental function. The pig placenta is classified as diffuse epith...

  4. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  5. Effects of short-term sodium chlorate exposure on pigs.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chun-Nam; Jung, Won-Chul; Choi, Hyunju; Lee, Yeo Eun; Yoo, Chang-Yeul; Kim, Suk; Lee, Hu-Jang

    2012-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to different doses of sodium chlorate in 10-week-old pigs. Twenty pigs were divided into four equal groups and treated with different doses of sodium chlorate: 0, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight per day via the drinking water for 7 consecutive days. The results showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in red blood cell and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.001) and creatinine levels, and an increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05) activities in swine administered sodium chlorate at a dose of 500 mg kg-1 body weight per day. The histopathological study revealed increased numbers of vacuoles in the convoluted tubules, tubular necrosis and degeneration of the renal tubular epithelial cells, depletion of nuclei and lobular necrosis of the liver in all pigs treated with sodium chlorate at 500 mg kg-1 body weight per day. Thus, 7-day administration of sodium chlorate at 500 mg kg-1 body weight per day to pigs affects the liver and kidney tissues as well as the haematologic and serum biochemical parameters.

  6. Digestable and Metabolizable Energy of Crude Glycerol in Growing Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent DE and ME value of crude glycerol for growing pigs was determined in a series of 5 experiments using crude glycerol (86.95% glycerol) from a biodiesel production facility with soybean oil used as the initial feedstock (AG Processing Inc., Sergeant Bluff, IA). Dietary treatments were 0, ...

  7. A unique circovirus-like genome detected in pig feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a metagenomic approach and molecular cloning methods, we identified, cloned, and sequenced the complete genome of a novel circular DNA virus, porcine stool-associated virus (PoSCV4), from pig feces. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein showed that PoSCV4 is most r...

  8. When Pigs Fly: A New Perspective on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Colette M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her "When pigs fly" story to initiate a discussion about how educators might broaden their understanding of "learning." She shares the lessons she has learned from her son who has Asperger's syndrome. As professionals in higher education, educators adjust organizational and educational structures to accommodate…

  9. Pig Data and Bayesian Inference on Multinomial Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Bayesian inference on multinomial probabilities is conducted based on data collected from the game Pass the Pigs[R]. Prior information on these probabilities is readily available from the instruction manual, and is easily incorporated in a Dirichlet prior. Posterior analysis of the scoring probabilities quantifies the discrepancy between empirical…

  10. Playing with "The Three Pigs": Not Just for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie L.

    2002-01-01

    This simulation explores instruction that combines role-play with the word play of "The Three Pigs". Describes efforts to increase fluency and communicative competence in English among graduate English as Second Language students of various disciplines and nationalities and discusses debriefing, students' attitudes, and acceptance of…

  11. Omental torsion in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Shrubsole-Cockwill, Alana N.; Cockwill, Ken R.N.; Parker, Dennilyn L.

    2008-01-01

    An adult intact male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was presented with gastrointestinal stasis. Radiographic findings demonstrated a gas- and fluid-filled cecum. Treatment was initiated but the animal died shortly after presentation. Gross postmortem revealed omental torsion with vascular thrombosis and necrosis. This is the first report of omental torsion with vascular thrombosis in a domestic animal. PMID:19043488

  12. Identification of Stem Leydig Cells Derived from Pig Testicular Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Pengfei; Dong, Wuzi; Zeng, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    Stem Leydig cells (SLCs), located in the testicular interstitial compartment in the mammalian testes, are capable of differentiating to testosterone-synthesizing Leydig cells (LCs), thus providing a new strategy for treating testosterone deficiency. However, no previous reports have identified and cultured SLCs derived from the pig. The aim of the current study was to isolate, identify, and culture SLCs from pigs. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunochemical analysis showed that SLCs were present and that PDGFRα was mainly expressed in the pig testicular interstitium, indicating that PDGFRα was a marker for SLCs in the neonatal pig. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR results showed that SLC markers were expressed in primary isolated LCs, indicating that they were putative SLCs. The putative SLCs were subsequently cultured with a testicular fluid of piglets (pTF) medium. Clones formed after 7 days and the cells expressed PDGFRα. However, no clones grew in the absence of pTF, but the cells expressed CYP17A1, indicating that pTF could sustain the features of porcine SLCs. To summarize, we isolated porcine SLCs and identified their basic characteristics. Taken together, these results may help lay the foundation for research in the clinical application of porcine SLCs. PMID:28243257

  13. Purinergic regulation of guinea pig suburothelial myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Sui, G P; Fry, C H

    2004-01-01

    The Ca2+-regulating and electrophysiological properties of guinea-pig suburothelial myofibroblasts have been measured in order to investigate their potential role in the sensation of bladder fullness, due to their strategic position between the urothelium and afferent fibres. Previous work has shown that stretch of the bladder wall releases ATP. Cells that stain positively for vimentin were isolated. About 45% of cells (median membrane capacitance 13.3 pF) exhibited spontaneous depolarizations to about −25 mV with a physiological Cl− gradient (frequency 2.6 ± 1.5 min−1, duration 14.5 ± 2.2 s, n = 15). Under voltage-clamp spontaneous inward currents (frequency 1.5 ± 0.2 min−1, duration 14.5 ± 7.0 s, n = 18) were recorded, with a similar reversal potential. The spontaneous currents were preceded by intracellular Ca2+ transients with a magnitude that was independent of membrane potential. All cells tested responded to ATP by generating an intracellular Ca2+ transient, followed by inward currents; the currents had a similar reversal potential and slope conductance to their spontaneous counterparts. ATP-generated transients were mimicked by UTP and ADP but not by α,β-methylene-ATP (1–10 μm) or CTP (30 μm), indicating that ATP acts via a P2Y receptor. Transients were partially attenuated by 1 mm suramin but PPADS (80 μm) had no effect. These data indicate that ATP acts via a P2Y receptor, but responses were resistant to the P2Y1 antagonist MRS2179. ATP-generated transients were abolished by intracellular perfusion with heparin and TMB-8 indicating that IP3 was the intracellular second messenger. The reversal potentials of the spontaneous and ATP-generated currents were shifted by about +45 mV by a 12-fold reduction of the extracellular [Cl−] and the currents were greatly attenuated by 1 mm DIDS. No transients were generated on exposure to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. We propose that these cells may play a regulatory step in the sensation of

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting reproduction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cassady, J P; Johnson, R K; Pomp, D; Rohrer, G A; Van Vleck, L D; Spiegel, E K; Gilson, K M

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this research was to identify chromosomal regions harboring QTL affecting reproduction in pigs. A three-generation resource population was developed by crossing low-indexing pigs from a randomly selected control line (C) with high-indexing pigs of a line selected for increased index of ovulation rate and embryonic survival (I). Differences between Lines I and C at Generation 10 were 6.7 ova and 3.3 fetuses at 50 d of gestation and 3.1 fully formed and 1.6 live pigs at birth. Phenotypic data were collected on F2 females, born in three replicates, for ovulation rate (n = 423), age at puberty (n = 295), litter size (n = 370), and number of nipples (n = 428). Litter-size data included number of fully formed, live, stillborn, and mummified pigs. Grandparent, F1, and F2 animals were genotyped for 151 microsatellite markers distributed across all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Genotypic data were available on 423 F2 females. Average spacing between markers was 19.3 Kosambi centimorgans. Calculations of logarithms of odds (LOD) scores were by least squares, and fixed effects for sire-dam combination and replicate were included in the models. Genome-wide significance level thresholds of 5% and 10% were calculated using a permutation approach. There was evidence (P < 0.05) for QTL affecting ovulation rate on SSC9, age at puberty on SSC7 and SSC8, number of nipples on SSC8 and SSC11, number of stillborn pigs on SSC5 and SSC13, and number of fully formed pigs on SSC11. There was evidence (P < 0.10) for additional QTL affecting age at puberty on SSC7, SSC8, and SSC12, number born live on SSC11, and number of nipples on SSC1, SSC6, and SSC7. Litter size is lowly heritable and sex-limited. Therefore, accuracy of selection for litter size may be enhanced by marker-assisted selection. Ovulation rate and age at puberty are laborious to measure, and thus marker-assisted selection may provide a practical and efficient method of selection.

  15. Influenza infection in humans and pigs in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, N; He, S; Zhang, T; Zou, W; Shu, L; Sharp, G B; Webster, R G

    1996-01-01

    The three last pandemic strains of influenza A virus-Asian/57, Hong Kong/68 and Russian/77-are believed to have originated in China. The strains responsible for the 1957 and 1968 human pandemics were reassortants incorporating both human and avian influenza viruses, which may have arisen in pigs. We therefore undertook a population-based study in the Nanchang region of Central China to establish the prevalence, types and seasonal pattern of human influenza infection and to screen serum samples from animals and humans for evidence of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses. Two definite influenza seasons were demonstrated, one extending from November to March and the other July to September. The profile of antibodies to commonly circulating human influenza viruses was no different in Nanchang and neighboring rural communities than in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. In particular, Chinese women who raised pigs in their homes were no more likely to have been exposed to influenza virus than were subjects who seldom or never had contact with pigs. However, we did obtain evidence using isolated H7 protein in an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for infection of pig farmers by an avian H7 influenza virus suggesting that influenza. A viruses may have been transmitted directly from ducks to humans. The results of the serological survey also indicated that pigs in or near Nanchang were infected by human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses, but not with typical swine viruses. We found no serological evidence for H2 influenza viruses in humans after 1968.

  16. Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

  17. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-05-01

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pvl gene detection. A total of 200 S. aureus isolates were collected from 590 pigs (33.9%, 200/590), of which 162 (81%, 162/200) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 38 (19%, 38/200) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Ninety-nine of the MSSA isolates (99/162, 61.1%) were ST398, which represented the dominant sequence type overall. Eighty-seven isolates were ST9 (87/200, 43.5%), and all MRSA belonged to that sequence type which consisted of the spa types t899 and t2922. Among the MSSA strains, t034, t899 and t4358 were the most dominant spa types (139/162, 85.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IVb. The pvl gene was only detected in 3 ST7/t2119 MSSA isolates. All MRSA but more importantly also 82.7% (134/162) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to six or more antibiotics. Moreover, a novel resistance determinant-lsa(E) was identified among 22% (44/200) of all isolates. In conclusion, pigs in northeast China are frequently colonized with ST398 MSSA. MRSA with this sequence type, typically associated with pigs in Europe, was not found. High levels of multiple antibiotic resistance among MRSA isolates as well as MSSA isolates are a public health concern.

  18. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Buddington, Randal K; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Siggers, Richard H; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T; Burrin, Douglas G

    2009-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs.

  19. Efficacy of pig-to-rhesus lamellar corneal xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Mee Kum; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ko, Jung Hwa; Jeong, So Hee; Lee, Jae-Il; Oh, Byoung-Chol; Kang, Hee Jung; Wee, Won Ryang

    2011-08-22

    PURPOSE. To solve the shortage of donor corneas, a decellularizing method based on hypertonic saline treatment was introduced, and a favorable outcome was observed in pig-to-rabbit lamellar corneal transplantation. This study was an investigation of the efficacy of pig-to-nonhuman primate lamellar corneal transplantation, using both decellularized and fresh porcine corneas to assess feasibility as a substitute for human corneas. METHODS. Nine Chinese rhesus macaques underwent lamellar corneal transplantation using both decellularized (n = 5) and fresh (n = 4) porcine corneas. Clinically acceptable graft size (7.5 mm in diameter) and minimal immunosuppression based on topical and systemic corticosteroids were applied. Rejection signs, histology of porcine grafts, and serial changes in recipients' blood profile, including memory T-cell subset, anti-α-Gal and donor pig-specific antibodies, and complement were evaluated. Changes in aqueous complement concentration were also assessed at 4 weeks after transplantation. RESULTS. Of the decellularized porcine lamellar grafts, 80% remained transparent for more than 6 months, whereas half of the fresh porcine lamellar grafts developed chronic rejection. Rejected grafts showed extensive cellular infiltration, predominantly CD8(+) T lymphocytes and macrophages. Immunologic profiles of the recipients with rejected grafts showed a significant increase in the concentration of aqueous complement, an enhancement of memory T cells, and an abrupt increase in donor pig-specific antibodies. CONCLUSIONS. The findings suggested that decellularized porcine cornea could be a promising substitute for human corneal allograft. Fresh porcine cornea may be a feasible option for a substitute if combined with more potent immunosuppression or if obtained from transgenic pigs with complement-regulatory proteins.

  20. Gnotobiotic Miniature Pig Interbreed Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer for Xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang Eun; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, HoonTaek

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic animal producing technology has improved consistently over the last couple of decades. Among the available methods, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology was officially the most popular. However, SCNT has low efficiency and requires a highly skilled individual. Additionally, the allo-SCNT nuclear reprogramming mechanism is poorly understood in the gnotobiotic miniature pig, which is a candidate for xenotransplantation, making sampling in oocytes very difficult compared to commercial hybrid pigs. Therefore, interbreed SCNT (ibSCNT), which is a combination of miniature pig and commercial pig (Landrace based), was analyzed and was found to be similar to SCNT in terms of the rate of blastocyst formation (12.6% ± 2.9% vs. 15.5% ± 2.2%; p > 0.05). However, a significantly lower fusion rate was observed in the ibSCNT compared to normal SCNT with Landrace pig somatic cells (29.6% ± 0.8% vs. 65.0% ± 4.9%). Thus, the optimization of fusion parameters was necessary for efficient SCNT. Our results further revealed that ibSCNT by the whole-cell intracytoplasmic injection (WCICI) method had a significantly higher blastocyst forming efficiency than the electrofusion method (31.1 ± 8.5 vs. 15.5% ± 2.2%). The nuclear remodeling and the pattern of changes in acetylation at H3K9 residue were similar in both SCNT and ibSCNT embryos.

  1. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this "human-on-pig" approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes.

  2. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Chris J.; Strube, Mikael L.; Hansen, Marie B.; Lindved, Bodil K.; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  3. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known.

  4. Antibodies to spermatozoa. III. Responses in rabbits and guinea-pigs to immunization with guinea-pig sperm cells

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, Annemarie; Shulman, S.

    1971-01-01

    The antigens of guinea-pig sperm cells, of both the epididymal and ejaculated (or seminal) types, have been studied, using rabbit and guinea-pig antisera. Several antigens could be revealed by gel diffusion studies, using well-washed but non-ruptured sperm cells, indicating that intentional cell breaking is not essential for demonstrating the antigens. This release of soluble antigen was followed as a function of time and temperature, both as total protein in supernatants and in increasing strength of precipitation. With rabbit antiserum, epididymal sperm showed two antigens, that were also demonstrated in epididymal and testicular extract and in seminal sperm. These other materials revealed additional antigens with these antisera. Immunofluorescent staining was limited to the acrosomes. With guinea-pig antibodies, no precipitating antigen that was characteristic of sperm could be seen. These antisera showed immunofluorescent staining of the acrosomes. The staining could be distinguished, in terms of thermostability, from the staining produced by normal serum. No evidence was found for the occurrence of any sperm-coating antigens in the guinea-pig, especially since both antiseminal plasma and antivesicular fluid antisera failed to give immunofluorescent staining of the sperm cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4998924

  5. Fiber-related digestive processes in three different breeds of pigs.

    PubMed

    von Heimendahl, E; Breves, G; Abel, H J

    2010-03-01

    The hypothesis examined in this experiment was that, because of intensive selection for greater daily BW gains and efficient utilization of concentrated low-fiber diets, modern pig breeds differ from old local breeds in their physiological ability to respond to soluble dietary fiber. Thus, the old local breeds, Schwaebisch Haellisches Schwein (SH) and Bunte Bentheimer (BB), and a modern crossbred pig (CB) were used in metabolism trials to study fiber-related digestion, including microbial hindgut fermentation, by applying a colon simulation technique (Cositec) and measuring intestinal glucose transport in Ussing chambers. A basal diet or basal plus 20% dried sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a soluble fiber source was fed to 6 pigs/breed in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Four pigs of each breed per treatment were used for intestinal anatomical measurements at the end of the metabolism trials. The pigs had an initial average BW of 33.9 +/- 3.7 kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet 80% of energy and 100% of nutrient requirements for pigs with 700 g of ADG. Feeding the SBP diet reduced total intestinal tract, but it increased colon length, water-holding capacity of the digesta, and fecal bulk (P < 0.01). The digestibility of OM, CP, and ether extract decreased, whereas that of NDF and ADF increased, by SBP (P = 0.001). Pigs receiving SBP excreted less urinary N and retained more N (P = 0.001). The fecal proportions of undigested dietary and water soluble N increased and those of bacterial and endogenous debris N decreased (P < 0.05) in SBP-fed pigs. The SH pigs had lighter empty cecum weight, shorter colons, and less NDF digestibility than BB and CB pigs (P < 0.05). Fecal N excretion did not differ (P = 0.659) among breeds, but SH pigs excreted more urinary N (P = 0.001) than the other breeds. In Cositec, OM, NDF, and ADF disappearance rates from cecal chyme of SBP-fed pigs increased (P < 0.05) irrespective of pig breed. Cecal chyme of SBP-fed BB pigs

  6. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This “neuroscience Big data” represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability—the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability—the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming—the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that

  7. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This "neuroscience Big data" represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability-the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability-the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming-the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that the toolkit

  8. Identifying critical factors influencing the disposal of dead pigs by farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Wang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers may have a direct impact on pork safety, public health, and the ecological environment in China. Drawing on the existing literature, this study analyzed and summarized the main factors that could affect the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by conducting a survey of 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the disposal of dead pigs in China and provide useful regulatory strategies for the government. The interrelationships among dimensions and factors that affect the disposal of dead pigs by farmers were analyzed, and critical factors were identified by a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making method, which is a combination of decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and analytic network process (ANP). Our results demonstrated that production characteristics were the most important dimensions and that costs and profits, scale of farming, pattern of farming, knowledge of relevant laws and regulations, and knowledge of pig disease and prevention were the five most critical factors affecting the disposal of dead pigs by farmers in China at this stage. The significance of this study lies in further discussing some management policies for the Chinese government regarding strengthen regulation of disposing dead pigs.

  9. Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

  10. Genome data from a sixteenth century pig illuminate modern breed relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, O; Burgos-Paz, W; Casas, E; Ballester, M; Bianco, E; Olalde, I; Santpere, G; Novella, V; Gut, M; Lalueza-Fox, C; Saña, M; Pérez-Enciso, M

    2015-02-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides direct evidence of historical events that have modeled the genome of modern individuals. In livestock, resolving the differences between the effects of initial domestication and of subsequent modern breeding is not straight forward without aDNA data. Here, we have obtained shotgun genome sequence data from a sixteenth century pig from Northeastern Spain (Montsoriu castle), the ancient pig was obtained from an extremely well-preserved and diverse assemblage. In addition, we provide the sequence of three new modern genomes from an Iberian pig, Spanish wild boar and a Guatemalan Creole pig. Comparison with both mitochondrial and autosomal genome data shows that the ancient pig is closely related to extant Iberian pigs and to European wild boar. Although the ancient sample was clearly domestic, admixture with wild boar also occurred, according to the D-statistics. The close relationship between Iberian, European wild boar and the ancient pig confirms that Asian introgression in modern Iberian pigs has not existed or has been negligible. In contrast, the Guatemalan Creole pig clusters apart from the Iberian pig genome, likely due to introgression from international breeds.

  11. Genome data from a sixteenth century pig illuminate modern breed relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, O; Burgos-Paz, W; Casas, E; Ballester, M; Bianco, E; Olalde, I; Santpere, G; Novella, V; Gut, M; Lalueza-Fox, C; Saña, M; Pérez-Enciso, M

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides direct evidence of historical events that have modeled the genome of modern individuals. In livestock, resolving the differences between the effects of initial domestication and of subsequent modern breeding is not straight forward without aDNA data. Here, we have obtained shotgun genome sequence data from a sixteenth century pig from Northeastern Spain (Montsoriu castle), the ancient pig was obtained from an extremely well-preserved and diverse assemblage. In addition, we provide the sequence of three new modern genomes from an Iberian pig, Spanish wild boar and a Guatemalan Creole pig. Comparison with both mitochondrial and autosomal genome data shows that the ancient pig is closely related to extant Iberian pigs and to European wild boar. Although the ancient sample was clearly domestic, admixture with wild boar also occurred, according to the D-statistics. The close relationship between Iberian, European wild boar and the ancient pig confirms that Asian introgression in modern Iberian pigs has not existed or has been negligible. In contrast, the Guatemalan Creole pig clusters apart from the Iberian pig genome, likely due to introgression from international breeds. PMID:25204303

  12. Unique motifs identify PIG-A proteins from glycosyltransferases of the GT4 family

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis is catalyzed by PIG-A, an enzyme that transfers N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol. This protein is present in all eukaryotic organisms ranging from protozoa to higher mammals, as part of a larger complex of five to six 'accessory' proteins whose individual roles in the glycosyltransferase reaction are as yet unclear. The PIG-A gene has been shown to be an essential gene in various eukaryotes. In humans, mutations in the protein have been associated with paroxysomal noctural hemoglobuinuria. The corresponding PIG-A gene has also been recently identified in the genome of many archaeabacteria although genes of the accessory proteins have not been discovered in them. The present study explores the evolution of PIG-A and the phylogenetic relationship between this protein and other glycosyltransferases. Results In this paper we show that out of the twelve conserved motifs identified by us eleven are exclusively present in PIG-A and, therefore, can be used as markers to identify PIG-A from newly sequenced genomes. Three of these motifs are absent in the primitive eukaryote, G. lamblia. Sequence analyses show that seven of these conserved motifs are present in prokaryote and archaeal counterparts in rudimentary forms and can be used to differentiate PIG-A proteins from glycosyltransferases. Using partial least square regression analysis and data involving presence or absence of motifs in a range of PIG-A and glycosyltransferases we show that (i) PIG-A may have evolved from prokaryotic glycosyltransferases and lipopolysaccharide synthases, members of the GT4 family of glycosyltransferases and (ii) it is possible to uniquely classify PIG-A proteins versus glycosyltransferases. Conclusion Besides identifying unique motifs and showing that PIG-A protein from G. lamblia and some putative PIG-A proteins from archaebacteria are evolutionarily closer to glycosyltransferases, these studies

  13. Immune response phenotype of allergic versus clinically tolerant pigs in a neonatal swine model of allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah; Wilkie, Bruce

    2013-07-15

    The prevalence of childhood food allergy and the duration of these allergies, particularly those considered to be transient, like egg and milk allergy, are increasing. The identification of allergic individuals using minimally invasive, non-anaphylaxis-threatening methods is therefore of increasing importance. In this experiment, correlates were sought of an allergic immune response (IR) phenotype in pigs. Using pigs pre-treated with heat-killed bacteria or bacterial components before allergic sensitization with the egg white protein ovomucoid (Ovm), differences were determined in IR phenotype of pigs in the categories treated-allergic, treated-tolerant, control-allergic (CA) and control-tolerant. Phenotype was established by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig)-associated antibody activity (AbA), cytokine profiles and the proportion of blood T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and observing late-phase allergen-specific skin tests (ST). Although 100% of pigs became sensitized to Ovm, only 33% of pigs had clinical signs of allergy after oral challenge with egg white. Pigs without clinical signs were classified as clinically tolerant. Sixty-seven percent of allergic pigs had a positive, late-phase ST classified as very strong or strong, while 84% of clinically tolerant pigs did not have late-phase ST. Treated-allergic pigs and CA pigs had greater total antibody IgG (H+L), IgE and IgG1 AbA than clinically tolerant pigs. Cytokine profiles of allergic pigs and the proportion of circulating T-regs, did not differ significantly between allergic and clinically tolerant pigs. Therefore, measurement of allergen-specific IgG, IgG1 and/or IgE activity and evaluation of late-phase ID ST may be useful in identifying allergic IR phenotypes in swine models of food allergy, which may be extended toward human use.

  14. Emotions on the loose: emotional contagion and the role of oxytocin in pigs.

    PubMed

    Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2015-03-01

    We studied emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy, and the role of oxytocin herein in pigs. Two training pigs per pen (n = 16 pens) were subjected to a positive treatment (pairwise access to a large compartment filled with peat, straw and some chocolate raisins) and a negative treatment (social isolation in a small compartment) in a test room using a within-subjects design. Thereafter, two naive pen mates joined the training pigs in the test room, but were not given access to the treatments. This allowed testing for emotional contagion. Subsequently, the naive pigs, serving as their own controls, were given 24 IU of oxytocin or a placebo intranasally 30 min before accompanying the training pigs, which were exposed to either the negative or positive treatment, to the test room. Behavioral differences found between the positive and negative treatments (e.g., play and "tail wagging" vs. standing alert, urinating, defecating and ears backward) show that the treatments induced a positive and negative emotional state in the training pigs, respectively. Changes in behaviors of the training pigs with and without naive pigs present (e.g., in ears backwards) and of the naive pigs with and without training pigs present (e.g., in standing alert) indicated that emotional contagion occurred, especially during the negative treatment. Oxytocin did not seem to affect the behavior of the treated naive pigs, but did affect behaviors (e.g., defecating) of the training pigs which had not received oxytocin. This suggests a role for oxytocin in pig communication, which merits further research.

  15. Vitamin C plasma concentrations and leg weakness in the forelegs of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Armocida, A; Beskow, P; Amcoff, P; Kallner, A; Ekman, S

    2001-04-01

    Four litters (41 pigs) of cross-bred pigs were studied from 6 to 26 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected at 6, 13, 21 and 26 weeks of age and analysed for contents of vitamin C, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The pigs were examined clinically for foreleg weakness at the ages of 21 and 26 weeks. At the age of 26 weeks the pigs were slaughtered and the right forelegs were examined macroscopically and selected samples were collected for radiological, histological and ultrastructural examination. The prevalence of foreleg lesions was high, with lesions of dyschondroplasia of the distal growth plate of the ulna in 30 pigs, synovitis of the elbow joint in 24 pigs and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint in 25 pigs. At the ages of 21 and 26 weeks, five pigs had evidently crooked forelegs and 14 pigs (age 21 weeks) and 25 pigs (age 26 weeks) had mildly deformed forelegs. The serum levels of Ca, P and ALP were within normal values for growing-finishing pigs. The range of vitamin C concentrations in plasma showed a wide difference (7.1-49.8 mumol/l) but was not associated with deformed forelegs. The serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP and the plasma concentration of vitamin C differed significantly (P = 0.05) between age groups and there was a significant (P = 0.001) positive correlation between the levels of vitamin C in plasma and the serum levels of ALP at 6 weeks of age. The aim of the present study was to determine if there was any association between the plasma levels of vitamin C and the extent of crooked or deviated forelegs in growing-finishing pigs. We could not find a vitamin C deficiency during the study and no association between low levels of vitamin C in plasma and the presence of deformed forelegs of these 40 pigs.

  16. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-03-02

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  17. Protective activity of the purified protein antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in pigs.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Sato, H; Sakakura, H; Shigeto, K; Nakano, K; Saito, H; Maehara, N

    1999-02-01

    We purified the protein antigen (P64), which contains 66 and 64 kDa proteins, from the alkaline extract (AE) of whole cells of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strain Agata (serovar 5) to determine the protective activity of the antigen against E. rhusiopathiae infection in pigs. The serum titre of antibody against P64 rapidly increased in pigs immunized with 500 and 100 micrograms of P64 and reached maximum values at 3 weeks after the first immunization (1 week after the second immunization). However, the serum antibody titres were not increased in pigs immunized with 20 micrograms of P64 and in nonimmunized pigs. In the pigs immunized with live cell vaccine (acriflavin-fast attenuated strain Koganei 65-0.15), the serum titres of antibody against P64 also increased at 1-2 weeks after immunization. In a pig challenge test performed on immunized and nonimmunized pigs, all nonimmunized pigs showed typical clinical signs of swine erysipelas (fever, erysipeloid, arthritis), while all pigs immunized with 500 and 100 micrograms of P64 and live cell vaccine showed no clinical signs of this disease. In Western blot analysis, sera from pigs immunized with P64 and live cell vaccine strongly reacted with the 64 kDa protein. In contrast, the serum from nonimmunized pigs did not react with any proteins. From these results, it was suggested that a specific antibody against the 64 kDa protein could be increased in pigs immunized with P64 or live cell vaccine and that this anti-P64 antibody has a strong protective effect against E. rhusiopathiae infection in pigs.

  18. Protective effect of NaOH-extracted Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, T; Oishi, E; Amimoto, K; Ui, S; Nakamura, H; Okada, N; Sasaki, O; Yasuhara, H

    1998-01-01

    A vaccine was prepared from a NaOH-extracted antigen of the Kyoto strain (serovar 2) of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) with an oil adjuvant, and was injected twice at 3-week intervals into SPF pigs and conventional pigs with maternal antibodies. After the second vaccination, IgG-GA titers of immunized SPF pigs were more than 256-fold at 3 weeks, and immunized pigs with maternal antibodies were 64-fold at 7 weeks. The pig with maternal antibodies vaccinated once with live vaccine had less than 4-fold titers. The ELISA antibody titers which were measured by using the NaOH-extracted antigen showed similar transition to the IgG-GA antibody titers. All immunized pigs and nonvaccinated control pigs were challenged with the strains Fujisawa (serovar 1a) or Saitama-1 (serovar 2). After challenge exposure, all pigs immunized with the NaOH-extracted vaccine showed no clinical signs and survived, and the pig immunized with the live vaccine had a local rhomboidal lesion at the site of the injection. Nonvaccinated pigs developed typical symptoms of E. rhusiopathiae infection and one of them died. After the autopsy, the challenge strains were not recovered from the main organs except tonsils of the pigs immunized with the NaOH-extracted vaccine. These results indicated that the NaOH-extracted vaccine induces a protective effect in pigs with maternal antibodies as well as in SPF pigs negative for such antibodies, and that 67-64, 62-60 kDa proteins in the NaOH-extracted antigen play an important role in protecting against E. rhusiopathiae infection.

  19. Absorption of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(di-isopropylamino)ethyl] methyl phosphonothioate) through pig, human and guinea pig skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher H; Hattersley, Ian J; Rutter, Stephen J; Chilcott, Robert P

    2006-12-01

    The physico-chemical properties of VX make the skin the most likely route of absorption into the human body. The development of effective medical countermeasures against such percutaneous threat agents relies on the use of appropriate animal models, as the inherent toxicity of nerve agents precludes the use of human volunteers. Previous studies have characterised the mechanism of nerve agent toxicity in rodent models, however, it is generally accepted that one of the most appropriate animal models for human skin absorption is the domestic pig. The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare the skin absorption kinetics of VX in vitro using pig, human and guinea pig skin to highlight any potential species differences in skin permeability. When undiluted VX was applied directly to the skin, the permeability of guinea pig skin was approximately 7-fold greater than human skin. There was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. When VX diluted with isopropyl alcohol was applied to the skin, the permeability of guinea pig skin was approximately 4-fold greater than human skin. There was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. From this data it may be inferred that dermatomed, abdominal pig skin is an appropriate model for the human skin absorption of VX.

  20. Pressure mat analysis of the longitudinal development of pig locomotion in growing pigs after weaning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait evaluation is difficult in pigs, especially when objective and quantitative data are needed, thus little research has been conducted in this species. There is considerable experience, however, with objective gait analysis in other species, such as horses and dogs. In this study, a pressure mat was used to establish baseline kinetic data for gait and its longitudinal development in growing, weaned piglets. Ten clinically healthy weaned piglets were trained to trot over a pressure mat. Measurements were performed weekly during 10 weeks, starting at 5 weeks of age. Four kinetic parameters were recorded for all four limbs: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Three representative runs per measuring session per pig were collected. For each of the variables, left vs. right limb asymmetry-indices (ASI’s) were calculated based on the average for that parameter per week. A linear mixed model was used to determine the influence of time (week), velocity, and limb (left vs. right, and fore vs. hind). Intra-class correlations were calculated to assess within-session replicability. Results Intra-class correlations showed good within-session replicability. Body-weight normalized PVF (nPVF), LR (nLR), VI (nVI) and PVP (nPVP) were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. A higher velocity was associated with a higher nPVF, nLR and nPVP. All parameters varied between weeks. ASI of LR and VI were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. Velocity and time did not influence ASI of any of the variables. Conclusions Kinetic pressure mat measurements from healthy weaned piglets are highly replicable within-session. However, these variables present a significant variability between-session, which may be due to conformational changes of the young, growing piglets. Velocity clearly influences nPVF, nLR and nPVP, and all kinetic variables have higher values in forelimbs than in hind limbs. As time

  1. Glycemic index of starch affects nitrogen retention in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Drew, M D; Schafer, T C; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-04-01

    Three studies were performed to examine the effect of starch and protein digestion rates on N retention in grower pigs. In Exp. 1, the glycemic index (GI) of corn, a malting barley, and a slow-rumen-degradable barley (SRD-barley) were measured using 6 barrows (BW = 18.0 ± 0.5 kg). The GI of malting barley was greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (71.1 vs. 49.4), and the GI of both barley cultivars was less (P < 0.05) than that of corn (104.8). In Exp. 2, the standardized ileal digestibility of AA and DE content of the 3 ingredients were determined using 5 ileal-cannulated barrows (BW = 20.7 ± 2.3). The apparent total-tract energy digestibility values of corn (86.1%) and malting barley (85.7%) were greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (82.3%). The standardized ileal digestibility of Lys was 94.0, 92.6, and 92.4% for corn, malting barley, and SRD-barley, respectively, and did not differ among grains. In Exp. 3, 6 diets were formulated to equal DE (3.40 Mcal/kg), standardized ileal digestibility of Lys (8.6 g/kg), starch (424.9 g/kg), and digestible CP (180.0 g/kg) using the values obtained in Exp. 2. Three GI [high (corn), medium (malting barley), and low (SRD-barley)] and 2 rates of protein digestion [rapid (soy protein hydrolysate) and slow (soy protein isolate)] were tested in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with 36 barrows (BW = 32.2 ± 2.5 kg). Pigs were fed 3.0 times the maintenance energy requirement daily in 2 meals for 2 wk and were housed in metabolic crates to collect feces and urine separately. At the end of the study, intestinal contents were collected from 4 equal-length segments of the small intestine. The percentage of unabsorbed CP in segment 1 relative to dietary CP was greater (P < 0.05) for the soy protein isolate diet than for the soy protein hydrolysate diet (170.3 vs. 116.5%). The percentages of unabsorbed starch in segments 1 and 2 were greater (P < 0.05) for the SRD-barley diet than for the malting barley or corn diet. Nitrogen

  2. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy

  3. Preweaning housing effects on behavior and physiological measures in pigs during the suckling and fattening periods.

    PubMed

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Tománek, M; Valis, L

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the preweaning housing system on the stress response of pigs before weaning and during fattening was studied in 33 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: barren crate (standard farrowing crate without straw), enriched crate (20% larger crate, with straw), and as a control, a farrowing pen (pen, 60% larger than the barren crate, with straw). At 25 d of age, pigs were tested with an isolation test and 1 d later with a human approach test (HumanT). Pigs were weaned at 28 d of age. At 3 and 6 mo of age, pigs were tested with an isolation-human approach test. The latency and frequency of squeal calls and locomotor activity were analyzed for all 3 tests, whereas physical contact with the human was also analyzed for the HumanT and isolation-human approach test. At 6 mo of age, the pigs were transported to a slaughterhouse. One day before transport, immediately after transport, and 1 h after transport, saliva samples were taken for cortisol analysis. The pH of the LM was also measured 45 min after slaughter. Preweaning housing system affected (P < 0.05) the probability of squeal vocalizations, the latency of locomotion, and the duration of locomotion during the HumanT. Pigs from the enriched pens vocalized less, had a longer latency to move, and performed less overall locomotion than pigs from the barren crates. Preweaning housing system did not affect behavior of fattening pigs. Cortisol concentrations before and after transport were not affected by preweaning housing system. An interaction of cortisol concentrations and housing systems was observed between the control sample and the sample taken immediately after transport in pigs from the barren crates (P < 0.05) compared with pigs from the enriched housing systems. Meat from pigs reared in the barren crate tended to have lower pH (P < 0.10) and that of pigs reared in enriched crates had lower pH (P < 0.05) than meat of pigs reared in enriched pens. No differences were

  4. Social support in pigs with different coping styles.

    PubMed

    Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-04-22

    The presence of a conspecific during a stressful situation, i.e. social support, can considerably lower the stress response of an individual compared to experiencing the stressful situation alone. Pigs also benefit from social support, but it is not known whether the extent to which they benefit is dependent on their personality or coping style. In this study, therefore, the effect of social support on behavioral and physiological (i.e. salivary cortisol, heart rate and the heart rate variability parameters standard deviation (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)) stress responses was studied in pigs with different coping styles. Based on the backtest, piglets were classified as high-resisting (HR) or low-resisting (LR). At 11weeks of age, 12 gilts of each coping style were subjected to a 15min restraint test in a weighing cage without a pen mate present (i.e. no support treatment) and 12 other gilts of each coping style were subjected to this test with a pen mate, a boar with the same coping style, present (i.e. support treatment). With the pen mate present, LR gilts showed less standing alert behavior and they had their ears back less often than without the pen mate present. On the other hand, HR gilts seemed to spend less time on escaping the cage and more HR gilts seemed to urinate in the situation when the pen mate was present than without the pen mate present, but this was not significant. Independently of the test situation, HR gilts grunted more than LR gilts and they were more likely to urinate than LR gilts. Salivary cortisol concentrations were not affected by treatment or coping style, but were increased at 30min after the start of the test after which concentrations decreased again to starting levels. The heart rate and heart rate variability parameters RMSSD and RMSSD/SDNN ratio were not affected by treatment or coping style, but the SDNN was lower in the LR pigs during the first and last 5min of the test when a pen mate was

  5. Prevalence of Muscular Sarcosporidiosis in Slaughtered Domestic Pigs in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Noorazmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2017-01-01

    Sarcosporidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites, namely, Sarcocystis spp. In pigs, three species of Sarcocystis spp. have been recognised, including Sarcocystis meischeriana, Sarcocystis porcifelis and Sarcocystis suihominis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of muscular sarcosporidiosis in pigs using the pepsin digestion technique. A total of 150 fresh heart, oesophagus and thigh muscle samples from 50 Yorkshire and Landrace pigs were collected from two local abattoirs in Perak from May to August 2014. All the fresh muscle samples were thoroughly examined for macrocyst-forming Sarcocystis spp. and processed using the peptic digestion technique to detect bradyzoites. The results from the muscle samples showed that 58% (29 out of 50) of the pigs were positive for Sarcocystis spp. These findings highlight the importance of implementing stringent measures for screening pigs in abattoirs for Sarcocystis spp. infection because this infection in pigs is a public health concern. PMID:28228924

  6. Ancient DNA and Population Turnover in Southern Levantine Pigs- Signature of the Sea Peoples Migration?

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, Meirav; Huchon, Dorothée; Bar-Oz, Guy; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Horwitz, Liora Kolska; Maeir, Aren M.; Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Larson, Greger; Weiner, Steve; Finkelstein, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Near Eastern wild boars possess a characteristic DNA signature. Unexpectedly, wild boars from Israel have the DNA sequences of European wild boars and domestic pigs. To understand how this anomaly evolved, we sequenced DNA from ancient and modern pigs from Israel. Pigs from Late Bronze Age (until ca. 1150 BCE) in Israel shared haplotypes of modern and ancient Near Eastern pigs. European haplotypes became dominant only during the Iron Age (ca. 900 BCE). This raises the possibility that European pigs were brought to the region by the Sea Peoples who migrated to the Levant at that time. Then, a complete genetic turnover took place, most likely because of repeated admixture between local and introduced European domestic pigs that went feral. Severe population bottlenecks likely accelerated this process. Introductions by humans have strongly affected the phylogeography of wild animals, and interpretations of phylogeography based on modern DNA alone should be taken with caution. PMID:24186332

  7. Efficacy of Diverse Antiparasitic Treatments for Cysticercosis in the Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Mary L.; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis infects pigs and humans. Because antiparasitic treatment for human cysticercosis has sub-optimal efficacy, alternative regimes are needed. Seven antiparasitic regimens were tested in 42 naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis, and compared with prednisone alone (n = 6) or no treatment (n = 6). The numbers of viable cysts in muscles and in the brain were examined after necropsy and were significantly decreased in pigs receiving combined albendazole plus praziquantel, albendazole alone, or oxfendazole. Pigs receiving praziquantel alone and nitazoxanide had numerous surviving cysts. Control (untreated) pigs and prednisone-treated pigs had many more viable cysts, suggesting no effect. Combined albendazole plus praziquantel, and oxfendazole, showed a strong cysticidal effect and provide suitable alternative treatments to be further explored for their use for treatment of human neurocysticercosis. PMID:22855760

  8. Experimental Aujeszky's disease in pigs: excretion, survival and transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, A I; Wardley, R C; Martin, S; Ferris, N P

    1983-11-19

    Airborne Aujeszky's disease virus was recovered from looseboxes containing groups of pigs infected with virus strains from England, Northern Ireland and Denmark from days 1 to 7 after infection. Pigs sampled individually excreted most airborne virus on days 2 and 3 after infection. On a 24 hour basis the maximum amount of airborne virus excreted per pig was log10 5.3 TCID50. Subclinical infection was transmitted from a clinically affected group of pigs to a seronegative group held in separate looseboxes when air was drawn through ducting connecting one box with the other. Tissues taken from pigs killed at varying times after infection showed that the main sites of virus replication were in the head and neck region. Aujeszky's disease virus was detected for up to 40 days in a range of tissues taken from pigs at the acute stage of disease and stored at -20 degrees C.

  9. Avocado waste for finishing pigs: Impact on muscle composition and oxidative stability during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Grageola-Nuñez, Fernando; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of agricultural waste materials for pig feeding may be an interesting option for reducing production costs and contributing to sustainability and environmental welfare. In the present study, a mixed diet enriched with avocado waste (TREATED) is used for finishing industrial genotype pigs. The muscle longissimus thoracis et lomborum (LTL) from TREATED pigs was analyzed for composition and oxidative and color stability and compared with muscles obtained from pigs fed a CONTROL diet. Dietary avocado had significant impact on the content and composition of intramuscular fat (IMF), reducing the lipid content in LTL muscles and increasing the degree of unsaturation. This did not increase the oxidative instability of samples. On the contrary, muscles from TREATED pigs had significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation rates during chilled storage. The color of the muscles from TREATED pigs was also preserved from oxidation.

  10. Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suckling versus weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Saif, Linda J; Lu, Zhongyan; Jung, Kwonil

    2015-12-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an enteric coronaviral infection that causes severe morbidity and mortality in suckling pigs, but less severe disease in older pigs. Consequently, it causes significant economic losses to the pork industry. There are limited studies on the innate immune responses to PED virus (PEDV) in pigs. The aims of our study were to investigate differences in innate immune responses to PEDV infection in suckling and weaned pigs and to examine if disease severity coincides with reduced innate immune responses. Weaned 26-day-old pigs (n=20) and 9-day-old nursing pigs (n=20) were assigned to PEDV inoculated or uninoculated control groups. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs, virus shedding and were euthanized at post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1 and 5 to assay immune responses. Blood samples were collected at PIDs 1, 3 and 5. The natural killer (NK) cell frequencies, NK cell activities (lysis of target K562 tumor cells in vitro), CD3+CD4+ T cell and CD3+CD8+ T cell frequencies were measured in blood and ileum at PIDs 1 and 5. The PEDV infected suckling pigs showed severe diarrhea and vomiting at PID 1, whereas the PEDV infected weaned pigs showed milder clinical signs starting at PID 3. PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly higher diarrhea scores, earlier fecal PEDV RNA shedding and significantly higher viremia (viral RNA in serum) compared to weaned pigs. There was no mortality in either infected suckling or infected weaned pigs. The control pigs not inoculated with PEDV did not show any clinical signs and no detectable fecal or serum PEDV RNA. Strikingly, PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly lower NK cell frequencies, undetectable NK cell activity and lower IFNγ producing NK cells in blood and ileum compared to PEDV infected weaned pigs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of PEDV infected suckling pigs differed from those of PEDV infected weaned pigs and coincided with onset of fecal PEDV RNA shedding and serum PEDV

  11. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Improvac-treated male pigs compared with barrows.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Anna; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Henning, Martina; Bekendorf, Torsten; Krieter, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the effects of using Improvac (Pfizer Animal Health, Germany) on growth performance and meat characteristics in cross-bred male pigs. In addition average daily weight gain of immunised and surgically castrated males was estimated in order to demonstrate differences in growing patterns in these two treatment groups. The study was carried out in two identical batches. Pigs within batches (n = 446) were allocated to two different treatment groups: immunisation (IM) versus surgical castration (CM). Within treatment groups pigs were randomly assigned to two different diets (low- and high-lysine diet) in order to examine interactions of growth performance and castration technique. Vaccination was performed on the day of entry to the fattening unit and four to six weeks prior to slaughter. At the second vaccination IM-pigs showed significantly lower body weights than the control group (p < 0.05) in both batches. Throughout the whole fattening period CM-pigs tended to have a higher feed intake than IM-pigs while IM-pigs had a significantly lower (better) feed conversion ratio than CM-pigs (p < 0.05).The different lysine content of the diets had no coherent effect on any of the growth performance parameters analysed. Immunised pigs of both feeding groups and in both batches showed a tendency towards a lower carcass weight, back fat values and dressing percentages than surgically castrated pigs.The castration technique had no significant effect on meat quality parameters such as drip loss, shear force or cooking loss while intramuscular fat content (IMF) in immunised pigs fed high-lysine diets (IM(high)) tended to be higher than IMF in immunised pigs fed low-lysine diets (IM(low)). This effect was not seen in surgical castrates in either batch. Immunisation against GnRH offers a good approach to produce taint-free pork while ensuring boar-like growth for a large part of the fattening period.

  12. [Use of guinea pigs for assessing the efficacy of vaccines against Lassa fever].

    PubMed

    Firsova, I V; Shatokhina, I V; Borisevich, I V; Evseev, A A; Maksimov, V A; Pantiukhov, V B; Khmelev, A L

    2003-01-01

    The use of guinea pigs as a laboratory model was proven to be appropriate in investigating the vaccines developed against Lassa fever at the preclinical study stage. An adapted variant of Lassa virus was cultivated, which caused death of guinea pigs with respect for an agent's dose. Finally, it was shown to be possible to investigate the immunogenic and protective properties of the inactivated antigen of Lassa virus in experiments with guinea pigs.

  13. Investigations of selected pathogens among village pigs in Central Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Slipranata, Mitra; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1. Blood samples of individuals from both groups were tested for CSF antigen and antibody, as well as antibody against PCV2. Organs with evident pathological changes from Study 1 and tonsilar swabs from Study 2 were subjected to bacteriological culture and identification of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Faecal samples from both studies were examined for eggs of strongyle parasites, Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi and coccidia. The main infections in both studies were CSF, PCV2 and strongyle parasites, but prevalence was higher in Study 1 (P < 0.05). T. suis and S. zooepidemicus were prevalent in pigs in Study 1, but rare in healthy pigs (P < 0.05). Infections with coccidia, A. suum and S. ransomi were common but did not differ between groups (P < 0.05), with S. suis infections uncommon in both studies. This suggests that infections with CSF, PCV2, strongyle and T. suis are important pathogens in village pig farms in Jayawijaya. Local pig husbandry practices, such as confining pigs and heat-treating pig feeds, may be practical solutions to help minimize infection in village pigs in Jayawijaya.

  14. Severe protein deficiency and repletion alter body and brain composition and organ weights in infant pigs.

    PubMed

    Pond, W G; Ellis, K J; Mersmann, H J; Heath, J P; Krook, L P; Burrin, D G; Dudley, M A; Sheng, H P

    1996-01-01

    Three-wk-old genetically lean or obese pigs were used in two experiments to determine the changes in body composition, visceral organs and brain in response to severe protein deficiency. In Experiment 1, 16 obese pigs were fed an adequate (A, 21% protein, 3% fat) or a protein-deficient (D, 5% protein, 23% fat) diet for 7 wk. One-half of each group was killed at 7 wk, and the remainder of each group was fed the A diet for an additional 8 wk. At 7 wk, pigs fed D contained a higher percentage of fat than those fed A (P < 0.01); after 8-wk of repletion, body composition of the two groups was similar. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of the protein-deficient pigs had severely atrophic villi, submucosal edema, and atrophic muscle layers; after 8 wk of repletion, however, microscopic architecture of the gastrointestinal tract was restored to normal. Absolute cerebrum weight at 7 wk, but not after 8 wk repletion, in the pigs fed D were significantly less than in pigs fed A, indicating reduced brain cellularity after 7 wk of protein restriction, but not after 8 wk repletion. In Experiment 2, genetically obese (O, n = 8) and lean (L, n = 8) pigs consumed the A or D diet ad libitum for 10 wk. L and O pigs responded similarly to protein deficiency; D pigs were fatter than A pigs and plasma constituents, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and most organ weights revealed no interactions between diet and genotype. The pig model system used in these experiments enabled the isolation of protein deficiency from infectious disease, parasites and social environmental stimulation that may confound interpretation of human infant malnutrition experiments. The data suggest that genetically controlled body fatness is not a major determinant in the response of the infant pig to severe protein deficiency.

  15. Effect of Hypergravity Stress on Gaseous Exchange and Survival of Young and Old Guinea Pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradian, Kh. K.; Timchenko, A. N.

    Hypergravity tolerance decreases in aging Guinea pigs, the range being lower than in other studied species of laboratory mammals - mice, hamsters, and rats. Moreover, for the gaseous exchange rate and body temperature, the decline during the stress is not characteristic for Guinea pigs of both age groups, in contrast to other species. In general, hypergravity tolerance of Guinea pigs could be more appropriate experimental models.

  16. Descriptive and social network analysis of pig transport data recorded by quality assured pig farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Cook, A J C; Christley, R M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine farm-to-farm pig movement connections, and the usage of hauliers and abattoirs, for farms in the United Kingdom (UK), to determine the interconnectivity of the pig farm network and the implications this may have for the transmission and control of Salmonella, which was chosen as an example of an important endemic disease. Data were collected from three Quality Assurance Schemes on the use of abattoirs and livestock hauliers by commercial pig farms, and the supply of pigs to and from farms. The observed dataset had considerable variability in the number of direct (farm-to-farm) and indirect (via hauliers or abattoirs) connections between each farm over a 12-month period. The use of multiple hauliers and abattoirs by many farms resulted in considerable interconnectivity between farms due to these indirect routes. The network displayed a higher level of clustering, and short network distances between farms, than that shown by equivalent randomly generated datasets, indicating that infectious diseases might transmit quickly amongst farms but within certain clusters of farms, thus limiting the total number of farms affected. This structure and the occurrence of multiple indirect routes between many pairs of farms (via pig movements to other interconnected farms or from hauliers used by both farms), may indicate that targeting surveillance and controls on those farms with high network centrality characteristics (degree, betweenness) alone would not prove effective. Encouraging all farms within the network to reduce the number of connections might be a useful way of reducing Salmonella prevalence as it would reduce the effect of high prevalence on other farms within the network. The analysis also highlighted differences in the connections between geographical regions that were used to discuss the comparatively low Salmonella prevalence in Scotland detected by previous studies. Farms identified as belonging to large companies, as

  17. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P < 0.04) leaf lard in both CA boars and gilts but no differences were observed (P = 0.895 and P = 0.223, respectively) in carcass backfat thickness as compared with YK pigs. There were no substantive differences in tissue composition, except for CA boar kidneys. Numerous changes in the mineral, fatty acid, and indispensable AA composition for CA boar kidneys were not apparent in CA gilts. These changes may point to adaptive physiological changes in the boar kidney necessary for homeostatic regulation of mineral retention related to phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition

  18. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  19. Spontaneous Ameloblastic Fibroma in a Young Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Makoto; Sawamoto, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous ameloblastic fibroma was found in a 9-week-old guinea pig. Histopathologically, neoplastic cells consisted of two components: an odontogenic epithelium and odontogenic mesenchyme. The odontogenic epithelium formed strands, nests and islands that were interspersed within the odontogenic mesenchyme. In the marginal region, odontoblasts and scant dysplastic eosinophilic material were seen between these two components. Immunohistochemically, the odontogenic epithelium was positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and the odontogenic mesenchyme and odontoblast were positive for vimentin, in the same manner as in the normal tooth germ (control). We could not obtain conclusive data suggesting that the eosinophilic material was dental hard tissue because the eosinophilic material was not stained specifically by any methods. Based on these histological characteristics, the tumor in the present case was diagnosed as an ameloblastic fibroma. This is the first report of ameloblastic fibroma in guinea pigs. PMID:24155567

  20. Role of leukotrienes in airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, K.; Thomson, R. J.; Schellenberg, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. Repeated aerosolization of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) to guinea-pigs produced leftward shift in their pulmonary resistance (RL) dose-response curves to inhaled acetylcholine (ACh) without increasing the maximum responses. 2. Repeated LTC4 aerosolization did not increase airway eosinophils. 3. The 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor, MK-886, prevented the leftward shift in RL dose-response curves to ACh following repeated antigen challenge in guinea-pigs. 4. MK-886 did not inhibit the increased maximal RL produced by repeated antigen challenge, nor inhibit the airway eosinophilia induced by repeated antigen challenge. 5. Our findings suggest that leukotrienes may account for the leftward shift in pulmonary resistance responses caused by antigen but do not cause the airway eosinophilia nor enhanced maximum broncho-constrictor response to antigen. PMID:8467358

  1. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  2. Isolation and characterization of the pig endometrial arylsulphatase A.

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, H; Srivastava, P N

    1983-01-01

    The pig endometrial arylsulphatase A was purified 3322-fold to a specific activity of 150 mumol/min per mg. The purification involved (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and DEAE-Sepharose, gel filtrations on Sephadex G-200 at pH 7.4 and 5, and a new preparative gel-electrophoresis technique. The homogeneous enzyme is a glycoprotein containing 20% carbohydrate. The purified enzyme has Mr about 120 000 and it contains subunits of Mr 63 000. The pig endometrial arylsulphatase A shows many properties in common with those of arylsulphatases A purified from other sources. The similarities include their low isoelectric points, the anomalous time-activity relationships, multi-pH optima, inhibition by SO3(2-), SO4(2-), phosphate ions, metal ions and nucleoside phosphates, pH- and ionic-strength-dependent polymerization and amino acid composition. PMID:6136269

  3. Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Liebelt, A.G.; Congdon, C.C.; Stewart, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors.

  4. Preliminary pharmacokinetic study of repeated doses of rifampin and rifapentine in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Noton K; Alsultan, Abdullah; Peloquin, Charles A; Karakousis, Petros C

    2013-03-01

    Substitution of rifapentine (RFP) for rifampin (RIF) in the standard antituberculous regimen reduces the time required to cure chronic tuberculosis (TB) infection in mice, but not in guinea pigs. In order to gain insight into these discrepant findings, we conducted a steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study in healthy guinea pigs to study the metabolism and autoinduction of RIF and RFP. Both RFP and RIF 25-desacetyl metabolites (desRFP and desRIF, respectively), were detected at low concentrations in the serum of guinea pigs. The metabolite concentrations in guinea pigs are much lower than those seen in humans at steady state.

  5. Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Repeated Doses of Rifampin and Rifapentine in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; Alsultan, Abdullah; Peloquin, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Substitution of rifapentine (RFP) for rifampin (RIF) in the standard antituberculous regimen reduces the time required to cure chronic tuberculosis (TB) infection in mice, but not in guinea pigs. In order to gain insight into these discrepant findings, we conducted a steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study in healthy guinea pigs to study the metabolism and autoinduction of RIF and RFP. Both RFP and RIF 25-desacetyl metabolites (desRFP and desRIF, respectively), were detected at low concentrations in the serum of guinea pigs. The metabolite concentrations in guinea pigs are much lower than those seen in humans at steady state. PMID:23295923

  6. Protective effect of two yeast based feed additives on pigs chronically exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-12-12

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs.

  7. Advances in the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infections in pigs and their possible applications in humans.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in both humans and pigs. It has been shown to cause growth deficits in both species and to impair cognitive development in children. Notwithstanding its substantial impact on pig economy and public health, diagnosis of ascariasis has mostly relied on the detection of eggs in stool and further development of novel, more sensitive methods has been limited or non-existent. Here, we discuss the currently available techniques for the diagnosis of ascariasis in pigs, their caveats, and the implications of a new serological detection technique for the evaluation of both pig and human ascariasis.

  8. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites.

  9. Mitochondrial function, fatty acid metabolism, and immune system are relevant features of pig adipose tissue development.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Annie; Louveau, Isabelle; Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte; Damon, Marie

    2012-11-15

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic control of fat development in humans and livestock species still require characterization. To gain insights on gene expression patterns associated with genetic propensity for adiposity, we compared subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) transcriptomics profiles from two contrasted pig breeds for body fatness. Samples were obtained from Large White (LW; lean phenotype) and Basque pigs (B; low growth and high fat content) at 35 kg (n = 5 per breed) or 145 kg body weight (n = 10 per breed). Using a custom adipose tissue microarray, we found 271 genes to be differentially expressed between the two breeds at both stages, out of which 123 were highly expressed in LW pigs and 148 genes were highly expressed in B pigs. Functional enrichment analysis based on gene ontology (GO) terms highlighted gene groups corresponding to the mitochondrial energy metabolism in LW pigs, whereas immune response was found significantly enriched in B pigs. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, such as ELOVL6, a gene involved in fatty acid elongation, had a lower expression in B compared with LW pigs. Furthermore, despite enlarged adipocyte diameters and higher plasma leptin concentration, B pigs displayed reduced lipogenic enzyme activities compared with LW pigs at 145 kg. Altogether, our results suggest that the development of adiposity was associated with a progressive worsening of the metabolic status, leading to a low-grade inflammatory state, and may thus be of significant interest for both livestock production and human health.

  10. The oncogenic effects of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Hong Beum; Kim, Jeeho

    2017-01-01

    The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), initially identified as a gene downstream of p53, plays an important role in the apoptotic process triggered by p53-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recently, several studies have suggested that PIG3 may play a role in various types of cancer. However, the functional significance of PIG3 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that PIG3 was highly expressed in human colon cancer cell lines compared to normal colonderived fibroblasts. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the functional role of PIG3 in colon cancer. PIG3 overexpression increases the colony formation, migration and invasion ability of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Conversely, these tumorigenic abilities were significantly decreased in in vitro studies with PIG3 knockdown HCT116 cells. PIG3 knockdown also attenuated the growth of mouse xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that PIG3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and could play a key oncogenic role in colon cancer. PMID:28280421

  11. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kefei; Baxter, Tara; Muir, William M.; Groenen, Martien A.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity for tracing mammalian evolutionary history and defining signatures of selection resulting from both domestication and natural selection. Completion of the pig genome sequencing project will have significant impacts on both agriculture and human health. Following the pig whole genome sequence drafts, along with large-scale polymorphism data, it will be possible to conduct genome sweeps using association mapping, and identify signatures of selection. Here, we provide a description of the pig genome sequencing project and perspectives on utilizing genomic technologies to exploit pig genome evolution and the molecular basis for phenotypic traits for improving pig production and health. PMID:17384734

  12. Indicators of positive and negative emotions and emotional contagion in pigs.

    PubMed

    Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2013-01-17

    For the welfare of group-housed animals, such as pigs, the emotional state of an individual pig is relevant, but also the extent to which pen mates are affected by the distress or pleasure of other individuals, i.e. emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy. Therefore, indicators of positive and negative emotions were investigated in pigs during anticipation and experience of a rewarding (access in pairs to a compartment with straw, peat and chocolate raisins) or aversive (social isolation combined with negative, unpredictable interventions) event. Thereafter the same indicators were investigated in naive pigs during anticipation and experience of a rewarding or aversive event by their trained pen mates. Positive emotions could be indicated by play, barks and tail movements, while negative emotions could be indicated by freezing, defecating, urinating, escape attempts, high-pitched vocalizations (screams, squeals or grunt-squeals), tail low, ears back and ear movements. Salivary cortisol measurements supported these behavioral observations. During anticipation of the aversive event, naive pigs tended to show more tail low. During the aversive event, naive pigs tended to defecate more, while they played more during the rewarding event. These results suggest that pigs might be sensitive to emotional contagion, which could have implications for the welfare of group-housed pigs. Pig emotions and the process of emotional contagion merit, therefore, further research.

  13. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig breeders and cattle breeders].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Beaujean, D J M A

    2006-08-05

    It was recently observed that pig breeders in The Netherlands often carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA). These MRSA strains are related to MRSA strains found in pigs. A case-control study showed that not only pig breeders but also cattle breeders are at risk of carrying MRSA. It is advised to keep pig breeders, if they are admitted to a hospital, in isolation until surveillance cultures are proven negative. This also applies to veterinarians and slaughterhouse personnel. For cattle breeders screening without isolation on admission to a hospital is sufficient.

  14. Characterisation of imidazoline I2 binding sites in pig brain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Neil J; Lupo, Patrick A; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L; Robinson, Emma S J

    2005-09-05

    The imidazoline I2 binding sites in the central nervous system have previously been described in several different species including rat, mouse, rabbit and frog. The present study has investigated the imidazoline I2 binding site, and its relationship to the monoamine oxidase isoforms, in pig whole brain and compared the results obtained with data from other species. Results from saturation binding studies revealed that the imidazoline I2-selective ligand, [3H]2BFI (2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline) labelled a single saturable population of sites with a KD=6.6 nM and Bmax=771.7 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological characterisation of the sites was similar to that previously reported with a rank order of potency for the imidazoline I2 ligands of 2BFI>BU224>Idazoxan>BU226. Displacement by the imidazoline I1 ligands was low affinity and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors displaced with micromolar affinity. The majority of compounds displaced the binding in a monophasic manner, however, displacement by the putative endogenous ligand, harmane was biphasic. The relative populations of the two monoamine oxidase isoforms revealed a 10 fold greater expression of monoamine oxidase B relative to monoamine oxidase A. These data confirm the presence of imidazoline I2 binding sites in pig brain and show that their pharmacology is characteristic of that seen in other species. The proportion of monoamine oxidase A and B expressed in the pig brain is similar to that seen in the human brain therefore, given the association between imidazoline I2 binding sites and monoamine oxidase, the pig may provide a more useful model for human imidazoline I2 binding sites than other species such as the rat.

  15. Cerebrovascular Involvement in Liposome - Induced Cardiopulmonary Distress in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    expressed as mean ± SD. There was no statistical treament for data on the 24 pigs (Table 1); only percentage values were calculated. All applied...new, promising field for use of liposomes as a vehicle is in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease through gene therapy (Saito et al., 2004; Shi...brain by means of liposomes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 136:219-229. Toyoda, K., Chu, Y., Heistad, D. D. (2003). Gene therapy for cerebral vascular disease

  16. Campylobacter spp. - prevalence on pig livers and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Hamedy, Ahmad; Merle, Roswitha; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on surfaces of slaughtered pig livers. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter coli isolates. Additionally, C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the broth dilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for erythromycin, gentamicin, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Samples were taken during the slaughtering process in a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. Altogether, 10% of 1500 surfaces of pig livers from 50 fattening herds was found to be Campylobacter positive, with C. coli as the predominant species (76%) followed by C. jejuni (21%). Resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was higher in C. jejuni compared to C. coli, whereas C. coli were more resistant to quinolone compared to C. jejuni. Fluoroquinolone resistance is usually associated with cross-resistance to quinolone, but in the presented investigation C. coli as well as C. jejuni showed a higher resistance to ciprofloxacin (28.6% and 20.0%, respectively) than to nalidixic acid (9.5% and 0%, respectively). A high genetic diversity of the C. coli isolates was demonstrated by MLST. Differences in STs and antimicrobial resistance pattern indicate that the Campylobacter strains originated from the pig itself and not from the slaughterhouse. A comparison of the STs with those reported in the C. jejuni/coli PubMLST database showed an overlap of porcine and human isolates, indicating that C. coli isolates from pigs should be considered as potential sources of human infection.

  17. Effects of Sarin on the Operant Behavior of Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-19

    concentration time profile of an OP compound in located beneath the house light. Reinforcement contingen- guinea pig resembles that of the marmoset monkey...resembles that of the marmoset monkey more cies and data collection were accomplished with 0.01 s closely than that of the rat [2]. resolution using a Pentium...serum AChE activity was inhibited by exposures may be due to behavioral tolerance, since this 80-90% [4,5,8,33]. In marmosets , the acute

  18. The pig genome project has plenty to squeal about.

    PubMed

    Fan, B; Gorbach, D M; Rothschild, M F

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress on pig genetics and genomics research has been witnessed in recent years due to the integration of advanced molecular biology techniques, bioinformatics and computational biology, and the collaborative efforts of researchers in the swine genomics community. Progress on expanding the linkage map has slowed down, but the efforts have created a higher-resolution physical map integrating the clone map and BAC end sequence. The number of QTL mapped is still growing and most of the updated QTL mapping results are available through PigQTLdb. Additionally, expression studies using high-throughput microarrays and other gene expression techniques have made significant advancements. The number of identified non-coding RNAs is rapidly increasing and their exact regulatory functions are being explored. A publishable draft (build 10) of the swine genome sequence was available for the pig genomics community by the end of December 2010. Build 9 of the porcine genome is currently available with Ensembl annotation; manual annotation is ongoing. These drafts provide useful tools for such endeavors as comparative genomics and SNP scans for fine QTL mapping. A recent community-wide effort to create a 60K porcine SNP chip has greatly facilitated whole-genome association analyses, haplotype block construction and linkage disequilibrium mapping, which can contribute to whole-genome selection. The future 'systems biology' that integrates and optimizes the information from all research levels can enhance the pig community's understanding of the full complexity of the porcine genome. These recent technological advances and where they may lead are reviewed.

  19. Investigation of Friction-induced Damage to the Pig Cornea.

    PubMed

    Barros, Raquel C; Van Kooten, Theo G; Veeregowda, Deepak Halenahally

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical friction causes damage to the cornea. A friction measurement device with minimal intervention with the pig cornea tear film revealed a low friction coefficient of 0.011 in glycerine solution. Glycerine molecules presumably bind to water, mucins, and epithelial cells and therewith improve both squeeze film and boundary lubrication. Using confocal microscopy, we determined that glycerine solution reduced damage to epithelial cells by 50% compared with the phosphate buffer saline.

  20. Modeling digestibility of dietary phosphorus in growing and finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Symeou, V; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-12-01

    Low P digestibility combined with intensive pig production can lead to water pollution. The aim of this paper was to develop a model able to represent P digestion in pigs across diets and contribute towards the reduction of P excretion. Phosphorus in plant feedstuffs includes some nonphytate P (NPP) that is readily digested but is mostly as organic phytate P (oP) that is indigestible unless it is dephosphorylated. The ability of pigs to dephosphorylate oP using endogenous phytase enzymes is limited and is a function of Ca intake. The effect of Ca (g/kg diet) on the proportion of oP dephosphorylated (kg/kg) in the small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI) was determined as 0.26 - (0.015 × dietary Ca) and 0.69 - (0.059 × dietary Ca), respectively. The dephosphorylated oP in the LI was assumed to be indigestible and was excreted. Proportion of oP dephosphosphorylation (kg/kg) by microbial and plant phytase activity (FTU) in the stomach was estimated to be 0.56 × [1 - exp(-0.001 × FTU)] and 0.38 × [1 - exp(-0.002 × FTU)], respectively. Phosphorus digestibility (kg/kg) of NPP and dephosphorylated oP in the SI was assumed to be constant at 0.8. The model was used to predict P digestibility in 2 experiments by Stein et al. (2011) and Poulsen et al. (2010) and compare the predictions with experimental outcomes. The model successfully predicted the P digestibility to a range of dietary Ca concentrations and for 2 levels of supplementation with microbial phytase. However, the predictions overestimated P digestion systematically but always within a 10% margin of the observed values. The model could be a useful tool for formulating strategies to improve the efficiency of P digestion and reduce soluble P excretion in pigs.

  1. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans.

  2. Identification of lingual glands and ducts ventrally in pigs' tongues.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S E; Josephson, G K

    1989-01-01

    Hitherto unreported tubulo-acinar mucous lingual glands were located ventrally in the free tip of the tongue, just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum linguae in 186 of 400 (47%) of pigs' tongues. The glands were bilateral in 126 (32%) of the tongues. These glands emptied by several ducts onto the ventral surface of the tongue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2606778

  3. Hyperthyroidism in four guinea pigs: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Künzel, F; Hierlmeier, B; Christian, M; Reifinger, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in four guinea pigs by demonstration of an increased serum total thyroxine concentration. The main clinical signs were comparable with those observed in feline hyperthyroidism and included weight loss despite maintenance of appetite and a palpable mass in the ventral cervical region. Three animals were treated successfully with methimazole for between 13 and 28 months. Clinical signs and regular measurement of circulating total thyroxine concentrations appear to be convenient parameters for monitoring response to medical therapy.

  4. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  5. Uptake of benzimidazoles by Trichuris suis in vivo in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tina V.A.; Friis, Christian; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    It is recognized that the clinical efficacy of single dose benzimidazoles (BZs) against the nematode, Trichuris suis of pigs and the closely related Trichuris trichiura in humans is only poor to moderate. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that a low uptake of fenbendazole (FBZ) in T. suis may be responsible for its poor efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis by measuring the concentrations of FBZ and its metabolites, oxfendazole (OXF) and FBZ sulphone (FBZSO2), in T. suis isolated from FBZ treated pigs and in plasma of the pigs. The highest concentration of FBZ measured in T. suis was 66.6 pmol/mg dry worm tissue which was approximately half of what was measured in a previous in vitro study. The correlation between drug concentrations in plasma and in T. suis worms was highly positive for OXF (r = 0.93, P = 0.0007) and FBZSO2 (r = 0.85, P = 0.007), but no correlation was found for FBZ. This study shows that the low uptake of FBZ observed for T. suis in vitro, also takes place in vivo. The high and significant correlations between OXF and FBZSO2 concentrations in plasma of the pigs and T. suis (and the lack of this correlation for FBZ) suggests that the metabolites reach the worms via the blood–enterocyte interface while FBZ primarily reaches the worms via the intestinal lumen of the host. PMID:25057460

  6. Common Emergencies in Rabbits, Guinea Pigs, and Chinchillas.

    PubMed

    DeCubellis, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are some of the more common exotic pets seen in emergency clinics. They frequently present with acute illnesses that are the result of several chronic conditions, most related to inadequate diet and husbandry. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of some of the more common acute illnesses. It also discusses the predisposing factors that culminate in acute presentations, so that emergency providers can recognize and be mindful of underlying causes of disease before treatment of acute illnesses.

  7. Postnatal ontogeny of intestinal GCPII and the RFC in pig.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Halsted, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    In humans and pigs, hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates is carried out by intestinal brush border folate hydrolase [glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII)], whereas the transport of the monoglutamyl folate derivatives occurs via the intestinal brush border reduced folate carrier (RFC). The study objective was to measure the expression of intestinal GCPII and RFC during postnatal development of pigs and their effects on plasma and liver folate concentrations. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and plasma samples were collected from female Yorkshire pigs at birth, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 wk, and 6 mo (n=6 at each time point). GCPII mRNA transcripts and protein (normalized using beta-actin), and enzyme activity (normalized per mg mucosal protein) were highest in all segments of small intestine at birth and were undetectable in ileum after 1 wk, whereas jejunal protein and activity predominated at 6 mo. RFC mRNA transcripts were present in all segments of small intestine at birth and declined significantly throughout development to 6 mo. Conversely, RFC protein increased twofold during the first 24 h and remained constant throughout development in all segments of small intestine. Liver RFC mRNA transcripts were detected at birth but were reduced by 6 mo. Liver folate concentration increased throughout postnatal development, whereas plasma folate levels increased during the first 24 h but decreased over time, reflecting the pattern of RFC expression in small intestine. These findings show that intestinal GCPII and intestinal and hepatic RFC all exhibit ontogenic changes in the pig that are reflected in postnatal folate status.

  8. Effects of yeast culture supplementation on growth performance, intestinal health, and immune response of nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Wang, L; Liu, P; Yoon, I; Zhen, Y G

    2009-08-01

    A total of 216 weaning pigs were used in 2 experiments to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of yeast culture (YC) at different dose levels on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, and immune response in weanling pigs and to determine whether YC can be a candidate to replace antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). In Exp. 1, 192 pigs (7.5 +/- 0.2 kg of BW) weaned at 28 d of age were randomly allotted to 6 treatments: 1) control (without AGP or YC); 2) AGP (chlortetracycline, 80 mg/kg); 3) 2.5 g/kg of YC (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture); 4) 5 g/kg of YC; 5) 10 g/kg of YC; and 6) 20 g/kg of YC. Each treatment had 8 replicated pens with 4 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 21 d. Average daily gain of pigs fed 5 g/kg of YC was greater (P < 0.05) than that of pigs in the control and other YC groups. However, there was no difference between the YC and AGP group. Pigs supplemented with 5 g/kg of YC, 10 g/kg of YC, and AGP had a greater (P < 0.01) ADFI than the control; however, G:F was not affected by treatment. Thus, 5 g/kg of YC supplementation level was chosen for Exp. 2. In Exp. 2, to elucidate the mode of action of YC, 24 nursery pigs (5.8 +/- 0.1 kg of BW; 21 d of age) were randomly allotted into 3 treatments for a 21-d trial. Treatments consisted of 1) control (without AGP or YC), 2) AGP, and 3) 5 g/kg of YC. Blood samples were collected weekly to measure CD4(+), CD8(+) percentage, and blood cytokine content. All pigs were harvested to determine treatment effects on gut microbiota, morphology, and immune function. Dietary supplementation of 5 g/kg of YC improved (P < 0.05) ADG of pigs compared with the control group, but performance of pigs fed YC was similar to those fed AGP. Pigs receiving 5 g/kg of YC had greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM, CP, GE, and jejunal villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. However, no

  9. Prediction of odor from pig production based on chemical odorants.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Pedersen, Poul; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The present work was performed to investigate the use of odorant measurements for prediction of odor concentration in facilities with growing-finishing pigs and to analyze the odorant composition in facilities with different floor and ventilation systems. Air was sampled in Nalophan bags, odor concentrations were measured by dilution-to-threshold olfactometry, and concentrations of odorants were measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Olfactometry and chemical analyses were synchronized to take place at identical time intervals after sampling. A principal component analysis revealed that different facilities for growing-finishing pigs can be distinguished based on the odorants. Pit ventilation comprising a small amount of the total ventilation air (10-20%) in facilities with both room and pit ventilation can be used to concentrate odorants, whereas the room ventilation contains lower concentrations of most odorants. A partial least squares regression model demonstrated that prediction of the odor concentration based on odorants measured by PTR-MS is feasible. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, trimethylamine, and 4-methylphenol were identified as the compounds having the largest influence on the prediction of odor concentration, whereas carboxylic acids had no significant influence. In conclusion, chemical measurement of odorants by PTR-MS is an alternative for expressing the odor concentration in facilities with growing-finishing pigs that can be used to increase the understanding of odor from different types of facilities and improve the development of odor reduction technologies.

  10. Seroprevalence of Rotavirus infection in pig population of Arunachal Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Garam, G. B.; Bora, D. P.; Borah, B.; Bora, M.; Das, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence of Rotavirus(RV) infection among the pig population of Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Serums samples were collected from piglets of age ranging from 1 week to 6 months and the sows associated with the piglets that were reared under organized and unorganized system of management in six different districts of Arunachal Pradesh. The prevalence of RV specific antibodies was detected using a polyclonal antibody-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Results: The study revealed that out of 394 serum samples, 255 (64.72%) samples were found to be positive for RV-specific antibody in i-ELISA. Considering the samples from different districts, Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh showed highest numbers of seropositive animals (68.75%) followed by upper Subansiri (64.91%) while West Siang district showed lowest positivity rate (61.22%). Conclusion: As considerable seropositivity was recorded among pig population of Arunachal Pradesh in this study, there is urgent need to establish high-impact and cost-effective public health intervention tools, key among them being the introduction of strict hygiene practice and RV vaccination program, to greatly reduce the number of deaths due to diarrheal diseases. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of RV infection from pigs of Arunachal Pradesh. PMID:27956785

  11. Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers

    PubMed Central

    Radon, K; Weber, C; Iversen, M; Danuser, B; Pedersen, S; Nowak, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is the report of the second part of that study.
METHODS—40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and were assessed over 1 working day.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% of reference value) 108.3 (16.7) v 100.2 (14.2); p=0.04). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.
CONCLUSIONS—Ventilation of the animal house and temperature might influence respiratory morbidity in farmers.


Keywords: ventilation; micro-organism; European multicentre study PMID:11351057

  12. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  13. Calcium mediation of the pig jejunal secretory response.

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, G W; Wong, P H; Maenz, D D

    1985-01-01

    The involvement of Ca++ ions as secretory mediators in pig jejunal epithelia has been investigated with an in vitro system. Omission of Ca++ from the Ringer-HCO3 bathing media on both sides of the tissue had minor effects on the basal electrical activity of pig jejunal mucosa. There were only slight decreases in transepithelial potential difference and increases in conductance with Ca++ free media. Low EGTA concentrations which reversibly blocked potential difference responses to secretory agents also had minimal effects on basal electrical activity. The in vitro secretory responses to A23187, to theophylline, and to Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin were all eliminated by Ca++ depletion and restored by replacing normal Ca++ concentrations in the bathing media. Dantrolene prevented the secretory response but not the potential difference increases caused by heat-stable enterotoxin and A23187, suggesting that intracellular Ca++ stores may be reservoirs of secretory signal agent. Verapamil only blocked the secretory response to heat-stable enterotoxin. Chlorpromazine had negligible effects on basal conditions, but totally blocked both the secretory response and the Ca++-dependent effects of A23187 and heat-stable enterotoxin on potential difference. The response to theophylline was only partially inhibited by chlorpromazine, implying some involvement of both cAMP and Ca++ as secretory signals for theophylline. Cytoplasmic Ca++ concentrations appear to be at least as important as cyclic nucleotides in regulating the secretory effects of pig jejunum. PMID:2410089

  14. Insights into early pig domestication provided by ancient DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caliebe, Amke; Nebel, Almut; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Krawczak, Michael; Krause-Kyora, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) were first domesticated between 8,500 and 8,000 cal BC in the Near East, from where they were subsequently brought into Europe by agriculturalists. Soon after the arrival of the first domestic pigs in northern Europe (~4500 BC), farmers are thought to have started to incorporate local wild boars into their swine herds. This husbandry strategy ultimately resulted in the domestication of European wild boars. Here, we set out to provide a more precise geographic and temporal framework of the early management of suid populations in northern Europe, drawing upon mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from 116 Neolithic Sus specimens. We developed a quantitative mathematical model tracing the haplotypes of the domestic pigs back to their most likely geographic origin. Our modelling results suggest that, between 5000 and 4000 BC, almost all matrilines in the north originated from domesticated animals from the south of central Europe. In the following period (4000–3000 BC), an estimated 78–100% of domesticates in the north were of northern matrilineal origin, largely from local wild boars. These findings point towards a dramatic change in suid management strategies taking place throughout south-central and northern Europe after 4000 BC. PMID:28300151

  15. Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

  16. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  17. Mustard oil-induced cutaneous inflammation in the pig.

    PubMed

    Jancsó, G; Pierau, F K; Sann, H

    1993-05-01

    Recent findings indicate that chemical stimulation of the porcine skin with capsaicin evokes a flare response similar to that observed in man. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chemical stimulation of cutaneous capsaicin-sensitive nerve endings with mustard oil produces neurogenic inflammatory reactions in the pig. The application of mustard oil onto the abdominal skin of domestic pigs resulted in a pronounced flare response. After a previous intravenous injection of a solution of Evans blue, the skin area in contact with the irritant turned dark blue, indicating a marked extravasation of albumin. Quantitative estimation of the dye content of the skin supported this conclusion. The technique of vascular labelling revealed a delicate network of small subepidermal blood vessels in histological preparations after the application of mustard oil following a previous intravenous injection of colloidal silver. Labelled blood vessels were not noted outside the treated area. The present results show that mustard oil produces a strong cutaneous inflammatory response in the pig, and suggest that the porcine skin provides a valuable model for study of the significance of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in vascular and other cutaneous reactions.

  18. Novel antitussive effect of suplatast tosilate in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Rong; Syono, Ryo-ichi; Fukumi, Syu-ichi; Kimoto, Kenji; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Soeda, Fumio; Takahama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the antitussive effects of suplatast, a Th2 cytokine inhibitor, and compared them with the effects of codeine using an experimental cough model in guinea pigs. Suplatast and codeine dose-dependently inhibited cough caused by mechanical stimulation of the larynx, but they did not inhibit cough caused by mechanical stimulation of the bifurcation of the trachea. In guinea pigs with bronchitis, suplatast had an antitussive effect on cough caused by stimulation of the larynx, whereas codeine did not inhibit such cough. In SO2-exposed guinea pigs, suplatast tended to inhibit cough caused by mechanical stimulation of the tracheal bifurcation. Further, suplatast inhibited citric acid-induced cough augmented by pretreatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, whereas codeine did not inhibit such cough. Suplatast also inhibited bradykinin-induced discharges of airway vagal afferent nerves and significantly inhibited 4-aminopyridine-induced discharges of airway vagal afferent nerves. These findings indicate that the antitussive effects of suplatast are mediated by a novel mechanism involving the peripheral nervous system.

  19. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  20. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  1. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies.

  2. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2015-07-01

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called "quick wash" was investigated for its feasibility to extract and recover P from pig manure solids. This process consists of selective dissolution of P from solid manure into a liquid extract using mineral or organic acid solutions, and recovery of P from the liquid extract by adding lime and an organic polymer to form a P precipitate. Laboratory tests confirmed the quick wash process selectively removed and recovered up to 90% of the total (TP) from fresh pig manure solids while leaving significant amounts of nitrogen (N) in the washed manure residue. As a result of manure P extraction, the washed solid residue became environmentally safer for land application with a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production. The recovered P can be recycled and used as fertilizer for crop production while minimizing manure P losses into the environment.

  3. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  4. Ultrastructural study of a tetratrichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Lupisan, Albert Joseph B; Baking, John Michael P

    2008-11-01

    Trichomonads found in pigs include the commensal Tritrichomonas suis (more well known because of its synonymy to Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad parasite of cattle and other animals) and Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which appear similar to Tritrichomonas suis under the light microscope. A trichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples was subjected to scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural study. The organism's ultrastructure revealed features commonly found in trichomonads; however, features such as the number and length of flagella, type of undulating membrane, general body form, and shape and location of organelles such as the nucleus, Golgi complex, and hydrogenosomes indicated that the isolated trichomonad is not Tritrichomonas suis nor Tritrichomonas foetus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corroborated these results. Moreover, the ultrastructure was similar to the ultrastructure of previously described tetratrichomonads. It is especially suggested that the isolate is T. buttreyi. These findings could be of significance in the differentiation among different porcine trichomonads in diagnostic procedures. In addition, this is the first known detailed ultrastructural study of T. buttreyi isolated from pigs; thus, this can serve as an aid for future comparison between porcine and bovine T. buttreyi.

  5. Malignant catarrhal fever in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig. A potential threat to pigs in mixed-species exhibits?

    PubMed

    Lapp, S; Förster, C; Kummrow, M; Wohlsein, P; Haist, V

    2015-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) represents a sporadic and often fatal disease in various ungulate species including rarely swine. A close contact between susceptible and reservoir species of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is a requirement for virus transmission. As in ruminants, a rapid course of disease with lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis and necrotizing vasculitis in multiple organs is frequently seen in porcine MCF. This report describes a case of MCF in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig, which was kept in a zoological exhibit with direct contact to various ruminants. It represents the first description of porcine MCF with proven natural OvHV-2 infection in Germany. OvHV-2 should be considered as cause of fatalities among swine especially in mixed-species exhibits as present in many zoological gardens. Also farm pigs kept in free ranging husbandry systems with potential contact to sheep and other ruminant species may be at risk.

  6. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive donor cell type for production of cloned pigs as well as genetically modified cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2013-10-01

    The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro-cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT.

  7. Effects of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lung lesion-selected Landrace pigs on MPS resistance and immune competence in three-way crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Liushiqi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Yuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Aso, Hisashi; Katoh, Kazuo; Satoh, Masahiro; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-09-09

    To clarify the genetic influence of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) lesion-selected Landrace (La) on MPS resistance and immune characteristics in three-way crossbred pigs (LaWaDa), the LaWaDa pigs were compared with the non-selected crossbred (LbWbDb) and purebred (La) pigs. The MPS lesion score in the three lines was as follows: La line < LaWaDa line < LbWbDb line, with significant differences among the lines. The proportions of myeloid cells and T cells were lower and higher, respectively, in the LaWaDa pigs compared with those in the other two lines. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and interferon-γ in peripheral blood was significantly increased after vaccination in the La and LaWaDa lines. IL-4 mRNA expression in the LaWaDa line was intermediate to the La and LbWbDb lines. Furthermore, principal component analysis for immune traits and MPS lesions was executed to clarify the characteristics of each pig line. These findings suggest that the immune responses in the three pig lines are genetically distinct and that MPS resistance and some immunity characteristics from the La line were transmitted to the three-way crossbred pigs.

  8. Protection of Lassa virus-infected guinea pigs with Lassa-immune plasma of guinea pig, primate, and human origin.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, P B

    1983-01-01

    Lassa virus-immune plasma has been used to treat human Lassa fever patients; however, criteria for plasma selection were based arbitrarily on available serologic tools and protective efficacy was never directly assessed. To test the validity of plasma therapy for Lassa virus infections in an animal model, and to develop biologically relevant criteria for selection of protective immune plasma, inbred, strain 13 guinea pigs were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus and treated with various Lassa-immune plasmas obtained from guinea pigs, primates, and convalescent human patients. Neutralizing antibody titers were determined in a virus dilution, plaque reduction test, and were expressed as a log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) neutralization index (LNI). All guinea pigs treated with immune plasma 6 ml/kg/treatment on days 0, 3, and 6 after virus inoculation were protected, provided the LNI exceeded 2.0. Plasmas obtained from donors in early convalescence (32-45 days) had low titers of N-antibody (LNI less than 2) and failed to confer protection, despite high titers of Lassa antibody measured in the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. Higher doses of marginally titered plasma conferred increased protection. The degree of protection and suppression of viremia was closely associated with LNI an not IFA titers. Administration of low-titered plasma did not result in immune enhancement. A high dose of human plasma from Liberia (12 ml/kg/treatment) was required to confer complete protection to guinea pigs infected with a Lassa virus strain from Sierra Leone (LNI = 1.6), while a lower dose (3 ml/kg/treatment) was sufficient for protection against a Liberian strain (LNI = 2.8), suggesting that a geographic matching of immune plasma and Lassa virus strain origin may increase treatment success. These studies support the concept of plasma therapy for Lassa infection and suggest that the plaque reduction neutralization test is more appropriate than the IFA test for

  9. [Utilization of feed energy by growing pigs. 3. Energy requirement for the growth and fattening of pigs].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, L; Schiemann, R; Jentsch, W

    1979-02-01

    The test series for the investigation of the energy consumption of growing pigs of the breeds large white and improved land race pig as well as cross breeds of the two breeds in a total of 369 metabolism periods (as described in the first two pieces of information of this publication series -- Hoffmann and others, 1977 and Jentsch and Hoffmann, 1977) were statistically analysed for the purpose of the derivation of the energy requirement for maintenance and the partial energy requirement for growth in order to test the possibilities of the factorial analysis for the derivation of energy requirement values of growing pigs. The dependence of the maintenance requirement of growing pigs (investigations in the live weight range of 10 to 40 kg -- see 1st information--were made with boars those in the live weight range of 30 to 120 kg were made with gelded boars, 2nd information) on the live weight can best be characterised by applying a power exponent of 0,61 or 0,62 for the live weight. A definition is offered to be discussed for the energetic maintenance requirement of productive live stock and laboratory animals as a conventional value. The energy requirement values derived from the doubly-factorial statistical analysis show a satisfactory adaptation to the measured values as such concerning energy intake and observed growth performance of the test animals. The conclusion is drawn that the factorial analysis of the energy requirement (maintenance plus partial performances) results in a better estimate of the requirement of growing animals than the assessment according only to live weight and live weight increase without characterising the energy requirement for partial performances. This is important for the further working on and more exact definition of requirement norms.

  10. A survey of gastrointestinal pig parasites on free-range, organic and conventional pig farms in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Eijck, I A J M; Borgsteede, F H M

    2005-07-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in suckling piglets, weaners, fattening pigs and sows was studied from November 2001 to October 2002 on 16 free-range farms (FRF), 11 organic farms (OF) and 9 conventional farms (CF) by means of faecal examinations of composite samples. Each farm was visited four times with a 3-month interval. Infections with coccidia were found on 43.8% of the FRF, 90.9% of the OF and 66.7% of the CF. Sows had the highest prevalence, particularly on FRF (87.5%) and OF (80%). Ascaris suum was present on 50% of the FRF, 72.7% of the OF and 11.1% of the CF, whereas fattening pigs on FRF (42.9%) and OF (54.5%) had the highest prevalence. Oesophagostomum spp. were observed on 25% of the FRF, 27.2% of the OF and 22.2% of the CF. The infection was most prevalent in the sows on all farm types: 37.5% on FRF, 30% on OF and 22.2% on CF.Trichuris suis was found on 37.5% of the FRF, 36.4% of the OF and 11.1% of the CF. Again, this infection was most prevalent in the sows, particularly on the FRF (50%) and OF (30%). No other gastrointestinal parasite species were found and no clinical signs were observed. No seasonal trends could be distinguished. In many cases, when an age group on a farm was positive for a certain parasite, it remained so during the whole study. This indicates that this parasite was really 'endemic' on that farm. The results of this study demonstrate that the prevalence of helminth infections of pigs on farms with outdoor facilities is higher than in pigs on conventional farms.

  11. The proliferation and differentiation of primary pig preadipocytes is suppressed when cultures are incubated at 37°Celsius compared to euthermic conditions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bohan, Amy E; Purvis, Katelyn N; Bartosh, Julia L; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2014-01-01

    Given similarities in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular physiology, the pig is well positioned as a biomedical model for metabolic disease and obesity in humans. Better understanding molecular mechanisms governing porcine adipocyte hyperplasia may provide insight into the regulation of adipose tissue development that is useful both when considering the pig as a commodity and when extrapolating porcine data to human disease. Primary cultures of pig stromal-vascular cells have served as a useful tool for investigating factors that regulate preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. However, such cultures have generally been maintained at 37°C in vitro despite euthermia being 39°C in pigs. To address potential concerns about the physiological relevance of culturing primary pig preadipocytes under what would be hypothermic conditions in vivo, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of culture temperature on the proliferation and differentiation of pig preadipocytes in primary culture. Culturing primary preadipocytes at 37 rather than 39°C decreases their proliferation rates based upon cleavage of the tetrazolium salt, MTT (P < 0.001), reduction of resazurin (P < 0.001), and daily cell counts (P < 0.001). Likewise, culturing primary porcine preadipocytes at 37°C suppressed their adipogenic potential based upon monitoring adipogenesis morphologically, biochemically, and via the expression of mRNA encoding adipogenic marker genes. Collectively, these data indicate the proliferation and differentiation of primary pig preadipocytes is suppressed when cultures are incubated at 37°C compared to normal body temperature of pigs. This may confound investigation of factors that impact adipocyte hyperplasia in the pig.

  12. The efficacy of Aspergillus niger phytase in rendering phytate phosphorus available for absorption in pigs is influenced by pig physiological status.

    PubMed

    Kemme, P A; Jongbloed, A W; Mroz, Z; Beynen, A C

    1997-08-01

    We performed an experiment with 112 piglets, 32 growing-finishing pigs, and 12 sows during pregnancy and lactation to test the hypotheses that apparent total tract digestibilities of P and Ca as well as the efficacy of Aspergillus niger phytase in rendering phytate P available in pigs depend on pig physiological status. All pigs were fed diets with identical feedstuff composition either without or with added microbial phytase (Natuphos, 500 FTU/kg diet). The diets contained 6.2 g Ca, 4.8 g total P, and 3.7 g phytate P per kilogram, and intrinsic phytase activity of 120 FTU/kg. The digestibility of P increased by 8.3 percentage units when BW of pigs increased from 30 to 60 kg and then remained stable until 100 kg. Pregnant sows had a lower efficiency of P absorption than piglets and growing-finishing pigs. During lactation, the efficiency of P absorption was 3.4 percentage units higher than during pregnancy but was still 6.6 percentage units lower than for growing-finishing pigs. The efficacy of the phytase in generating digestible P decreased in the order or lactating sows, growing-finishing pigs, sows at the end of pregnancy, piglets, and sows at midpregnancy; the average amounts of generated digestible P were 1.03, .83, .74, .66, and .32 g/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase to the diet raised apparent Ca digestibility in the piglets and growing-finishing pigs (by 4.6 and 4.0 percentage units, respectively) but not in the sows. We conclude that in the formulation of swine diets the amount of phytase to be added should be tailored to the target category.

  13. Morphologic investigations of the guinea pig model of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, K A; Fisher, J; Adams, E T

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a guinea pig model of iron overload toxicity. Animals were administered intraperitoneal iron dextran 3 times a week to achieve total body iron load of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g Fe/kg body weight in less than 30 days. Quantitation of tissue iron levels with atomic absorption indicated increased iron deposition in liver and heart of the iron-loaded guinea pigs (p < 0.001). Additionally, the iron-loaded pigs demonstrated decreased nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy T1 relaxation times in both liver and heart (p < 0.001). Serum iron, total body iron capacity, and transferrin saturation values were also determined in guinea pigs treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g Fe/kg body weight. Serum iron and total iron-binding capacity were significantly increased at 0.5 and 1.0 g Fe/kg; transferrin saturation was elevated at 0.25 and 1.0 g Fe/kg. kg. Histologic examination of liver, heart, and bone marrow as well as ultrastructural studies on liver and heart confirmed increased iron deposition in treated animals. At the low iron dose level of 0.5 g Fe/kg, liver iron particles were primarily confined to Kupffer cells with minimal hepatocellular localization. Increased hepatocellular iron deposition was observed with larger doses of loaded iron. Myocardial iron was most prominent in interstitial cells of the epicardium, endocardium, myocardium, and coronary adipose tissue. Ultrastructurally, the presence of iron particles in perinuclear, membrane-bound structures (consistent with lysosomes) was confirmed using x-ray microanalysis. These morphological studies suggest that in this animal model siderosis of hepatic mononuclear phagocyte and myocardial interstitial cells may be the initial lesions leading to further biochemical and functional abnormalities. Correlation between tissue iron measurements and both light and electron microscopic changes, presented in this report, serve to introduce the iron-loaded guinea pig as a model for the study of iron

  14. Probiotics - do they have a role in the pig industry?

    PubMed

    Kenny, M; Smidt, H; Mengheri, E; Miller, B

    2011-03-01

    The delivery of certain living microorganisms in food has long been suggested as having positive health effects in humans. This practice has extended into food animal production, with a variety of microorganisms being used; lactic acid bacteria, various Bacillus species and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been particularly used in the pig industry. The increased interest in probiotics is essentially due to the problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics and following the ban of the use of antibiotics in animal production, probiotics being considered an alternative means to reduce pathogen infection and improve animal health especially around the time of weaning. However, there is still a need to clarify the probiotic effectiveness in pigs, and the underlying mechanisms. When assessing the efficacy of probiotics one must consider the particular strain of organism being used and the production stage of the pigs being treated. The reproducible delivery of probiotics in industrial pig production is problematic as maintenance of viability is key to their beneficial activity, but difficult to achieve with commonly used feed processing technologies. One specific context where probiotics organisms may be reliably delivered is in systems utilising fermented liquid feeds. Liquid feed may be fermented by the activity of wild lactic acid bacteria or may be stimulated using specific isolates as 'starters'; the latter system has advantages in terms of reproducibility and speed of fermentation. The farm context in which the organism is used is likely to be critical; the use of probiotics is more likely to result in measurable economic gains in animals living in sub-optimal conditions rather than in those reared in the highest welfare and husbandry conditions. The establishment of a beneficial lactic acid bacteria population at birth may lead to healthier animals, this may be most effectively achieved by treating sows, which provide an amplification step and flood the

  15. Modeling ecological traps for the control of feral pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, Nick; McLeod, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Ecological traps are habitat sinks that are preferred by dispersing animals but have higher mortality or reduced fecundity compared to source habitats. Theory suggests that if mortality rates are sufficiently high, then ecological traps can result in extinction. An ecological trap may be created when pest animals are controlled in one area, but not in another area of equal habitat quality, and when there is density-dependent immigration from the high-density uncontrolled area to the low-density controlled area. We used a logistic population model to explore how varying the proportion of habitat controlled, control mortality rate, and strength of density-dependent immigration for feral pigs could affect the long-term population abundance and time to extinction. Increasing control mortality, the proportion of habitat controlled and the strength of density-dependent immigration decreased abundance both within and outside the area controlled. At higher levels of these parameters, extinction was achieved for feral pigs. We extended the analysis with a more complex stochastic, interactive model of feral pig dynamics in the Australian rangelands to examine how the same variables as the logistic model affected long-term abundance in the controlled and uncontrolled area and time to extinction. Compared to the logistic model of feral pig dynamics, the stochastic interactive model predicted lower abundances and extinction at lower control mortalities and proportions of habitat controlled. To improve the realism of the stochastic interactive model, we substituted fixed mortality rates with a density-dependent control mortality function, empirically derived from helicopter shooting exercises in Australia. Compared to the stochastic interactive model with fixed mortality rates, the model with the density-dependent control mortality function did not predict as substantial decline in abundance in controlled or uncontrolled areas or extinction for any combination of variables

  16. Modeling ecological traps for the control of feral pigs.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Nick; McLeod, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    Ecological traps are habitat sinks that are preferred by dispersing animals but have higher mortality or reduced fecundity compared to source habitats. Theory suggests that if mortality rates are sufficiently high, then ecological traps can result in extinction. An ecological trap may be created when pest animals are controlled in one area, but not in another area of equal habitat quality, and when there is density-dependent immigration from the high-density uncontrolled area to the low-density controlled area. We used a logistic population model to explore how varying the proportion of habitat controlled, control mortality rate, and strength of density-dependent immigration for feral pigs could affect the long-term population abundance and time to extinction. Increasing control mortality, the proportion of habitat controlled and the strength of density-dependent immigration decreased abundance both within and outside the area controlled. At higher levels of these parameters, extinction was achieved for feral pigs. We extended the analysis with a more complex stochastic, interactive model of feral pig dynamics in the Australian rangelands to examine how the same variables as the logistic model affected long-term abundance in the controlled and uncontrolled area and time to extinction. Compared to the logistic model of feral pig dynamics, the stochastic interactive model predicted lower abundances and extinction at lower control mortalities and proportions of habitat controlled. To improve the realism of the stochastic interactive model, we substituted fixed mortality rates with a density-dependent control mortality function, empirically derived from helicopter shooting exercises in Australia. Compared to the stochastic interactive model with fixed mortality rates, the model with the density-dependent control mortality function did not predict as substantial decline in abundance in controlled or uncontrolled areas or extinction for any combination of variables

  17. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  18. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE.

  19. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides.

  20. Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Youn; Ko, Han-Jong; Kim, Hyeon-Tae; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Roh, Young-Man

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study is to demonstrate an effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, total airborne fungi and ammonia were significantly higher in the treated nursery pig house with feeding than the control nursery pig house without feeding. Although there is no significant difference in respirable dust and total airborne fungi between the treatment and the control, their concentrations in the treated nursery pig house were also higher than the control nursery pig house. The result that the level of ammonia in the treated nursery pig house is lower than the control nursery pig house would be reasoned by the mechanism of ammonia generation in the pig house and adsorption property of ammonia to dust particles. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increased the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to no feeding activity.

  1. Hematology and clinical chemistry values of normal and euthymic hairless adult male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Waner, Trevor; Avidar, Yaakov; Peh, Hao-Chang; Zass, Rosa; Bogin, Eitan

    1996-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry measurements were performed on blood specimens from 12 male Dunkin-Hartley hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR and 10 haired Dunkin-Hartley male guinea pigs Crl:(HA)BR. Significantly higher activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, amylase, and creatine kinase were observed in the hairless guinea pigs as compared to the haired strain. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to be lower in the hairless guinea pig. The hairless guinea pigs were found to have serum urea concentrations approximately 46% higher than the normal guinea pig strain. The erythrocytic mean cell volume of the hairless strain was found to be smaller, with a greater hemoglobin content. Hairless guinea pigs were found to have approximately 40% fewer leukocytes with a reversed lymphocyte:neutrophil ratio compared to the haired guinea pigs which had much higher lymphocyte counts.

  2. Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus on Polish pig farms

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowska, Aneta; Żmudzki, Jacek; Marszałek, Natalia; Orczykowska-Kotyna, Monika; Komorowska, Iga; Nowak, Agnieszka; Grzesiak, Anna; Czyżewska-Dors, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Wyszomirski, Tomasz; Empel, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Background Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) draws increasing attention due to its particular ability to colonize farm animals and be transmitted to people, which in turn leads to its spread in the environment. The aim of the study was to determine the dissemination of LA-SA on pig farms selected throughout Poland, characterize the population structure of identified S. aureus, and assess the prevalence of LA-SA carriage amongst farmers and veterinarians being in contact with pigs. Methods and findings The study was conducted on 123 pig farms (89 farrow-to-finish and 34 nucleus herds), located in 15 out of 16 provinces of Poland. Human and pig nasal swabs, as well as dust samples were analyzed. S. aureus was detected on 79 (64.2%) farms from 14 provinces. Amongst these farms LA-SA-positive farms dominated (71/79, 89.9%, 95% CI [81.0%, 95.5%]). The prevalence of LA-MRSA-positive farms was lower than LA-MSSA-positive (36.6% of LA-SA-positive farms, 95% CI [25.5%, 48.9%] vs. 74.6%, 95% CI [62.9%, 84.2%]). In total, 190 S. aureus isolates were identified: 72 (38%) MRSA and 118 (62%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), of which 174 (92%) isolates were classified to three livestock-associated lineages: CC398 (73%), CC9 (13%), and CC30/ST433 (6%). All CC398 isolates belonged to the animal clade. Four LA-MRSA clones were detected: ST433-IVa(2B) clone (n = 8, 11%), described to the best of our knowledge for the first time, and three ST398 clones (n = 64, 89%) with the most prevalent being ST398-V(5C2&5)c, followed by ST398-V(5C2), and ST398-IVa(2B). Nasal carriage of LA-SA by pig farmers was estimated at 13.2% (38/283), CC398 carriage at 12.7% (36/283) and ST398-MRSA carriage at 3.2% (9/283), whereas by veterinarians at 21.1% (8/38), 18.4% (7/38) and 10.5% (4/38), respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of LA-MRSA-positive pig farms in Poland has increased considerably since 2008, when the first MRSA EU baseline survey was conducted in Europe. On

  3. Biosynthesis of factor V in isolated guinea pig megakaryocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, H C; Schick, P K; Colman, R W

    1985-01-01

    Although platelets contain Factor V, localized primarily in the alpha-granules, the origin of this coagulation cofactor in these cells is not known. We therefore explored whether isolated megakaryocytes could biosynthesize Factor V. Guinea pig plasma Factor V coagulant activity was demonstrated to be neutralized by human monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed monospecifically against human Factor V. These antibodies had been used earlier to purify human Factor V. These antibodies had been used earlier to purify human Factor V and to quantify Factor V antigen concentration, respectively (1983. Chiu, H. C., E. Whitaker, and R. W. Colman. J. Clin. Invest. 72:493-503). As determined by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with guinea pig plasma as a standard, Factor V solubilized from guinea pig megakaryocytes was present at 0.098 +/- 0.018 micrograms/10(5) cells. Each megakaryocyte contained about 500 times as much Factor V as is in a platelet (0.234 +/- 0.180 micrograms/10(8) platelets). The content of Factor V antigen in guinea pig plasma was greater (27.0 +/- 3.0 micrograms/ml) than that of Factor V antigen in human plasma (11.1 +/- 0.4 micrograms/ml). In contrast, human platelets contain ninefold more Factor V antigen (2.01 +/- 1.09 micrograms/10(8) platelets) than do guinea pig were 2.85 +/- 0.30 U/ml plasma, 0.022 +/- 0.012 U/10(8) platelets, and 0.032 +/- 0.03 U/10(5) megakaryocytes, compared with human values of 0.98 +/- 0.02 U/ml plasma and 0.124 +/- 0.064 U/10(8) platelets. Isolated megakaryocytes were found to contain Factor V by cytoimmunofluorescence. The megakaryocytes were incubated with [35S]methionine, and radiolabeled intracellular proteins purified were on a human anti-Factor V immunoaffinity column. The purified protein exhibited Factor V coagulant activity and neutralized the inhibitory activity of a rabbit antihuman Factor V antibody, which suggests that megakaryocyte Factor V is functionally and antigenically intact

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in growing pigs in Kabale District in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Sofie; Poulsen, Idahella H; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Roepstorff, Allan; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2011-03-01

    During the last 30 years, pig production in Uganda and neighbouring counties has increased markedly. Pigs are mainly kept as a source of income for small-scale farmers; however, the pig production is subject to several constraints, one of them being worm infections. A study was carried out in rural communities in Kabale District in the South Western part of Uganda in September and October 2007 in order to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pigs based on coprological examination. Fifty-six households were randomly selected and visited. Housing system and deworming history were recorded. Faeces was sampled from rectum of one to five pigs (age, 3-12 months) per household. A total of 106 pigs were examined coprologically of which 91% excreted nematode eggs. The following prevalences of nematode eggs were recorded: strongyles (89%), Ascaris suum (40%), Trichuris suis (17%) and spiruroid eggs (48%). On household level, rearing pigs on slatted floors in pens significantly reduced the faecal egg excretion of strongyle eggs with almost 80% (p=0.010) and a significant interaction between floor type and anthelmintic treatment was found for spiruroids (p=0.037). Fifteen T. suis egg positive pigs were selected for post-mortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The post-mortem examinations revealed that 93% pigs were infected with Oesophagostomum spp. (worm burden, min-max 10-2,180), 73% with A. suum (1-36), 67% with T. suis (6-58), and 20% with Hyostrongylus rubidus (worms not quantified). In general, nematode infections were widespread and polyparasitism common in pigs in Uganda. However, worm burdens were moderate which may be related to recent deworming or to the practice of rearing pigs on slatted floors in wooden elevated pens.

  5. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  6. Effects of Transport at Weaning on the Behavior, Physiology and Performance of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Backus, Brittany L.; McGlone, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs are commonly transported to separate production facilities at weaning to reduce disease transfer, enhance productivity and to improve overall operational efficiency. A review of the scientific literature suggests that these animals experience stress due to concurrent weaning and transport; however, gaps in the knowledge include the short and long term health and welfare implications of transporting pigs at weaning. Pig welfare and the efficiency of the swine industry may improve if science-based recommendations were in place. Abstract Transport of pigs to separate production facilities at the time of weaning is a common practice, primarily performed to reduce vertical transfer of disease and enhance production and overall farm efficiency. During transport, pigs are exposed to numerous stressors in conjunction with the stress experienced as a result of weaning. In this review, the behavioral and physiological response of pigs experiencing weaning and transport simultaneously will be described, including the effects of space allowance, season and transport duration. Based on the scientific literature, the gaps in the knowledge regarding potential welfare issues are discussed. Changes in behavior and physiology suggest that weaned pigs may experience stress due to transport. Space allowance, season and duration are aspects of transport that can have a marked impact on these responses. To date, the literature regarding the effects of transport on weaned pigs has primarily focused on the short term stress response and little is known about the effects of concurrent weaning and transport on other aspects of pig welfare including morbidity and mortality rates. Greater understanding of the short and long term consequences of transport on weaned pig welfare particularly in relation to factors such as trip duration, provision of feed and water, and best handling practices would benefit the swine industry. Furthermore, the development of guidelines and

  7. Effect of feed restriction on adipose tissue transcript concentrations in genetically lean and obese pigs.

    PubMed

    McNeel, R L; Ding, S T; Smith, E O; Mersmann, H J

    2000-04-01

    To determine possible genetic influences on the steady-state concentrations of several key transcription factor transcripts and the transcript concentrations for adipocyte-characteristic proteins, young, genetically obese and lean pigs were given ad libitum access or feed or were restrictively fed at 50% of ad libitum intake for 5 wk. Obese pigs were smaller and fatter than lean pigs, whether intake was ad libitum or restrictive. Plasma protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentrations were greater in obese than in lean pigs. Plasma NEFA, blood urea nitrogen, triacylglycerols, and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations were less (P < .02) in pigs fed restrictively than in pigs with ad libitum access to feed, regardless of genetic group. The adipose tissue glucose transporter 4, fatty acid synthase, and leptin transcript concentrations were greater (P < .05) in obese than in lean pigs. The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins beta and alpha, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, hormone-sensitive lipase, and the beta1-adrenergic receptor transcript concentrations tended (P < . 10) to be greater in adipose tissue from obese than in that from lean pigs. Several other transcripts were numerically greater in obese than in lean pigs. The data collectively suggest that messenger RNA concentration for several adipose tissue proteins is a contributing factor to the excess fat deposition in these obese pigs. Restricted feeding did not change the concentration of any transcript except that for adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, which was reduced. The accretion of fat was markedly reduced in the restrictively fed pigs, but this diminution does not seem to be regulated by modulation of messenger RNA concentration.

  8. Detection and zoonotic potential of Trichinella spp. from free-range pig farming in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papatsiros, V G; Boutsini, S; Ntousi, D; Stougiou, D; Mintza, D; Bisias, A

    2012-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious parasitic zoonosis, which is widely distributed around the world. Pork meat is still the predominant source of outbreaks of human trichinellosis in many countries. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Trichinella spp. as an important risk factor on the free-range pig farming sector in Greece. In 2009, during routine testing for the detection of Trichinella larvae at slaughterhouses and the National Reference Laboratory for Parasites (NRL), a total of 826,426 pigs were tested with the magnetic stirrer method for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses, including 2,892 samples from free-range pigs. Two positive samples were detected: one positive for Trichinella britovi and one positive for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) in the samples from wild farmed free-range pigs. It is alarming that one of these cases was connected with clinical signs of trichinellosis in five persons of the same family in northeastern Greece, who consumed undercooked pork meat from a free-range pig farm. During 2010, a total number of 1,295,034 pigs were tested with same method, including 4,159 samples from free-range pig farms. Five positive samples for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) were detected from 4,159 free-range pigs tested by the Greek NRL. Moreover, 363 serum samples from free-range pigs were serologically tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, 363 serum samples from farmed free-range pigs were serologically tested with ELISA, and 15 samples were found positive. Finally, the present study is the first report of detection of T. britovi in Greece. In conclusion, based on the results of the present study, Trichinella spp. is a high-risk factor for the free-range pig farming in Greece.

  9. Soil contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in pig farms in central China.

    PubMed

    Du, Fen; Zhang, Qingli; Yu, Qian; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2012-06-08

    Toxoplasmosis in pigs is a large threat to pig industry as well as pork consumers. Most pigs become infected by ingestion of oocysts from contaminated environment (soil, water and feed) or infected animal tissues postnatally. In the present study, field studies were conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil contamination status of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and T. gondii infection in pigs in 12 pig farms with different density of cats in central China. The presence of T. gondii oocysts in soil were determined by PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). T. gondii DNA was found in 11 farms with different cat density excepting one farm exposed to low cat density. Twenty (21.1%) and 36 (37.9%) of 95 soil samples were T. gondii positive by PCR and LAMP, respectively (0.01pig farms with high cat density and 220 of 1039 (21.2%) samples from pig farms with low cat density (P<0.01). The results indicated that a high seroprevalence of T. gondii in pigs was found in the pig farms with high soil contamination by T. gondii oocysts in Hubei Province. The soil contamination status of pig farms was significantly influenced by cat density and may be an indicator of T. gondii infection in pigs.

  10. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  11. The differential proliferative ability of satellite cells in Lantang and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-qi; Yang, Wei-jun; Yang, Zhou; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-bo; Jiang, Qing-yan; Yuan, Li; Wu, Tong-shan

    2012-01-01

    Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs) isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs) and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05) number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G(2)/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while in G(0)/G(1) phase was lower (P<0.05) in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1) were lower (P<0.05) than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs.

  12. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in pigs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; Hurnik, Daniel; Estey, Chelsie; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    In a cross-sectional study of 633 pigs from 21 herds on Prince Edward Island, Canada (PEI), the prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and the genotypes and species of isolates were determined in order to establish the zoonotic potential of pigs in this region. As determined by direct immunofluorescence microscopy (DFA), 18 herds (86%) and 163 animals (26%; 95% CI: 22-29%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium, while just 3 herds (14%) and 6 animals (1%; 95% CI: 0.4-2%) tested positive for Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolates were detected in 39% (95% CI: 34-44%) of weanlings (1-3 months of age) and 9% (95% CI: 6-13) of sows (>8months of age). Molecular characterization using the 18S rDNA and HSP70 gene fragments revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II, C. suis, C. parvum, and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype. Among the 113 isolates of Cryptosporidium spp. successfully genotyped, pig genotype II (61%) predominated, with C. suis (36%) being the next most prominant isolate. C. parvum (2%; two isolates) and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype (0.9%; one isolate) were only occasionally isolated. The only two Cryptosporidium-positive genotyped isolates from sows included one each of C. suis and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II. All but one of the six Giardia positive isolates were detected in weanling pigs. None of the Giardia-positive isolates was amenable to PCR. This study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. are highly prevalent in pigs on PEI, Canada, are found mostly in weanlings (1-3 months of age). Furthermore, the pigs are primarily infected by the host-specific genotypes and species, Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II and C. suis, whereas the zoonotic C. parvum is rare. Giardia duodenalis is only occasionally found in pigs. These findings suggest that domestic pigs on PEI, Canada, likely do not pose a significant health risk to humans from these parasites.

  13. The prevalence of internal and external parasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in Southeast District, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Nsoso, S J; Mosala, K P; Ndebele, R T; Ramabu, S S

    2000-09-01

    Botswana imports most pig-based products from neighbouring countries. Pig farming is limited by, among other things, the negative effect of parasites and diseases on production. The object of this study was to determine the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in the Southeast District of Botswana. Thirty-nine pigs were sampled for endoparasites and 19 for ectoparasites during a period of 2 1/2 months. Of all the pigs sampled, 54,55% were infected with Ascaris suum, 20,45% with Trichostrongylus spp. and 6,82% with Trichuris suis. Ascaris suum was found to be the most common endoparasite infesting both mature, i.e. 12 months and older, and young, i.e. less than 12 months old, pigs. Although not significantly different (P > 0,05), the prevalence of this parasite species was slightly higher (68,42% with an average of 1,023 +/- 545 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces per pig) in mature than in young pigs (55% with an of average 1,500 +/- 846 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus spp. was lower in mature (5,26% with 20 +/- 14 EPG of faeces per pig) than in young pigs (25% with 22 +/- 9 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of T. suis was also lower in mature (0% infection) than in young pigs (15% with 9 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of the three endoparasite species was not significantly different between the sexes A. suum (1,020 +/- 883 v. 1,503 +/- 522 EPG of faeces per pig), Trichostrongylus spp. (24 +/- 14 v. 18 +/- 8 EPG of faeces per pig) and T. suis (11 +/- 6 v. 2 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig) for male and female pigs respectively. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only ectoparasite identified on the pigs sampled for external parasites. It infested 40% of all pigs but the infestation on young pigs (70%) was higher than on the mature ones (33,33%). Since the infection of internal and external parasites was similar in young and old pigs of both sexes, controlling parasites is of great importance since these

  14. An initial investigation into the effects of isolation and enrichment on the welfare of labratory pigs housed in the PigTurn® system, assessed using tear staining, behaviour, physiology and haematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig is an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory often requires individual, sterile housing, which may impose stress. Our objective was to determine the effects of isolation and enrichment in pigs housed for 7 days within the PigTurn™ - a novel penning system wit...

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  17. Deconstructing the pig sex metabolome: Targeted metabolomics in heavy pigs revealed sexual dimorphisms in plasma biomarkers and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bovo, S; Mazzoni, G; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Schiavo, G; Scotti, E; Manisi, A; Samoré, A B; Bertolini, F; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P; Dall'Olio, S; Pagotto, U; Fontanesi, L

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomics has opened new possibilities to investigate metabolic differences among animals. In this study, we applied a targeted metabolomic approach to deconstruct the pig sex metabolome as defined by castrated males and entire gilts. Plasma from 545 performance-tested Italian Large White pigs (172 castrated males and 373 females) sampled at about 160 kg live weight were analyzed for 186 metabolites using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit. After filtering, 132 metabolites (20 AA, 11 biogenic amines, 1 hexose, 13 acylcarnitines, 11 sphingomyelins, 67 phosphatidylcholines, and 9 lysophosphatidylcholines) were retained for further analyses. The multivariate approach of the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied, together with a specifically designed statistical pipeline, that included a permutation test and a 10 cross-fold validation procedure that produced stability and effect size statistics for each metabolite. Using this approach, we identified 85 biomarkers (with metabolites from all analyzed chemical families) that contributed to the differences between the 2 groups of pigs ( < 0.05 at the stability statistic test). All acylcarnitines and almost all biogenic amines were higher in castrated males than in gilts. Metabolites involved in tryptophan catabolism had the largest differences (i.e., delta = 20% for serotonin) between castrated males (higher) and gilts (lower). The level of several AA (Ala, Arg, Gly, His, Lys, Ser, Thr, and Trp) was higher in gilts (delta was from approximately 1.0 to approximately 4.8%) whereas products of AA catabolism (taurine, 2-aminoadipic acid, and methionine sulfoxide) were higher in castrated males (delta was approximately 5.0-6.0%), suggesting a metabolic shift in castrated males toward energy storage and lipid production. Similar general patterns were observed for most sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, and lysophosphatidylcholines. Metabolomic pathway analysis and pathway enrichment identified

  18. Effects of pig age at market weight and magnesium supplementation through drinking water on pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-two halothane-negative pigs (109 +/- 0.6 kg of BW) were used to determine the effect of pig age at marketing (and thus growth rate), and magnesium supplementation through drinking water, on pork quality. Two initial groups of 50 pigs that differed by 30 +/- 2 d of age were fed diets to meet or exceed nutrient requirements beginning at 28 kg of BW. Sixteen average, representative pigs were selected from each group to represent older, slow-growing pigs and younger, fast-growing pigs. For the duration of the study, pigs were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily, and allowed free access to water. After 7 d of adjustment, pigs were blocked by sex and BW and allotted to 0 or 900 mg of supplemental Mg/L as MgSO4 in drinking water for 2 d before slaughter. All 32 pigs were then transported (110 km) to a commercial abattoir on the same day and slaughtered 2.5 h after arrival. Longissimus and semimembranosus (SM) chops were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for fluid loss and Minolta color determinations at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. Two remaining sections of the LM were vacuum-packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 25 or 50 d. Fast- (younger) and slow- (older) growing pigs differed by 27 +/- 0.3 d of age (153 and 180 +/- 0.3 d; P < 0.001) at similar BW (108 and 110 +/- 0.6 kg of BW; P = 0.13). Supplementation of Mg tended to increase plasma Mg concentration (24.1 vs. 21.8 +/- 0.8 ppm; P = 0.06) but did not affect Mg concentration in LM or SM. Fluid loss of displayed LM or SM, and purge loss, color, and oxidation of vacuum-packaged LM or SM were not affected by age or Mg (P > 0.10). Surface exudate of the SM from older pigs was lower than that of younger pigs (61 vs. 74 +/- 6 mg; P = 0.05) but was not different for the LM (P = 0.22). The LM from older pigs displayed for 4 and 8 d; P < 0.05) were less yellow (lower b*) than younger pigs. The SM from older pigs had lower lightness (L*) initially (47.9 vs. 49.5 +/- 0.4) and after 2 d (49

  19. Dietary tryptophan effects on plasma and salivary cortisol and meat quality in pigs.

    PubMed

    Guzik, A C; Matthews, J O; Kerr, B J; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplemental Trp on meat quality, plasma and salivary cortisol, and plasma lactate. Experiment 1 was a preliminary study to measure plasma cortisol concentrations in 4 barrows (50 kg of BW) that were snared for 30 s at time 0 min. Pigs were bled at -60, -30, -15, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Plasma cortisol was near maximum 10 min after the pigs were snared. In Exp. 2, 20 barrows (50 kg of BW) were allotted to a basal corn-soybean meal diet or the basal diet with 0.5% supplemental l-Trp for 5 d. After the 5-d feeding period, pigs were snared for 30 s and bled at -10, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after snaring. Pigs fed the diet with supplemental Trp had a lower (P < 0.01) mean plasma cortisol than pigs fed the basal diet. Plasma lactate also was decreased (P < 0.07) by supplemental Trp. In Exp. 3, the same pigs and treatments were used as in Exp. 2, but 5 pigs were snared and 15 pigs adjacent to those being snared were bled to determine if pigs are stressed when they are adjacent to pigs being snared. For pigs adjacent to snared pigs, the area under the curve (P < 0.06) and mean for plasma cortisol was lower (P < 0.01) in pigs fed Trp relative to those fed the basal diet. In Exp. 4, 90 barrows (initial BW of 106 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. Three diets with Trp (basal diet, basal supplemented with 0.5% Trp for 5 d, or pigs fed the basal diet with a 0.1 g/kg of BW Trp bolus given 2 h before slaughter) were combined with 2 handling methods (minimal and normal handling). Dressing percent, 24-h pH, and 24-h temperature were reduced in the minimally handled pigs (P < 0.10) compared with the normally handled pigs. Pigs fed Trp in the diet relative to those fed the basal diet had increased 45-min temperature, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values, and drip and total

  20. Noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughtered pigs from 143 farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Portier, F; Bidan, F; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2012-05-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 143 farrow-to-finish herds was carried out to identify herd-level noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter pigs. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during a farm visit. Climatic conditions were measured over 20 h in the post-weaning and finishing rooms where the slaughter pigs were kept. After these on-farm investigations, the finishing pigs were examined at slaughter for lung lesions. A sample of 30 randomly selected pigs per herd was scored for pneumonia and pleuritis. Herds were grouped into three categories according to their pneumonia median score (class 1: ≤ 0.5; class 2: 0.53.75). For pleuritis, a herd was deemed affected if at least one pig had a high pleuritis score (≥ 3). A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with pneumonia classes 2 and 3. A logistic regression for binary outcome was used to identify risk factors for severe pleuritis. An interval of less than four weeks between successive batches (OR=4.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.5-13.6, p<0.01), large finishing room size (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 1.6-11.6, p<0.01) and high mean CO(2) concentration in the finishing room (OR=4.2, 95%CI: 1.6-11.3, p<0.01), significantly increased the odds for a herd to be in class 2 for pneumonia. The same risk factors were found for class 3 and, in addition, a direct fresh air inlet from outside or from the corridor in the post-weaning room vs an appropriate ceiling above the pigs (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.4-18.8, p=0.01). The risk for a herd to have at least one pig with a high pleuritis score was increased when the farrowing facilities were not disinsected (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8, p=0.01), when tail docking was performed later than 1.5 days after birth (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7, p=0.01) and if the piglets were castrated when more than 14 days old (OR=2

  1. Supplementation with a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product alters the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would alter the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4+/-0.1 kg BW) were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  4. Ascariasis in humans and pigs on small-scale farms, Maine, USA, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Dasilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010-2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene.

  5. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  6. Initial differences in lipid processing leading to pig-and beef-derived mature adipocyte differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal cultures of pig-derived mature adipocytes are capable of dedifferentiating and forming proliferative-competent progeny cells in vitro. Initial lipid processing, is different to that observed in cultures of beef-derived adipocytes. Mature pig adipocytes extrude lipid before proliferation, wher...

  7. Advanced Laparoscopy Training for General Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert...Protocol Title: "Advanced Laparoscopy Training for General Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica)" 3. Principal Investigator (PI

  8. Resident Training in General Surgery Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Cromer 5d. PROJECT...Training in General Surgery Using a Pig Model ( Sus scrofa domestica)" 3. Principal Investigator (PI): Maj Robert Cromer, USAF, MC, Staff General Surgeon, 81

  9. Diversity of viruses detected by deep sequencing in pigs from a common background

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trial was successful in identifying a number of viruses in the feces of the pigs demonstrating the application of this technology to determine the background noise in the animals. The findings in this study are similar to the fecal virome in pigs from a typical commercial swine farm in the Unite...

  10. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns surrounding established and expanding populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have created the need for rapid and accurate surveys of these populations. We conducted surveys of a portion of the wild pig population on Fort Benning, Georgia, to determine if a longer time-lapse interval than had been previously used in surveys of wild pigs would generate similar detection results. We concurrently examined whether use of soured corn at camera sites affected the time necessary for pigs to locate a new camera site or the time pigs remained at a site. Our results suggest that a 9-min time-lapse interval generated dependable detection results for pigs and that soured corn neither attracted pigs to a site any quicker than plain, dry, whole-kernel corn, nor held them at a site longer. Maximization of time-lapse interval should decrease data and processing loads, and use of a simple, available bait should decrease cost and effort associated with more complicated baits; combination of these concepts should increase efficiency of wild pig surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Immune and inflammatory responses in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate parasite induced immune responses in pigs co-infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum as compared to mono-species infected pigs. T. suis is known to elicit a strong immune response leading to rapid expulsion, and a strong antagonistic ...

  12. Cytokine Protein Expression Levels in Tracheobronchial Lymph Node Homogenates of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Following primary infection of the respiratory tract, PRV can develop into a systemic infection with dispersion of t...

  13. The effects of R-salbutamol on growth, carcass measures and health of finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pure form of salbutamol has the potential to deliver positive production benefits to the swine industry. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of salbutamol on growth, carcass measures and health of finishing pigs. The study used 192 pigs (88.8 ± 0.9 kg BW) housed in groups of 6 ...

  14. Snaring to control feral pigs sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Stephen J.; Stone, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Feral pig Sus scrofa control in Kipahulu Valley, a remote rain forest in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, has been achieved with snares over a 45-month period. Initial pig densities in fenced management units of 6·2 km2 and 7·8 km2were estimated at 6 animals/km2 and 14·3 animals/km2 for the two units, based on population reconstruction from animals killed and aged. During the 45 months of the study, 1978 snares were set, and 1·6 million snare nights were logged. Snare density reached 96/km2 and 200/km2 for the two management units by the end of the study. A mean effort of 43 worker hours/pig was used to remove 53 pigs from the upper management unit, and a mean of 7 worker hours/pig to remove 175 animals from the more densely populated lower unit. Pig activity monitoring along transects provided a good measure of control effectiveness until densities of about 1 pig/km2 were achieved, after which transects became less useful than scouting for determining pig activity.

  15. Stimulation of appetite and the growth, stress, and immune axes of weanling pigs by syndyphalin-33

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parameters measuring growth, stress, and immune response in weanling pigs given the opiate tripeptide syndyphalin-33 (SD) were investigated in three separate trials. In the first trial, 8 nursing pigs were given SD (0.5 umol/kg, n = 4) or vehicle (VEH; n = 4) in a single im injection at 13 d of age ...

  16. Transcriptome profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in postnatal developing pituitary gland of miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Li, Yuli; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Wu, Jiayan; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Yu, Jun; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Tibetan pig and Bama pig are popularly used as animal models for medical researches. However, little genomic information is available for the two breeds, particularly regarding gene expression pattern at the whole-transcriptome level. In this study, we characterized the pituitary transcriptome profile along their postnatal developmental stages within and between the two breeds in order to illustrate the differential dynamics and functions of differentially expressed genes. We obtained a total of ∼300 million 80-bp paired-end reads, detected 15 715 previously annotated genes. Most of the genes (90.33%) were shared between the two breeds with the main functions in metabolic process. Four hormone genes (GH, PRL, LHB, and FSHB) were detected in all samples with extremely high levels of expression. Functional differences between the three developmental stages (infancy, puberty and adulthood) in each breed were dominantly presented by the gene expressions at the first stage. That is, Bama pig was over-represented in the genes involved in the cellular process, while Tibetan pig was over-represented in the genes represented by the reproductive process. The identified SNPs indicated that the divergence between the miniature pig breeds and the large pig (Duroc) were greater than that between the two miniature pig breeds. This study substantially expands our knowledge concerning the genes transcribed in the pig pituitary gland and provides an overview of pituitary transcriptome dynamics throughout the period of postnatal development.

  17. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Postnatal Developing Pituitary Gland of Miniature Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Li, Yuli; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Wu, Jiayan; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Yu, Jun; Li, Meng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Tibetan pig and Bama pig are popularly used as animal models for medical researches. However, little genomic information is available for the two breeds, particularly regarding gene expression pattern at the whole-transcriptome level. In this study, we characterized the pituitary transcriptome profile along their postnatal developmental stages within and between the two breeds in order to illustrate the differential dynamics and functions of differentially expressed genes. We obtained a total of ∼300 million 80-bp paired-end reads, detected 15 715 previously annotated genes. Most of the genes (90.33%) were shared between the two breeds with the main functions in metabolic process. Four hormone genes (GH, PRL, LHB, and FSHB) were detected in all samples with extremely high levels of expression. Functional differences between the three developmental stages (infancy, puberty and adulthood) in each breed were dominantly presented by the gene expressions at the first stage. That is, Bama pig was over-represented in the genes involved in the cellular process, while Tibetan pig was over-represented in the genes represented by the reproductive process. The identified SNPs indicated that the divergence between the miniature pig breeds and the large pig (Duroc) were greater than that between the two miniature pig breeds. This study substantially expands our knowledge concerning the genes transcribed in the pig pituitary gland and provides an overview of pituitary transcriptome dynamics throughout the period of postnatal development. PMID:24282060

  18. Genome wide association of changes in feeding behavior due to heat stress in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts pork production. Grow-finish production losses include decreased growth, reduced feed intake, and mortality. Pigs change their feeding behavior to decrease heat production when temperatures are elevated. Identification of pigs that are more tolerant of warmer temperatu...

  19. Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants

    PubMed Central

    Holowaychuk, Marie K.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. PMID:16933558

  20. Rapid Accumulation of Eosinophils in Lung Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lasco, Todd M.; Turner, Oliver C.; Cassone, Lynne; Sugawara, Isamu; Yamada, Hiroyuki; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophils were positively identified in bronchoalveolar lavage populations and in the lung granulomas of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs. It is possible that the rapid influx of these cells, and their subsequent degranulation during acute pulmonary tuberculosis, may play a key role in the susceptibility of this animal model. PMID:14742563

  1. Identification of guinea pig gammadelta T cells and characterization during pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaowei; Morita, Craig T; Bukowski, Jack F; Brenner, Michael B; Dascher, Christopher C

    2004-11-01

    Guinea pigs are an alternative small animal model for many disease studies. Here we describe a pan-gammadelta monoclonal antibody (anti-TCRdelta1) specific for the constant region of human T cell receptor delta chains that cross-reacts with a subpopulation of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) lymphocytes. The phenotype and distribution of this subpopulation is consistent with the guinea pig gammadelta T cell subset. FACS analysis of fresh PBMC and splenocytes from naïve guinea pigs revealed the presence of a subset of cells that stained with the anti-TCRdelta1 mAb. The relative percentage of anti-TCRdelta1 positive cells in PBMC and tissues is similar to that described for gammadelta T cells in other species. Immunohistochemistry of tissues also revealed a distribution of anti-TCRdelta1 positive cells consistent with gammadelta T cells. These data are further supported by staining of a polyclonal guinea pig T cell line that became progressively CD4 and CD8 negative in long-term culture. Analysis of PBMC from guinea pigs following aerosol infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed no apparent changes in the steady-state percentage of blood gammadelta+ T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the anti-TCRdelta1 antibody recognizes the gammadelta T cell subset in guinea pigs. This reagent may be useful for examining gammadelta T cells in various disease models where the guinea pig is a more desirable model for study.

  2. Alterations in the response of pigs to Salmonella typhimurium when provided Enterobacter cloacae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weanling pigs are at risk of succumbing to illness due to an immature immune system and insufficient supply of available energy at the time of weaning. Recent evidence has suggested that providing pigs with Enterobacter cloacae can increase the concentration of circulating triglycerides (TAGs) and t...

  3. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on immune function during a Salmonella challenge in recently weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize the effect of Syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) on immune cell populations with and without a concurrent inoculation with a common enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica (SALM) in recently weaned pigs. On d 0, pigs (8 barrows and 6 gilts, 24 ± 1 d of age, 8.4...

  4. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm) on productive performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs (starting body weight averaged 7.5 kg) experimentally infected with Ascaris suum (50,000 embryonated ova administered by gavage when pigs were 5 weeks of age) were studied in 5 trials of 4 weeks each (when pigs were 5 to 9 weeks of age). Effects of atmospheric-ammonia exposure and ascarid infection on growth were additive. Compared with controls, percentage reductions in average daily gain were 32%, 28%, and 61% for ammonia-exposed, ascarid-infected, and combined ammonia plus ascarid groups, respectively. Ammonia exposure or ascarid infection alone depressed feed disappearance by 18%. Effects of the 2 factors were additive, resulting in a 35% reduction in feed disappearance. Pigs exposed to the combined factors had an average gain/feed ratio of 0.518, which was less than that of control pigs (0.546), but was greater than that of pigs exposed to atmospheric ammonia (0.489) or pigs infected with ascarids (0.501) alone. Liver scarring, due to larval migration, was not affected by ammonia exposure. Larval migration through the respiratory tract was not confirmed histopathologically in pigs killed 4 weeks after inoculation. A supplementary experiment was conducted which demonstrated that residual evidence of previous pulmonary larval migration was present 2 weeks after inoculation.

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 2970 (1400 sows, 1570 fattening) pigs, from 100 farms from the 10 main swine production regions in Spain were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were detected in 16.6% of 492 pigs (,9.7% f...

  6. Clinical pig liver xenotransplantation: how far do we have to go?

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Veroux, Massimiliano; Cooper, David K C

    2011-01-01

    As pigs are currently the preferred species for organ xenotransplantation, initial experience in liver xenotransplantation with wild-type (WT) pigs, advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, and recent studies using livers from them are reviewed. The xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for the human complement regulatory protein (CRP) CD55 or from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/- additionally transgenic for the CRP CD46 (GTKO/CD46 pigs) is associated with the survival of approximately 1 week. Satisfactory hepatic function has been documented, lending support to the concept that the pig liver might provide a bridge to allotransplantation. However, although significant features of rejection have not been documented, the development of an immediate thrombocytopenia after graft reperfusion is problematic and leads to spontaneous hemorrhage within the body cavities, native organs, and graft. Current studies are being directed to understand the factors causing the activation, aggregation, or phagocytosis of platelets, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells. If this problem can be resolved, a clinical trial of pig liver xenotransplantation as a bridge to allotransplantation may be both feasible and justified.

  7. 78 FR 32121 - When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display; San Diego, CA AGENCY... on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display on... 600 feet of the nearest point of the fireworks barge located in the vicinity of the USS MIDWAY....

  8. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen - 2 gene for Korean native pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic distances of the SLA-2 gene, to characterize SLA-2 alleles, and to provide basic genetic information of Korean pigs. The swine leukocyte antigen - 2 (SLA-2) gene in the MHC classical region was cloned with spleen tissues from Korean native pigs ...

  10. Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in intensive pig farms in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (L. intracellularis) is a major concern to the pig industry worldwide. Although 8.3 billion pigs are produced each year in China, few reports on the prevalence of L.intracellularis infection are available. The aim of the current study was to estimate the seroprevalence of L. intracellularis antibodies in intensive pig farms in China. Results A total of 1060 serum samples were collected from 14 commercial pig farms located throughout China. Animals from all age groups were sampled including pre-weaning piglets, weaners, fattening pigs, adult sows and boars. Antibodies against L. intracellularis were detected using a specific blocking ELISA. Of the 1060 serum samples, 602 were identified as positive using the ELISA test. The apparent seroprevalence of L. intracellularis seropositivity was 57% (95% CI 50 to 64%). The true prevalence (that is, prevalence corrected for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the testing method) was 77% (95% CI 70 to 83%). Conclusions The highest true prevalence was observed in sows and boars, suggesting that within a herd these stock classes are a reservoir for infection. The prevalence of L. intracellularis seropositivity in local breed pigs was significantly less than that in imported breeds. A higher seroprevalence was found in pigs in herds in Central and Northern China, which may correspond to the greater use of the intensive production systems in these areas. We conclude that L. intracellularis is widely prevalent in commercial pigs in China. PMID:24774304

  11. Efficient generation of B2m-null pigs via injection of zygote with TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Du, Yinan; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lulu; Li, Jian; Wang, Fengchao; Huang, Zhengen; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Donor major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules are the main targets of the host immune response after organ allotransplantation. Whether and how MHC I-deficiency of pig donor tissues affects rejection after xenotransplantation has not been assessed. Beta2-microglobulin (B2M) is indispensable for the assembly of MHC I receptors and therefore provides an effective target to disrupt cell surface MHC I expression. Here, we report the one-step generation of mutant pigs with targeted disruptions in B2m by injection of porcine zygotes with B2m exon 2-specific TALENs. After germline transmission of mutant B2m alleles, we obtained F1 pigs with biallelic B2m frameshift mutations. F1 pigs lacked detectable B2M expression in tissues derived from the three germ layers, and their lymphocytes were devoid of MHC I surface receptors. Skin grafts from B2M deficient pigs exhibited remarkably prolonged survival on xenogeneic wounds compared to tissues of non-mutant littermates. Mutant founder pigs with bi-allelic disruption in B2m and B2M deficient F1 offspring did not display visible abnormalities, suggesting that pigs are tolerant to B2M deficiency. In summary, we show the efficient generation of pigs with germline mutations in B2m, and demonstrate a beneficial effect of donor MHC I-deficiency on xenotransplantation. PMID:27982048

  12. Mucosal correlates of cross-protection for live-attenuated influenza virus vaccines in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling influenza A virus (IAV) in swine has become increasingly difficult with the emergence of novel reassorted strains and introduction of human seasonal IAV into pigs. In North America there are six antigenically distinct H1 subtypes currently circulating in pigs. Live-attenuated influenza v...

  13. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  14. The Pig PeptideAtlas: a resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Hesselager, Marianne O.; Codrea, Marius C.; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W.; Bennike, Tue B.; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L.; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system wide observations, and cross species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this manuscript demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates glucocorticoid suppression of pig lymphocyte function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study determined the effects of a synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone, DEX) and IGF-1 on mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin (Ig) production by pig lymphocytes in vitro. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture from male, crossbred pigs (45 days of age, n=3/e...

  16. Pathogenesis Studies of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus and Pseudorabies Virus From Wild Pigs In Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years in the United States the epidemiology and ecology of swine flu and pseudorabies has been dynamic. Swine flu is caused by influenza A virus and the disease was first recognized in pigs concurrent with the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic in humans. Pigs displayed clinical signs simil...

  17. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  18. Effect of lysozyme or antibiotics on fecal zoonotic pathogens in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lysozyme and antibiotics on zoonotic pathogen shedding in feces from nursery pigs housed without and with an indirect disease challenge. Two replicates of 600 pigs each were weaned and randomly assigned to one of 24 pens in either a nursery...

  19. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in serially recloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Minhwa; Jang, Won-Gu; Hwang, Jeong Hee; Jang, Hoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Shim, Hosup; Hwang, Sung Soo; Oh, Keon Bong; Byun, Sung June; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Lee, Jeong Woong

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We success serial SCNT through the third generation using pig fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Donor-specific mtDNA in the recloned pigs was detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SCNT affect mtDNA mounts. -- Abstract: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established for the transmission of specific nuclear DNA. However, the fate of donor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) remains unclear. Here, we examined the fate of donor mtDNA in recloned pigs through third generations. Fibroblasts of recloned pigs were obtained from offspring of each generation produced by fusion of cultured fibroblasts from a Minnesota miniature pig (MMP) into enucleated oocytes of a Landrace pig. The D-loop regions from the mtDNA of donor and recipient differ at nucleotide sequence positions 16050 (A{yields}T), 16062 (T{yields}C), and 16135 (G{yields}A). In order to determine the fate of donor mtDNA in recloned pigs, we analyzed the D-loop region of the donor's mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and real-time PCR. Donor mtDNA was successfully detected in all recloned offspring (F1, F2, and F3). These results indicate that heteroplasmy that originate from donor and recipient mtDNA is maintained in recloned pigs, resulting from SCNT, unlike natural reproduction.

  20. Development of a Method to Determine the Audiogram of the Guinea Pig for Threshold Shift Studies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    52 kHz by using a positive reinforcement training method. In this procedure, tones served as discriminative stimuli for a report response. Guinea pigs...and Stebbins, W. C. 1978. Auditory thresholds and kanamycin-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig assessed by a positive reinforcement procedure